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The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and
cargo aircraft
cargo aircraft
manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes in the United States. After introducing the 707 in October 1958, Pan Am wanted a jet times its size, to reduce its seat cost by 30% to democratize air travel. In 1965, Joe Sutter left the 737 development program to design the 747, the first twin aisle airliner. In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 Boeing 747-100 aircraft and in late 1966, Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop its JT9D, a high-bypass turbofan. On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the custom-built Everett Plant, the largest building in the world by volume. The first flight took place on February 9, 1969 and the 747 was certified in December of that year. It entered service with Pan Am on January 22, 1970; it was the first airplane dubbed a "Jumbo Jet". The 747 is a quadjet, initially powered by JT9D turbofan engines, then GE CF6 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines for the original variants. With a ten-abreast economy seating, it typically accommodates 366 passengers in three travel classes. It has a pronounced 37.5° wing sweep, allowing a cruise speed, and its heavy weight is supported by four main landing gear legs with four-wheel bogies each. The partial double-deck aircraft was designed with a raised cockpit so it could be converted to a freighter airplane by installing a front cargo door, as it was initially thought that it would eventually be superseded by supersonic transports. Boeing introduced the -200 in 1971, with more powerful engines for a heavier maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of from the initial , for a longer range up from . It was shortened for the longer-range 747SP in 1976, and the 747-300 followed in 1983 with a stretched upper deck for up to 400 seats in three classes. The heavier 747-400 with improved RB-211 and CF6 versions, along with the PW4000 (the JT9D successor), and a two-crew glass cockpit, was introduced in 1989 and is the most common variant. After several studies, the stretched 747-8 was launched on November 14, 2005, with new General Electric GEnx engines, and was first delivered in October 2011. The 747 is the basis for several government and military variants, such as the VC-25 (Air Force One) or the Boeing E-4, E-4 Emergency Airborne Command Post, and some experimental testbeds like the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. By June 2020, 1,556 aircraft had been built, with 15 747-8s remaining on order."747 Model Orders and Deliveries data."
''The Boeing Company'', June 2020. Retrieved: October 24, 2020.
Initial competition came from the smaller trijet widebodies: the Lockheed L-1011 (introduced in 1972), Douglas DC-10 (1971) and later MD-11 (1990). Airbus competed with later variants with the heaviest versions of the A340 until surpassing the 747 in size with the A380, introduced in 2007. , 61 Boeing 747s have been Boeing 747 hull losses, lost in accidents, in which a total of people have died.


Development


Background

In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, officials believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed, especially to carry cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft. These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System (CX-HLS) in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of and a speed of Mach 0.75 (), and an unrefueled range of with a payload of . The payload bay had to be wide by high and long with access through doors at the front and rear.Norton 2003, pp. 5–12. The desire to keep the number of engines to four required new engine designs with greatly increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, Douglas Aircraft Company, Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed, and Martin Marietta; engine proposals were submitted by GE Aviation, General Electric, Curtiss-Wright, and Pratt & Whitney. Boeing, Douglas, and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. The airframe proposals shared a number of features. As the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit usually was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area; Douglas had a small "pod" just forward and above the wing, Lockheed used a long "spine" running the length of the aircraft with the wing spar passing through it, while Boeing blended the two, with a longer pod that ran from just behind the nose to just behind the wing. In 1965, Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, which was the largest military aircraft in the world at the time. Boeing would carry the nose door and raised cockpit concepts over to the design of the 747.


Airliner proposal

The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s.Norris and Wagner 1997, p. 13. The era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. In the early 1960s, even before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan Am, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on relatively small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner, already assigned the model number 747.Sutter 2006, pp. 80–84. Sutter began a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was widely thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft. Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight and remain in production even if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the Containerization, containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are square at the front (slightly higher due to attachment points) and available in lengths. This meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am ordered 25 Boeing 747-100 aircraft for US$525 million (equivalent to $ billion in dollars). During the ceremonial 747 contract-signing banquet in Seattle on Boeing's 50th Anniversary, Juan Trippe predicted that the 747 would be "…a great weapon for peace, competing with Intercontinental ballistic missile, intercontinental missiles for mankind's destiny". As launch customer,Rumerman, Judy
"The Boeing 747."
''U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission,'' 2003. Retrieved: April 30, 2006.
Noland, David

"Info please" (''Pearson Education''). Retrieved: April 30, 2006.
and because of its early involvement before placing a formal order, Pan Am was able to influence the design and development of the 747 to an extent unmatched by a single airline before or since.Irving 1994, p. 359.


Design effort

Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies developed for their bid had an influence. The original design included a full-length double-deck fuselage with eight-across seating and two aisles on the lower deck and seven-across seating and two aisles on the upper deck.Irving 1994, p. 282. However, concern over evacuation routes and limited cargo-carrying capability caused this idea to be scrapped in early 1966 in favor of a wider single deck design. The cockpit was, therefore, placed on a shortened upper deck so that a freight-loading door could be included in the nose cone; this design feature produced the 747's distinctive "hump". In early models it was not clear what to do with the small space in the pod behind the cockpit, and this was initially specified as a "lounge" area with no permanent seating. (A different configuration that had been considered in order to keep the flight deck out of the way for freight loading had the pilots below the passengers, and was dubbed the "anteater".) One of the principal technologies that enabled an aircraft as large as the 747 to be drawn up was the High-bypass turbofan engine#High-bypass turbofan, high-bypass turbofan engine.Mecham, M. "In review: 747, Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation." ''Aviation Week and Space Technology'', Vol. 165, No. 9, September 4, 2006, p. 53. The engine technology was thought to be capable of delivering double the power of the earlier turbojets while consuming one–third less fuel. General Electric had pioneered the concept but was committed to developing the engine for the C-5 Galaxy and did not enter the commercial market until later.Colson, Michael S
"Mechanical Engineering 100 Years of Flight."
memagazine.org. Retrieved: December 9, 2007.
Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated the Pratt & Whitney JT9D, JT9D to power the 747. The project was designed with a new methodology called fault tree analysis, which allowed the effects of a failure of a single part to be studied to determine its impact on other systems. To address concerns about safety and flyability, the 747's design included structural redundancy, redundant Hydraulic machinery, hydraulic systems, quadruple main landing gear and dual control surfaces.Sutter 2006, pp. 121, 128–131. Additionally, some of the most advanced high-lift devices used in the industry were included in the new design, to allow it to operate from existing airports. These included Krueger flaps running almost the entire length of the wings leading edge, as well as complex three-part slotted Flap (aircraft), flaps along the trailing edge of the wing. The wing's complex three-part flaps increase wing area by 21 percent and lift by 90 percent when fully deployed compared to their non-deployed configuration. Boeing agreed to deliver the first 747 to Pan Am by the end of 1969. The delivery date left 28 months to design the aircraft, which was two-thirds of the normal time.Sutter 2006, pp. 96–97. The schedule was so fast-paced that the people who worked on it were given the nickname "The Incredibles". Developing the aircraft was such a technical and financial challenge that management was said to have "bet the company" when it started the project.


Production plant

As Boeing did not have a plant large enough to assemble the giant airliner, they chose to build a new plant. The company considered locations in about 50 cities, and eventually decided to build the new plant some north of Seattle on a site adjoining a military base at Paine Field near Everett, Washington, Everett, Washington. It bought the site in June 1966. Developing the 747 had been a major challenge, and building its assembly plant was also a huge undertaking. Boeing president William M. Allen asked Malcolm T. Stamper, then head of the company's turbine division, to oversee construction of the Boeing Everett Factory, Everett factory and to start production of the 747. To level the site, more than of earth had to be moved.Irving 1994, p. 310. Time was so short that the 747's full-scale mock-up was built before the factory roof above it was finished.Irving 1994, p. 365. The plant is the largest building by volume ever built, and has been substantially expanded several times to permit construction of other models of Boeing wide-body commercial jets.


Development and testing

Before the first 747 was fully assembled, testing began on many components and systems. One important test involved the evacuation of 560 volunteers from a cabin mock-up via the aircraft's emergency chutes. The first full-scale evacuation took two and a half minutes instead of the maximum of 90 seconds mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several volunteers were injured. Subsequent test evacuations achieved the 90-second goal but caused more injuries. Most problematic was evacuation from the aircraft's upper deck; instead of using a conventional slide, volunteer passengers escaped by using a harness attached to a reel.Irving 1994, p. 383. Tests also involved taxiing such a large aircraft. Boeing built an unusual training device known as "Waddell's Wagon" (named for a 747 test pilot, Jack Waddell) that consisted of a mock-up cockpit mounted on the roof of a truck. While the first 747s were still being built, the device allowed pilots to practice taxi maneuvers from a high upper-deck position. In 1968, the program cost was US$1 Billion (equivalent to $ billion in dollars). On September 30, 1968, the first 747 was rolled out of the Everett assembly building before the world's press and representatives of the 26 airlines that had ordered the airliner."All but off the Ground."
''TIME'', October 4, 1968. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
Over the following months, preparations were made for the first flight, which took place on February 9, 1969, with test pilots Jack Waddell and Brien Wygle at the controls"The Giant Takes Off."
''TIME''. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
and Jess Wallick at the flight engineer's station. Despite a minor problem with one of the flaps, the flight confirmed that the 747 handled extremely well. The 747 was found to be largely immune to "Dutch roll", a phenomenon that had been a major hazard to the early swept-wing jets.Irving 1994, pp. 417–418. During later stages of the flight test program, Wing flutter, flutter testing showed that the wings suffered oscillation under certain conditions. This difficulty was partly solved by reducing the stiffness of some wing components. However, a particularly severe high-speed flutter problem was solved only by inserting depleted uranium counterweights as ballast in the outboard engine nacelles of the early 747s.Irving 1994, p. 428. This measure caused anxiety when these aircraft crashed, for example El Al Flight 1862 at Amsterdam in 1992 with of uranium in the tailplane (horizontal stabilizer). The flight test program was hampered by problems with the 747's JT9D engines. Difficulties included engine stalls caused by rapid throttle movements and distortion of the turbine casings after a short period of service.Irving 1994, pp. 441–446. The problems delayed 747 deliveries for several months; up to 20 aircraft at the Everett plant were stranded while awaiting engine installation."The Trouble with Jumbo."
''Time'', September 26, 1969.
The program was further delayed when one of the five test aircraft suffered serious damage during a landing attempt at Renton Municipal Airport, site of the company's Boeing Renton Factory, Renton factory. On December 13, 1969 a test aircraft was being taken to have test equipment removed and a cabin installed when pilot Ralph C. Cokely undershot the airport's short runway. The 747's right, outer landing gear was torn off and two engine nacelles were damaged.Irving 1994, p. 436. However, these difficulties did not prevent Boeing from taking a test aircraft to the 28th Paris Air Show in mid-1969, where it was displayed to the public for the first time. The 747 received its FAA airworthiness certificate in December 1969, clearing it for introduction into service. The huge cost of developing the 747 and building the Everett factory meant that Boeing had to borrow heavily from a banking syndicate. During the final months before delivery of the first aircraft, the company had to repeatedly request additional funding to complete the project. Had this been refused, Boeing's survival would have been threatened.Irving 1994, pp. 437–438. The firm's debt exceeded $2 billion, with the $1.2 billion owed to the banks setting a record for all companies. Allen later said, "It was really too large a project for us." Ultimately, the gamble succeeded, and Boeing held a monopoly in very large passenger aircraft production for many years.


Entry into service

On January 15, 1970, First Lady of the United States Pat Nixon christened Pan Am's first 747, at Washington Dulles International Airport, Dulles International Airport (later Washington Dulles International Airport) in the presence of Pan Am chairman Najeeb Halaby. Instead of champagne, red, white, and blue water was sprayed on the aircraft. The 747 entered service on January 22, 1970, on Pan Am's New York–London route;Norris 1997, p. 48. the flight had been planned for the evening of January 21, but engine overheating made the original aircraft unusable. Finding a substitute delayed the flight by more than six hours to the following day when Clipper Victor was used."Jumbo and the Gremlins."
''TIME'', February 2, 1970. Retrieved: December 20, 2007.
The 747 enjoyed a fairly smooth introduction into service, overcoming concerns that some airports would not be able to accommodate an aircraft that large. Although technical problems occurred, they were relatively minor and quickly solved. After the aircraft's introduction with Pan Am, other airlines that had bought the 747 to stay competitive began to put their own 747s into service. Boeing estimated that half of the early 747 sales were to airlines desiring the aircraft's long range rather than its payload capacity. While the 747 had the lowest potential operating cost per seat, this could only be achieved when the aircraft was fully loaded; costs per seat increased rapidly as occupancy declined. A moderately loaded 747, one with only 70 percent of its seats occupied, used more than 95 percent of the fuel needed by a fully occupied 747. Nonetheless, many flag-carriers purchased the 747 due to its prestige "even if it made no sense economically" to operate. During the 1970s and 1980s, over 30 regularly scheduled 747s could often be seen at John F. Kennedy International Airport. The recession of 1969-1970 greatly affected Boeing. For the year and a half after September 1970 it only sold two 747s in the world, both to Irish flag carrier Aer Lingus. No 747s were sold to any American carrier for almost three years. When economic problems in the US and other countries after the 1973 oil crisis led to reduced passenger traffic, several airlines found they did not have enough passengers to fly the 747 economically, and they replaced them with the smaller and recently introduced McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijet wide bodies (and later the Boeing 767, 767 and Airbus A300, A300/Airbus A310, A310 twinjets). Having tried replacing coach seats on its 747s with piano bars in an attempt to attract more customers, American Airlines eventually relegated its 747s to cargo service and in 1983 exchanged them with Pan Am for smaller aircraft; Delta Air Lines also removed its 747s from service after several years. Later, Delta acquired 747s again in 2008 as part of its merger with Northwest Airlines, although it retired the Boeing 747-400, 747-400 fleet in December 2017. International flights bypassing traditional hub airports and landing at smaller cities became more common throughout the 1980s, thus eroding the 747's original market. Many international carriers continued to use the 747 on Pacific Ocean, Pacific routes. In Japan, 747s on domestic routes were configured to carry nearly the maximum passenger capacity.


Improved 747 versions

After the initial , Boeing developed the , a higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) variant, and the (Short Range), with higher passenger capacity."Boeing 747 Classics."
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
Increased maximum takeoff weight allows aircraft to carry more fuel and have longer range. The model followed in 1971, featuring more powerful engines and a higher MTOW. Passenger, freighter and combination passenger-freighter versions of the were produced. The shortened Boeing 747SP, 747SP (special performance) with a longer range was also developed, and entered service in 1976. The 747 line was further developed with the launch of the on June 11, 1980, followed by interest from Swissair a month later and the go-ahead for the project. The 300 series resulted from Boeing studies to increase the seating capacity of the 747, during which modifications such as fuselage plugs and extending the upper deck over the entire length of the fuselage were rejected. The first , completed in 1983, included a stretched upper deck, increased cruise speed, and increased seating capacity. The -300 variant was previously designated 747SUD for stretched upper deck, then 747-200 SUD,"Aircraft Owner's and Operator's Guide: 747-200/300 (PDF)."
''Aircraft Commerce''. Retrieved: July 15, 2011.
followed by 747EUD, before the 747-300 designation was used."Boeing 747-300."
''Airliners.net''. Retrieved: June 3, 2011.
Passenger, short range and combination freighter-passenger versions of the 300 series were produced. In 1985, development of the longer range 747-400 began. The variant had a new glass cockpit, which allowed for a cockpit crew of two instead of three, new engines, lighter construction materials, and a redesigned interior. Development cost soared, and production delays occurred as new technologies were incorporated at the request of airlines. Insufficient workforce experience and reliance on overtime contributed to early production problems on the . The -400 entered service in 1989.Norris 1997, p. 88. In 1991, a record-breaking 1,087 passengers were airlifted aboard a 747 to Israel as part of Operation Solomon. Generally, the 747-400 held between 416 and 524 passengers. The 747 remained the heaviest commercial aircraft in regular service until the debut of the Antonov An-124 Ruslan in 1982; variants of the 747-400 surpassed the An-124's weight in 2000. The Antonov An-225 Mriya, Antonov An-225 ''Mriya'' cargo aircraft, cargo transport, which debuted in 1988, remains the world's largest aircraft by several measures (including the most accepted measures of maximum takeoff weight and length); one aircraft has been completed and is in service . The Scaled Composites Stratolaunch is the currently the largest aircraft by wingspan.


Further developments and end of production

Since the arrival of the , several stretching schemes for the 747 have been proposed. Boeing announced the larger 747-500X and preliminary designs in 1996. The new variants would have cost more than US$5 billion to develop, and interest was not sufficient to launch the program."BA warms to A3XX plan."
''Flight International'', March 19, 1997. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
In 2000, Boeing offered the more modest 747X and 747X stretch derivatives as alternatives to the Airbus Airbus A380, A3XX. However, the 747X family was unable to attract enough interest to enter production. A year later, Boeing switched from the 747X studies to pursue the Boeing Sonic Cruiser, Sonic Cruiser,"Boeing Shelves 747X to Focus on Faster Jet."
''People's Daily'', March 30, 2001. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
and after the Sonic Cruiser program was put on hold, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, 787 Dreamliner. Some of the ideas developed for the 747X were used on the Boeing 747-400ER, 747-400ER, a longer range variant of the . After several variants were proposed but later abandoned, some industry observers became skeptical of new aircraft proposals from Boeing. However, in early 2004, Boeing announced tentative plans for the 747 Advanced that were eventually adopted. Similar in nature to the 747-X, the stretched 747 Advanced used technology from the 787 to modernize the design and its systems. The 747 remained the largest passenger airliner in service until the Airbus A380 began airline service in 2007. On November 14, 2005, Boeing announced it was launching the 747 Advanced as the Boeing 747-8. The last 747-400s were completed in 2009."Downhill for the jumbo."
''The Sydney Morning Herald'', January 9, 2009. Retrieved: February 9, 2009.
, most orders of the 747-8 have been for the freighter variant. On February 8, 2010, the 747-8 Freighter made its maiden flight. The first delivery of the 747-8 went to Cargolux in 2011. The first 747-8 Intercontinental passenger variant was delivered to Lufthansa on May 5, 2012. The 1,500th Boeing 747 was delivered in June 2014 to Lufthansa."Boeing Delivers 1,500th 747"
Boeing, June 28, 2014.
In January 2016, Boeing stated it was reducing 747-8 production to six a year beginning in September 2016, incurring a $569 million post-tax charge against its fourth-quarter 2015 profits. At the end of 2015, the company had 20 orders outstanding. On January 29, 2016, Boeing announced that it had begun the preliminary work on the modifications to a commercial 747-8 for the next Air Force One Presidential aircraft, expected to be operational by 2020. On July 12, 2016, Boeing announced that it had finalized an order from Volga-Dnepr Group for 20 747-8 freighters, valued at $7.58 billion at list prices. Four aircraft were delivered beginning in 2012. Volga-Dnepr Group is the parent of three major Russian air-freight carriers – Volga-Dnepr Airlines, AirBridgeCargo Airlines and Atran Airlines. The new 747-8 freighters will replace AirBridgeCargo's current 747-400 aircraft and expand the airline's fleet and will be acquired through a mix of direct purchases and leasing over the next six years, Boeing said. On July 27, 2016, in its quarterly report to the Securities and Exchange Commission, Boeing discussed the potential termination of 747 production due to insufficient demand and market for the aircraft. With a firm order backlog of 21 aircraft and a production rate of six per year, program accounting has been reduced to 1,555 aircraft, and the 747 line could be closed in the third quarter of 2019. In October 2016, UPS Airlines ordered 14 -8Fs to add capacity, along with 14 options, which it took in February 2018 to increase the total to 28 -8Fs on order. The backlog then stood at 25 aircraft, though several of these are orders from airlines that no longer intend to take delivery. Deliveries are scheduled through 2022. On July 2, 2020, it was reported that Boeing planned to end 747 production in 2022 upon delivery of the remaining jets on order to UPS and the Volga-Dnepr Group due to low demand. On July 29, 2020, Boeing confirmed that the final 747 would be delivered in 2022 as a result of "current market dynamics and outlook" stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to CEO David Calhoun. As of January 2021 Boeing is to deliver the last four 747s to Atlas Air in 2022.


Design

The Boeing 747 is a large, wide-body (two-aisle) airliner with four wing-mounted engines. Its wings have a high swept wing, sweep angle of 37.5 degrees for a fast, efficient cruise speedSutter 2006, p. 93. of Mach 0.84 to 0.88, depending on the variant. The sweep also reduces the wingspan, allowing the 747 to use existing hangars. Its seating capacity is over 366 with a 3–4–3 seat arrangement (a cross section of 3 seats, an aisle, 4 seats, another aisle, and 3 seats) in economy class and a 2–3–2 layout in first class on the main deck. The upper deck has a 3–3 seat arrangement in economy class and a 2–2 layout in first class. Raised above the main deck, the cockpit creates a hump. This raised cockpit allows front loading of cargo on freight variants. The upper deck behind the cockpit provides space for a lounge and/or extra seating. The "stretched upper deck" became available as an alternative on the variant and later as standard beginning on the 747-300. The upper deck was stretched more on the 747-8. The 747 cockpit roof section also has an escape hatch from which crew can exit during the events of an emergency if they cannot do so through the cabin. The 747's maximum takeoff weight ranges from 735,000 pounds (333,400 kg) for the -100 to 970,000 lb (439,985 kg) for the -8. Its range has increased from 5,300 nautical miles (6,100 mi, 9,800 km) on the -100 to 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,815 km) on the -8I. The 747 has redundant structures along with four redundant hydraulic systems and four main landing gears each with four wheels; these provide a good spread of support on the ground and safety in case of tire blow-outs. The main gear are redundant so that landing can be performed on two opposing landing gears if the others are not functioning properly.Sutter 2006, pp. 128–131. The 747 also has split control surfaces and was designed with sophisticated triple-slotted flaps that minimize landing speeds and allow the 747 to use standard-length runways.Sutter 2006, pp. 121–122. For transportation of spare engines, the 747 can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the aircraft's port wing between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage. This fifth engine mount point is also used by Virgin Orbit's LauncherOne program. Virgin Orbit's , dubbed Cosmic Girl, carries the orbital-class rocket to cruise altitude, where the rocket is deployed and then carries its small satellite payload the rest of the way to orbit.


Variants

The 747-100 was the original variant launched in 1966. The 747-200 soon followed, with its launch in 1968. The 747-300 was launched in 1980 and was followed by the in 1985. Ultimately, the 747-8 was announced in 2005. Several versions of each variant have been produced, and many of the early variants were in production simultaneously. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) classifies variants using a shortened code formed by combining the model number and the variant designator (e.g. "B741" for all -100 models)."ICAO Document 8643"
International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved: April 13, 2013.


747-100

The first 747-100s were built with six upper deck windows (three per side) to accommodate upstairs lounge areas. Later, as airlines began to use the upper deck for premium passenger seating instead of lounge space, Boeing offered an upper deck with ten windows on either side as an option. Some early -100s were retrofitted with the new configuration. The -100 was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D, Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A engines. No freighter version of this model was developed, but many 747-100s were converted into freighters. A total of 168 747-100s were built; 167 were delivered to customers, while Boeing kept the prototype, ''City of Everett''. In 1972, its unit cost was US$24M (M today).


747SR

Responding to requests from Japanese airlines for a high-capacity aircraft to serve domestic routes between major cities, Boeing developed the 747SR as a short-range version of the with lower fuel capacity and greater payload capability. With increased economy class seating, up to 498 passengers could be carried in early versions and up to 550 in later models. The 747SR had an economic design life objective of 52,000 flights during 20 years of operation, compared to 24,600 flights in 20 years for the standard 747. The initial 747SR model, the -100SR, had a strengthened body structure and landing gear to accommodate the added stress accumulated from a greater number of takeoffs and landings. Extra structural support was built into the wings, fuselage, and the landing gear along with a 20% reduction in fuel capacity. The initial order for the -100SR – four aircraft for Japan Air Lines (JAL, later Japan Airlines) – was announced on October 30, 1972; rollout occurred on August 3, 1973, and the first flight took place on August 31, 1973. The type was certified by the FAA on September 26, 1973, with the first delivery on the same day. The -100SR entered service with JAL, the type's sole customer, on October 7, 1973, and typically operated flights within Japan."747 Milestones."
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
Seven -100SRs were built between 1973 and 1975, each with a MTOW and Pratt & Whitney JT9D, Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A engines derated to of thrust.Bowers 1989, pp. 516–517. Following the -100SR, Boeing produced the -100BSR, a 747SR variant with increased takeoff weight capability. Debuting in 1978, the -100BSR also incorporated structural modifications for a high cycle-to-flying hour ratio; a related standard -100B model debuted in 1979. The -100BSR first flew on November 3, 1978, with first delivery to All Nippon Airways (ANA) on December 21, 1978. A total of 20 -100BSRs were produced for ANA and JAL.''Airclaims Jet Programs 1995'' The -100BSR had a MTOW and was powered by the same JT9D-7A or General Electric CF6, General Electric CF6-45 engines used on the -100SR. ANA operated this variant on domestic Japanese routes with 455 or 456 seats until retiring its last aircraft in March 2006. In 1986, two -100BSR SUD models, featuring the stretched upper deck (SUD) of the -300, were produced for JAL. The type's maiden flight occurred on February 26, 1986, with FAA certification and first delivery on March 24, 1986. JAL operated the -100BSR SUD with 563 seats on domestic routes until their retirement in the third quarter of 2006. While only two -100BSR SUDs were produced, in theory, standard -100Bs can be modified to the SUD certification. Overall, 29 Boeing 747SRs were built.


747-100B

The 747-100B model was developed from the -100SR, using its stronger airframe and landing gear design. The type had an increased fuel capacity of , allowing for a range with a typical 452-passenger payload, and an increased MTOW of was offered. The first -100B order, one aircraft for Iran Air, was announced on June 1, 1978. This aircraft first flew on June 20, 1979, received FAA certification on August 1, 1979, and was delivered the next day. Nine -100Bs were built, one for Iran Air and eight for Saudia, Saudi Arabian Airlines. Unlike the original -100, the -100B was offered with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7A, CF6-50, or Rolls-Royce Holdings, Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce RB211#RB211-524 series, RB211-524 engines. However, only RB211-524 (Saudia) and JT9D-7A (Iran Air) engines were ordered.''Airclaims Jet Programs'' 1995, p. 111. The last 747-100B, EP-IAM was retired by Iran Air in 2014, the last commercial operator of the 747-100 and -100B.


747SP

The development of the 747SP stemmed from a joint request between Pan American World Airways and Iran Air, who were looking for a high-capacity airliner with enough range to cover Pan Am's New York–Middle Eastern routes and Iran Air's planned Tehran–New York route. The Tehran–New York route, when launched, was the longest Non-stop flight, non-stop commercial flight in the world. The 747SP is shorter than the . Fuselage sections were eliminated fore and aft of the wing, and the center section of the fuselage was redesigned to fit mating fuselage sections. The SP's flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration."The Story of the B747SP."
''747sp.com''. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
The 747SP, compared to earlier variants, had a tapering of the aft upper fuselage into the empennage, a double-hinged rudder, and longer vertical and horizontal stabilizers. Power was provided by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7(A/F/J/FW) or Rolls-Royce RB211-524 engines."747 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning."
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: December 15, 2007.
The 747SP was granted a supplemental certificate on February 4, 1976 and entered service with launch customers Pan Am and Iran Air that same year. The aircraft was chosen by airlines wishing to serve major airports with short runways. A total of 45 747SPs were built, with the 44th 747SP delivered on August 30, 1982. In 1987, Boeing re-opened the 747SP production line after five years to build one last 747SP for an order by the United Arab Emirates government. In addition to airline use, one 747SP was modified for the NASA/German Aerospace Center Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA experiment. Iran Air is the last civil operator of the type; its final 747-SP (EP-IAC) was to be retired in June 2016.


747-200

While the 747-100 powered by Pratt & Whitney Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A, JT9D-3A engines offered enough payload and range for medium-haul operations, it was marginal for long-haul route sectors. The demand for longer range aircraft with increased payload quickly led to the improved -200, which featured more powerful engines, increased MTOW, and greater range than the -100. A few early -200s retained the three-window configuration of the -100 on the upper deck, but most were built with a ten-window configuration on each side. The 747-200 was produced in passenger (-200B), freighter (-200F), convertible (-200C), and combi (-200M) versions. The 747-200B was the basic passenger version, with increased fuel capacity and more powerful engines; it entered service in February 1971. In its first three years of production, the -200 was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D, Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines (initially the only engine available). Range with a full passenger load started at over and increased to with later engines. Most -200Bs had an internally stretched upper deck, allowing for up to 16 passenger seats. The freighter model, the 747-200F, had a hinged nose cargo door and could be fitted with an optional side cargo door, and had a capacity of 105 tons (95.3 tonnes) and an MTOW of up to 833,000 lb (378,000 kg). It entered service in 1972 with Lufthansa. The convertible version, the 747-200C, could be converted between a passenger and a freighter or used in mixed configurations, and featured removable seats and a nose cargo door. The -200C could also be outfitted with an optional side cargo door on the main deck. The combi aircraft model, the 747-200M, could carry freight in the rear section of the main deck via a side cargo door. A removable partition on the main deck separated the cargo area at the rear from the passengers at the front. The -200M could carry up to 238 passengers in a three-class configuration with cargo carried on the main deck. The model was also known as the 747-200 Combi. As on the -100, a stretched upper deck (SUD) modification was later offered. A total of 10 combi 747-200s were operated by KLM. Union de Transports Aériens (UTA) also had two aircraft converted. After launching the -200 with Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7 engines, on August 1, 1972 Boeing announced that it had reached an agreement with General Electric to certify the 747 with CF6-50 series engines to increase the aircraft's market potential. Rolls-Royce followed 747 engine production with a launch order from British Airways for four aircraft. The option of RB211-524B engines was announced on June 17, 1975. The -200 was the first 747 to provide a choice of powerplant from the three major engine manufacturers. In 1976, its unit cost was US$39M (M today). A total of 393 of the 747-200 versions had been built when production ended in 1991."747 background."
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: December 13, 2007.
Of these, 225 were -200B, 73 were -200F, 13 were -200C, 78 were -200M, and 4 were military. Iran Air retired the last passenger in May 2016, 36 years after it was delivered. , five 747-200s remain in service as freighters.Thisdell and Seymour ''Flight International'' 30 July–5 August 2019, p. 39.


747-300

The 747-300 features a upper deck than the -200. The stretched upper deck (SUD) has two emergency exit doors and is the most visible difference between the -300 and previous models."Boeing 747-300."
''airliners.net''.
After being made standard on the 747-300, the SUD was offered as a retrofit, and as an option to earlier variants still in-production. An example for a retrofit were two Union de Transports Aériens, UTA -200 Combis being converted in 1986, and an example for the option were two brand-new JAL -100 aircraft (designated -100BSR SUD), the first of which was delivered on March 24, 1986. The 747-300 introduced a new straight stairway to the upper deck, instead of a spiral staircase on earlier variants, which creates room above and below for more seats. Minor aerodynamic changes allowed the -300's cruise speed to reach Mach 0.85 compared with Mach 0.84 on the -200 and -100 models, while retaining the same takeoff weight. The -300 could be equipped with the same Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce powerplants as on the -200, as well as updated General Electric CF6, General Electric CF6-80C2B1 engines. Swissair placed the first order for the on June 11, 1980. The variant revived the 747-300 designation, which had been previously used on a design study that did not reach production. The 747-300 first flew on October 5, 1982, and the type's first delivery went to Swissair on March 23, 1983. In 1982, its unit cost was US$83M (M today). Besides the passenger model, two other versions (-300M, -300SR) were produced. The 747-300M features cargo capacity on the rear portion of the main deck, similar to the -200M, but with the stretched upper deck it can carry more passengers. The 747-300SR, a short range, high-capacity domestic model, was produced for Japanese markets with a maximum seating for 584."Boeing 747-100/-200/-300/-SP airport report."
(pdf) ''The Boeing Company'', May 2011. Retrieved: September 1, 2014.
No production freighter version of the 747-300 was built, but Boeing began modifications of used passenger -300 models into freighters in 2000. A total of 81 series aircraft were delivered, 56 for passenger use, 21 -300M and 4 -300SR versions. In 1985, just two years after the -300 entered service, the type was superseded by the announcement of the more advanced 747-400. The last 747-300 was delivered in September 1990 to Sabena. While some -300 customers continued operating the type, several large carriers replaced their 747-300s with 747-400s. Air France, Air India, Pakistan International Airlines, and Qantas were some of the last major carriers to operate the . On December 29, 2008, Qantas flew its last scheduled 747-300 service, operating from Melbourne to Los Angeles via Auckland Airport, Auckland."Qantas's final Boeing 747-300 heads for graveyard."
''The Age''. Retrieved: January 21, 2009.
In July 2015, Pakistan International Airlines retired their final 747-300 after 30 years of service. , only two 747-300s remain in commercial service, with Mahan Air (1) and TransAVIAexport Airlines (1).


747-400

The 747-400 is an improved model with increased range. It has wingtip extensions of and Wingtip device, winglets of , which improve the type's fuel efficiency by four percent compared to previous 747 versions. The 747-400 introduced a new glass cockpit designed for a flight crew of two instead of three, with a reduction in the number of dials, gauges and knobs from 971 to 365 through the use of electronics. The type also features tail fuel tanks, revised engines, and a new interior. The longer range has been used by some airlines to bypass traditional fuel stops, such as Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Anchorage. A 747-400 loaded with 126,000 lbs of fuel flying 3,500 statute miles consumes an average of five gallons per mile. Powerplants include the Pratt & Whitney PW4000, Pratt & Whitney PW4062, General Electric CF6-80C2, and Rolls-Royce RB211-524."747 specifications"
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved December 16, 2007.
As a result of the Boeing 767 development overlapping with the 747-400's development, both aircraft can use the same three powerplants and are even interchangeable between the two aircraft models. The was offered in passenger (-400), freighter (-400F), combi (-400M), domestic (-400D), extended range passenger (-400ER), and extended range freighter (-400ERF) versions. Passenger versions retain the same upper deck as the , while the freighter version does not have an extended upper deck. The 747-400D was built for short-range operations with maximum seating for 624. Winglets were not included, but they can be retrofitted."Boeing 747-400/-400ER airport report."
(pdf) ''The Boeing Company'', May 2011. Retrieved: September 1, 2014.
Cruising speed is up to Mach 0.855 on different versions of the . The passenger version first entered service in February 1989 with launch customer Northwest Airlines on the Minneapolis to Phoenix route. The combi version entered service in September 1989 with KLM, while the freighter version entered service in November 1993 with Cargolux. The 747-400ERF entered service with Air France in October 2002, while the 747-400ER entered service with Qantas,
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: October 16, 2007.
its sole customer, in November 2002. In January 2004, Boeing and Cathay Pacific launched the Boeing 747-400 Special Freighter program,"Boeing and Cathay Pacific Airways Launch 747-400 Special Freighter."
''The Boeing Company'', January 7, 2004. Retrieved: July 18, 2015.
later referred to as the Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF), to modify passenger 747-400s for cargo use. The first 747-400BCF was redelivered in December 2005."First 747-400 Boeing Converted Freighter Redelivered to Cathay Pacific."
''The Boeing Company'', December 19, 2005. Retrieved: July 18, 2015.
In March 2007, Boeing announced that it had no plans to produce further passenger versions of the -400.Wallace, James
"747-400 passenger is no more."
''Seattlepi.com'', March 17, 2007. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
However, orders for 36 -400F and -400ERF freighters were already in place at the time of the announcement. The last passenger version of the 747-400 was delivered in April 2005 to China Airlines. Some of the last built 747-400s were delivered with Dreamliner livery along with the modern Signature interior from the Boeing 777. A total of 694 of the series aircraft were delivered. At various times, the largest 747-400 operator has included Singapore Airlines,"Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 Fleet World's Largest."
''The Boeing Company'', October 13, 1994. Retrieved: December 14, 2007.
Japan Airlines, and British Airways with 36 . , 331 747-400s remain in service.


747 LCF Dreamlifter

The 747-400 Dreamlifter"Final Boeing 747 Dreamlifter Enters Service."
''The Boeing Company''. Retrieved: July 15, 2011.
(originally called the 747 Large Cargo Freighter or LCF
''Evergreen Aviation'', July 20, 2007. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
) is a Boeing-designed modification of existing 747-400s to a larger configuration to ferry 787 Dreamliner sub-assemblies. Evergreen Group, Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation of Taiwan was contracted to complete modifications of 747-400s into Dreamlifters in Taoyuan. The aircraft flew for the first time on September 9, 2006 in a test flight."Boeing 747 Large Cargo Freighter Completes First Flight."
''The Boeing Company'', September 9, 2006.
Modification of four aircraft was completed by February 2010. The Dreamlifters have been placed into service transporting sub-assemblies for the 787 program to the Boeing plant in Everett, Washington, for final assembly. The aircraft is certified to carry only essential crew and not passengers.


747-8

Boeing announced a new 747 variant, the , on November 14, 2005. Referred to as the 747 Advanced prior to its launch, the 747-8 uses the same engine and cockpit technology as the 787, hence the use of the "8". The variant is designed to be quieter, more economical, and more environmentally friendly. The 747-8's fuselage is lengthened from 232 to 251 feet (70.8 to 76.4 m), marking the first stretch variant of the aircraft. Power is supplied by General Electric GEnx, General Electric GEnx-2B67 engines. The 747-8 Freighter, or 747-8F, is derived from the 747-400ERF. The variant has 16% more payload capacity than its predecessor, allowing it to carry seven more standard air cargo containers, with a maximum payload capacity of 154 tons (140 tonnes) of cargo. As on previous 747 freighters, the 747-8F features an overhead nose-door and a side-door on the main deck plus a side-door on the lower deck ("belly") to aid loading and unloading. The 747-8F made its maiden flight on February 8, 2010. The variant received its amended type certificate jointly from the FAA and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) on August 19, 2011. The -8F was first delivered to Cargolux on October 12, 2011. The passenger version, named 747-8 Intercontinental or 747-8I, is designed to carry up to 467 passengers in a 3-class configuration and fly more than at Mach 0.855. As a derivative of the already common , the 747-8 has the economic benefit of similar training and interchangeable parts. The type's first test flight occurred on March 20, 2011. The 747-8 has surpassed the Airbus A340, Airbus A340-600 as the world's longest airliner. The first -8I was delivered in May 2012 to Lufthansa. The 747-8 has received 153 total orders, including 106 for the -8F and 47 for the -8I .


Government, military, and other variants

* C-19 – The U.S. Air Force gave this designation to the 747-100s used by some U.S. airlines and modified for use in the Civil Reserve Airlift Fleet. * Boeing VC-25, VC-25 – This aircraft is the U.S. Air Force very important person (VIP) version of the 747-200B. The U.S. Air Force operates two of them in Very Important Person, VIP configuration as the VC-25A. Tail numbers 28000 and 29000 are popularly known as ''Air Force One'', which is technically the air-traffic call sign for any United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States, U.S. President. Partially completed aircraft from Everett, Washington, were flown to Wichita, Kansas, Wichita, Kansas, for final outfitting by Boeing Military Airplane Company. Two new aircraft, based around the , are being procured which will be designated as VC-25B. * Boeing E-4, E-4B – This is an airborne command post designed for use in nuclear war. Three E-4As, based on the 747-200B, with a fourth aircraft, with more powerful engines and upgraded systems delivered in 1979 as a E-4B, with the three E-4As upgraded to this standard.Donald and Lake 1996, pp. 76–77. Formerly known as the National Emergency Airborne Command Post (referred to colloquially as "Kneecap"), these type is now referred to as the National Airborne Operations Center (NAOC). * Boeing YAL-1, YAL-1 – This was the experimental Airborne Laser, a planned component of the U.S. National Missile Defense. * Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) – Two 747s were modified to carry the Space Shuttle orbiter. The first was a 747-100 (N905NA), and the other was a 747-100SR (N911NA). The first SCA carried the prototype Space Shuttle Enterprise, ''Enterprise'' during the Approach and Landing Tests in the late 1970s. The two SCA later carried all five operational Space Shuttle orbiters. * Boeing C-33, C-33 – This aircraft was a proposed U.S. military version of the 747-400F intended to augment the C-17 Globemaster III, C-17 fleet. The plan was canceled in favor of additional C-17s. * KC-33A – A proposed 747 was also adapted as an aerial refueling Tanker (aircraft), tanker and was bid against the DC-10-30 during the 1970s Advanced Cargo Transport Aircraft (ACTA) program that produced the KC-10A Extender. * 747-100 Tanker before the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran bought four 747-100 aircraft with air-refueling boom conversions to support its fleet of F-4 Phantoms."KC-33A: Closing the Aerial Refuelling and Strategic Air Mobility Gaps (PDF)."
''Air Power Australia Analysis APA-2005-02'', April 16, 2005. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
There is a report of the Iranians using a 747 Tanker in H-3 airstrike during Iran–Iraq War. It is unknown whether these aircraft remain usable as tankers. * 747 CMCA – This "Cruise Missile Carrier Aircraft" variant was considered by the U.S. Air Force during the development of the B-1 Lancer strategic bomber. It would have been equipped with 50 to 100 AGM-86 ALCM cruise missiles on rotary launchers. This plan was abandoned in favor of more conventional strategic bombers. * 747 AAC – A Boeing study under contract from the USAF for an "airborne aircraft carrier" for up to 10 Boeing Model 985-121 "Parasite fighter, microfighters" with the ability to launch, retrieve, re-arm, and refuel. Boeing believed that the scheme would be able to deliver a flexible and fast carrier platform with global reach, particularly where other bases were not available. Modified versions of the 747-200 and Lockheed C-5A were considered as the base aircraft. The concept, which included a complementary 747 AWACS version with two reconnaissance "microfighters", was considered technically feasible in 1973. * Evergreen 747 Supertanker – A Boeing 747-200 modified as an aerial application platform for fire fighting using of firefighting chemicals. * Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) – A former Pan Am Boeing 747SP modified to carry a large infrared-sensitive telescope, in a joint venture of NASA and German Aerospace Center, DLR. High altitudes are needed for infrared astronomy, to rise above infrared-absorbing water vapor in the atmosphere. * A number of other governments also use the 747 as a VIP transport, including Bahrain, Brunei, Air transports of Heads of State#India, India, Iran, Air transports of Heads of State#Japan, Japan, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Several Boeing 747-8s have been ordered by Boeing Business Jet for conversion to VIP transports for several unidentified customers.


Undeveloped variants

Boeing has studied a number of 747 variants that have not gone beyond the concept stage.


747 trijet

During the late 1960s and early 1970s, Boeing studied the development of a shorter 747 with trijet, three engines, to compete with the smaller L-1011 TriStar and McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The center engine would have been fitted in the tail with an S-duct intake similar to the L-1011's. Overall, the 747 trijet would have had more payload, range, and passenger capacity than both of them. However, engineering studies showed that a major redesign of the 747 wing would be necessary. Maintaining the same 747 handling characteristics would be important to minimize pilot retraining. Boeing decided instead to pursue a shortened four-engine 747, resulting in the 747SP.


747-500

In January 1986, Boeing outlined preliminary studies to build a larger, ultra-long haul version named the , which would enter service in the mid- to late-1990s. The aircraft derivative would use engines evolved from unducted fan (UDF) (propfan) technology by General Electric, but the engines would have shrouds, sport a bypass ratio of 15–20, and have a propfan diameter of . The aircraft would be stretched (including the upper deck section) to a capacity of 500 seats, have a new wing to reduce drag, cruise at a faster speed to reduce flight times, and have a range of at least , which would allow airlines to fly nonstop between Heathrow Airport, London, England and Sydney Airport, Sydney, Australia.


747 ASB

Boeing announced the 747 ASB (''Advanced Short Body'') in 1986 as a response to the Airbus A340 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-11. This aircraft design would have combined the advanced technology used on the 747-400 with the foreshortened 747SP fuselage. The aircraft was to carry 295 passengers a range of . However, airlines were not interested in the project and it was canceled in 1988 in favor of the 777.


747-500X, -600X, and -700X

Boeing announced the 747-500X and -600X at the 1996 Farnborough Airshow. The proposed models would have combined the 747's fuselage with a new 251 ft (77 m) span wing derived from the 777. Other changes included adding more powerful engines and increasing the number of tires from two to four on the nose landing gear and from 16 to 20 on the main landing gear.Patterson, James W
"Impact of New Large Aircraft on Airport Design (PDF)."
''Federal Aviation Administration'', March 1998. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
The 747-500X concept featured an increased fuselage length of 18 ft (5.5 m) to 250 ft (76.2 m) long, and the aircraft was to carry 462 passengers over a range up to 8,700 nautical miles (10,000 mi, 16,100 km), with a gross weight of over 1.0 Mega-, Mlb (450 tonnes). The 747-600X concept featured a greater stretch to 279 ft (85 m) with seating for 548 passengers, a range of up to 7,700 nmi (8,900 mi, 14,300 km), and a gross weight of 1.2 Mlb (540 tonnes). A third study concept, the 747-700X, would have combined the wing of the 747-600X with a widened fuselage, allowing it to carry 650 passengers over the same range as a . The cost of the changes from previous 747 models, in particular the new wing for the 747-500X and -600X, was estimated to be more than US$5 billion. Boeing was not able to attract enough interest to launch the aircraft.


747X and 747X Stretch

As Airbus progressed with its Airbus A380, A3XX study, Boeing offered a 747 derivative as an alternative in 2000; a more modest proposal than the previous -500X and -600X that retained the 747's overall wing design and add a segment at the root, increasing the span to ."Boeing 747 Celebrates 30 Years In Service."
''The Boeing Company'', September 2, 1996. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
Power would have been supplied by either the Engine Alliance GP7000, Engine Alliance GP7172 or the Rolls-Royce Trent#Trent 600 – First proposal, Rolls-Royce Trent 600, which were also proposed for the Boeing 767#767-400ERX, 767-400ERX. A new flight deck based on the 777's would be used. The 747X aircraft was to carry 430 passengers over ranges of up to 8,700 nmi (10,000 mi, 16,100 km). The 747X Stretch would be extended to long, allowing it to carry 500 passengers over ranges of up to 7,800 nmi (9,000 mi, 14,500 km). Both would feature an interior based on the 777. Freighter versions of the 747X and 747X Stretch were also studied. Like its predecessor, the 747X family was unable to garner enough interest to justify production, and it was shelved along with the 767-400ERX in March 2001, when Boeing announced the Boeing Sonic Cruiser, Sonic Cruiser concept. Though the 747X design was less costly than the 747-500X and -600X, it was criticized for not offering a sufficient advance from the existing . The 747X did not make it beyond the drawing board, but the 747-400X being developed concurrently moved into production to become the 747-400ER.


747-400XQLR

After the end of the 747X program, Boeing continued to study improvements that could be made to the 747. The 747-400XQLR (Quiet Long Range) was meant to have an increased range of 7,980 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,800 km), with improvements to boost efficiency and reduce noise."Boeing Offers New 747-400X Quiet Longer Range Jetliner."
''The Boeing Company'', February 26, 2002. Retrieved: December 17, 2007.
Improvements studied included raked wingtips similar to those used on the 767-400ER and a sawtooth engine nacelle for noise reduction. Although the 747-400XQLR did not move to production, many of its features were used for the 747 Advanced, which has now been launched as the Boeing 747-8, 747-8.


Operators

In 1979, Qantas became the first airline in the world to operate an all Boeing 747 fleet with seventeen. , there were 462 Boeing 747s in airline service, with Atlas Air and British Airways being the largest operators with 33 747-400s each. The last US passenger Boeing 747 was retired from Delta Air Lines in December 2017, after it flew for every American major carrier since its 1970 introduction. Delta flew three of its last four aircraft on a farewell tour, from Seattle to Atlanta on December 19 then to Los Angeles and Minneapolis/St Paul on December 20. As the International Air Transport Association, IATA forecast an increase in air freight from 4% to 5% in 2018 fuelled by booming trade for time-sensitive goods, from smartphones to fresh flowers, demand for freighters is strong while passenger 747s are phased out. Of the 1,544 produced, 890 are retired; , a small subset of those which were intended to be parted-out get $3 million D-checks before flying again. Young -400s are sold for 320 million yuan ($50 million) and Boeing stopped converting Cargo aircraft, freighters, which used to cost nearly $30 million. This comeback helped the airframer financing arm Boeing Capital to shrink its exposure to the 747-8 from $1.07 billion in 2017 to $481 million in 2018. In July 2020, British Airways announced that it was retiring its 747 fleet. The final British Airways 747 flights departed Heathrow Airport, London Heathrow on 8 October 2020.


Orders and deliveries

Boeing 747 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):
ImageSize = width:auto height:250 barincrement:28 PlotArea = left:35 bottom:15 top:10 right:18 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:0 till:1600 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:0 PlotData= color:skyblue width:28 bar:1966 from:start till:83 text:83 align:center bar:1967 from:start till:126 text:126 align:center bar:1968 from:start till:148 text:148 align:center bar:1969 from:4 till:178 text:178 align:center bar:1970 from:96 till:198 text:198 align:center bar:1971 from:165 till:205 text:205 align:center bar:1972 from:195 till:223 text:223 align:center bar:1973 from:225 till:252 text:252 align:center bar:1974 from:247 till:281 text:281 align:center bar:1975 from:268 till:301 text:301 align:center bar:1976 from:295 till:315 text:315 align:center bar:1977 from:315 till:357 text:357 align:center bar:1978 from:347 till:433 text:433 align:center bar:1979 from:414 till:505 text:505 align:center bar:1980 from:487 till:554 text:554 align:center bar:1981 from:540 till:577 text:577 align:center bar:1982 from:566 till:591 text:591 align:center bar:1983 from:588 till:615 text:615 align:center bar:1984 from:604 till:638 text:638 align:center bar:1985 from:628 till:680 text:680 align:center bar:1986 from:663 till:764 text:764 align:center bar:1987 from:686 till:830 text:830 align:center bar:1988 from:710 till:879 text:879 align:center bar:1989 from:755 till:935 text:935 align:center bar:1990 from:825 till:1057 text:1,057 align:center bar:1991 from:889 till:1088 text:1,088 align:center bar:1992 from:950 till:1111 text:1,111 align:center bar:1993 from:1006 till:1113 text:1,113 align:center bar:1994 from:1046 till:1129 text:1,129 align:center bar:1995 from:1071 till:1161 text:1,161 align:center bar:1996 from:1097 till:1217 text:1,217 align:center bar:1997 from:1136 till:1253 text:1,253 align:center bar:1998 from:1189 till:1268 text:1,268 align:center bar:1999 from:1236 till:1303 text:1,303 align:center bar:2000 from:1261 till:1329 text:1,329 align:center bar:2001 from:1292 till:1345 text:1,345 align:center bar:2002 from:1319 till:1362 text:1,362 align:center bar:2003 from:1338 till:1366 text:1,366 align:center bar:2004 from:1353 till:1376 text:1,376 align:center bar:2005 from:1366 till:1422 text:1,422 align:center bar:2006 from:1380 till:1475 text:1,475 align:center bar:2007 from:1396 till:1491 text:1,491 align:center bar:2008 from:1410 till:1493 text:1,493 align:center bar:2009 from:1418 till:1498 text:1,498 align:center bar:2010 from:1418 till:1499 text:1,499 align:center bar:2011 from:1427 till:1502 text:1,502 align:center bar:2012 from:1458 till:1509 text:1,509 align:center bar:2013 from:1482 till:1522 text:1,522 align:center bar:2014 from:1501 till:1524 text:1,524 align:center bar:2015 from:1519 till:1530 text:1,530 align:center bar:2016 from:1528 till:1548 text:1,548 align:center bar:2017 from:1542 till:1554 text:1,554 align:center bar:2018 from:1548 till:1572 text:1,572 align:center bar:2019 from:1550 till:1572 text:1,572 align:center bar:2020 from:1555 till:1571 text:1,571 align:center color:powderblue width:28 bar:2021 from:1560 till:1573 text:1,573 align:center color:green width:28– bar:1969 from:start till:4 text:4 align:center bar:1970 from:start till:96 text:96 align:center bar:1971 from:start till:165 text:165 align:center bar:1972 from:start till:195 text:195 align:center bar:1973 from:start till:225 text:225 align:center bar:1974 from:start till:247 text:247 align:center bar:1975 from:start till:268 text:268 align:center bar:1976 from:start till:295 text:295 align:center bar:1977 from:start till:315 text:315 align:center bar:1978 from:start till:347 text:347 align:center bar:1979 from:start till:414 text:414 align:center bar:1980 from:start till:487 text:487 align:center bar:1981 from:start till:540 text:540 align:center bar:1982 from:start till:566 text:566 align:center bar:1983 from:start till:588 text:588 align:center bar:1984 from:start till:604 text:604 align:center bar:1985 from:start till:628 text:628 align:center bar:1986 from:start till:663 text:663 align:center bar:1987 from:start till:686 text:686 align:center bar:1988 from:start till:710 text:710 align:center bar:1989 from:start till:755 text:755 align:center bar:1990 from:start till:825 text:825 align:center bar:1991 from:start till:889 text:889 align:center bar:1992 from:start till:950 text:950 align:center bar:1993 from:start till:1006 text:1,006 align:center bar:1994 from:start till:1046 text:1,046 align:center bar:1995 from:start till:1071 text:1,071 align:center bar:1996 from:start till:1097 text:1,097 align:center bar:1997 from:start till:1136 text:1,136 align:center bar:1998 from:start till:1189 text:1,189 align:center bar:1999 from:start till:1236 text:1,236 align:center bar:2000 from:start till:1261 text:1,261 align:center bar:2001 from:start till:1292 text:1,292 align:center bar:2002 from:start till:1319 text:1,319 align:center bar:2003 from:start till:1338 text:1,338 align:center bar:2004 from:start till:1353 text:1,353 align:center bar:2005 from:start till:1366 text:1,366 align:center bar:2006 from:start till:1380 text:1,380 align:center bar:2007 from:start till:1396 text:1,396 align:center bar:2008 from:start till:1410 text:1,410 align:center bar:2009 from:start till:1418 text:1,418 align:center bar:2010 from:start till:1418 text:1,418 align:center bar:2011 from:start till:1427 text:1,427 align:center bar:2012 from:start till:1458 text:1,458 align:center bar:2013 from:start till:1482 text:1,482 align:center bar:2014 from:start till:1501 text:1,501 align:center bar:2015 from:start till:1519 text:1,519 align:center bar:2016 from:start till:1528 text:1,528 align:center bar:2017 from:start till:1542 text:1,542 align:center bar:2018 from:start till:1548 text:1,548 align:center bar:2019 from:start till:1555 text:1,555 align:center bar:2020 from:start till:1560 text:1,560 align:center bar:2021 from:start till:1561 text:1,561 align:center Orders and deliveries through the end of March 2021


Model summary

* Source for orders and deliveries: Boeing data through end of March 2021


Accidents and incidents

As of October 2020, the 747 has been involved in 166 aviation accidents and incidents, including 63 accidents and hull losses causing fatalities. There have been several hijackings of Boeing 747s, such as Pan Am Flight 73, a 747-100 hijacked by four terrorists, causing 20 deaths. Few crashes have been attributed to 747 design flaws. The Tenerife airport disaster resulted from pilot error and communications failure, while the Japan Airlines Flight 123 and China Airlines Flight 611 crashes stemmed from improper aircraft repair. United Airlines Flight 811, which suffered an uncontrolled decompression, explosive decompression mid-flight on February 24, 1989, led the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to issue a recommendation that the Boeing 747-100 and 747-200 cargo doors similar to those on the Flight 811 aircraft be modified to those featured on the Boeing . Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by a Soviet fighter aircraft in 1983 after it had strayed into Soviet territory, causing US President Ronald Reagan to authorize the then-strictly-military global positioning system (GPS) for civilian use."United States Updates Global Positioning System Technology."
''america.gov,'' February 3, 2006. Retrieved: January 9, 2012.
Accidents due to design deficiencies included TWA Flight 800, where a 747-100 exploded in mid-air on July 17, 1996, probably due to sparking electrical wires inside the fuel tank; this finding led the FAA to adopt a rule in July 2008 requiring installation of an inerting system in the center fuel tank of most large aircraft, after years of research into solutions. At the time, the new safety system was expected to cost US$100,000 to $450,000 per aircraft and weigh approximately . El Al Flight 1862 crashed after the fuse pins for an engine broke off shortly after take-off due to metal fatigue. Instead of dropping away from the wing, the engine knocked off the adjacent engine and damaged the wing.


Aircraft on display

As increasing numbers of "classic" 747-100 and series aircraft have been retired, some finding other uses such as museum displays. Some older 747-300s and 747-400s were later added to museum collections. * 20235/001 – 747-121 registration N7470 ''City of Everett'', the first 747 and prototype, is at the Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington, US where it is sometimes leased to Boeing for test purposes. * 19896/019 – 747-132(SF) registration N481EV at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, McMinnville, Oregon, US. * 19651/025 – 747-121 registration N747GE at the Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona, US. * 19778/027 – 747-151 registration N601US nose at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington, D.C., US. * 20107/086 – 747-123 registration N905NA, a NASA Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, US. * 20269/150 – 747-136 registration G-AWNG nose at Hiller Aviation Museum, San Carlos, California, US. * 20239/160 – 747-244B registration ZS-SAN nicknamed ''Lebombo'', at the South African Airways Museum Society, Rand Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa. * 20541/200 – 747-128 registration F-BPVJ at Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, France. * 20770/213 – 747-2B5B registration HL7463 at Jeongseok Aviation Center, Jeju, South Korea. * 21134/288 – 747SP-44 registration ZS-SPC at the South African Airways Museum Society, Rand Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa. * 21549/336 – 747-206B registration PH-BUK at the Aviodrome, Lelystad, The Netherlands. * 22145/410 – 747-238B registration VH-EBQ at the Qantas Founders Outback Museum, Longreach, Queensland, Australia. * 23223/606 - 747-300 registration VH-EBU at Melbourne Avalon Airport, Avalon, Victoria, Avalon, Victoria, Australia. VH-EBU is an ex-Qantas airframe formerly decorated in the Nalanji Dreaming livery, currently in use as a training aircraft and film set. * 23719/696 – 747-451 registration N661US at the Delta Flight Museum, Atlanta, Georgia, US. This particular plane was the first in service, as well as the prototype. * City of Canberra (aircraft), 24354/731 – 747-438 registration VH-OJA at Shellharbour Airport, Albion Park Rail, New South Wales, Australia.


Other uses

Upon its retirement from service, the 747 number two in the production line was dismantled and shipped to Hopyeong, Namyangju, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea where it was re-assembled, repainted in a livery similar to that of Air Force One and converted into a restaurant. Originally flown commercially by Pan Am as N747PA, ''Clipper Juan T. Trippe'', and Pan Am Flight 845, repaired for service following a tailstrike, it stayed with the airline until its bankruptcy. The restaurant closed by 2009, and the aircraft was scrapped in 2010. A former British Airways 747-200B, G-BDXJ, is parked at the Dunsfold Aerodrome#Film work, Dunsfold Aerodrome in Surrey, England and has been used as a movie set for productions such as the 2006 James Bond film, ''Casino Royale (2006 film), Casino Royale''. The airplane also appears frequently in the television series ''Top Gear (2002 TV series), Top Gear'', which is filmed at Dunsfold. The ''Jumbo Stay'' hostel, using a converted 747-200 formerly registered as 9V-SQE, opened at Arlanda Airport, Stockholm in January 2009."Swedish Hotel Fashioned From An Old Jumbo Jet"
Tayfun King, ''Fast Track, BBC World News'' (November 23, 2008)
A former Pakistan International Airlines 747-300 was converted into a restaurant by Pakistan's Airports Security Force in 2017. It is located at Jinnah International Airport, Karachi. The wings of a 747 have been recycled as roofs of a 747 Wing House, house in Malibu, California.


Specifications


Notable appearances in media

Following its debut, the 747 rapidly achieved Cultural icon, iconic status, G-BDXJ, appearing in numerous film productions such as ''Airport 1975'' and ''Airport '77'' disaster films, ''Air Force One (film), Air Force One'', ''Die Hard 2'', and ''Executive Decision''. Appearing in over 300 film productions the 747 is one of the most widely depicted civilian aircraft and is considered by many as one of the most iconic in film history. The aircraft entered the cultural lexicon as the original ''Jumbo Jet'', a term coined by the aviation media to describe its size, and was also nicknamed ''Queen of the Skies''.Sutter 2006, p. 279.


See also


References


Notes


Bibliography

* Bowers, Peter M. ''Boeing Aircraft Since 1916''. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. . * Davies, R.E.G. ''Delta: An Airline and Its Aircraft: The Illustrated History of a Major U.S. Airline and the People Who Made It.'' McLean, VA: Paladwr Press, 1990. . * Donald, David and Lake, Jon. ''Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft''. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1996. . * Haenggi, Michael. ''Boeing Widebodies.'' St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Co., 2003. . * Irving, Clive. ''Wide Body: The Making of the Boeing 747''. Philadelphia: Coronet, 1994. . * Itabashi, M., K. Kawata and S. Kusaka
"Pre-fatigued 2219-T87 and 6061-T6 aluminium alloys."
''Structural Failure: Technical, Legal and Insurance Aspects''. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Taylor & Francis, 1995. . * Jenkins, Dennis R. ''Boeing 747-100/200/300/SP'' (AirlinerTech Series, Vol. 6). North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 2000. . * Kane, Robert M. ''Air Transportation: 1903–2003''. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., 2004. . * Lawrence, Philip K. and David Weldon Thornton. ''Deep Stall: The Turbulent Story of Boeing Commercial Airplanes''. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2005, . * Norris, Guy and Mark Wagner. ''Boeing 747: Design and Development Since 1969''. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Co., 1997. . * Norton, Bill. ''Lockheed Martin C-5 Galaxy''. North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 2003. . * Orlebar, Christopher. ''The Concorde Story''. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, Fifth edition, 2002. . * Sutter, Joe. ''747: Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2006. . * Taylor, John W. R. (editor). ''Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988–89''. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. . * Thisdell, Dan and Seymour, Chris. "World Airliner Census". ''Flight International'', 30 July–5 August 2019, Vol. 196, No. 5697. pp. 24–47. .


Further reading

* Ingells, Douglas J. ''747: Story of the Boeing Super Jet''. Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, 1970. . * ''The Great Gamble: The Boeing 747. The Boeing - Pan Am Project to Develop, Produce, and Introduce the 747''. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1973. . * Seo, Hiroshi. ''Boeing 747''. Worthing, West Sussex: Littlehampton Book Services Ltd., 1984. . * Lucas, Jim. ''Boeing 747 - The First 20 Years''. Browcom Pub. Ltd, 1988. . * Wright, Alan J. ''Boeing 747''. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan, 1989. . * Minton, David H. ''The Boeing 747'' (Aero Series 40). Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, 1991. . * Shaw, Robbie. ''Boeing 747'' (Osprey Civil Aircraft series). London: Osprey, 1994. . * Baum, Brian. ''Boeing 747-SP'' (Great Airliners, Vol. 3). Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1997. . * Falconer, Jonathan. ''Boeing 747 in Color''. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan, 1997. . * Gilchrist, Peter. ''Boeing 747-400'' (Airliner Color History). Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1998. . * Henderson, Scott. ''Boeing 747-100/200 In Camera''. Minneapolis, MN: Scoval Publishing, 1999. . * Pealing, Norman, and Savage, Mike. ''Jumbo Jetliners: Boeing's 747 and the Widebodies'' (Osprey Color Classics). Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1999. . * Shaw, Robbie. ''Boeing 747-400: The Mega-Top'' (Osprey Civil Aircraft series)/ London: Osprey, 1999. . * Wilson, Stewart. ''Boeing 747'' (Aviation Notebook Series). Queanbeyan, NSW: Wilson Media Pty. Ltd, 1999. . * Wilson, Stewart. ''Airliners of the World''. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1999. . * Birtles, Philip. ''Boeing 747-400''. Hersham, Surrey: Ian Allan, 2000. . * Bowman, Martin. ''Boeing 747'' (Crowood Aviation Series). Marlborough, Wilts.: Crowood, 2000. * Dorr, Robert F. ''Boeing 747-400'' (AirlinerTech Series, Vol. 10). North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 2000. . * Gesar, Aram. ''Boeing 747: The Jumbo''. New York: Pyramid Media Group, 2000. . * Gilchrist, Peter. ''Boeing 747 Classic'' (Airliner Color History). Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 2000. . * Graham, Ian. ''In Control: How to Fly a 747''. Somerville, MA: Candlewick, 2000. . * Nicholls, Mark. ''The'' Airliner World ''Book of the Boeing 747''. New York: Osprey Publishing, 2002. . * March, Peter. ''The Boeing 747 Story''. Stroud, Glos.: The History Press, 2009. .


External links

* * * * * *
The 747 Takes Off: The Dawn of the Jumbo Jet Age
" Digital Exhibit. Northwestern University Transportation Library. January 2020. * * * * * * * {{Authority control Boeing 747, 1960s United States airliners Quadjets Aircraft first flown in 1969 Double-deck aircraft