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THE BOEING COMPANY (/ˈboʊ.ɪŋ/ ) is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes , rotorcraft , rockets , and satellites worldwide. The company also provides leasing and product support services. Boeing
Boeing
is among the largest global aircraft manufacturers ; it is the second-largest defense contractor in the world based on 2015 revenue, and is the largest exporter in the United States by dollar value. Boeing
Boeing
stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average .

The Boeing
Boeing
Company's corporate headquarters are located in Chicago and the company is led by President and CEO Dennis Muilenburg . Boeing
Boeing
is organized into five primary divisions: Boeing
Boeing
Commercial Airplanes (BCA); Boeing
Boeing
Defense, Space Engineering, Operations Boeing Capital ; and Boeing
Boeing
Shared Services Group. In 2016, Boeing
Boeing
recorded $94.6 billion in sales, ranked 24th on the Fortune magazine "Fortune 500" list (2017), ranked 61st on the " Fortune Global 500 " list (2017), and ranked 30th on the "World's Most Admired Companies" list (2017).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Before 1930 * 1.2 1930s and 1940s * 1.3 1950s * 1.4 1960s * 1.5 1970s * 1.6 1980s * 1.7 1990s

* 1.8 2000–2009

* 1.8.1 Unethical conduct * 1.8.2 Industrial espionage

* 1.9 1992 EU-US Agreement notes

* 1.9.1 Subsidy disputes

* 1.10 Future concepts * 1.11 2010–present

* 2 Environment

* 2.1 Environmental record * 2.2 Jet biofuels * 2.3 Electric propulsion

* 3 Political contributions, federal contracts, advocacy * 4 Divisions * 5 Employment numbers

* 6 Corporate governance

* 6.1 Board of directors * 6.2 Chief executive officer * 6.3 Chairman of the board * 6.4 President

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

BEFORE 1930

William E. Boeing in 1929

In March 1910, William E. Boeing bought Heath's shipyard in Seattle on the Duwamish River , which later became his first airplane factory. Boeing
Boeing
was incorporated in Seattle
Seattle
by William Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co". Boeing
Boeing
was later incorporated in Delaware, the original Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of Delaware on July 19, 1934. Boeing, who studied at Yale University , worked initially in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and learned about wooden structures. This knowledge proved invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes . The company stayed in Seattle
Seattle
to take advantage of the local supply of spruce wood. Boeing's original logo

William Boeing
William Boeing
founded his company a few months after the June 15 maiden flight of one of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt , a U.S. Navy engineer. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss aircraft. Boeing
Boeing
bought a Glenn Martin "Flying Birdcage" seaplane (so called because of all the guy-wires holding it together) and was taught to fly by Glenn Martin himself. Boeing
Boeing
soon crashed the Birdcage and when Martin informed Boeing
Boeing
that replacement parts would not become available for months, Boeing
Boeing
realized he could build his own plane in that amount of time. He and his friend Cdr. G.C. Westervelt agreed to build a better airplane and soon produced the B"> Replica of Boeing's first plane, the Boeing Model 1 , at the Museum of Flight

On April 6, 1917, the U.S. declared War on Germany and later in the year entered World War I. On May 9, 1917, the company became the " Boeing
Boeing
Airplane
Airplane
Company". With the U.S. entering the war, Boeing knew that the U.S. Navy needed seaplanes for training. So Boeing shipped two new Model Cs to Pensacola, Florida, where the planes were flown for the Navy. The Navy liked the Model C and ordered 50 more. The company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1 , located on the lower Duwamish River, Washington state.

When World War I ended in 1918, a large surplus of cheap, used military planes flooded the commercial airplane market, preventing aircraft companies from selling any new airplanes, driving many out of business. Others, including Boeing, started selling other products. Boeing
Boeing
built dressers, counters, and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds.

In 1919 the Boeing
Boeing
B-1 , flying boat made its first flight. It accommodated one pilot and two passengers and some mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail flights from Seattle
Seattle
to Victoria, British Columbia . On May 24, 1920, the Boeing Model 8 made its first flight. It was the first plane to fly over Mount Rainier .

In 1923, Boeing
Boeing
entered competition against Curtiss to develop a pursuit fighter for the U.S. Army Air Service . Although Curtiss finished its design first and was awarded the contract, Boeing continued to develop its PW-9 fighter. That plane, along with the Boeing P-12
Boeing P-12
/ F4B fighter, made Boeing
Boeing
a leading manufacturer of fighters over the course of the next decade.

In 1925, Boeing
Boeing
built its Model 40 mail plane for the U.S. government to use on airmail routes. In 1927, an improved version of this plane was built, the Model 40A which won the U.S. Post Office 's contract to deliver mail between San Francisco and Chicago. The 40A also had a passenger cabin that accommodated two.

That same year, Boeing
Boeing
created an airline named Boeing
Boeing
Air Transport, which merged a year later with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane
Airplane
Company. The first airmail flight for the airline was on July 1, 1927. The company changed its name to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in 1929 and acquired Pratt "> Boeing
Boeing
B-29 assembly line in Wichita, Kansas
Wichita, Kansas
, 1944 Boeing
Boeing
377 Stratocruiser

Shortly after, an agreement with Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
(Pan Am) was reached, to develop and build a commercial flying boat able to carry passengers on transoceanic routes. The first flight of the Boeing 314 Clipper
Boeing 314 Clipper
was in June 1938. It was the largest civil aircraft of its time, with a capacity of 90 passengers on day flights, and of 40 passengers on night flights. One year later, the first regular passenger service from the U.S. to the UK was inaugurated. Subsequently, other routes were opened, so that soon Pan Am flew with the Boeing
Boeing
314 to destinations all over the world.

In 1938, Boeing
Boeing
completed work on its Model 307 Stratoliner . This was the world's first pressurized-cabin transport aircraft, and it was capable of cruising at an altitude of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) – above most weather disturbances. It was based on the B-17, using the same wings, tail and engines.

During World War II, Boeing
Boeing
built a large number of B-17 and B-29 bombers . Boeing
Boeing
ranked twelfth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Many of the workers were women whose husbands had gone to war. In the beginning of March 1944, production had been scaled up in such a manner that over 350 planes were built each month. To prevent an attack from the air, the manufacturing plants had been covered with greenery and farmland items. During these years of war the leading aircraft companies of the U.S. cooperated. The Boeing-designed B-17 bomber was assembled also by Lockheed Aircraft Corp. and Douglas Aircraft Co. , while the B-29 was assembled also by Bell Aircraft Co. and by Glenn L. Martin Company
Glenn L. Martin Company
.

After the war, most orders of bombers were canceled and 70,000 people lost their jobs at Boeing. The company aimed to recover quickly by selling its Stratocruiser (the Model 377), a luxurious four-engine commercial airliner developed from the B-29. However, sales of this model were not as expected and Boeing
Boeing
had to seek other opportunities to overcome the situation. The company successfully sold military derivatives of the Stratocruiser, such as the C-97 adapted for troop transportation and the KC-97 for aerial refueling .

1950S

The Boeing 707
Boeing 707
in British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) livery, 1964

Boeing
Boeing
developed military jets such as the B-47 Stratojet and B-52 Stratofortress bombers in the late-1940s and into the 1950s. During the early 1950s, Boeing
Boeing
used company funds to develop the 367–80 jet airliner demonstrator that led to the KC-135 Stratotanker and Boeing 707 jetliner. Some of these were built at Boeing's facilities in Wichita, Kansas
Wichita, Kansas
, which existed from 1931 to 2014.

In the mid-1950s technology had advanced significantly, which gave Boeing
Boeing
the opportunity to develop and manufacture new products. One of the first was the guided short-range missile used to intercept enemy aircraft. By that time the Cold War had become a fact of life, and Boeing
Boeing
used its short-range missile technology to develop and build an intercontinental missile.

In 1958, Boeing
Boeing
began delivery of its 707, the United States' first commercial jet airliner , in response to the British De Havilland Comet , French Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud Aviation Caravelle
and Soviet Tupolev Tu-104 , which were the world's first generation of commercial jet aircraft. With the 707, a four-engine, 156-passenger airliner, the U.S. became a leader in commercial jet manufacture. A few years later, Boeing
Boeing
added a second version of this aircraft, the Boeing 720
Boeing 720
, which was slightly faster and had a shorter range.

Boeing
Boeing
was a major producer of small turbine engines during the 1950s and 1960s. The engines represented one of the company's major efforts to expand its product base beyond military aircraft after World War II. Development on the gasoline turbine engine started in 1943 and Boeing's gas turbines were designated models 502, 520, 540, 551 and 553. Boeing
Boeing
built 2,461 engines before production ceased in April 1968. Many applications of the Boeing
Boeing
gas turbine engines were considered to be firsts, including the first turbine-powered helicopter and boat.

1960S

The 707 and 747 formed the backbone of many major airline fleets through the end of the 1970s, including United (747 shown) and Pan Am (707 shown) Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Boeing 727
Boeing 727
A Boeing 737
Boeing 737
, the best-selling aircraft

Vertol Aircraft Corporation was acquired by Boeing
Boeing
in 1960, and was reorganized as Boeing's Vertol division . The twin-rotor CH-47 Chinook , produced by Vertol, took its first flight in 1961. This heavy-lift helicopter remains a work-horse vehicle up to the present day. In 1964, Vertol also began production of the CH-46 Sea Knight
CH-46 Sea Knight
.

In December 1960, Boeing
Boeing
announced the model 727 jetliner, which went into commercial service about three years later. Different passenger, freight and convertible freighter variants were developed for the 727. The 727 was the first commercial jetliner to reach 1,000 sales.

Boeing
Boeing
won a contract in 1961 to manufacture the S-IC stage of the Saturn V rocket, manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana.

In 1966, Boeing
Boeing
president William M. Allen asked Malcolm T. Stamper to spearhead production of the new 747 airliner on which the company's future was riding. This was a monumental engineering and management challenge, and included construction of the world's biggest factory in which to build the 747 at Everett, Washington
Everett, Washington
, a plant which is the size of 40 football fields.

In 1967, Boeing
Boeing
introduced another short- and medium-range airliner, the twin-engine 737 . It has become since then the best-selling commercial jet aircraft in aviation history. Several versions have been developed, mainly to increase seating capacity and range. The 737 remains in production as of April 2017.

The roll-out ceremonies for the first 747-100 took place in 1968, at the massive new factory in Everett, about an hour's drive from Boeing's Seattle
Seattle
home. The aircraft made its first flight a year later. The first commercial flight occurred in 1970. The 747 has an intercontinental range and a larger seating capacity than Boeing's previous aircraft.

Boeing
Boeing
also developed hydrofoils in the 1960s. The screw-driven USS High Point (PCH-1) was an experimental submarine hunter. The patrol hydrofoil USS Tucumcari (PGH-2) was more successful. Only one was built, but it saw service in Vietnam and Europe before running aground in 1972. Its waterjet and fully submersed flying foils were the example for the later Pegasus-class patrol hydrofoils and the Model 929 Jetfoil ferries in the 1980s. The Tucumcari and later boats were produced in Renton. While the Navy hydrofoils were withdrawn from service in the late 1980s, the Boeing
Boeing
Jetfoils are still in service in Asia.

1970S

In the early 1970s Boeing
Boeing
suffered from the simultaneous decline in Vietnam War military spending, the slowing of the space program as Project Apollo neared completion, the recession of 1969–70 , :291 and the company's $2 billion debt as it built the new 747 airliner. :303 Boeing
Boeing
did not receive any orders for more than a year. Its bet for the future, the 747, was delayed in production by three months because of problems with its Pratt "> Housing vacancy rates rose to 16 percent from 1 percent in 1967. U-Haul dealerships ran out of trailers because so many people moved out. A billboard appeared near the airport: :303–304

Will the last person leaving SEATTLE - Turn out the lights. :303

In January 1970, the first 747, a four-engine long-range airliner, flew its first commercial flight with Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
. The 747 changed the airline industry, providing much larger seating capacity than any other airliner in production. The company has delivered over 1,500 Boeing
Boeing
747s. The 747 has undergone continuous improvements to keep it technologically up-to-date. Larger versions have also been developed by stretching the upper deck. The newest version of the 747, the 747-8 is in production as of 2016.

Boeing
Boeing
launched three Jetfoil 929-100 hydrofoils that were acquired in 1975 for service in the Hawaiian Islands. When the service ended in 1979 the three hydrofoils were acquired by Far East Hydrofoil for service between Hong Kong and Macau.

During the 1970s, Boeing
Boeing
also developed the US Standard Light Rail Vehicle , which has been used in San Francisco, Boston, and Morgantown, West Virginia .

1980S

The narrow body Boeing 757
Boeing 757
replaced the 727. This example is in Turkmenistan Airlines livery. The Boeing 767
Boeing 767
replaced the Boeing
Boeing
707. This example is in Qantas livery.

In 1983, the economic situation began to improve. Boeing
Boeing
assembled its 1,000th 737 passenger aircraft. During the following years, commercial aircraft and their military versions became the basic equipment of airlines and air forces. As passenger air traffic increased, competition was harder, mainly from Airbus
Airbus
, a European newcomer in commercial airliner manufacturing. Boeing
Boeing
had to offer new aircraft, and developed the single-aisle 757 , the larger, twin-aisle 767 , and upgraded versions of the 737. An important project of these years was the Space Shuttle , to which Boeing
Boeing
contributed with its experience in space rockets acquired during the Apollo era. Boeing participated also with other products in the space program, and was the first contractor for the International Space Station program.

During the decade several military projects went into production, including Boeing
Boeing
support of the stealth B-2 bomber. As part of an industry team led by Northrop, Boeing
Boeing
built the outboard portion of the B-2 stealth bomber wing, the aft center fuselage section, landing gear, fuel system and weapons delivery system. At its peak in 1991, the B-2 was the largest military program at Boeing, employing about 10,000 people. The same year, the National Aeronautic Association of the USA awarded the B-2 design team the Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aerospace in America. The first B-2 rolled out of the bomber's final assembly facility in Palmdale, California
Palmdale, California
, in November 1988 and it flew for the first time on July 17, 1989.

The Avenger air defense system and a new generation of short-range missiles also went into production. During these years, Boeing
Boeing
was very active in upgrading existing military equipment and developing new ones. Boeing
Boeing
also contributed to wind power development with the experimental MOD-2 Wind Turbines for NASA
NASA
and the United States Department of Energy , and the MOD-5B for Hawaii.

1990S

Air France
Air France
777-300ER

Boeing
Boeing
was one of seven competing companies that bid for the Advanced Tactical Fighter . Boeing
Boeing
agreed to team with General Dynamics and Lockheed, so that all three companies would participate in the development if one of the three companies designs was selected. The Lockheed design was eventually selected and developed into the F-22 Raptor .

In April 1994, Boeing
Boeing
introduced the most modern commercial jet aircraft at the time, the twin-engine 777 , with a seating capacity of approximately 300 to 370 passengers in a typical three-class layout, in between the 767 and the 747. The longest range twin-engined aircraft in the world, the 777 was the first Boeing
Boeing
airliner to feature a "fly-by-wire " system and was conceived partly in response to the inroads being made by the European Airbus
Airbus
into Boeing's traditional market. This aircraft reached an important milestone by being the first airliner to be designed entirely by using computer-aided design (CAD) techniques. The 777 was also the first airplane to be certified for 180 minute ETOPS at entry into service by the FAA
FAA
. Also in the mid-1990s, the company developed the revamped version of the 737, known as the 737 "Next-Generation" , or 737NG. It has since become the fastest-selling version of the 737 in history, and on April 20, 2006 sales passed those of the "Classic 737" , with a follow-up order for 79 aircraft from Southwest Airlines .

In 1995, Boeing
Boeing
chose to demolish the headquarters complex on East Marginal Way South instead of upgrading it to match new seismic standards. The headquarters were moved to an adjacent building and the facility was demolished in 1996. In 1997, Boeing
Boeing
was headquartered on East Marginal Way South, by King County Airport , in Seattle.

In 1996, Boeing
Boeing
acquired Rockwell 's aerospace and defense units. The Rockwell business units became a subsidiary of Boeing, named Boeing North American, Inc. In August 1997, Boeing
Boeing
merged with McDonnell Douglas in a US$13 billion stock swap under the name The Boeing Company. However this name had actually been Boeing's official name previously adopted on May 21, 1961. Following the merger, the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 was renamed the Boeing 717
Boeing 717
, and the production of the MD-11 was limited to the freighter version. Boeing introduced a new corporate identity with completion of the merger, incorporating the Boeing
Boeing
logo type and a stylized version of the McDonnell Douglas symbol, which was derived from the Douglas Aircraft logo from the 1970s.

Aerospace analyst Scott Hamilton heavily criticized the CEO and his deputy, Philip M. Condit and Harry Stonecipher , for thinking of their personal benefit first, and with it causing the problems hitting Boeing
Boeing
many years later. Instead of investing the huge cash reserve to build new airplanes, they initiated a program to buy back Boeing
Boeing
stock for more than US$10 billion.

2000–2009

International Space Station Boeing Everett Factory in 2011

In January 2000, Boeing
Boeing
chose to expand its presence in another aerospace field of satellite communications by purchasing Hughes Electronics. Hughes Space and Communications Company , which had pioneered the satellite communications field.

In September 2001, Boeing
Boeing
moved its corporate headquarters from Seattle
Seattle
to Chicago. Chicago, Dallas
Dallas
and Denver
Denver
– vying to become the new home of the world's largest aerospace concern – all had offered packages of multimillion-dollar tax breaks. Its offices are located in the Fulton River District just outside the Loop, Chicago
Chicago
.

On October 10, 2001, Boeing
Boeing
lost to its rival Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
in the fierce competition for the multibillion-dollar Joint Strike Fighter contract. Boeing's entry, the X-32 , was rejected in favor of Lockheed's X-35 entrant. Boeing
Boeing
continues to serve as the prime contractor on the International Space Station and has built several of the major components.

Boeing
Boeing
began development of the KC-767 aerial refueling tanker in the early 2000s. Italy and Japan ordered four KC-767s each. After development delays and FAA
FAA
certification, Boeing
Boeing
delivered the tankers to Japan from 2008 with the second KC-767 following on March 5. to 2010. Italy received its four KC-767 during 2011.

In 2004, Boeing
Boeing
ended production of the 757 after 1,050 aircraft were produced. More advanced, stretched versions of the 737 were beginning to compete against the 757, and the planned 787-3 was to fill much of the top end of the 757 market. Also that year, Boeing
Boeing
announced that the 717, the last civil aircraft to be designed by McDonnell Douglas, would cease production in 2006. The 767 was in danger of cancellation as well, with the 787 replacing it, but orders for the freighter version extended the program.

After several decades of success, Boeing
Boeing
lost ground to Airbus
Airbus
and subsequently lost its lead in the airliner market in 2003. Multiple Boeing
Boeing
projects were pursued and then canceled, notably the Sonic Cruiser , a proposed jetliner that would travel just under the speed of sound , cutting intercontinental travel times by as much as 20 percent. It was launched in 2001 along with a new advertising campaign to promote the company's new motto, "Forever New Frontiers", and to rehabilitate its image. However, the plane's fate was sealed by the changes in the commercial aviation market following the September 11 attacks and the subsequent weak economy and increase in fuel prices.

Subsequently, Boeing
Boeing
streamlined its production and turned its attention to a new model, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
, using much of the technology developed for the Sonic Cruiser, but in a more conventional aircraft designed for maximum efficiency. The company also launched new variants of its successful 737 and 777 models. The 787 proved to be a highly popular choice with airlines, and won a record number of pre-launch orders. With delays to Airbus' A380 program several airlines threatened to switch their A380 orders to Boeing's new 747 version, the 747-8 . Airbus's response to the 787, the A350 , received a lukewarm response at first when it was announced as an improved version of the A330, and then gained significant orders when Airbus
Airbus
promised an entirely new design. The 787 program has encountered delays, with the first flight not occurring until late 2009.

After regulatory approval, Boeing
Boeing
formed a joint venture, United Launch Alliance with its competitor, Lockheed Martin, on December 1, 2006. The new venture is the largest provider of rocket launch services to the U.S. government.

On August 2, 2005, Boeing
Boeing
sold its Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne
rocket engine division to Pratt Boeing
Boeing
constructed the S-IC stage of the Saturn V rocket at this site in the 1960s. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner
Boeing 787 Dreamliner
on its first flight

Boeing
Boeing
launched the 777 Freighter in May 2005 with an order from Air France . The freighter variant is based on the −200LR. Other customers include FedEx and Emirates . Boeing
Boeing
officially announced in November 2005 that it would produce a larger variant of the 747, the 747-8, in two versions, commencing with the Freighter version with firm orders for two cargo carriers. The second version, named the Intercontinental, is for passenger airlines. Both 747-8 versions feature a lengthened fuselage, new, advanced engines and wings, and the incorporation of other technologies developed for the 787.

Boeing
Boeing
also received the launch contract from the U.S. Navy for the P-8 Poseidon Multimission Maritime Aircraft, an anti-submarine warfare patrol aircraft. It has also received orders for the 737 AEW"> The record-breaking 777-200LR Worldliner, presented at the Paris Air Show 2005.

The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601 km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight. It was flown by Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
pilots and PIA was the first airline to fly the 777-200LR Worldliner.

On August 11, 2006, Boeing
Boeing
agreed to form a joint-venture with the large Russian titanium producer, VSMPO-Avisma for the machining of titanium forgings. The forgings will be used on the 787 program. On December 27, 2007 Boeing
Boeing
and VSMPO-Avisma created a joint venture, Ural Boeing
Boeing
Manufacturing, and signed a contract on titanium product deliveries until 2015, with Boeing
Boeing
planning to invest $27 billion in Russia over the next 30 years.

In February 2011, Boeing
Boeing
received a contract for 179 KC-46 U.S. Air Force tankers at a value of $35 billion. The KC-46 tankers are based on the KC-767. Graphic representation of the XM1202 Mounted Combat System vehicle

Boeing
Boeing
jointly with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), were the prime contractors in the U.S. military's Future Combat Systems program. The FCS program was canceled in June 2009 with all remaining systems swept into the BCT Modernization program. Boeing
Boeing
works jointly with SAIC in the BCT Modernization program like the FCS program but the U.S. Army will play a greater role in creating baseline vehicles and will only contract others for accessories.

Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates ' shift in defense spending to, "make tough choices about specific systems and defense priorities based solely on the national interest and then stick to those decisions over time" hit Boeing
Boeing
especially hard, because of their heavy involvement with canceled Air Force projects.

Unethical Conduct

In May 2003, the U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
announced it would lease 100 KC-767 tankers to replace the oldest 136 of its KC-135s . In November 2003, responding to critics who argued that the lease was more expensive than an outright purchase, the DoD announced a revised lease of 20 aircraft and purchase of 80. In December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one of its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun (who began employment at Boeing
Boeing
in January) was begun. The fallout of this resulted in the resignation of Boeing
Boeing
CEO Philip M. Condit and the termination of CFO Michael M. Sears . Harry Stonecipher , former McDonnell Douglas CEO and Boeing
Boeing
COO, replaced Condit on an interim basis. Druyun pleaded guilty to inflating the price of the contract to favor her future employer and to passing information on the competing Airbus
Airbus
A330 MRTT bid. In October 2004, she received a jail sentence for corruption.

In March 2005, the Boeing
Boeing
board forced President and CEO Harry Stonecipher to resign. Boeing
Boeing
said an internal investigation revealed a "consensual" relationship between Stonecipher and a female executive that was "inconsistent with Boeing's Code of Conduct" and "would impair his ability to lead the company". James A. Bell
James A. Bell
served as interim CEO (in addition to his normal duties as Boeing's CFO) until the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new Chairman, President, and CEO on June 30, 2005.

Industrial Espionage

In June 2003, Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
sued Boeing, alleging that the company had resorted to industrial espionage in 1998 to win the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) competition. Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
claimed that the former employee Kenneth Branch, who went to work for McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, passed nearly 30,000 pages of proprietary documents to his new employers. Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
argued that these documents allowed Boeing
Boeing
to win 19 of the 28 tendered military satellite launches.

In July 2003, Boeing
Boeing
was penalized, with the Pentagon stripping seven launches away from the company and awarding them to Lockheed Martin. Furthermore, the company was forbidden to bid for rocket contracts for a twenty-month period, which expired in March 2005. In early September 2005, it was reported that Boeing
Boeing
was negotiating a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in which it would pay up to $500 million to cover this and the Darleen Druyun scandal.

1992 EU-US AGREEMENT NOTES

Until the late 1970s, the U.S. had a near monopoly in the Large Civil Aircraft (LCA) sector. The Airbus
Airbus
consortium (created in 1969) started competing effectively in the 1980s. At that stage the U.S. became concerned about the European competition and the alleged subsidies paid by the European governments for the developments of the early models of the Airbus
Airbus
family. This became a major issue of contention, as the European side was equally concerned by subsidies accruing to U.S. LCA manufacturers through NASA
NASA
and Defense programs.

The EU and the U.S. started bilateral negotiations for the limitation of government subsidies to the LCA sector in the late 1980s. Negotiations were concluded in 1992 with the signing of the EC-US Agreement on Trade in Large Civil Aircraft which imposes disciplines on government support on both sides of the Atlantic which are significantly stricter than the relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) rules: Notably, the Agreement regulates in detail the forms and limits of government support, prescribes transparency obligations and commits the parties to avoiding trade disputes.

Subsidy Disputes

In 2004, the EU and the U.S. agreed to discuss a possible revision of the 1992 EU-US Agreement provided that this would cover all forms of subsidies including those used in the U.S., and in particular the subsidies for the Boeing
Boeing
787; the first new aircraft to be launched by Boeing
Boeing
for 14 years. In October 2004 the U.S. began legal proceedings at the WTO by requesting WTO consultations on European launch investment to Airbus. The U.S. also unilaterally withdrew from the 1992 EU-US Agreement. The U.S. claimed Airbus
Airbus
had violated a 1992 bilateral accord when it received what Boeing
Boeing
deemed "unfair" subsidies from several European governments. Airbus
Airbus
responded by filing a separate complaint, contesting that Boeing
Boeing
had also violated the accord when it received tax breaks from the U.S. Government. Moreover, the EU also complained that the investment subsidies from Japanese airlines violated the accord.

On January 11, 2005, Boeing
Boeing
and Airbus
Airbus
agreed that they would attempt to find a solution to the dispute outside of the WTO. However, in June 2005, Boeing
Boeing
and the United States government reopened the trade dispute with the WTO, claiming that Airbus
Airbus
had received illegal subsidies from European governments. Airbus
Airbus
has also responded to this claim against Boeing, reopening the dispute and also accusing Boeing of receiving subsidies from the U.S. Government.

On September 15, 2010, the WTO ruled that Boeing
Boeing
had received billions of dollars in government subsidies. Boeing
Boeing
responded by stating that the ruling was a fraction of the size of the ruling against Airbus
Airbus
and that it required few changes in its operations. Boeing
Boeing
has received $8.7 billion in support from Washington state.

FUTURE CONCEPTS

In May 2006, four concept designs being examined by Boeing
Boeing
were outlined in The Seattle
Seattle
Times based on corporate internal documents. The research aims in two directions: low-cost airplanes, and environmental-friendly planes. Codenamed after the well-known Muppets , a design team known as the Green Team concentrated primarily on reducing fuel usage. All four designs illustrated rear-engine layouts.

* "Fozzie" employs open rotors and offers a lower cruising speed. * "Beaker" has very thin, long wings, with the ability to partially fold-up to facilitate easier taxiing. * "Kermit Kruiser" has forward swept wings over which are positioned its engines, with the aim of lowering noise below due to the reflection of the exhaust signature upward. * "Honeydew" with its delta wing design, resembles a marriage of the flying wing concept and the traditional tube fuselage.

As with most concepts, these designs are only in the exploratory stage, intended to help Boeing
Boeing
evaluate the potentials of such radical technologies.

Boeing
Boeing
recently patented its own force field technology, also known as the shock wave attenuation system, that would protect vehicles from shock waves generated by nearby explosions. Boeing
Boeing
has yet to confirm when they plan to build and test the technology.

2010–PRESENT

Boeing's Wichita plant in 2010. Boeing
Boeing
ended its presence in Kansas in 2012–13.

In 2010, Boeing
Boeing
completed its acquisition of Argon ST Inc. Based in Fairfax, Virginia, Argon ST develops C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) and combat systems. On June 30, 2010, Boeing
Boeing
announced its intent to acquire Argon ST as part of the company's strategy to expand its capabilities to address the C4ISR, cyber and intelligence markets.

On November 17, 2011, it was reported that Lion Air has committed to ordering 201 Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX and 29 737-900ER airliners. This order, when finalized, is worth $21.7 billion at list prices. This is larger than any of Boeing's previous commercial aircraft sales. The deal includes options for a further 150 airliners.

On January 5, 2012, Boeing
Boeing
announced plans to close its facilities in Wichita, Kansas
Wichita, Kansas
with 2,160 workers before 2014, more than 80 years after it was established. Boeing
Boeing
had employed as many as 40,000 people there.

Boeing
Boeing
announced on May 13, 2013 it would cut 1,500 IT jobs in Seattle
Seattle
, Washington over the next three years in combination of layoffs, attrition and relocation. Most of those will be relocated (approximately 600 jobs each) to St. Louis , Missouri
Missouri
, and North Charleston , South Carolina
South Carolina
.

The company announced a 26 percent increase in profits—US$1.23 billion total—for Q4 2013, citing higher demand for commercial aircraft.

In April 2014, Boeing
Boeing
announced their Long Beach manufacturing facility would shut down by the end of the year. The facility was responsible for building the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III military transport aircraft . The last C-17, #276, left final assembly in 2015. The assembly site officially closed in February 2015, and by April, Boeing
Boeing
had been auctioning factory manufacturing parts off. Some 2,200 jobs are affected.

NASA
NASA
awarded contracts to Boeing
Boeing
and SpaceX
SpaceX
for transporting astronauts to the International Space Station.

In June 2015, Boeing
Boeing
announced that James McNerney would step down as CEO to be replaced by Boeing's COO, Dennis Muilenburg , on July 1, 2015. In February 2016, Boeing
Boeing
announced that Boeing
Boeing
President and CEO Dennis Muilenburg was elected the 10th Chairman of the Board, succeeding James McNerney.

In March 2016 Boeing
Boeing
announced to cut 4,000 jobs from its commercial airplane division by mid-year.

Boeing
Boeing
opened a $1 billion 27 acres (11 hectares) factory in Washington state on May 13, 2016 that will make carbon-composite wings for its 777X , a key step toward delivering the first aircraft by 2020.

ENVIRONMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL RECORD

In 2006, the UCLA
UCLA
Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory , in the Simi Hills of eastern Ventura County in Southern California , had been contaminated with toxic and radioactive waste . The study found that air, soil , groundwater , and surface water at the site all contained radionuclides , toxic metals, and dioxins ; air and water additionally contained perchlorate , TCE , and hydrazines , while water showed the presence of PCBs as well. Clean up studies and lawsuits are in progress.

JET BIOFUELS

Main articles: Aviation biofuel and Algae fuel

The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector. Aviation's share of the greenhouse gas emissions is poised to grow, as air travel increases and ground vehicles use more alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Boeing
Boeing
estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent. The solution blends algae fuels with existing jet fuel.

Boeing
Boeing
executives said the company is informally collaborating with leading Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio , Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other fuel developers around the world. So far, Boeing
Boeing
has tested six fuels from these companies, and will probably have gone through 20 fuels "by the time we're done evaluating them." Boeing
Boeing
was also joining other aviation-related members in the Algal Biomass Organization (ABO) on June 2008.

Air New Zealand and Boeing
Boeing
are researching the jatropha plant to see if it is a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel. A two-hour test flight using a 50–50 mixture of the new biofuel with Jet A-1 in the number one position Rolls Royce RB-211 engine of 747-400 ZK-NBS, was successfully completed on December 30, 2008. The engine was then removed to be scrutinised and studied to identify any differences between the Jatropha blend and regular Jet A1. No effects to performances were found.

On August 31, 2010, Boeing
Boeing
worked with the U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force
to test the Boeing C-17 running on 50 percent JP-8, 25 percent Hydro-treated Renewable Jet fuel and 25 percent of a Fischer–Tropsch fuel with successful results.

ELECTRIC PROPULSION

For NASA's N+3 future airliner program, Boeing
Boeing
has determined that hybrid electric engine technology is by far the best choice for its subsonic design. Hybrid electric propulsion has the potential to shorten takeoff distance and reduce noise.

POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEDERAL CONTRACTS, ADVOCACY

In both 2008 and 2009, Boeing
Boeing
was second on the list of Top 100 US Federal Contractors , with contracts totalling $22 billion and $23 billion respectively. Since 1995, the company has agreed to pay $1.6 billion to settle 39 instances of misconduct, including $615 million in 2006 in relation to illegal hiring of government officials and improper use of proprietary information.

Boeing
Boeing
is the top receiver of subsidies (dubbed "corporate welfare ") in the U.S. based on 2014 data, with a total of $13.18 billion. It also secured the highest ever tax breaks at the state level in 2013.

Boeing's 2010 lobbying expenditure by the third quarter was $13.2 million (2009 total: $16.9 million). In the 2008 presidential election , Barack Obama
Barack Obama
"was by far the biggest recipient of campaign contributions from Boeing
Boeing
employees and executives, hauling in $197,000 – five times as much as John McCain , and more than the top eight Republicans combined."

Boeing
Boeing
has a corporate citizenship program centered on charitable contributions in five areas: education , health , human services , environment , the arts , culture , and civic engagement . In 2011, Boeing
Boeing
spent $147.3 million in these areas through charitable grants and business sponsorships . In February 2012, Boeing
Boeing
Global Corporate Citizenship partnered with the Insight Labs to develop a new model for foundations to more effectively lead the sector that they serve.

The company is a member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition , a Washington D.C.-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger International Affairs Budget, which funds American diplomatic and development efforts abroad. A series of U.S. diplomatic cables show how U.S. diplomats and senior politicians intervene on behalf of Boeing
Boeing
to help boost the company's sales.

In 2007 and 2008, the company benefited from over $10 billion of long-term loan guarantees, helping finance the purchase of their commercial aircraft in countries including Brazil, Canada, Ireland and the United Arab Emirates, from the Export-Import Bank of the United States , some 65 percent of the total loan guarantees the bank made in the period.

In December 2011, the non-partisan organization Public Campaign criticized Boeing
Boeing
for spending $52.29 million on lobbying and not paying taxes during 2008–2010, instead getting $178 million in tax rebates, despite making a profit of $9.7 billion, laying off 14,862 workers since 2008, and increasing executive pay by 31 percent to $41.9 million in 2010 for its top five executives.

DIVISIONS

Boeing
Boeing
plant in Ridley Park, Pennsylvania

The two largest divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS).

* Boeing Capital * Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA)

* Boeing Defense, Space & Security
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
(BDS)

* Phantom Works

* Engineering, Test & Technology

* Boeing
Boeing
Research & Technology * Boeing
Boeing
Test vertical-align:top; width:50%;">

Employment by division (July 28, 2016) GROUP EMPLOYEES

Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA) 79,828

Boeing Defense, Space & Security
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
(BDS) 48,804

Corporate 28,289

Finance width:50%;">

Employment by location (July 28, 2016) LOCATION EMPLOYEES

Alabama
Alabama
2,877

Arizona
Arizona
3,805

California
California
14,864

Missouri
Missouri
14,585

Oklahoma
Oklahoma
2,653

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
4,895

South Carolina
South Carolina
8,099

Texas
Texas
3,850

Washington 75,686

Other Locations 25,607

TOTAL COMPANY 156,921

Approximately 1.5 percent of Boeing
Boeing
employees are in the Technical Fellowship program, a program through which Boeing's top engineers and scientists set technical direction for the company. The average salary at Boeing
Boeing
is $76,784, reported by former employees.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

* Dennis Muilenburg – CHAIRMAN * Robert A. Bradway * David L. Calhoun * Arthur D. Collins, Jr. * Kenneth M. Duberstein * Admiral Edmund P. Giambastiani , Jr., U.S. Navy (ret) * Lynn J. Good * Lawrence W. Kellner * Edward M. Liddy * Susan C. Schwab * Randall L. Stephenson * Ronald A. Williams * Mike S. Zafirovski

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

1933–1939 Clairmont "Claire" L. Egtvedt

1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson

1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt

1945–1968 William M. Allen

1969–1986 Thornton "T" A. Wilson

1986–1996 Frank Shrontz

1996–2003 Philip M. Condit

2003–2005 Harry C. Stonecipher

2005 James A. Bell
James A. Bell
(acting)

2005–2015 James McNerney

2015–present Dennis Muilenburg

CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

1916–1934 William E. Boeing

1934–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt (acting)

1939–1966 Clairmont L. Egtvedt

1968–1972 William M. Allen

1972–1987 Thornton "T" A. Wilson

1988–1996 Frank Shrontz

1997–2003 Philip M. Condit

2003–2005 Lewis E. Platt

2005–2016 James McNerney

2016–present Dennis Muilenburg

PRESIDENT

1922–1925 Edgar N. Gott

1926–1933 Philip G. Johnson

1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt

1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson

1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt

1945–1968 William M. Allen

1968–1972 Thornton "T" A. Wilson

1972–1985 Malcolm T. Stamper

1985–1996 Frank Shrontz

1996–1997 Philip M. Condit

1997–2005 Harry C. Stonecipher

2005 James A. Bell
James A. Bell
(acting)

2005–2013 James McNerney

2013–present Dennis Muilenburg

SEE ALSO

* Companies portal * Aviation portal * Chicago
Chicago
portal * Seattle
Seattle
portal

* Airbus
Airbus
* Boeing Commercial Airplanes * Boeing Defense, Space & Security
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
* Boeing Renton Factory * Comac * UAC * Competition between Airbus
Airbus
and Boeing
Boeing
* Future of Flight Aviation Center -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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FURTHER READING

* Cloud, Dana L. We Are the Union: Democratic Unionism and Dissent at Boeing. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 2011. * Greider, William. One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism. London: Penguin Press, 1997. * Reed, Polly. Capitalist Family Values: Gender, Work, and Corporate Culture at Boeing. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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Boeing
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