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Bodhi
Bodhi
(Sanskrit: बोधि; and Pali) in Buddhism
Buddhism
is the understanding possessed by a Buddha regarding the true nature of things. It is traditionally translated into English with the word enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening". The verbal root "budh" means to awaken. Bodhi
Bodhi
is presented in the Nikayas as knowledge of the causal mechanism by which beings incarnate into material form and experience suffering. Although its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism, the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Soteriological meaning 3 Buddha's awakening 4 The Buddhist Path 5 Development of the concept

5.1 Early Buddhism 5.2 Mahayana

5.2.1 Buddha-nature 5.2.2 Harmonisation of the various terms and meanings

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Web references 10 Sources 11 Further reading

Etymology[edit] Bodhi
Bodhi
is an abstract noun formed from the verbal root *budh- (Sanksrit: बुद्धः (to awake, become aware, notice, know or understand) corresponding to the verbs bujjhati (Pāli) and bodhati or budhyate (Sanskrit). The feminine Sanskrit
Sanskrit
noun of *budh- is buddhi. Soteriological meaning[edit] The soteriological goal of Indian religions is liberation or moksha (also called mukti). Liberation is simultaneously freedom from suffering and the endless round of existences. Within the Sramanic traditions one who has attained liberation is called an arhat (Sanskrit; Pali: arahant), an honorific term meaning "worthy" acknowledging the skill and effort required to overcome the obstacles to the goal of nirvana. According to the Buddha[citation needed] the path to liberation is one of progressively coming out of delusion (Pali: Moha). This path is therefore regarded as a path of awakening. Progressing along the path towards Nirvana
Nirvana
one gains insight into the true nature of things. A Buddha is one who has attained liberation and an understanding of the causal mechanism by means of which sentient beings come into existence. This mechanism is called pratitya samutpada or dependent origination. The knowledge or understanding of this is called bodhi. Buddha's awakening[edit] In the suttapitaka, the Buddhist canon as preserved in the Theravada-tradition, a number of texts can be found in which Gautama Buddha tells about his own awakening.[1][2] In the Vanapattha Sutta (Majjhima, chapter 17)[3] the Buddha describes life in the jungle, and the attainment of awakening. After destroying the disturbances of the mind, and perfecting concentration of mind, he attained three knowledges (vidhya):[4][5]

Insight into his past lives Insight into the workings of Karma
Karma
and Reincarnation Insight into the Four Noble Truths

Insight into the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
is here called awakening.[6] The monk (bhikkhu) has

...attained the unattained supreme security from bondage.[7]

Awakening is also described as synonymous with Nirvana, the extinction of the passions whereby suffering is ended and no more rebirths take place.[8] The insight arises that this liberation is certain:

Knowledge arose in me, and insight: my freedom is certain, this is my last birth, now there is no rebirth.[8]

So awakening is insight into karma and rebirth, insight into the Four Noble Truths, the extinction of the passions whereby Nirvana
Nirvana
is reached, and the certainty that liberation has been reached.[8] The Buddhist Path[edit] Main article: Buddhist Paths to liberation The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist Path (magga) to liberation.[9] Tradition describes the Buddha's awakening,[10] and the descriptions of the path given in the Sutta Pitaka.[web 1][web 2] By following this path Buddhahood
Buddhahood
can be attained. Following this path dissolves the ten fetters[11] and terminates volitional actions that bind a human being to the wheel of samsara. The Theravada-tradition follows the Path to purification described by Buddhaghosa
Buddhaghosa
in his Visuddhimagga. It features four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment. The four stages are Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami
Anagami
and Arahat.[11][12][web 3] Three types of buddha are recognized:[13]

Arhat
Arhat
(Pali: arahant), those who reach Nirvana
Nirvana
by following the teachings of the Buddha.[13] Sometimes the term Śrāvakabuddha (Pali: sāvakabuddha) is used to designate this kind of awakened person[citation needed]; Pratyekabuddhas (Pali: paccekabuddha), those who reach Nirvana
Nirvana
through self-realisation, without the aid of spiritual guides and teachers, but don't teach the Dharma;[13] Samyaksambuddha (Pali: samma sambuddha), often simply referred to as Buddha, one who has reached Nirvana
Nirvana
by his own efforts and wisdom and teaches it skillfully to others.[13]

Development of the concept[edit] The term bodhi acquired a variety of meanings and connotations during the development of Buddhist thoughts in the various schools. Early Buddhism[edit] Main article: Early Buddhism In early Buddhism, bodhi carried a meaning synonymous to nirvana, using only some different metaphors to describe the insight, which implied the extinction of lobha (greed), dosa (hate) and moha (delusion). In Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, bodhi and nirvana carry the same meaning, that of being freed from greed, hate and delusion. Mahayana[edit] Main article: Mahayana In Mahayana-thought, bodhi is the realisation of the inseparability of samsara and nirvana,[14] and the unity of subject and object.[14] It is similar to prajna, to realizing the Buddha-nature, realizing sunyata and realizing suchness.[14] Mahayana
Mahayana
discerns three forms of bodhi:[15]

Arahat
Arahat
– Liberation for oneself;[a] Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
– Liberation for living beings; Full Buddhahood.

Within the various Mahayana-schools exist various further explanations and interpretations.[14] Buddha-nature[edit] In the Tathagatagarbha
Tathagatagarbha
and Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
doctrines bodhi becomes equivalent to the universal, natural and pure state of the mind:

Bodhi
Bodhi
is the final goal of a Bodhisattva's career [...] Bodhi
Bodhi
is pure universal and immediate knowledge, which extends over all time, all universes, all beings and elements, conditioned and unconditioned. It is absolute and identical with Reality and thus it is Tathata. Bodhi is immaculate and non-conceptual, and it, being not an outer object, cannot be understood by discursive thought. It has neither beginning, nor middle nor end and it is indivisible. It is non-dual (advayam) [...] The only possible way to comprehend it is through samadhi by the yogin.[16]

According to these doctrines bodhi is always there within one's mind, but requires the defilements to be removed. This vision is expounded in texts such as the Shurangama Sutra
Shurangama Sutra
and the Uttaratantra. In Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism, the state of Bodhi
Bodhi
is also seen as naturally inherent in the mind. It is the mind's natural and pure state, where no distinction is being made between a perceiving subject and perceived objects. This is also the understanding of Bodhi
Bodhi
found in Yogacara
Yogacara
Buddhism. To achieve this vision of non-duality, it is necessary to recognise one's own mind:

... it means that you are to know the inherent natural state of the mind by eliminating the split into a perceiving subject and perceived objects which normally occurs in the world and is wrongly thought to be real. This also corresponds to the Yogacara
Yogacara
definition ... that emptiness (sunyata) is the absence of this imaginary split[17]

Harmonisation of the various terms and meanings[edit] During the development of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
the various strands of thought on Bodhi
Bodhi
were continuously being elaborated. Attempts were made to harmonize the various terms. The Buddhist commentator Buddhaguhya
Buddhaguhya
treats various terms as synonyms:

For example, he defines emptiness (sunyata) as suchness (tathata) and says that suchness is the intrinsic nature (svabhava) of the mind which is Enlightenment (bodhi-citta). Moreover, he frequently uses the terms suchness (tathata) and Suchness-Awareness (tathata-jnana) interchangeably. But since Awareness (jnana) is non-dual, Suchness-Awareness is not so much the Awareness of Suchness, but the Awareness which is Suchness. In other words, the term Suchness-Awareness is functionally equivalent to Enlightenment. Finally, it must not be forgotten that this Suchness-Awareness or Perfect Enlightenment is Mahavairocana [the Primal Buddha, uncreated and forever existent]. In other words, the mind in its intrinsic nature is Mahavairocana, whom one "becomes" (or vice versa) when one is perfectly enlightened.[17]

See also[edit]

Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

Bodhicitta Bodhi
Bodhi
Day Bodhi
Bodhi
tree Enlightenment in Buddhism Satori

Notes[edit]

^ This also includes Pratyekabuddha, but is not being mentioned by Fischer-Schreiber et al.

References[edit]

^ Warder 2000, p. 45-50. ^ Faure 1991. ^ Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Nanamoli 1995. ^ Warder 2000, pp. 47–48. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 27. ^ Warder 2000, p. 47-48. ^ Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Nanamoli 1996, p. 199. ^ a b c Warder 2000, p. 49. ^ Buswell 1994, p. 1-36. ^ Harvey 1995, p. 21-25. ^ a b Walsh (translator) 1995, p. 25-27. ^ Harvey 1995, p. 71-72. ^ a b c d Snelling 1987, p. 81. ^ a b c d Fischer-Schreiber 2008, p. 51. ^ Schreiber 2008, p. 51. ^ Sebastian 2005, p. 274. ^ a b Hodge 2003, p. 31-32.

Web references[edit]

^ Samyutta Nikaya 56.11 Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion ^ Digha Nikaya 2 Samaññaphala Sutta: The Fruits of the Contemplative Life ^ Thanissaro Bhikkhu: Stream Entry Part 1: The Way to Stream-entry

Sources[edit]

Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Nanamoli; Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
Bodhi
Bodhi
(1995), The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha. A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom Publ.  Buswell, Robert E. JR; Gimello, Robert M. (editors) (1994), Paths to Liberation. The Marga and its Transformations in Buddhist Thought, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Faure, Bernard (1991), The Rhetoric of Immediacy. A Cultural Critique of Chan/ Zen
Zen
Buddhism, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02963-6  Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism
Buddhism
Began, Munshiram Manoharlal  Peter N. Gregory (1991), Sudden and Gradual (Approaches to Enlightenment in Chinese Thought), Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120808193 Harvey, Peter (1995), An introduction to Buddhism. Teachings, history and practices, Cambridge University Press  Hodge, Stephen (2003), The Maha-Vairocana-Abhisambodhi Tantra, With Buddhaguya's Commentary, London: RoutledgeCurzon  Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid; Ehrhard, Franz-Karl; diener, Michael S. (2008), Lexicon Boeddhisme. Wijsbegeerte, religie, psychologie, mystiek, cultuur an literatuur, Asoka  Sebastian, C.D. (2005), Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications  Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks  Walsh (translator), Maurice (1995), The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A translation of the Digha Nikaya, Boston: Wisdom publications  Warder, Anthony Kennedy (2000), Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers 

Further reading[edit]

A. Charles Muller (translator) (1999), The Sutra
Sutra
of Perfect Enlightenment. State University Press of New York Lu K'uan Yu (translator) (1978), The Surangama Sutra. Bombay: B.I. Publications Kenneth R. White (editor) (2005), The Role of Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
in Buddhist Enlightenment Including a Translation into English of the Bodhicitta-Sastra, Benkenmitsu-nikyoron, and Sammaya-kaijo. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press.

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