BOCHUM (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Westphalian : Baukem) is
a city in the state of
North Rhine-Westphalia ,
Germany and part of
the Arnsberg region . It is located in the
Ruhr area and is surrounded
by the cities (in clockwise direction) of Herne ,
Gelsenkirchen . With a
population of nearly 365,000, it is the 16th most populous city in
Bochum is a part of the
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area.
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Geographical position
* 1.2 Geology
* 1.3 Waterways
* 1.4 Vegetation
* 1.5 Districts
* 2 History
* 2.1 The Nazi era and
World War II
World War II
* 3 Places of interest
* 3.1 Architecture
* 3.1.1 Religious architecture
* 3.2 Parks and Gardens
* 4 Society and culture
* 4.1 Leisure and entertainment
* 4.1.2 Annual events
* 4.2 Museums
* 4.3 Art galleries
* 4.4 Public art
* 4.5 Sports
* 5 Located companies
* 6 Transport
* 6.1 Roads
* 6.2 Railways
* 6.3 Bus, Tram, Underground
* 6.4 Waterways
* 6.5 Air
* 7 Education
* 7.1 Higher education
* 7.2 Elementary and secondary schools
* 8 Twin towns (sister cities)
* 9 Notable residents
* 9.1 A-K
* 9.2 L-Z
* 10 Overview of those who lived and worked in Bochum, but were not
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
The city lies on the low rolling hills of
Bochum land ridge (Bochumer
Landrücken), part of the Ruhrhöhen (highest elevations) between the
Emscher rivers at the border of the southern and northern
Ruhr coal region. The highest point of the city is at Kemnader Straße
(Kemnader Street) in
Stiepel at 196 metres (643 ft) above sea level;
the lowest point is 43 metres (141 ft) at the Blumenkamp in
The terrain of
Bochum is characterised by rolling hills that rarely
have more than three per cent graduation. Steeper graduation can be
found at the Harpener Hellweg near the Berghofer Holz nature reserve
(3.4%), at Westenfelder Straße in the borough of Wattenscheid
(3.47%), or at Kemnader Straße, which begins at the banks of the Ruhr
Stiepel (71 m, 233 ft), and rises to its highest point in the
Stiepel (196 m, 643 ft, a 5.1% increase).
The city extends north to south 13.0 km (8.1 mi) and 17.1 km (10.6
mi) east to west. The perimeter of the city limits is 67.2 km (41.8
There is sedimentary rock of carbon and chalk . The geological strata
can be visited in the former quarry of Klosterbusch and at the
The urban area is divided into the river
Ruhr catchment in the south
Emscher catchment in the north. The Ruhr's tributaries are the
Oelbach (where as well a waste water treatment plant is established ),
Gerther Mühlenbach, Harpener Bach,
Hörsterholzer Bach and the
Knöselbach . The
Ruhr in combination with
upstream reservoirs is also used for drinking water abstraction. The
Emscher's tributaries are Hüller Bach with Dorneburger Mühlenbach,
Hofsteder Bach, Marbach, Ahbach, Kabeisemannsbach and Goldhammer Bach.
The industrial developments in the region since the 19th century were
leading to a kind of division of labour between the two river
catchments, pumping drinking water from the
Ruhr into the municipal
supply system and discharging waste water mainly into the Emscher
system. Today approximately 10% of the waste water in the Emscher
catchment is discharged via the Hüller Bach. and treated in the
centralized waste water treatment plant of the Emschergenossenschaft
Bottrop . The ecological restoration of the
initiated by the
Emschergenossenschaft started with the Internationale
Emscher Park in 1989.
The south of the city has woods, the best known of which are the
Weitmarer Holz (de). These are generally mixed forests of oak and
beech . The occurrence of holly gives evidence of Bochum's temperate
Sections and Districts in
Bochum is divided into six administrative districts with a total of
362,213 inhabitants living in an urban area of 145.4 km2 (56.1 sq mi).
* BOCHUM-MITTE includes Innenstadt , Hamme (including Goldhamme, and
Stahlhausen), Hordel, Hofstede, Riemke, Grumme and Altenbochum There
are 102,145 inhabitants living in an area of 32.60 km2 (12.59 sq mi).
* WATTENSCHEID includes Wattenscheid-Mitte, Leithe,
Westenfeld , Sevinghausen,
Höntrop , Munscheid and Eppendorf (which
includes Engelsburg and Heide). There are 74,602 inhabitants living in
an area of 23.87 km2 (9.22 sq mi).
* NORTH includes Bergen, Gerthe , Harpen (including Rosenberg),
Kornharpen, Hiltrop and Voede-Abzweig. There are 37,004 inhabitants
living in an area of 18.86 km2 (7.28 sq mi).
* EAST includes Laer , Werne , and
Langendreer (including Ümmingen
and Kaltehardt). There are 55,193 inhabitants living in an area of
23.46 km2 (9.06 sq mi).
* SOUTH includes Wiemelhausen (which includes Brenschede, and
Stiepel (which includes Haar, Brockhausen and Schrick) and
Querenburg (which includes Hustadt and Steinkuhl). There are 50,866
inhabitants living in an area of 27.11 km2 (10.47 sq mi).
* SOUTHWEST includes Weitmar (which includes Bärendorf, Mark, and
Neuling), Sundern, Linden and Dahlhausen. There are 56,510 inhabitants
living in an area of 19.50 km2 (7.53 sq mi).
Bochum in 1840. Stamp cancelled at BOCHUM 1 in
Bochum post-office was in the Westphalia province of Prussia
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
Bochum dates from the 9th century, when
Charlemagne set up a royal
court at the junction of two important trade routes. It was first
officially mentioned in 1041 as Cofbuokheim in a document of the
archbishops of Cologne. In 1321, Count Engelbert II von der Marck
Bochum a town charter, but the town remained insignificant
until the 19th century, when the coal mining and steel industries
emerged in the
Ruhr area, leading to the growth of the entire region.
The population of
Bochum increased from about 4,500 in 1850 to 100,000
Bochum acquired city status, incorporating neighbouring towns
and villages. Additional population gains came from immigration,
After the war, the new state of
North Rhine-Westphalia was
established, consisting of the Rhineland and Westphalia.
located in that state.
In the postwar period,
Bochum began developing as a cultural centre
Ruhr area. In 1965, the
University was opened, the first
modern university in the
Ruhr area and the first to be founded in
World War II
World War II . Since the seventies, Bochum's industry
has moved from heavy industry to the service sector. Between 1960 and
1980, the coal mines all closed. Other industries, such as automotive
, compensated for the loss of jobs. The
Opel Astra is assembled at the
Bochum plant ; however, by 2009, the factory was in serious
financial difficulties and in December 2012, Opel announced that Opel
will stop vehicle production
Bochum plant in 2016.
In the course of a comprehensive community reform in 1975,
Wattenscheid , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the
city of Bochum. A local referendum against the integration failed. In
2007, the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und
Hattingen was opened. In 2008,
Nokia closed down its production plant,
causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local
suppliers. 20,000 people showed up to protest against the closing.
Within months, the Canadian high-tech company,
Research in Motion ,
announced plans to open a research facility, its first outside Canada,
adding several hundred jobs.
THE NAZI ERA AND WORLD WAR II
Bombed out St. Marien Church, 1943
On 9 November 1938,
Kristallnacht , the Jewish citizens of Bochum
were attacked. The synagogue was set on fire and there was rioting
against Jewish citizens. The first Jews from
Bochum were deported to
Nazi concentration camps and many Jewish institutions and homes were
destroyed. Some 500 Jewish citizens are known by name to have been
killed in the
Holocaust , including 19 who were younger than 16 years
old. Joseph Klirsfeld was Bochum's rabbi at this time. He and his wife
fled to Palestine. In December 1938, the Jewish elementary school
Else Hirsch began organising groups of children and
adolescents to be sent to the
England , sending ten
groups in all. Many Jewish children and those from other persecuted
groups were taken in by Dutch families and thereby saved from
abduction or deportation and death.
Ruhr region was an area of high residential density and a
centre for the manufacture of weapons, it was a major target in the
war. Women with young children, school children and the homeless fled
or were evacuated to safer areas, leaving cities largely deserted to
the arms industry, coal mines and steel plants and those unable to
Bochum was first bombed heavily in May and June 1943. On 13 May
1943, the city hall was hit, destroying the top floor, and leaving the
next two floors in flames. On 4 November 1944, in an attack involving
700 British bombers, the steel plant, Bochumer Verein, was hit. One of
the largest steel plants in Germany, more than 10,000 high-explosive
and 130,000 incendiary bombs were stored there, setting off a
conflagration that destroyed the surrounding neighbourhoods. An
aerial photo shows the devastation.
The town centre of
Bochum was a strategic target during the Oil
Campaign . In 150 air raids on Bochum, over 1,300 bombs were dropped
Gelsenkirchen . By the end of the war, 38% of
been destroyed. 70,000 citizens were homeless and at least 4,095 dead.
Of Bochum's more than 90,000 homes, only 25,000 remained for the
170,000 citizens who survived the war, many by fleeing to other areas.
Most of the remaining buildings were damaged, many with only one
usable room. Only 1,000 houses in
Bochum remained undamaged after the
war. Only two of 122 schools remained unscathed; others were totally
destroyed. Hunger was rampant. A resident of neighbouring
quoted on 23 April 1945 as saying, "Today, I used up my last potato...
it will be a difficult time till the new potatoes are ready to be
picked – if they're not stolen."
The Allied ground advance into
Bochum in April 1945.
Encountering desultory resistance, the US 79th Infantry Division
captured the city on 10 April 1945.
After the war,
Bochum was occupied by the British , who established
two camps to house people displaced by the war . The majority of them
were former Polish Zwangsarbeiter, forced labourers , many of them
from the Bochumer Verein.
More than sixty years after the war, bombs continue to be found in
the region, usually by construction workers. One found in October 2008
Bochum town centre led to the evacuation of 400 and involved
hundreds of emergency workers. A month earlier, a buried bomb
exploded in neighbouring
Hattingen , injuring 17 people.
PLACES OF INTEREST
City Hall Altes Brauhaus
* BOCHUM CITY HALL was built from 1927–1931 and was designed by
architect Karl Roth as a modern office building, but in the
Renaissance style, reflecting the industrial era's middle class,
inventions and discoveries. There were statues of bronze and stone,
and in the city council chambers, a bell tower. The ornate décor gave
the Nazis an excuse to hound the then-mayor, who was of Jewish
descent, driving him to suicide in 1933. Most of the bronze statues
were melted down for the war effort and the stone carvings were
damaged by the war, save for some small lion's heads over the
entrance. Also left undamaged are two themed courtyard fountains made
by August Vogel, the "Fountain of Beauty" and the "Fountain of
Happiness", as well as Augusto Vasaris' florentine main entrance,
which displays the motto, In Labore Honos (In labour lies honour). In
1951, a set of 28 chimes was installed, manufactured in Bochum. Known
for their clarity of tone, they are the first cast steel chimes in the
world. In front of the city hall is a large bell that was made by the
Bochum "Verein für Bergbau und Gusstahlfabrikation AG", (Association
for Mining and Cast
Steel Manufacturing). Displayed at the 1867 Paris
World's Fair, it has a diameter of 3.13 metres (10.3 ft) and weighs 15
tonnes (15 long tons; 17 short tons). It was damaged during World War
II and can no longer be rung.
* ALTES BRAUHAUS RIETKöTTER, the Old Rietkötter Brewing House is
one of the oldest houses in Bochum, dating from 1630. Originally a
private home, it became a brewery in 1777. After nearly being torn
down after the war, it now has preservation status and today houses a
restaurant, where they still brew their own beer.
* The KAUFHAUS KORTUM department store dates from 1913 and was built
as one of the nearly 20 regional stores owned by Alsberg Bros. (Gebr.
Alsberg, AG) of Cologne. During the Nazi era, these stores were taken
away from their Jewish owners and put into non-Jewish hands. Today,
the "Kaufhaus Kortum" building has preservation status and houses an
* The FRIEDRICH LUEG HAUS was built in 1924–1925 as the first
high-rise building in Bochum. Contracted by the Lueg Company, the
seven-story building was designed by the architect Emil Pohle. It
suffered a fire during a bombing raid in 1944 and was renovated after
the war. Today, the upper floors are small offices and internet
companies. The seven-theatre
Bochum Union Cinema rents the ground
floor, showing a variety of domestic and international films.
* MUTTER WITTIG is a baroque-style building in the town centre,
originally opened as a bakery and inn in 1870. Damaged in World War
II, its façade is protected by preservation status. It houses a
restaurant and its windows are decorated with displays of old Bochum.
* SPARKASSE BOCHUM (
Bochum Savings Bank) is a town landmark designed
by the architect Wilhelm Kreis. It opened in 1928 and was emblematic
of the modern era. It was heavily damaged during the war, but was
afterwards restored to its former appearance.
* The SCHLEGEL TOWER is the only remaining structure of the
once-important Schlegel brewery, which closed in 1980.
* The JAHRHUNDERTHALLE (Hall of the Century), is the former gas and
power station of a steel mill built at the turn of the 20th century.
With the closing of the mill, the plant was renovated and turned into
a three-hall concert and event site with an industrial ambiance.
* DAHLHAUSER HEIDE is an example of social welfare provided by
wealthy German industrialists for their workers. Built in the early
1900s by the
Krupp family for their coal mine workers, the modest and
tastefully designed two-family houses were to enable self-sufficiency
by providing gardens and a stall for a cow. The estate, which has the
appearance of a small, rural town, gained preservation status in the
* BLANKENSTEIN CASTLE was built in the 13th century by Count Adolf I
of the Mark . Though located in
Hattingen , it is owned by
has a significant history. On 8 June 1321, Count Engelbert II of the
Bochum its town charter there. Today, only the gate and
one tower remain.
* HAUS KEMNADE is a moated castle. Though located in the town of
Hattingen , the castle is property of the city of
Bochum in 1921.
Documents regarding its earliest dates of construction have been lost;
it is first mentioned in 1393. Parts of the castle were built during
the Renaissance and baroque periods. The castle's location on the
banks of the
Ruhr river was changed when the flood of 1486 receded on
the opposite side, cutting the castle off from the neighbouring
village. The castle remained in private hands till 1921, when it was
deeded to the city of Bochum. In 1961, a museum of local history was
installed, including a large collection of 16th to 20th century
musical instruments. A collection of East Asian objects is also now
located there, as well as a satellite of the
Bochum Museum and an art
exhibition space. There is also a restaurant on site. Behind the
castle is a timber-framed farmhouse from 1800, now a museum exhibiting
farm life from the past.
Church founded by
Charlemagne Stamp from 2008
commemorating 1000th anniversary of
Stiepel village church
Bochum-Mitte, das Bermuda3eck
* PROPSTEIKIRCHE ST. PETER UND PAUL, is the oldest church in Bochum,
built between 785–800 by
Charlemagne . It was rebuilt in the 11th
century, but was severely damaged by fire in 1517. In 1547, it was
again rebuilt, this time in the late Gothic style. The 68-metre (223
ft) high bell tower is one of the landmarks of Bochum. The interior
includes a baptismal font from 1175, the reliquary shrine of St.
Perpetua and her slave Felicitas, and a high altar with a crucifix
* PAULUSKIRCHE, is the main Protestant church of the city. After the
Reformation , both Catholics and Lutherans shared the Propsteikirche,
often contentiously. In 1655, the Lutherans began to build their own
church with the help of donations from the
Dutch Republic ,
Denmark . The church was heavily damaged in a bombing
raid on 12 June 1943 and was later rebuilt after the war. Next to the
church is a monument to peace. A statue of an old woman searching for
a loved one, it is also a memorial to the 4 November 1944 bombing raid
Hans Ehrenberg served as minister here, until he was
arrested and sent to Sachsenhausen by the Nazis.
* The CHRISTUSKIRCHE, built in the neo-Gothic style, opened in 1879
and was among the most beautiful churches in Europe. In 1931, the room
in the steeple was extended to a cenotaph for those killed in World
War I. During an air raid in 1943, the church was destroyed, except
for the steeple. After the war, the ruins were integrated into a new,
modern structure and the steeple became a memorial dedicated to peace
and understanding among nations.
* The neo-Gothic MARIENKIRCHE, built between 1868–1872, was
heavily damaged in
World War II
World War II (see photo above), but was rebuilt
after the war. It is now closed and scheduled for demolition. The
stained glass windows have been removed and it has fallen victim to
* STIEPELER DORFKIRCHE is over 1000 years old and was commemorated
by a stamp in 2008. A small church consisting of one room was built by
Countess Imma von
Stiepel . Between 1130 and 1170, the old church was
replaced by a Romanesque basilica. Today, the steeple and transept
remain. Between 1150 and 1200, the interior walls and ceiling were
decorated with a number of Romanesque paintings.
* The NEW SYNAGOGUE, which opened in 2007, consists of a white cube
and stands in contrast to the round shape of the planetarium next
door. The façade shows overall a variation on the Solomon's Seal
achieved by relocated brickstones. The interior is graced with a
PARKS AND GARDENS
Chinese garden at the
University Botanical Gardens
Bochum has a municipal zoo, a large municipal park and a number of
other gardens and parks. The
University Botanical Gardens has
thousands of plants from all over the world. Among others there is a
tropical garden, a cactus garden, and a
Chinese garden designed in the
southern Chinese style, the only one of its kind in Germany.
The Geological Garden was the first of its kind in Germany. The
nearly 4-acre (16,000 m2) park is the site of an old coal mine, the
Zeche Friederika, which operated from 1750 to 1907. In 1962, the
property came under environmental protection and a decade later was
turned into a geological garden.
Other scenic areas include the West Park, Lake Kemnade, Lake
Ümmingen and the municipal forest, Weitmarer Holz.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE
LEISURE AND ENTERTAINMENT
Bochum is a cultural centre of the
Ruhr region. There is a municipal
Schauspielhaus Bochum , and about 20 smaller theatres and
stages. The musical Starlight Express , which opened in 1988, is the
longest-running musical in Germany.
Bermudadreieck (Bermuda Triangle), in the city center of Bochum,
functions as the town's nightlife hub. Around sixty different bars and
restaurants are located there, serving multicultural cuisine such as
Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Italian, Spanish and German gastronomic
specialties. Close to the
Bermudadreieck opened in 2016 the new venue
for classical music the Anneliese Brost Musikforum
* Jumble Sale – on the third Saturday of the month, in front of
* April/May: Maiabendfest – local festival, hundreds of years old
* May: Steam Festival (every other year)
* June events:
Ruhr University's summer festival Kemnade International
Extraschicht – Night of Industrial Heritage (many locations all over
* June/July: VfL for Fun – summer festival for Bochum's football
VfL Bochum 1848
Bochum Total (Rock Music Festival) – starts on the first
weekend after school lets out
* July or August:
Bochum kulinarisch – culinary treats from
various cuisines, held the last weekend of summer vacation
* August: Bochumer Musiksommer, Bochum's Summer of Music
* September: Open Flair – international cabaret and street theatre
* October: Oktobermarkt – October Market
* October/November: Bochumer Bachtage – music of composer Johann
* October/November: Ruhrgebiets-Antiquariatstag – used and antique
* November: Children's and Teenagers' Theatre
* December: Weihnachtsmarkt – Christmas Market – month-long open
air market spread over the heart of downtown Bochum, includes
* The Bergbaumuseum is a museum about mining technology, complete
with pithead tower.
* Railway Museum and Station
Dahlhausen in the borough of Dahlhausen
. Dr.-C.-Otto-Straße 191
* Zeiss Planetarium
* At the city's border with Herne -(Röhlinghausen), is the former
mine Zeche Hannover with the Malakow Tower and engine hall. There is a
steam-powered winding engine, which is operated at events.
* Zeche Knirps ("Small Boy Mine") located on the ground of Mine
Hannover. It gives children the opportunity to experience the
processes in a mine.
* Museum of local history Helf's Farm, Address: In den Höfen 37
* Farmhouse Museum located on the grounds of moated Kemnade Castle
* Museum of historic medical tools in the Malokos-Tower of former
Mine Julius-Philipp from 1875. Address: Malakowturm, Markstraße 258a,
* School Museum, Cruismannstraße 2, 44807 Bochum
* Telefonmuseum, Karl-Lange-Str. 17
* MUSEUM OF ART: The collection's focus is central and eastern
European avant garde art, German expressionism, surrealism and
outsider art. Kortumstraße 147, Bochum
* RUHR UNIVERSITY ART COLLECTION: Modern art meets the classical.
Marble and bronze portraits of Greek and Roman emperors, collection of
antique Greek vases from the 9th to 4th century, B.C.
Universitätsstraße 150, Bochum
* SCHLIEKER HOUSE: In the former apartment and studio of German
Hans-Jürgen Schlieker (1924–2004); changing exhibitions.
Hours: Wed. also the Africa and Asia Room. Hours: Wed 2:00–6:00 pm,
Fri 2:00–6:00 pm, Sat 12:00–6:00 pm, Sun 12:00–6:00 pm.
Nevelstraße 29c, 44795 Bochum.
* MUSICAL INSTRUMENT COLLECTION, HANS AND HEDE GRUMBT. Large
collection of musical instruments, also the clarinet collection of
Johan van Kalker. An der Kemnade 10, 45527 Hattingen
* OSTASIATIKA COLLECTION EHRICH. Kurt Ehrich's east Asian collection
of Japanese netsuke, belt buckles, a display of the seven "lucky gods"
and other additional objects. An der Kemnade 10, 45527 Hattingen,
* ER MINDARTS Contemporary Art online Gallery was established in
Bochum in 2014. www.ermindarts.com
"Terminal" by sculptor
Richard Serra Stolperstein for
Else Hirsch on pavement in
* Richard Serra's sculpture, "Terminal" is located in the town
centre, near the central station. It consists of four 12-metre (over
39 feet) tall steel plates.
* Ulrich Rückriem's sculpture, "Ohne Titel" (titled "Untitled"), is
at the intersection of Kortumstrasse and Huestrasse. (It is currently
in storage because of construction.)
* Memorial of the herdsman at Massenberg-Boulevard: shown is the
historical person "Fritz Kortebusch", the last herdsman of the town.
In 1870 he guided the cattle of the citizens for the last time to the
"Vöde", a grassland outside the town limits, which is today the
* Engelbert fountain at Kortumstrasse, in memory of Earl Engelbert
II, who granted a town charter to
Bochum in 1321–1324.
* Jobsiade-fountain at Husemann-Square. Shown is a scene of the
examination of Hieronymus Jobs, the main character of the "Jobsiade",
a comical poem of the poet Carl Armold Kortum.
* "The envolvement of the City", sculpture of Karl-Henning Seemann
(de) at Schützenbahn street.
* Collection of sculptures inside the municipal park.
* The bell in front of the city hall serves as a reminder of the
improvement of steel-casting in Bochum. The bell was built in 1867 for
the Paris World's Fair.
Stolpersteine , (literally, "stumbling stones") are small,
cobblestone-sized, brass commemorative plaques which are set in
sidewalks all over
Europe , marking the homes or work places of Jews
and others who were arrested and murdered during the Nazi era. There
are 38 stolpersteine in Bochum.
Cenotaph for the victims of the mine disaster at "Vereinigte
Präsident" in 1936. The sculpture was created by Wilhelm Wulff.
Strict guidelines for artwork were in effect during the Nazi
dictatorship, yet the sculpture follows only a few of them. The
inscription also avoids typical Nazi phraseology.
* The football club
VfL Bochum played in the first Division from
1971–1992, and from 1992–2010 was alternating almost every year
between first and second Division, but mostly first. Since 2010 it has
played in the second Division (2. Bundesliga ).
Sparkassen Giro Bochum – annual road bike race.
The German headquarters of the United Cinemas International
Multiplex GmbH has its seat in
Bochum Logo of the Deutsche
Annington GEA main administration GLS Bank, main
* ARAL AG (Hauptsitz), an enterprise of the Deutsche BP AG
* Bochumer Eisenhütte Heintzmann GmbH & Co. KG – Mining,
tunnelling and heat treatment
* Bochumer Verein – former part of the enterprise ThyssenKrupp
Bogestra (Hauptsitz) – Bochum-Gelsenkirchener Straßenbahnen AG,
local traffic firm
Bochum – public-law bank
* Deutsche Annington Immobilien GmbH – Germany's largest real
estate company (headquarters)
* Dr. C. Otto the Donezk, Oviedo,
Nordhausen and Sheffield-Ring
roads. It serves as a three-quarter loop around central
begins and ends at
Bochum is also served
by an expressway running from the Nordhausen-Ring to
Until 2012, a new interchange (Dreieck Bochum-West) between the
Autobahn A40 is being constructed within tight
parameters due to the existence of a nearby factory.
Apart from the autobahns and expressways, there is also a small ring
road around the centre of Bochum, where most roads radiating out of
Bochum begin. Most main roads in
Bochum are multi-lane roads with
Bochum is also served by the
Bundesstraße 51 and
Bundesstraße 226 . B51 runs to Herne and Hattingen, and B226 runs to
Gelsenkirchen and Witten.
Bochum has a central station situated on the line from
Dortmund , connecting the city to the long-distance network of
Deutsche Bahn as well as to the
BUS, TRAM, UNDERGROUND
Local service is supplied mainly by
BOGESTRA , a joint venture
handling transportation between the cities of
Bochum Stadtbahn is a single underground line
Bochum to Herne , and the
Gelsenkirchen tramway network is made up of several lines,
partially underground, connecting to Gelsenkirchen,
Witten . Public transport in the city is priced according to the fare
system of the VRR transport association.
As one of the few
Ruhr area cities,
Bochum is not directly connected
with the German waterway net; the closest link is in the more northern
located Herne at the
Rhine-Herne Canal . In the south the border of
Bochum is marked by the
Ruhr . Up to the first half of the 19th
century it was one of the most-travelled rivers in
Europe and was
mainly used for coal departure. Despite of tour ships, the navigation
time ended long ago.
The closest airports are
Essen/Mülheim Airport (27 km), Dortmund
Airport (31 km) and
Düsseldorf Airport (47 km). To reach the airport
Düsseldorf , there are ICE , InterCity , RE and S railway lines.
Other reachable airports are the
Cologne Bonn Airport , the Weeze
Airport , the
Münster Osnabrück International Airport and the
Paderborn Lippstadt Airport .
Bochum , founded 1965
University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Bochum, formerly
* Georg Agricola
University of Applied Sciences (TH Georg Agricola)
University of Applied Sciences,
Rheinland-Westphalia-Lippe (Evangelische FH Rheinland-Westfalen-Lippe)
Bochum Acting School (Schauspielschule Bochum)
* College of the Federal Social Security, Department of Social
Insurance for Seafarers (Fachhochschule des Bundes der
Sozialversicherung, Abteilung Knappschaft-Bahn-See)
University of Health Sciences (Hochschule für Gesundheit)
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
There are 61 primary schools , 9 Hauptschulen ("general schools") and
14 special schools .
In addition, there are 11 preparatory (British: grammar) schools
("Gymnasien "), 5 comprehensive schools ("Gesamtschulen"), 8
Realschulen and 2 private Waldorf schools .
"Gymnasien" – preparatory schools (British: grammar school):
* Goethe-Schule Bochum
* Märkische Schule
* Neues Gymnasium
Bochum (school formed by merger of the former
Gymnasium am Ostring )
"Gesamtschulen" – comprehensive schools :
* Erich Kästner-Gesamtschule Schule
* Maria Sibylla Merian-Gesamtschule
Realschulen – high schools:
Bochum (with elementary school)
Waldorf schools :
* Rudolf Steiner Schule Bochum
* Widar Schule Wattenscheid
TWIN TOWNS (SISTER CITIES)
Bochum's twin towns are:
United Kingdom , since 1950
Spain , since 1980
Ukraine , since 1987
Germany , since 1990
Xuzhou , People\'s Republic of
China , since 1994
Iran since 1994
There is a major road in
Bochum named Sheffield-Ring named after its
sister city Sheffield, England. There is a road in
Lore Agnes (1876–1953), politician and women's rights activist
Albert Bollmann (1889–1959), football player
Wolfgang Clement (born 1940), politician (SPD), former Minister of
Economy and Labour
Hans Ehrenberg (1883–1958), theologian, Nazi critic, and
co-founder of the
Manfred Eigen (born 1927), 1967
Nobel Prize winner in chemistry
Tommy Finke (born 1981), songwriter and composer
Josef Franke (1876–1944), architect
Hermann Gerland (born 1954), football player and coach
Frank Goosen (born 1966), cabaret artist and author, wrote
Learning to Lie
Leon Goretzka (1995), football player, Olympic silver medalist.
Herbert Grönemeyer (born 1956), actor (Das Boot ), singer,
songwriter, who became famous with the song "Bochum"
Claus Holm (1918–1996), actor, born in Bochum
Else Hirsch (1889–1943), Jewish teacher who organised 10
England and the Netherlands
Else Hirsch Stolperstein in
Heinz Kaminski (1921–2002), chemical engineer and space
Alfred Keller (1882–1974), general in the
Luftwaffe during the
Second World War
Thomas Köner (born 1965), multimedia artist
Norbert Lammert (born 1948), politician (CDU), president (Speaker)
Bundestag (German parliament)
Hans Matthöfer (1925–2009), politician (SPD)
Dorothee Mields (born 1971), soprano soloist, leading interpreter
of 17th and 18th Century music
Ingo Naujoks (born 1962), actor
Hans Werner Olm (born 1955), comedian
Andrei Ostermann 1740–1741
Andrei Osterman (1686–1747), Bochum-born Russian statesman
Konrad Raiser (born 1938), former General Secretary of the World
Council of Churches , taught theology in Bochum
Otto Schily (born 1932), lawyer, politician (first The Greens, now
SPD), former Minister of the Interior
Hans-Jürgen Schlieker (1924–2004), painter
Peter Scholl-Latour (1924–2014), German-French journalist and
Bastian Pastewka (born 1972), actor and comedian
André Tanneberger (born 1973), also known as "ATB", electronic
music producer, began his career in
Mark Warnecke (born 1970), breaststroke swimmer, won the world
title at the age of 35
OVERVIEW OF THOSE WHO LIVED AND WORKED IN BOCHUM, BUT WERE NOT BORN
Carl Arnold Kortum (1745–1824), physician and writer
Max Imdahl (1925–1988), art historian
Kurt Biedenkopf (born 1930), politician (CDU), 1967–1969 Rector
Kuno Gonschior (1935–2010), painter and university professor
Jochen Borchert (born 1940), politician (CDU), 1993–1998 Federal
Minister of Food, Agriculture and Forestry
Armin Rohde (born 1955), actor
Karl-Heinz von Liebezeit (born 1960), actor, attended grammar
school and drama school in Bochum
* VfL Bochum: personnel and celebrities
Kruppwerke , part of the city of Bochum
Südinnenstadt , part of the city of Bochum
* ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und
Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.
* ^ "Ruhrverband: Bochum-Ölbachtal".
* ^ emscher:dialog in Bochum, planning process document, published
by Emschergenossenschaft, April 16th 2002
* ^ "Ausländer und Staatenlose 2010 bis 2014 in Bochum". Stadt
Bochum. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
* ^ Nelson D. Schwartz. "
Europe Feels the Strain of Protecting
Workers and Plants" New
York Times 25 May 2009. Accessed 1 March 2010
* ^ "Opel sees no alternative to closing Bochum". Reuters. 10
* ^ "
Nokia to close Bochum,
Germany plant" boston.com, 15 January
2008. Accessed 1 March 2010
* ^ "Anger at
Nokia swells in Germany; top politicians join fray
over plant closure" Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. 21
January 2008. Accessed 1 March 2010
* ^ Press release
Germany Trade & Invest, 23 April 2008. Accessed 1
* ^ "Blackberry maker RIM to set up R&D site in Bochum, add 300
jobs – report" Forbes Magazine, 14 April 2008. Accessed 1 March 2010
* ^ "Blackberry Bold 9700 launch" Government of Canada official
website. 17 November 2009. Accessed 1 March 2010
* ^ Karin Finkbohner, Betti Helbing, Carola Horn, Anita Krämer,
Astrid Schmidt-Ritter, Kathy Vowe. Wider das Vergessen — Widerstand
und Verfolgung Bochumer Frauen und Zwangsarbeiterinnen 1933–1945 pp.
62–63. Europäischer Universitätsverlag, ISBN 978-3-932329-62-3 (in
* ^ "The Final Operation – Bochum" 57 Squadron. Accessed 8 March
* ^ "Geschichte: Gottesfurcht Vaterland" Christuskirche Bochum.
Retrieved 23 January 2011 (in German)
* ^ Chronology Official web site, Bochumer Verein. Accessed 7 March
* ^ A B 70 000 Obdachlose in Bochums Zentrum History of Bochum,
World War II. "70,000 homeless in downtown Bochum" (4 November 1944)
Accessed 7 March 2010 (in German)
* ^ Aerial photo of Bochum, showing bombed steel plant Australian
War Memorial. Accessed 7 August 2017
* ^ "Zahl der Kriegs- und NS-Opfer nicht mehr feststellbar" History
of Bochum, World War II. (1 July 1945) "Number of war and Nazi victims
no longer ascertainable" Accessed 8 March 2010 (in German)
* ^ "Menschen kehren zurück in zerstörte Städte" History of
Bochum, World War II. "People return to destroyed cities" (May 5,
1945) Accessed 8 March 2010 (in German)
* ^ History of Bochum, World War II. "Main offensive on Bochum."
Accessed 7 March 2010 (in German)
* ^ Stanton, Shelby,
World War II
World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic
Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division,
1939–1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 148.
Wolfgang Benz and Barbara Distel. Der Ort des Terrors:
Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Band 3
(Site of Terror: The History of Nazi Concentration Camps, Volume 3) p.
395 (2006) ISBN 978-3-406-52963-4 (in German)
* ^ "10-Zentner Bombe gefunden" History of Bochum, World War II.
"1000 pound bomb found." Accessed March 8, 2010 (in German)
* ^ "WWII bomb injures 17 at
Hattingen construction site" The
Local, German news in English. 19 September 2008. Accessed March 8,
* ^ City Hall "Historischer Rundgang
Bochum – Rathaus". Accessed
4 March 2010 (in German)
* ^ Altes Brauhaus Rietkötter Official website. Accessed 4 March
* ^ Union Filmtheater