Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh; 9
March 1954 – 5 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional
Irish Republican Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM
Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession.
He was the leader of the 1981 hunger strike in which Irish republican
prisoners protested against the removal of
During Sands's strike, he was elected to the British Parliament as an
Anti H-Block candidate. His death and those of nine other hunger
strikers was followed by a new surge of
Provisional IRA recruitment
and activity. International media coverage brought attention to the
hunger strikers, and the Republican movement in general, attracting
both praise and criticism.
1 Early years
Provisional IRA activity
3 Long Kesh years
4 Published works
5 Member of Parliament
6 Hunger strike
7.1.1 Republic of Ireland
8 Political impact
9 Popular culture
11 See also
13 External links
Sands was born in 1954 to
Roman Catholic parents, John (died 2014)
and Rosaleen (died 2018), who were both raised in Belfast. After
marrying, they relocated to the new development of Abbots Cross,
Newtownabbey, County Antrim, outside North Belfast. Sands was
the eldest of four children. His younger sisters, Marcella and
Bernadette, were born in 1955 and 1958, respectively. He also had a
younger brother, John (born 1962). After experiencing harassment and
intimidation from their neighbours, the family abandoned the
development and moved in with friends for six months before being
granted housing in the nearby Rathcoole development. Rathcoole was 30%
Catholic and featured Catholic schools as well as a nominally Catholic
but religiously-mixed youth football club (an unusual circumstance in
Northern Ireland), known as Stella Maris, the same as the school Sands
attended and where the training was held. Sands was a member of this
club and played left-back. There was another youth club in
nearby Greencastle called Star of the Sea and many boys went there
when the Stella Maris club closed.
By 1966, sectarian violence in Rathcoole (along with the rest of
Belfast) had considerably worsened, and the minority Catholic
population there found itself under siege; Sands and his sisters were
forced to run a gauntlet of bottle- and rock-throwing Protestant
youths on the way to school every morning, and the formerly integrated
Rathcoole youth football club banned Catholic members and renamed
itself "The Kai", which stood for "Kill All Irish".
Despite always having had
Protestant friends, Sands suddenly found
that none of them would even speak to him, and he quickly learned to
associate only with Catholics. He left school in 1969 at age 15,
and enrolled in
Newtownabbey Technical College, beginning an
apprenticeship as a coach builder at Alexander's Coach Works in 1970.
He worked there for less than a year, enduring constant harassment
Protestant co-workers, which according to several co-workers
he ignored completely, as he wished to learn a meaningful trade.
He was eventually confronted after leaving his shift in January 1971
by a number of his coworkers wearing the armbands of the local Ulster
loyalist tartan gang. He was held at gunpoint and told that
Alexander's was off-limits to "
Fenian scum" and to never come back if
he valued his life. This event, by Sands's admission, proved to be the
point at which he decided that militancy was the only
In June 1972, Sands's parents' home was attacked and damaged by a
loyalist mob and they were again forced to move, this time to the West
Belfast Catholic area of Twinbrook, where Sands, now thoroughly
embittered, rejoined them. He attended his first Provisional IRA
meeting in Twinbrook that month and joined the IRA the same day. He
was 18 years old. By 1973, almost every Catholic family had been
driven out of Rathcoole by violence and intimidation, although there
were some who remained.
Provisional IRA activity
In 1972, Sands joined the Provisional IRA. He was arrested and
charged in October 1972 with possession of four handguns found in the
house where he was staying. Sands was convicted in April 1973,
sentenced to five years imprisonment, and released in April
Upon his release, he returned to his family home in West Belfast, and
resumed his active role in the Provisional IRA. Sands and Joe
McDonnell planned the October 1976 bombing of the Balmoral Furniture
Company in Dunmurry. The showroom was destroyed but as the IRA men
left the scene there was a gun battle with the Royal Ulster
Constabulary. Leaving behind two wounded, Seamus Martin and Gabriel
Corbett, the remaining four (Sands, McDonnell, Seamus Finucane, and
Sean Lavery) tried to escape by car, but were arrested. One of the
revolvers used in the attack was found in the car. In 1977, the four
men were sentenced to 14 years for possession of the revolver. They
were not charged with explosive offences.
Immediately after his sentencing, Sands was implicated in a ruckus and
spent the first 22 days "on boards" (all furniture was removed from
his cell) in Crumlin Road Prison, 15 days naked, and a No. 1
starvation diet (bread and water) every three days.
Long Kesh years
In late 1980, Sands was chosen
Officer Commanding of the Provisional
IRA prisoners in the Maze Prison, succeeding
Brendan Hughes who was
participating in the first hunger strike. Republican prisoners
organised a series of protests seeking to regain their previous
Category Status, which would free them from some ordinary
prison regulations. This began with the "blanket protest" in 1976, in
which the prisoners refused to wear prison uniforms and wore blankets
instead. In 1978, after a number of attacks on prisoners leaving their
cells to "slop out" (i.e., empty their chamber pots), this escalated
into the "dirty protest", wherein prisoners refused to wash and
smeared the walls of their cells with excrement.
While in prison, Sands had several letters and articles published in
the Republican paper
An Phoblacht under the pseudonym "Marcella" (his
sister's name). Other writings attributed to him are: Skylark Sing
Your Lonely Song and One Day in My Life. Sands also wrote the
lyrics of "Back Home in Derry" and "McIlhatton", which were both later
recorded by Christy Moore, and "Sad Song For Susan", which was also
later recorded. The melody of "Back Home in Derry" was borrowed from
Gordon Lightfoot's 1976 song "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald".
The song itself is about the penal transportation of Irishmen in the
19th century to
Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land (modern day Tasmania, Australia).
Member of Parliament
Shortly after the beginning of the strike, Frank Maguire, the
Independent Republican MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone, died
suddenly of a heart attack, precipitating the April 1981
The sudden vacancy in a seat with a nationalist majority of about
5,000 was a valuable opportunity for Sands's supporters "to raise
public consciousness". Pressure not to split the vote led
other nationalist parties, notably the Social Democratic and Labour
Party, to withdraw, and Sands was nominated on the label "Anti
H-Block/Armagh Political Prisoner". After a highly polarised campaign,
Sands narrowly won the seat on 9 April 1981, with 30,493 votes to
29,046 for the
Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party candidate Harry West. Sands also
became the youngest MP at the time. However, Sands died in prison
less than a month afterwards, without ever having taken his seat in
Following Sands's election win, the British government introduced the
Representation of the People Act 1981
Representation of the People Act 1981 which prevents prisoners serving
jail terms of more than one year in either the UK or the Republic of
Ireland from being nominated as candidates in British
elections. The enactment of the law, as a response to the
election of Sands, consequently prevented other hunger strikers from
being elected to the House of Commons.
1981 Irish hunger strike
1981 Irish hunger strike started with Sands refusing food on 1
March 1981. Sands decided that other prisoners should join the strike
at staggered intervals to maximise publicity, with prisoners steadily
deteriorating successively over several months. The hunger strike
centred on five demands:
the right not to wear a prison uniform;
the right not to do prison work;
the right of free association with other prisoners, and to organise
educational and recreational pursuits;
the right to one visit, one letter, and one parcel per week;
full restoration of remission lost through the protest.
The significance of the hunger strike was the prisoners' aim of being
considered political prisoners as opposed to criminals. Shortly before
The Washington Post
The Washington Post reported that the primary aim of
the hunger strike was to generate international publicity.
Bobby Sands's grave in Milltown Cemetery
Sands died on 5 May 1981 in the Maze's prison hospital after 66 days
on hunger strike, aged 27. The original pathologist's report
recorded the hunger strikers' causes of death as "self-imposed
starvation", later amended to simply "starvation" after protests from
the dead strikers' families. The coroner recorded verdicts of
The announcement of Sands's death prompted several days of rioting in
nationalist areas of Northern Ireland. A milkman, Eric Guiney, and his
son, Desmond, died as a result of injuries sustained when their milk
float crashed after being stoned by rioters in a predominantly
nationalist area of north Belfast. Over 100,000 people lined
the route of Sands's funeral, and he was buried in the 'New Republican
Plot' alongside 76 others. Their graves are maintained by the National
Graves Association, Belfast.
Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, Sands's death led to riots and buses being
set on fire.
In response to a question in the House of Commons on 5 May 1981,
United Kingdom Prime Minister,
Margaret Thatcher said, "Mr. Sands was
a convicted criminal. He chose to take his own life. It was a choice
that his organisation did not allow to many of its victims".
Cardinal Basil Hume, head of the Catholic Church in England and Wales,
condemned Sands, describing the hunger strike as a form of violence.
However, he noted that this was his personal view. The Roman Catholic
Church's official stance was that ministrations should be provided to
the hunger strikers who, believing their sacrifice to be for a higher
good, were acting in good conscience.
Old Firm football matches in Glasgow, Scotland, some Rangers fans
have been known to sing songs mocking Sands to taunt fans of Celtic.
Rangers fans are mainly Protestant, and predominantly sympathetic to
unionists; Celtic fans are traditionally more likely to support
nationalists. Celtic fans regularly sing the republican song The
Roll of Honour, which commemorates the ten men who died in the 1981
hunger strike, amongst other songs in support of the IRA. Sands is
honoured in the line "They stood beside their leader – the gallant
Bobby Sands." Rangers' taunts have since been adopted by the
travelling support of other UK clubs, particularly those with strong
British nationalist ties, as a form of anti-Irish sentiment. The
1981 British Home Championship football tournament was cancelled
following the refusal of teams from England and Wales to travel to
Northern Ireland in the aftermath of his death, due to security
Memorial mural along Falls Road, Belfast
In Europe, there were widespread protests after Sands's death. 5,000
Milanese students burned the
Union Flag and chanted "Freedom for
Ulster" during a march. The British Consulate at
raided. Thousands marched in Paris behind huge portraits of Sands,
to chants of "the IRA will conquer".
In the Portuguese Parliament, the opposition stood for Sands. In
Oslo, demonstrators threw a tomato at Elizabeth II, the Queen of the
United Kingdom, but missed. (One 28-year-old assailant said he had
actually aimed for what he claimed was a smirking British
soldier.) In the Soviet Union,
Pravda described it as "another
tragic page in the grim chronicle of oppression, discrimination,
terror, and violence" in Ireland. Russian fans of Bobby Sands
published a translation of the "Back Home in Derry" song ("На
Родину в Дерри" in Russian). Many French towns and
cities have streets named after Sands, including Nantes,
Saint-Étienne, Le Mans, Vierzon, and Saint-Denis. The
conservative-aligned West German newspaper
Die Welt took a negative
view towards Sands.
A number of political, religious, union and fund-raising institutions
chose to honour Sands in the United States. The International
Longshoremen's Association in New York announced a 24-hour boycott of
British ships. Over 1,000 people gathered in New York's St.
Patrick's Cathedral to hear
Cardinal Terence Cooke
Cardinal Terence Cooke offer a
Mass for Northern Ireland. Irish bars in the city were
closed for two hours in mourning.
The New Jersey General Assembly, the lower house of the New Jersey
Legislature, voted 34–29 for a resolution honouring his "courage and
The American media expressed a range of opinions on Sands's death. The
Boston Globe commented, a few days before Sands's death, that "[t]he
slow suicide attempt of
Bobby Sands has cast his land and his cause
into another downward spiral of death and despair. There are no heroes
in the saga of Bobby Sands". The
Chicago Tribune wrote
Mahatma Gandhi used the hunger strike to move his
countrymen to abstain from fratricide. Bobby Sands's deliberate slow
suicide is intended to precipitate civil war. The former deserved
veneration and influence. The latter would be viewed, in a reasonable
world, not as a charismatic martyr but as a fanatical suicide, whose
regrettable death provides no sufficient occasion for killing
The New York Times
The New York Times wrote that "Britain's prime minister Thatcher is
right in refusing to yield political status to Bobby Sands, the Irish
Republican Army hunger striker", but added that by appearing
"unfeeling and unresponsive" the British Government was giving Sands
"the crown of martyrdom". The
San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle argued that
political belief should not exempt activists from criminal law
Terrorism goes far beyond the expression of political belief. And
dealing with it does not allow for compromise as many countries of
Western Europe and United States have learned. The bombing of bars,
hotels, restaurants, robbing of banks, abductions, and killings of
prominent figures are all criminal acts and must be dealt with by
Some American critics and journalists suggested that American press
coverage was a "melodrama". Edward Langley of The Pittsburgh Press
criticised the large pro-IRA Irish-American contingent which "swallow
IRA propaganda as if it were taffy", and concluded that IRA "terrorist
Archbishop John R. Roach, president of the US Catholic bishops, called
Sands's death "a useless sacrifice".
The Ledger of 5 May 1981
under the headline "To some he was a hero, to others a terrorist"
claims that the hunger strike made Sands "a hero among Irish
Republicans or Nationalists seeking the reunion of
Protestant-dominated and British-ruled
Northern Ireland with the
predominantly Catholic Irish Republic to the south". The Ledger
cited Sands as telling his friends: "If I die, God will understand"
and one of his last messages was "Tell everyone I'll see them
In Hartford, Connecticut, a memorial was dedicated to
Bobby Sands and
the other hunger strikers in 1997, the only one of its kind in the
United States. Set up by the
Irish Northern Aid Committee
Irish Northern Aid Committee and local
Irish-Americans, it stands in a traffic island known as Bobby Sands
Circle at the bottom of Maple Avenue near Goodwin Park.
In 2001, a memorial to Sands and the other hunger strikers was
unveiled in Havana, Cuba.
In Tehran, Iran, President
Abolhassan Bani-Sadr sent a message of
condolence to the Sands family.
The Iranian government renamed Winston Churchill Boulevard, the
location of the Embassy of the United Kingdom in Tehran, to Bobby
Sands Street, prompting the embassy to move its entrance door to
Ferdowsi Avenue to avoid using
Bobby Sands Street on its
letterhead. A street in the
Elahieh district is also named after
Sands. An official blue and white street sign was affixed to the
rear wall of the British embassy compound saying (in Persian) "Bobby
Sands Street" with three words of explanation "militant Irish
guerrilla". The official
Pars News Agency called Bobby Sands's
death "heroic". There have been claims that the British pressured
Iranian authorities to change the name of
Bobby Sands Street but this
was denied. A burger bar in
Tehran is named in honour of
Palestinian prisoners incarcerated in the Israeli desert prison of
Nafha sent a letter, which was smuggled out and reached
July 1981, which read: "To the families of
Bobby Sands and his
martyred comrades. We, revolutionaries of the Palestinian
people...extend our salutes and solidarity with you in the
confrontation against the oppressive terrorist rule enforced upon the
Irish people by the British ruling elite. We salute the heroic
Bobby Sands and his comrades, for they have sacrificed the
most valuable possession of any human being. They gave their lives for
Hindustan Times said
Margaret Thatcher had allowed a fellow Member
of Parliament to die of starvation, an incident which had never before
occurred "in a civilised country".
In the Indian Parliament, opposition members in the upper house Rajya
Sabha stood for a minute's silence in tribute. The ruling Congress
Party did not participate. Protest marches were organised against
the British government and in tribute to Sands and his fellow hunger
The Hong Kong Standard said it was "sad that successive British
governments have failed to end the last of Europe's religious
A large monument dedicated to Irish nationalists and republicans,
including Bobby Sands, stands in Waverley Cemetery, Sydney, New South
Nine other IRA and
Irish National Liberation Army
Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) members who
were involved in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike died after Sands. On the
day of Sands's funeral, Unionist leader
Ian Paisley held a memorial
service outside of
Belfast city hall to commemorate the victims of the
IRA. In the Irish general elections held the same year, two anti
H-block candidates won seats on an abstentionist basis.
The media coverage that surrounded the death of Sands resulted in a
new surge of IRA activity and an immediate escalation in the Troubles,
with the group obtaining many more members and increasing its
fund-raising capability. Both nationalists and unionists began to
harden their attitudes and move towards political extremes.
Sands's Westminster seat was taken by his election agent, Owen Carron
standing as '
Anti H-Block Proxy Political Prisoner' with an increased
Main article: Artistic reactions to the 1981 Irish hunger strike
Éire Nua flute band inspired by Bobby Sands, commemorate the Easter
Rising on the 91st anniversary
The Grateful Dead
The Grateful Dead played the
Nassau Coliseum the following night after
Sands died and guitarist
Bob Weir dedicated the song "He's Gone" to
Sands. The concert was later released as Dick's Picks Volume 13,
part of the Grateful Dead's programme of live concert releases. French
Léo Ferré dedicated performances of his song "Thank You
Satan" to Sands in 1981 and 1984.
Songs written in response to the hunger strikes and Sands's death
include songs by Black 47, Nicky Wire, Meic Stevens, The
Undertones, Eric Bogle, and Christy Moore. Moore's song, "The People's
Own MP", has been described as an example of a rebel song of the
"hero-martyr" genre in which Sands's "intellectual, artistic and moral
qualities" are eulogised. The U.S. rock band Rage Against the
Machine have listed Sands as an inspiration in the sleeve notes of
their self-titled debut album. and as a "political hero" in media
Celtic F.C., a Scottish football club, received a €50,000 fine from
UEFA over banners depicting Sands with a political message, which were
displayed during a game on 26 November 2013 by Green Brigade
Bobby Sands has also been portrayed in the following films:
Sands was played by John Lynch in the 1996 film Some Mother's Son. It
was directed by
Terry George and written by George and Jim
Sands was played by
Mark O'Halloran in the 2001 film H3.
Michael Fassbender played Sands in Hunger, a 2008 film by Steve
McQueen about the last six weeks of Sands's life in the context of the
1981 Irish hunger strike. It premiered at the 2008 Cannes Film
Festival and won McQueen the prestigious
Caméra d'Or award for
first-time filmmakers. It was broadcast on
Channel 4 in the UK for
the first time on 15 December 2009.
Netflix original documentary The Art of Conflict has a segment
describing the hunger strike, election, and Sands's death.[citation
The acclaimed 2016 documentary, Bobby Sands: 66 Days
Sands married Geraldine Noade while in prison on robbery charges on
3 March 1973. His son, Gerard, was born 8 May 1973. Noade
soon left to live in England with their son.
Sands's sister, Bernadette Sands McKevitt, is also a prominent Irish
Republican. Along with her husband, Michael McKevitt, she helped to
32 County Sovereignty Movement
32 County Sovereignty Movement and is accused of involvement
with the Real
Irish Republican Army (RIRA).
Bernadette Sands McKevitt is opposed to the
Belfast Agreement, stating
that "Bobby did not die for cross-border bodies with executive powers.
He did not die for nationalists to be equal British citizens within
Northern Ireland state." The RIRA was responsible for the
Omagh bombing on 15 August 1998, in which 29 people, including a
mother pregnant with twins, were killed and more than 200 injured.
This is the highest death toll from a single incident during the
Michael McKevitt was one of those named in a civil suit
filed by victims and survivors.
United Kingdom portal
List of United Kingdom MPs with the shortest service
Terence MacSwiney – Lord Mayor of Cork in 1920 who died in Brixton
Prison after a hunger strike lasting 74 days.
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Bobby Sands and the Tragedy of Northern Ireland, pp. 13–14
^ a b c d David Beresford (1987). Ten Men Dead: The Story of the 1981
Irish Hunger Strike. London, UK: Harper Collins Publishers.
^ O'Hearn, Nothing but an unfinished song: Bobby Sands, Chapter 1.
^ Geraghty, The Irish War, pp. 68–70
^ Morrison, Biography, cain.ulst.ac.uk; accessed 20 October 2015.
^ Hanke, Philip (2011).
Bobby Sands – An Irish Martyr?. GRIN Verlag.
p. 20. ISBN 978-3-640-85967-2. Retrieved 10 October
^ English, Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA, pp. 196–198
^ Kevin Toolis (12 December 2011). Rebel Hearts. Pan Macmillan.
pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-4472-1748-0. Retrieved 10 October
^ Hanke, Philip (2011).
Bobby Sands – An Irish Martyr?. GRIN Verlag.
p. 21. ISBN 978-3-640-85967-2. Retrieved 10 October
^ Taylo, Provos, The IRA and Sinn Féin, pp. 251–52
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2012. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
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^ ON THIS DAY 1981: Violence erupts at Irish hunger strike protest,
^ Washington Post, 3 May 1981, pp. 2–3.
Bobby Sands profile, cain.ulst.ac.uk; accessed 20 November 2015.
^ a b O'Keeffe, "Suicide and Self-Starvation Suicide and
Self-starvation", Philosophy, Vol. 59, No. 229 (Jul. 1984), pp.
^ Malcolm Sutton. "An Index of Deaths from Conflict in Ireland". CAIN.
Retrieved 7 September 2007.
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CAIN archive". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 26
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Margaret Thatcher House of Commons PQs". Margaret
Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved 26 May 2007.
^ a b c "Bobby Sands". The Ledger. Lakeland, Florida. May 5, 1981.
Retrieved 26 April 2010.
^ Tom Shields (23 February 2003). "Pitch Battles; What can an English
public school-type tell us about". The Sunday Herald. Retrieved 25 May
^ Lash, Scott & Lury, Celia. Global Culture Industry: The
Mediation of Things, Polity, 2007, p. 49. ISBN 0-7456-2482-0
^ "Punker siktet for majestetsfornærmelse". Oslo: Aftenposten. 7 May
^ Colin Randall (13 August 2004). "French intelligentsia ponders what
should be done with killer". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK.
Retrieved 25 May 2007.
^ a b Russell, George (18 May 1981). "Shadow of a Gunman". Time.
Retrieved 14 August 2007.
^ "NYU". Nyu.edu. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
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Bobby Sands and Mahatma Gandhi", Chicago Tribune, 28 April 1981.
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^ "The Death of Bobby Sands", San Francisco Chronicle, 6 May 1981.
^ "Sands' hunger strike and the fate of Ulster" Boston Globe, 1 May
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^ Edward Langley , "IRA brutalities, Terrorist propaganda triumphs",
Chicago Tribune, 9 May 1981, W1-8-4.
^ "News.Google.com". Google News. 16 May 1981. Retrieved 26 April
^ "Details of the Hartford memorial". Homestead.com. Retrieved 26
^ "Adams unveils Cuba memorial to Bobby Sands". breakingnews.ie. 18
December 2001. Retrieved 25 May 2007.
^ a b c The Times, 11 June 1981.
^ Bobby Sands: Nothing But An Unfinished Song by Denis O'Hearn
(ISBN 978-0-7453-2572-9), p. 377
^ Majd, Hooman. The Ayatollah Begs to Differ. Doubleday. 2008, pp.
^ Irlandinit-hd.de, British government pressure Ireland to change the
Bobby Sands Street
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 March 2008.
Retrieved 8 January 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
^ "Lai See". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 20 November
^ "The Capital of
Iran Has a Burger Joint Dedicated to an IRA Hunger
Striker". VICE. 16 January 2015.
^ "Over Three Decades On The Death Of
Bobby Sands Still Resonates".
The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
^ W.D. Flackes and Sydney Elliott, "Northern Ireland: A Political
Directory" (Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1999), at p. 550, notes that at
the 1981 District Council elections on 20 May 1981, "the results
showed a decline in support for centre parties".
^ Nicholas Whyte. "Ark Election website". Ark.ac.uk. Retrieved 26
^ A Long Strange Trip by Dennis McNally, p. 542
^ Boyle, Mark. "Edifying the Rebellious Gael", Celtic Geographies: Old
Culture, New Times (David Harvey, ed). Routledge, 2002, p. 190;
^ Rage Against the Machine: Articles Archived 18 April 2007 at the
Wayback Machine., ratm.net; accessed 20 November 2015.
^ "Celtic fined €50k for
Bobby Sands banner". Archived from the
original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015. Celtic
Football Club has been fined €50,000 over a banner depicting IRA
hunger-striker Bobby Sands
^ "Celtic Green Brigade's
Bobby Sands Banner - Is It Offensive?
(POLL)". Retrieved 20 November 2015. The
Green Brigade supporters
displayed a banner of Sands alongside Scottish warrior William
Wallace, in an effort to highlight hypocrisy of the Scottish
government, which has jailed Celtic fans for singing Republican songs
in commemoration of Sands.
^ PeterJordan (25 December 1996). "
Some Mother's Son
Some Mother's Son (1996)". IMDb.
Retrieved 20 November 2015.
^ info-3375 (1 October 2001). "H3 (2001)". IMDb. Retrieved 20 November
^ Thorpe, Vanessa (11 May 2008). "Anger as new film of IRA hero Bobby
Sands screens at Cannes". The Observer. London, UK. Retrieved 14 May
Bobby Sands film wins Cannes award. Available on RTE.ie. Retrieved
26 May 2008.
Bobby Sands story to become movie". BBC. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 25
^ Toolis, "McKevitt's inglorious career", The Observer, 10 August
^ English, Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA, pp. 316–17
^ "Omagh civil case 'unprecedented'". BBC News. 7 April 2008.
Retrieved 11 April 2014.
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Bobby Sands Trust official website, contains poetry and writings by
Bobby Sands at Find a Grave
Irish Republican website at the Wayback Machine
(archived 31 July 2008)
Bobby Sands diary entries & biographies of the ten hunger strikers
Timewatch: Hunger Strike – a Hidden History (Otmoor Productions/BBC
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved
21 June 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) secret diary written
during the first seventeen days of his hunger strike, before being
moved to the prison hospital.
Parliament of the United Kingdom
MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone
9 April – 5 May 1981
Baby of the House
9 April – 5 May 1981
1981 Irish hunger strike
Participants who died
Participants who survived
Political and religious figures
Bernadette Devlin McAliskey
Tomás Ó Fiaich
Fermanagh and South Tyrone by-election, April 1981
Irish general election, June 1981
Fermanagh and South Tyrone by-election, August 1981
Irish Republican Army
The Green Book
The Troubles (Timeline)
Haughey arms crisis
Provisional IRA campaign
Mountjoy Prison helicopter escape
HM Prison Maze
1981 Irish hunger strike
Maze Prison escape
Armalite and ballot box strategy
Northern Ireland peace process
North American arrests
Good Friday Agreement
IRA Army Council
Internal Security Unit
Active Service Unit (ASU)
Provisional IRA Derry Brigade
Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade
Provisional IRA East Tyrone Brigade
Provisional IRA Balcombe Street Gang ASU
Battle of St Matthew's
1970 RUC booby-trap bombing
Scottish soldiers' killings
Balmoral showroom bombing
Donegall St bombing
Battle at Springmartin
M62 coach bombing
Guildford pub bombings
Brook's Club bomb attack
British Airways bombing attempt
Birmingham pub bombings
Bayardo Bar attack
Caterham Arms pub bombing
London Hilton bombing
Green Park tube station bombing
Scott's Oyster Bar bombing
Walton's Restaurant bombing
Balcombe Street siege
1978 Lisnamuck shoot-out
Jonesboro Gazelle downing
La Mon restaurant bombing
1978 Crossmaglen Ambush
Dunmurry train explosion
Lough Foyle attacks
Chelsea Barracks bombing
Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings
Brighton hotel bombing
Ballygawley land mine attack
Newry mortar attack
The Birches attack
JHQ Rheindahlen bombing (Germany)
Lisburn van bombing
1988 Netherlands Attacks
Ballygawley bus bombing
Deal barracks bombing
Derrygorry Gazelle downing
RFA Fort Victoria bombing
Downing St mortar attack
Glenanne barracks bombing
1992 Manchester bombing
South Armagh sniper campaign
Warrington bomb attacks
Battle of Newry Road
Shankill Road bombing
Crossmaglen Lynx downing
1996 Manchester bombing
Osnabrück mortar attack
Thiepval barracks bombing
July 1997 riots
Chiefs of Staff
Seán Mac Stíofáin (1969–72)
Joe Cahill (1972–73)
Seamus Twomey (1973)
Éamonn O'Doherty (1973–74)
Seamus Twomey (1974–77)
Gerry Adams (1977–78)
Martin McGuinness (1978–82)
Ivor Bell (1982–83)
Kevin McKenna (1983–97)
Thomas "Slab" Murphy (1997–2005)
John Joe McGirl
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh
Dáithí Ó Conaill
John Francis Green
Breandán Mac Cionnaith
Antoine Mac Giolla Bhrighde
Patrick Joseph Kelly
Carál Ní Chuilín
Freddie Scappaticci (allegedly "Stakeknife")
Cumann na mBan
South Armagh Republican Action Force
Direct Action Against Drugs
Provisional Clan na Gael
Friends of Sinn Féin
Cairde na hÉireann
Troops Out Movement
Irish Republican Army
Irish Republican Army
Jeffery Stanford Agate
Robert McCartney (allegedly)
Joseph Rafferty (allegedly)
Babies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Willoughby de Eresby
ISNI: 0000 0000 8167 332X