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ROBERT NESTA "BOB" MARLEY, OM (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer, songwriter and musician who became an international icon, blending mostly reggae , ska and rocksteady in his compositions. Starting out in 1963 with the group the Wailers , he forged a distinctive songwriting and vocal style that would later resonate with audiences worldwide. The Wailers would go on to release some of the earliest reggae records with producer Lee "Scratch" Perry .

After the Wailers disbanded in 1974, Marley pursued a solo career upon his relocation to England that culminated in the release of the album Exodus in 1977, which established his worldwide reputation and elevated his status as one of the world\'s best-selling artists of all time , with sales of more than 75 million records. Exodus stayed on the British album charts for 56 consecutive weeks. It included four UK hit singles: "Exodus", " Waiting in Vain ", "Jamming ", and "One Love ". In 1978, he released the album Kaya , which included the hit singles "Is This Love " and "Satisfy My Soul". The greatest hits album, Legend , was released in 1984, three years after Marley died. It subsequently became the best-selling reggae album of all time.

Diagnosed with acral lentiginous melanoma in 1977, Marley died on 11 May 1981 in Miami
Miami
at age 36. He was a committed Rastafari
Rastafari
who infused his music with a sense of spirituality. :242 He is credited with popularising reggae music around the world and served as a symbol of Jamaican culture and identity. Marley has also evolved into a global symbol and inspired numerous items of merchandise.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and career

* 2 Musical career

* 2.1 1962–72: Early years * 2.2 1972–74: Move to Island Records
Island Records
* 2.3 1974–76: Line-up changes and shooting * 2.4 1976–79: Relocation to England * 2.5 1979–81: Later years

* 3 Illness and death

* 4 Personal life

* 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Family * 4.3 Association football
Association football

* 4.4 Personal views

* 4.4.1 Pan-Africanism * 4.4.2 Cannabis

* 5 Legacy

* 5.1 Awards and honours * 5.2 Other tributes

* 6 Discography

* 6.1 Studio albums * 6.2 Live albums

* 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Citations * 8.2 Sources

* 9 Further reading * 10 External links

EARLY LIFE AND CAREER

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
was born 6 February 1945 on the farm of his maternal grandfather in Nine Mile , Saint Ann Parish , Jamaica
Jamaica
, to Norval Sinclair Marley (1885–1955) and Cedella Booker (1926–2008). Norval Marley was a white Jamaican originally from Sussex
Sussex
, England, whose family claimed Syrian Jewish origins. Norval claimed to have been a captain in the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
; at the time of his marriage to Cedella Booker, an Afro-Jamaican then 18 years old. He was employed as a plantation overseer. Bob Marley's full name is Robert Nesta Marley, though some sources give his birth name as Nesta Robert Marley, with a story that when Marley was still a boy a Jamaican passport official reversed his first and middle names because Nesta sounded like a girl's name. Norval provided financial support for his wife and child but seldom saw them as he was often away. Bob Marley attended Stepney Primary and Junior High School which serves the catchment area of Saint Ann. In 1955, when Bob Marley
Bob Marley
was 10 years old, his father died of a heart attack at the age of 70. Marley's mother went on to marry Edward Booker, an American civil servant . The relationship brought Marley two American brothers: Richard and Anthony.

Marley and Neville Livingston (later known as Bunny Wailer ) had been childhood friends in Nine Mile. They had started to play music together while at Stepney Primary and Junior High School. Marley left Nine Mile with his mother when he was 12 and moved to Trenchtown , Kingston. Cedella Booker and Thadeus Livingston (Bunny Wailer's father) had a daughter together whom they named Claudette Pearl, who was a younger sister to both Bob and Bunny. Now that Marley and Livingston were living together in the same house in Trenchtown, their musical explorations deepened to include the latest R"> Bob Marley's flat in 1972 at 34 Ridgmount Gardens, Bloomsbury, London
London

Between 1968 and 1972, Bob and Rita Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer re-cut some old tracks with JAD Records in Kingston and London in an attempt to commercialise the Wailers' sound. Bunny later asserted that these songs "should never be released on an album ... they were just demos for record companies to listen to". In 1968, Bob and Rita visited songwriter Jimmy Norman at his apartment in the Bronx. Norman had written the extended lyrics for Kai Winding's "Time Is on My Side" (covered by the Rolling Stones) and had also written for Johnny Nash and Jimi Hendrix. A three-day jam session with Norman and others, including Norman's co-writer Al Pyfrom, resulted in a 24-minute tape of Marley performing several of his own and Norman-Pyfrom's compositions. This tape is, according to Reggae archivist Roger Steffens , rare in that it was influenced by pop rather than reggae, as part of an effort to break Marley into the American charts. According to an article in The New York Times, Marley experimented on the tape with different sounds, adopting a doo-wop style on "Stay With Me" and "the slow love song style of 1960's artists" on "Splish for My Splash". An artist yet to establish himself outside his native Jamaica, Marley lived in Ridgmount Gardens, Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
, during 1972.

1972–74: MOVE TO ISLAND RECORDS

In 1972, Bob Marley
Bob Marley
signed with CBS Records in London
London
and embarked on a UK tour with American soul singer Johnny Nash . While in London
London
the Wailers asked their road manager Brent Clarke to introduce them to Chris Blackwell , who had licensed some of their Coxsone releases for his Island Records
Island Records
. The Wailers intended to discuss the royalties associated with these releases; instead the meeting resulted in the offer of an advance of £4,000 to record an album. Since Jimmy Cliff , Island's top reggae star, had recently left the label, Blackwell was primed for a replacement. In Marley, Blackwell recognised the elements needed to snare the rock audience: "I was dealing with rock music, which was really rebel music. I felt that would really be the way to break Jamaican music. But you needed someone who could be that image. When Bob walked in he really was that image." The Wailers returned to Jamaica
Jamaica
to record at Harry J's in Kingston, which resulted in the album Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
.

Primarily recorded on an eight-track, Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
marked the first time a reggae band had access to a state-of-the-art studio and were accorded the same care as their rock 'n' roll peers. Blackwell desired to create "more of a drifting, hypnotic-type feel than a reggae rhythm", and restructured Marley's mixes and arrangements. Marley travelled to London
London
to supervise Blackwell's overdubbing of the album which included tempering the mix from the bass-heavy sound of Jamaican music and omitting two tracks.

The Wailers' first album for Island, Catch a Fire, was released worldwide in April 1973, packaged like a rock record with a unique Zippo lighter lift-top. Initially selling 14,000 units, it didn't make Marley a star, but received a positive critical reception. It was followed later that year by the album Burnin\' which included the song " I Shot the Sheriff ". Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
was given the album by his guitarist George Terry in the hope that he would enjoy it. Clapton was suitably impressed and chose to record a cover version of "I Shot the Sheriff " which became his first US hit since "Layla" two years earlier and reached number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 on 14 September 1974. Many Jamaicans were not keen on the new reggae sound on Catch a Fire, but the Trenchtown style of Burnin found fans across both reggae and rock audiences.

During this period, Blackwell gifted his Kingston residence and company headquarters at 56 Hope Road (then known as Island House) to Marley. Housing Tuff Gong Studios, the property became not only Marley's office, but also his home.

The Wailers were scheduled to open 17 shows in the US for Sly and the Family Stone . After four shows, the band was fired because they were more popular than the acts they were opening for. The Wailers disbanded in 1974, with each of the three main members pursuing a solo career. The reason for the breakup is shrouded in conjecture; some believe that there were disagreements amongst Bunny Wailer, Peter Tosh, and Marley concerning performances, while others claim that Wailer and Tosh simply preferred solo work.

1974–76: LINE-UP CHANGES AND SHOOTING

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
& the Wailers live at Crystal Palace Park
Crystal Palace Park
in south-east London, during the Uprising Tour

Despite the break-up, Marley continued recording as "Bob Marley clear: right; margin: 0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em; width:27%; padding: 10px; border: 1px solid #aaa; font-size: 88%; background-color: #F9F9F9;"> "Marley wasn't singing about how peace could come easily to the World but rather how hell on Earth comes too easily to too many. His songs were his memories; he had lived with the wretched, he had seen the downpressers and those whom they pressed down." – Mikal Gilmore , Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
:61

1979–81: LATER YEARS

Survival , a defiant and politically charged album, was released in 1979. Tracks such as "Zimbabwe", " Africa Unite ", "Wake Up and Live", and "Survival" reflected Marley's support for the struggles of Africans. His appearance at the Amandla Festival in Boston
Boston
in July 1979 showed his strong opposition to South African apartheid , which he already had shown in his song "War " in 1976. In early 1980, he was invited to perform at 17 April celebration of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
's Independence Day.

Uprising (1980) was Bob Marley's final studio album, and is one of his most religious productions; it includes "Redemption Song" and " Forever Loving Jah ". Confrontation , released posthumously in 1983, contained unreleased material recorded during Marley's lifetime, including the hit "Buffalo Soldier " and new mixes of singles previously only available in Jamaica.

ILLNESS AND DEATH

Marley in concert in 1980, Zürich, Switzerland

In July 1977, Marley was found to have a type of malignant melanoma under the nail of a toe. Contrary to urban legend , this lesion was not primarily caused by an injury during a football match that year, but was instead a symptom of the already-existing cancer. Marley turned down his doctors' advice to have his toe amputated (which would have hindered his performing career), citing his religious beliefs, and instead the nail and nail bed were removed and a skin graft taken from his thigh to cover the area. Despite his illness, he continued touring and was in the process of scheduling a world tour in 1980.

The album Uprising was released in May 1980. The band completed a major tour of Europe, where it played its biggest concert to 100,000 people in Milan. After the tour Marley went to America, where he performed two shows at Madison Square Garden
Madison Square Garden
in New York City as part of the Uprising Tour .

Marley's last concert occurred at the Stanley Theater (now called The Benedum Center For The Performing Arts) in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, on 23 September 1980. Just two days earlier he had collapsed during a jogging tour in Central Park and was brought to hospital where he learned that the cancer had spread to his brain.

The only known photographs from the show were featured in Kevin Macdonald 's documentary film Marley .

Shortly afterwards, Marley's health deteriorated as the cancer had spread throughout his body . The rest of the tour was cancelled and Marley sought treatment at the Bavarian clinic of Josef Issels , where he received an alternative cancer treatment called Issels treatment partly based on avoidance of certain foods, drinks, and other substances. After fighting the cancer without success for eight months Marley boarded a plane for his home in Jamaica.

While Marley was flying home from Germany to Jamaica, his vital functions worsened. After landing in Miami, Florida
Florida
, he was taken to the hospital for immediate medical attention. Marley died on 11 May 1981 at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital in Miami
Miami
(now University of Miami Hospital ), aged 36. The spread of melanoma to his lungs and brain caused his death. His final words to his son Ziggy were "Money can't buy life."

Marley received a state funeral in Jamaica
Jamaica
on 21 May 1981, which combined elements of Ethiopian Orthodoxy and Rastafari
Rastafari
tradition. He was buried in a chapel near his birthplace with his red Gibson Les Paul (some accounts say it was a Fender Stratocaster ).

On 21 May 1981, Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga delivered the final funeral eulogy to Marley, declaring:

His voice was an omnipresent cry in our electronic world. His sharp features, majestic looks, and prancing style a vivid etching on the landscape of our minds. Bob Marley
Bob Marley
was never seen. He was an experience which left an indelible imprint with each encounter. Such a man cannot be erased from the mind. He is part of the collective consciousness of the nation. :58

PERSONAL LIFE

RELIGION

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
was a member for some years of the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement , whose culture was a key element in the development of reggae. Bob Marley became an ardent proponent of Rastafari, taking its music out of the socially deprived areas of Jamaica
Jamaica
and onto the international music scene. He once gave the following response, which was typical, to a question put to him during a recorded interview:

INTERVIEWER: "Can you tell the people what it means being a Rastafarian?" MARLEY: "I would say to the people, Be still, and know that His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
of Ethiopia is the Almighty. Now, the Bible seh so, Babylon newspaper seh so, and I and I the children seh so. Yunno? So I don't see how much more reveal our people want. Wha' dem want? a white god, well God come black. True true." :115

According to Marley's biographers, he affiliated with the Twelve Tribes Mansion , one of the Mansions of Rastafari
Rastafari
. He was in the denomination known as "Tribe of Joseph", because he was born in February (each of the twelve sects being composed of members born in a different month). He signified this in his 1976 Rastaman Vibration album liner notes , quoting the portion from Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
33:16 that includes Jacob's blessing to his son Joseph . Jacob, aka Israel, was a Jewish patriarch whose twelve sons became the ancestors of much of the growing Israelite population. The Rastaman Vibration back cover also quoted the Genesis 49:22-24, where Jacob describes his son Joseph as a 'fruitful bough' growing taller than the others, 'over the wall,' and suffering an attempted murder by bowmen who 'provoke, hate and shoot arrows at him', wounding him seriously. But Joseph survived because 'his arms and hands were made strong by the hands of the God of Jacob', which was understood by many as an eerie prophecy as, a few days after the album was released, Kingston gunmen shot Marley (bullets hit his arm and chest) who like Joseph, survived.

Archbishop
Archbishop
Abuna Yesehaq baptised Marley into the Ethiopian Orthodox Church , giving him the name Berhane Selassie, on 4 November 1980, shortly before his death.

FAMILY

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
married Alpharita Constantia "Rita" Anderson in Kingston, Jamaica, on 10 February 1966. Marley had many children: four with his wife Rita, two adopted from Rita's previous relationships, and several others with different women. The Bob Marley
Bob Marley
official website acknowledges 11 children.

Those listed on the official site are:

* Sharon , born 23 November 1964, daughter of Rita from a previous relationship but then adopted by Marley after his marriage with Rita * Cedella born 23 August 1967, to Rita * David "Ziggy" , born 17 October 1968, to Rita * Stephen , born 20 April 1972, to Rita * Robert "Robbie", born 16 May 1972, to Pat Williams * Rohan , born 19 May 1972, to Janet Hunt * Karen, born 1973 to Janet Bowen * Stephanie, born 17 August 1974; according to Cedella Booker she was the daughter of Rita and a man called Ital with whom Rita had an affair; nonetheless she was acknowledged as Bob's daughter * Julian , born 4 June 1975, to Lucy Pounder * Ky-Mani , born 26 February 1976, to Anita Belnavis * Damian , born 21 July 1978, to Cindy Breakspeare

Other sites have noted additional individuals who claim to be family members, as noted below:

* Makeda was born on 30 May 1981, to Yvette Crichton, after Marley's death. Meredith Dixon's book lists her as Marley's child, but she is not listed as such on the Bob Marley
Bob Marley
official website. * Various websites, for example, also list Imani Carole, born 22 May 1963 to Cheryl Murray; but she does not appear on the official Bob Marley website.

ASSOCIATION FOOTBALL

Aside from music, association football played a major role throughout his life. As well as playing the game, in parking lots, fields, and even inside recording studios, growing up he followed the Brazilian club Santos and its star player Pelé
Pelé
. Marley surrounded himself with people from the sport, and in the 1970s made the Jamaican international footballer Allan "Skill" Cole his tour manager. He told a journalist, "If you want to get to know me, you will have to play football against me and the Wailers."

PERSONAL VIEWS

Pan-Africanism

Marley was a Pan-Africanist , and believed in the unity of African people worldwide. His beliefs were rooted in his Rastafari
Rastafari
religious beliefs. He was substantially inspired by Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
, and had anti-imperialist and pan-Africanist themes in many of his songs, such as " Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
", "Exodus", "Survival", "Blackman Redemption", and " Redemption Song ". "Redemption Song" draws influence from a speech given by Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
in Nova Scotia, 1937. Marley held that independence of African countries from European domination was a victory for all those in the African diaspora. In the song "Africa Unite", he sings of a desire for all peoples of the African diaspora to come together and fight against "Babylon"; similarly, in the song "Zimbabwe", he marks the liberation of the whole continent of Africa, and evokes calls for unity between all Africans, both within and outside Africa.

Cannabis

See also: Rastafari
Rastafari
and cannabis

Marley considered cannabis a healing herb, a "sacrament", and an "aid to medication"; he supported the legalisation of the drug. He thought that marijuana use was prevalent in the Bible, reading passages such as Psalms 104:14 as showing approval of its usage. Marley began to use cannabis when he converted to the Rastafari
Rastafari
faith from Catholicism in 1966. He was arrested in 1968 after being caught with cannabis, but continued to use marijuana in accordance with his religious beliefs. Of his marijuana usage, he said, "When you smoke herb, herb reveal yourself to you. All the wickedness you do, the herb reveal itself to yourself, your conscience, show up yourself clear, because herb make you meditate. Is only a natural t'ing and it grow like a tree." Marley saw marijuana usage as a vital factor in religious growth and connection with Jah, and as a way to philosophise and become wiser.

LEGACY

AWARDS AND HONOURS

* 1976: Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
Band of the Year * June 1978: Awarded the Peace Medal of the Third World from the United Nations. :5 * February 1981: Awarded the Jamaican Order of Merit , then the nation's third highest honour, . * March 1994: Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
. * 1999: Album of the Century for Exodus by Time Magazine
Time Magazine
. * February 2001: A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
. * February 2001: Awarded Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award . * 2004: Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
ranked him No. 11 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. * 2004: Among the first inductees into the UK Music Hall of Fame * "One Love" named song of the millennium by BBC
BBC
. * Voted as one of the greatest lyricists of all time by a BBC
BBC
poll. * 2006: A blue plaque was unveiled at his first UK residence in Ridgmount Gardens, London, dedicated to him by the Nubian Jak Community Trust and supported by Her Majesty's Foreign Office. * 2010: Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame
Hall of Fame
(Reggae Album).

OTHER TRIBUTES

Marley statue in Kingston

A statue was inaugurated, next to the national stadium on Arthur Wint Drive in Kingston to commemorate him. In 2006, the New York City Department of Education co-named a portion of Church Avenue from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Street in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
as " Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Boulevard". In 2008, a statue of Marley was inaugurated in Banatski Sokolac , Serbia
Serbia
.

Internationally, Marley's message also continues to reverberate among various indigenous communities . For instance, the Australian Aboriginal people continue to burn a sacred flame to honour his memory in Sydney's Victoria Park , while members of the Amerindian Hopi
Hopi
and Havasupai
Havasupai
tribe revere his work. :5 There are also many tributes to Bob Marley
Bob Marley
throughout India, including restaurants, hotels, and cultural festivals.

Marley has also evolved into a global symbol, which has been endlessly merchandised through a variety of mediums. In light of this, author Dave Thompson in his book Reggae
Reggae
and Caribbean Music, laments what he perceives to be the commercialised pacification of Marley's more militant edge, stating:

Bob Marley
Bob Marley
ranks among both the most popular and the most misunderstood figures in modern culture ... That the machine has utterly emasculated Marley is beyond doubt. Gone from the public record is the ghetto kid who dreamed of Che Guevara
Che Guevara
and the Black Panthers , and pinned their posters up in the Wailers Soul Shack record store; who believed in freedom; and the fighting which it necessitated, and dressed the part on an early album sleeve; whose heroes were James Brown
James Brown
and Muhammad Ali ; whose God was Ras Tafari and whose sacrament was marijuana . Instead, the Bob Marley
Bob Marley
who surveys his kingdom today is smiling benevolence, a shining sun, a waving palm tree, and a string of hits which tumble out of polite radio like candy from a gumball machine. Of course it has assured his immortality . But it has also demeaned him beyond recognition. Bob Marley was worth far more.

Several film adaptations have evolved as well. For instance, a feature-length documentary about his life, Rebel Music, won various awards at the Grammys . With contributions from Rita, The Wailers, and Marley's lovers and children, it also tells much of the story in his own words. In February 2008, director Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
announced his intention to produce a documentary movie on Marley. The film was set to be released on 6 February 2010, on what would have been Marley's 65th birthday. However, Scorsese dropped out due to scheduling problems. He was replaced by Jonathan Demme , who dropped out due to creative differences with producer Steve Bing during the beginning of editing. Kevin Macdonald replaced Demme and the film, Marley , was released on 20 April 2012 . In March 2008, The Weinstein Company announced its plans to produce a biopic of Bob Marley, based on the book No Woman No Cry: My Life With Bob Marley
Bob Marley
by Rita Marley . Rudy Langlais will produce the script by Lizzie Borden and Rita Marley will be executive producer. In 2011, ex-girlfriend and filmmaker Esther Anderson , along with Gian Godoy , made the documentary Bob Marley: The Making of a Legend, which premiered at the Edinburgh International Film Festival .

In October 2015, Jamaican author Marlon James ' novel A Brief History of Seven Killings , a fictional account of the attempted assassination of Marley, won the 2015 Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize
at a ceremony in London.

DISCOGRAPHY

Main article: Bob Marley and the Wailers
Bob Marley and the Wailers
discography

STUDIO ALBUMS

* The Wailing Wailers (1965) * Soul Rebels
Soul Rebels
(1970) * Soul Revolution
Soul Revolution
(1971) * The Best of The Wailers
The Best of The Wailers
(1971) * Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
(1973) * Burnin\' (1973) * Natty Dread (1974) * Rastaman Vibration (1976) * Exodus (1977) * Kaya (1978) * Survival (1979) * Uprising (1980) * Confrontation (1983)

LIVE ALBUMS

* Live! (1975) * Babylon by Bus (1978)

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal * Cannabis portal * Jamaica
Jamaica
portal

* Outline of Bob Marley * List of peace activists
List of peace activists
* Fabian Marley

REFERENCES

CITATIONS

* ^ "7 Fascinating Facts About Bob Marley". Retrieved 10 October 2017. * ^ Samuels, A. J. "Bob Marley: Anatomy of an Icon". Retrieved 10 October 2017. * ^ "\'Marley\' - a new view of a cultural icon -". www.youthlinkjamaica.com. Retrieved 10 October 2017. * ^ Toynbee, Jason (8 May 2013). Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1969–. ISBN 978-0-7456-5737-0 . Retrieved 23 August 2013. * ^ Gooden, Lou (2003). Reggae
Reggae
Heritage: Jamaica\'s Music History, Culture & Politic. AuthorHouse. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-1-4107-8062-1 . Retrieved 25 August 2013. * ^ Lee, Bunny (23 August 2013). "Interview". Reggae
Reggae
Vibes (Interview). Interview with Peter I. * ^ Barrett, Aston "Family Man" (19 February 2013). "Interview". Pure Guitar. Archived from the original on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. * ^ Mcateer, Amberly (15 October 2014). "Deadly profitable: The 13 highest-earning dead celebrities". The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail
. Retrieved 21 October 2014. * ^ Meschino, Patricia (6 October 2007). "\'Exodus\' Returns". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 42. ISSN 0006-2510 . Retrieved 23 August 2013. * ^ Masouri, Jon (11 November 2009). Wailing Blues – The Story of Bob Marley\'s Wailers. Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-85712-035-9 . Retrieved 7 September 2013. * ^ Soni, Varun. "Bob Marley’s Spiritual Legacy". huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 July 2017. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ Observer Reporter (13 April 2006). " Ziggy Marley to adopt Judaism?". The Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer . Of further interest, Ziggy's grandfather Norval, is of Syrian-Jewish extraction... This was confirmed by Heather Marley, who is the daughter of Noel Marley, Norval's brother. * ^ Hombach, Jean-Pierre (2012). Bob Marley: The Father of Music. Lulu. p. 52. ISBN 9781471620454 . * ^ Kenner, Rob (May 2006). "The Real Revolutionary". Vibe . Vibe Media Group. 14 (5): 118. ISSN 1070-4701 . * ^ A B Adams, Tim (8 April 2012). "Bob Marley: the regret that haunted his life". The Observer . * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ Davis, Stephen (28 July 1983). Bob Marley: the biography. Littlehampton Book
Book
Services Ltd. ISBN 978-0213168599 . * ^ "Stepney Primary and Junior High School". bobmarleyfoundationja.org. Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Foundation. 16 September 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2013. * ^ Marley, Bob (31 January 2012). Listen to Bob Marley: The Man, the Music, the Revolution. Open Road Media. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-4532-2494-6 . Retrieved 1 September 2013. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ "Bob Marley\'s Family Settles Lawsuit With Singer\'s Half-Brother". RollingStone.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016. * ^ " Cedella Marley Booker: Keeper of the Marley flame". independent.co.uk. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2016. * ^ Wailer, Bunny (January 2011). "The Last Wailer – Bunny Wailer interview". GQ (Interview). Interview with John Jeremiah Sullivan. Retrieved 22 October 2013. * ^ Cunningham, Jonathan (15 April 2008). "Memorial Services for Cedella Marley Booker Tonight". MiamiNewTimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016. * ^ Obrecht, Jas. "Bob Marley\'s Early Years: From Nine Miles To London". JasObrecht.com. Retrieved 8 November 2013. * ^ Braithwaite, Junior (5 May 1985). "Interview". iration.com (Interview). Interview with Roger Steffens. Retrieved 7 November 2013.

* ^ Foster, Chuck (12 November 2013). " Joe Higgs – No Man Could Stop The Source". Tiscali.co.uk. * ^ Pareles, Jon (22 December 1999). "Joe Higgs, 59, Reggae Performer; Taught a Generation of Singers". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 12 November 2013. * ^ Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Solo, 1962 Wailer – The Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Compendium. Retrieved 8 November 2013. * ^ "The Beverley Label and Leslie Kong: Music Business". bobmarley.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. * ^ Jeffrey, Don (16 July 1994). "Disputes Over Copyrights \'Scorch\' Jamaican Reggae
Reggae
Artists". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 92. ISSN 0006-2510 . * ^ Ranglin Interview with Angus Taylor (11 February 2011). Retrieved 6 November 2013. * ^ "The Wailers\' Biography". VitalSpot.com. Archived from the original on 10 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2009. * ^ White, Timothy (25 June 1981). "Bob Marley: 1945–1981". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner . Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 16. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ A B Moskowitz, David (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ A B C McKinley, Jesse (19 December 2002). "Pre-reggae tape of Bob Marley
Bob Marley
is found and put on auction". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2009. * ^ Muir, Hugh (27 October 2006). " Blue plaque
Blue plaque
marks flats that put Marley on road to fame". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 7 September 2010.

* ^ Bradley, Lloyd (30 August 2001). Bass Culture: When Reggae
Reggae
Was King. Penguin Adult. pp. 522–. ISBN 978-0-14-023763-4 . * ^ Campbell, Howard (22 March 2011). " Bunny Wailer sets the record straight". The Gleaner. Retrieved 8 November 2013. * ^ A B C D E F Hagerman, Brent (February 2005). "Chris Blackwell: Savvy Svengali". Exclaim.ca. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2010. * ^ Williams, Richard. Catch a Fire. Catch a Fire
Catch a Fire
(Liner notes) (2001 reissue ed.). * ^ Terry, George (June 2011). "Interview". Hit Channel (Interview). Retrieved 10 November 2013. * ^ "Billboard Hot 100 for week ending September 14, 1974". Billboard. Billboard Publications, Inc. 14 September 1974. p. 64. ISSN 0006-2510 . * ^ " Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Biography". admin. 9 August 2010. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016. * ^ "Billboard Hits of the World". Billboard. Billboard Publications, Inc. 15 November 1975. p. 69. ISSN 0006-2510 . Retrieved 8 September 2013. * ^ "Soul". Billboard. Billboard Publications, Inc. 25 December 1976. p. 77. ISSN 0006-2510 . Retrieved 2 September 2013. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 71–73. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ "The shooting of a Wailer". * ^ Walker, Jeff (1980) on the cover of Zap Pow's LP Reggae
Reggae
Rules. Los Angeles: Rhino Records. * ^ "A Timeline of Bob Marley\'s Career". Thirdfield.com. Retrieved 3 October 2009. * ^ " One Love Peace Concert". Everything2.com. 24 May 2002. Retrieved 3 October 2009. * ^ White, Timothy (28 December 1978). " Babylon by Bus review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2009. * ^ A B C D Henke, James (2006). Marley Legend: An Illustrated Life of Bob Marley. Tuff Gong Books. ISBN 0-8118-5036-6 . * ^ Morris, Chris (16 October 1980). "Uprising review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2009. * ^ Schruers, Fred (1 September 1983). "Confrontation review". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Archived from the original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2009. * ^ Gooding, Cleland (11 April 2011). "A Death by Skin Cancer? The Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Story". The Tribune (Nassau) . Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. * ^ Silvera, Janet (22 February 2014). "Marley Sings Of Love As Cindy Fills His Heart". Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner. Retrieved 22 February 2014. * ^ "Autopsy: The Last Hours of Bob Marley." Autopsy. Nar. Eric Meyers. Exec. Prod. Ed Taylor and Michael Kelpie. Reelz, 25 February 2017. Television. * ^ Slater, Russ (6 August 2010). "The Day Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Played Football in Brazil". Sounds and Colours. Retrieved 6 August 2010. * ^ Scott, David Meerman (20 April 2012). " Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and me". Web Ink Now. Retrieved 30 July 2015. Marley's last show was a critical aspect of the film and there was no video or photo record... except mine. * ^ "His story: The life and legacy of Bob Marley". BobMarley.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.

* ^ "Why Did Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Die – What Did Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Die From". Worldmusic.about.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011. * ^ "Bob Marley\'s funeral program". Orthodoxhistory.org. Retrieved 4 June 2010. * ^ "30 Year Anniversary of Bob Marley\'s Death". Orthodoxhistory.org. Retrieved 11 May 2011. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 116. Retrieved 5 October 2016. * ^ "Bob Marley". Find a Grave. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 16 April 2009. * ^ Williams, Richard. "Bob Marley\'s funeral, 21 May 1981: a day of Jamaican history". the Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2015. * ^ Davis, Stephen (July 28, 1983). Bob Marley: the biography. Littlehampton Book
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Services Ltd. ISBN 978-0213168599 . * ^ Marley, Rita . No Woman, No Cry: My Life with Bob Marley. * ^ White, Timothy . Catch A Fire: The Life Of Bob Marley:. * ^ Toynbee, Jason (2013). Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World. p. 88. Rita has claimed that she was raped there by Bob in 1973 after he returned from London, and asked her to care for another child he was going to have by a woman there (Roper 2004). The formulation changes to 'almost raped' in her autobiography (Marley 2005: 113). But in any event, it seems clear that Bob behaved in an oppressive way towards her, always providing financial support for herself and the children it is true, yet frequently humiliating and bullying her. * ^ Marley, Rita (2004). No Woman, No Cry: My Life with Bob Marley (1st ed.). access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ A B Dixon, Meredith. "Lovers and Children of the Natural Mystic: The Story of Bob Marley, Women and their Children". The Dread Library. Retrieved 21 June 2007. * ^ "Bob Marley\'s Children". Chelsea's Entertainment reviews. Retrieved 28 December 2009. * ^ A B C D " Bob Marley
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and the Beautiful Game". Paste Magazine. Retrieved 22 December 2014 * ^ " Bob Marley
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Official Site". * ^ Grant, Colin. The Natural Mystics: Marley, Tosh, and Wailer. p. 113. * ^ Bell, Thomas L. Sound, Society and the Geography of Popular Music. p. 100. * ^ A B Paprocki, Sherry; Dolan, Sean. Bob Marley: Musician. p. 51.

* ^ Booth, Martin. Cannabis: A History. pp. 366, 367, 368. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . Retrieved 10 September 2013. * ^ Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 132. ISBN 978-0275989354 . Retrieved 26 September 2013. * ^ "The Best Of The Century". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
31 December 1999. Retrieved 16 April 2009. * ^ " Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award for Bob Marley". Caribbean Today. 31 January 2001. Retrieved 4 October 2009. * ^ "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner (946). Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. * ^ "Who is the greatest lyricist of all time". BBC. 23 May 2001. * ^ " London
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honours legendary reggae artist Bob Marley
Bob Marley
with heritage plaque". AfricaUnite.org. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. * ^ Plaque #4180 on Open Plaques, Retrieved 29 May 2017. * ^ "Grammy Hall of Fame
Hall of Fame
Awards Complete Listing". Grammy.com. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. * ^ "Statue of Bob Marley, Kingston, Jamaica". The Independent. Retrieved 23 December 2014. * ^ Mooney, Jake (21 May 2006). "Drum Roll for a Sign With a Reggae Beat". The New York Times
The New York Times
. Retrieved 11 October 2007. On May 10, the City Council approved a plan to hang Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Boulevard signs beneath the Church Avenue ones along an eight-block section, from Remsen Avenue to East 98th Street. * ^ " Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Street Renamed Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Boulevard". NY1
NY1
. 2 July 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2009. * ^ "n. Marinković, "Marli u Sokolcu"". Politika.rs. Retrieved 31 October 2011. * ^ Singh, Sarina; Brown, Lindsay; Elliot, Mark; Harding, Paul; Hole, Abigail; Horton, Patrick (2009). Lonely Planet India. Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet. p. 1061. ISBN 978-1-74179-151-8 . Retrieved 7 July 2011. * ^ " Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Cultural Fest 2010". Cochin Square. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2011. * ^ Reggae
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and Caribbean Music, by Dave Thompson , Hal Leonard Corporation , 2002, ISBN 0-87930-655-6 , pp. 159 * ^ Rebel Music – The Bob Marley
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Story (Rita Marley, Bob Marley). 2001. * ^ Miller, Winter (17 February 2008). "Scorsese to make Marley documentary". Ireland On-Line . Retrieved 6 March 2008. * ^ " Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
Drops Out of Bob Marley
Bob Marley
Documentary". WorstPreviews.com. 22 May 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2008. * ^ Jagernauth, Kevin (2 February 2011). "Kevin Macdonald Takes Over \'Marley\' Doc From Jonathan Demme". indieWire . Archived from the original on 9 January 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2012. * ^ " Jamaica
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premiere for Marley tribute". www.independent.ie. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012. * ^ Miller, Winter (3 March 2008). "Weinstein Co. options Marley". Variety. Reed Business Information
Reed Business Information
. Retrieved 3 March 2008. * ^ Downs, Elaine (23 June 2011). "Edinburgh International Film Festival 2011: Bob Marley
Bob Marley
– the Making of a Legend News Edinburgh STV". Local.stv.tv. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012. * ^ "Marlon James wins Booker Prize for novel on attempted assassination of Bob Marley". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 October 2015.

SOURCES

* Davis, Stephen (28 July 1983). Bob Marley: the biography. Littlehampton Book
Book
Services Ltd. ISBN 978-0213168599 . * Gooden, Lou (2003). Reggae
Reggae
Heritage: Jamaica\'s Music History, Culture & Politic. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4107-8062-1 . * Hombach, Jean-Pierre (2012). Bob Marley: The Father of Music. Lulu. ISBN 9781471620454 . * Marley, Rita ; Jones, Hettie (2004). No Woman No Cry: My Life with Bob Marley, Hyperion Books, ISBN 0-7868-8755-9 * Masouri, Jon (11 November 2009). Wailing Blues – The Story of Bob Marley\'s Wailers. Music Sales Group. ISBN 978-0-85712-035-9 . * Moskowitz, David (2007). The Words and Music of Bob Marley. Westport, Connecticut, United States: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98935-6 . * Moskowitz, David (2007). Bob Marley: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33879-3 . * Toynbee, Jason (8 May 2013). Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7456-5737-0 . * White, Timothy (2006). Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-8050-8086-4 .

FURTHER READING

* Farley, Christopher (2007). Before the Legend: The Rise of Bob Marley, Amistad Press, ISBN 0-06-053992-5 * Goldman, Vivien (2006). The Book
Book
of Exodus: The Making and Meaning of Bob Marley
Bob Marley
and the Wailers' Album of the Century, Aurum Press, ISBN 1-84513-210-6 * Middleton, J. Richard (2000). "Identity and Subversion in Babylon: Strategies for 'Resisting Against the System' in the Music of Bob Marley and the Wailers". Religion, Culture, and Tradition in the Caribbean. St. Martin's Press. pp. 181–198. ISBN 978-0-312-23242-9 .

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