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Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(/ˈdɪlən/; born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author, and painter, who has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when he became a reluctant "voice of a generation"[2] with songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" that became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
and anti-war movement. In 1965, he controversially abandoned his early fan-base in the American folk music revival, recording a six-minute single, "Like a Rolling Stone", which enlarged the scope of popular music. Dylan's lyrics incorporate a wide range of political, social, philosophical, and literary influences. They defied existing pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Initially inspired by the performances of Little Richard
Little Richard
and the songwriting of Woody Guthrie, Robert Johnson, and Hank Williams, Dylan has amplified and personalized musical genres. In his recording career, Dylan has explored many of the traditions in American song—from folk, blues, and country to gospel, and rock and roll, and from rockabilly to English, Scottish, and Irish folk music, embracing even jazz and the Great American Songbook. Dylan performs on guitar, keyboards, and harmonica. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured steadily since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". His accomplishments as a recording artist and performer have been central to his career, but his songwriting is considered his greatest contribution. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which mainly consisted of traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of the 1963 album The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, featuring "Blowin’ in the Wind" and the thematically complex composition "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall," alongside several other enduring songs of the era. Dylan went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan
Another Side of Bob Dylan
in 1964. In 1965 and 1966 Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted the use of electrically amplified rock instrumentation and in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s, Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited
and Blonde on Blonde. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had previously backed Dylan on tour; these were eventually released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 70s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
and New Morning. In 1975 Dylan released his career-defining album Blood on the Tracks
Blood on the Tracks
followed by the critically and commercially successful Desire the following year. In the late 1970s, Dylan became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music, notably Slow Train Coming, before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom with Infidels. Dylan's major works during his later career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft" and Tempest. His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards, especially songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Since 1994, Dylan has published seven books of drawings and paintings, and his work has been exhibited in major art galleries. Dylan has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has also received numerous awards including eleven Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. The Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In May 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, and, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".[3]

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 Origins and musical beginnings 1.2 1960s

1.2.1 Relocation to New York and record deal 1.2.2 Protest and Another Side 1.2.3 Going electric 1.2.4 Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited
and Blonde on Blonde 1.2.5 Motorcycle accident and reclusion

1.3 1970s

1.3.1 Return to touring 1.3.2 Christian period

1.4 1980s 1.5 1990s 1.6 2000s

1.6.1 Modern Times 1.6.2 Together Through Life
Together Through Life
and Christmas in the Heart

1.7 2010s

1.7.1 Tempest 1.7.2 Shadows in the Night, Fallen Angels and Triplicate

2 Never Ending Tour 3 Visual artist 4 Discography 5 Bibliography 6 Personal life

6.1 Romantic relationships

6.1.1 Suze Rotolo 6.1.2 Joan Baez 6.1.3 Sara Dylan 6.1.4 Carolyn Dennis

6.2 Home 6.3 Religious beliefs

7 Accolades

7.1 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

8 Legacy

8.1 Archives and tributes

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Sources

12 External links

Life and career Origins and musical beginnings

The Zimmerman family home in Hibbing, Minnesota

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
was born Robert Allen Zimmerman ( Hebrew
Hebrew
name שבתאי זיסל בן אברהם [Shabtai Zisl ben Avraham])[4][5] in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth, Minnesota,[6][7] and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range
Mesabi Range
west of Lake Superior. He has a younger brother, David. Dylan's paternal grandparents, Zigman and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(now Ukraine), to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905.[8] His maternal grandparents, Ben and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews
Lithuanian Jews
who arrived in the United States in 1902.[8] In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman
Kağızman
district of Kars Province
Kars Province
in northeastern Turkey.[9] Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community. They lived in Duluth until Robert was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, Hibbing, where they lived for the rest of Robert's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport, Louisiana, and later, when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.[10][11] He formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Little Richard[12] and Elvis Presley.[13] Their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone.[14] On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly
Buddy Holly
performed at the Duluth Armory.[15] Seventeen year old Zimmerman was in the audience; in his Nobel Prize lecture, Dylan remembered: "He looked me right straight dead in the eye, and he transmitted something. Something I didn’t know what. And it gave me the chills."[16] In 1959, his high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join 'Little Richard'."[12][17] The same year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, playing piano and clapping.[18][19][20] In September 1959, Zimmerman moved to Minneapolis
Minneapolis
and enrolled at the University of Minnesota.[21] His focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said:

The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect life in a realistic way. I knew that when I got into folk music, it was more of a serious type of thing. The songs are filled with more despair, more sadness, more triumph, more faith in the supernatural, much deeper feelings.[22]

Living at the Jewish-centric fraternity Sigma Alpha Mu
Sigma Alpha Mu
house Zimmerman began to perform at the Ten O'Clock Scholar, a coffeehouse a few blocks from campus, and became involved in the Dinkytown
Dinkytown
folk music circuit.[23][24] During his Dinkytown
Dinkytown
days, Zimmerman began introducing himself as "Bob Dylan".[25][a 1] In his memoir, he said he hit upon using this less common variant for Dillon – a surname he had considered adopting – when he unexpectedly saw some poems by Dylan Thomas.[26] Explaining his change of name in a 2004 interview, Dylan remarked, "You're born, you know, the wrong names, wrong parents. I mean, that happens. You call yourself what you want to call yourself. This is the land of the free."[27] 1960s Relocation to New York and record deal In May 1960, Dylan dropped out of college at the end of his first year. In January 1961, he traveled to New York City, to perform there and visit his musical idol Woody Guthrie,[28] who was seriously ill with Huntington's disease
Huntington's disease
in Greystone Park Psychiatric Hospital.[29] Guthrie had been a revelation to Dylan and influenced his early performances. Describing Guthrie's impact, he wrote: "The songs themselves had the infinite sweep of humanity in them... [He] was the true voice of the American spirit. I said to myself I was going to be Guthrie's greatest disciple."[30] As well as visiting Guthrie in hospital, Dylan befriended Guthrie's protégé Ramblin' Jack Elliott. Much of Guthrie's repertoire was channeled through Elliott, and Dylan paid tribute to Elliott in Chronicles: Volume One.[31] From February 1961, Dylan played at clubs around Greenwich Village, befriending and picking up material from folk singers there, including Dave Van Ronk, Fred Neil, Odetta, the New Lost City Ramblers and Irish musicians the Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem.[32] New York Times critic Robert Shelton first noted Dylan in a review of Izzy Young's production for WRVR of a live twelve-hour Hootenanny on July 29, 1961: "Among the newer promising talents deserving mention are a 20-year-old latter-day Guthrie disciple named Bob Dylan, with a curiously arresting mumbling, country-steeped manner". This was Dylan's first live radio performance.[33] In September, Shelton boosted Dylan's career further with a very enthusiastic review of his performance at Gerde's Folk City.[34] The same month Dylan played harmonica on folk singer Carolyn Hester's third album. This brought his talents to the attention of the album's producer, John Hammond,[35] who signed Dylan to Columbia Records.[36] The performances on his first Columbia album, Bob Dylan, released March 19, 1962,[37] consisted of familiar folk, blues and gospel with two original compositions. The album sold only 5,000 in its first year, just enough to break even.[38] Within Columbia Records, some referred to the singer as "Hammond's Folly"[39] and suggested dropping his contract, but Hammond defended Dylan and was supported by Johnny Cash.[38] In March 1962, Dylan contributed harmonica and back-up vocals to the album Three Kings and the Queen, accompanying Victoria Spivey and Big Joe Williams
Big Joe Williams
on a recording for Spivey Records.[40] While working for Columbia, Dylan recorded under the pseudonym Blind Boy Grunt[41] for Broadside, a folk magazine and record label.[42] Dylan used the pseudonym Bob Landy to record as a piano player on The Blues
Blues
Project, a 1964 anthology album by Elektra Records.[41] As Tedham Porterhouse, Dylan played harmonica on Ramblin' Jack Elliott's 1964 album Jack Elliott.[41]

Dylan with Joan Baez
Joan Baez
during the civil rights "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom", August 28, 1963

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in November 1963

"Blowin' in the Wind"

"Blowin' in the Wind" was, according to critic Andy Gill, "the song with which Dylan's name is most inextricably linked, and safeguarded his reputation as a civil libertarian through any number of changes in style and attitude".[43]

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Dylan made two important career moves in August 1962: he legally changed his name to Robert Dylan,[44] and he signed a management contract with Albert Grossman.[45] (In June 1961, Dylan had signed an agreement with Roy Silver. In 1962, Grossman paid Silver $10,000 to become sole manager.)[46] Grossman remained Dylan's manager until 1970, and was notable for his sometimes confrontational personality and for protective loyalty.[47] Dylan said, "He was kind of like a Colonel Tom Parker
Colonel Tom Parker
figure ... you could smell him coming."[24] Tensions between Grossman and John Hammond led to Hammond's being replaced as producer of Dylan's second album by the young African-American jazz producer, Tom Wilson.[48] Dylan made his first trip to the United Kingdom from December 1962 to January 1963.[49] He had been invited by TV director Philip Saville
Philip Saville
to appear in a drama, Madhouse on Castle Street, which Saville was directing for BBC Television.[50] At the end of the play, Dylan performed "Blowin' in the Wind", one of its first public performances.[50] The film recording of Madhouse on Castle Street
Madhouse on Castle Street
was destroyed by the BBC in 1968.[50] While in London, Dylan performed at London folk clubs, including the Troubadour, Les Cousins, and Bunjies.[49] He also learned material from UK performers, including Martin Carthy.[50] By the time of Dylan's second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, in May 1963, he had begun to make his name as a singer and a songwriter. Many songs on this album were labeled protest songs, inspired partly by Guthrie and influenced by Pete Seeger's passion for topical songs.[51] "Oxford Town", for example, was an account of James Meredith's ordeal as the first black student to risk enrollment at the University of Mississippi.[52] The first song on the Freewheelin' album, "Blowin' in the Wind", partly derived its melody from the traditional slave song, "No More Auction Block",[53] while its lyrics questioned the social and political status quo. The song was widely recorded by other artists and became a hit for Peter, Paul and Mary.[54] Another Freewheelin' song, "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" was based on the folk ballad "Lord Randall". With veiled references to an impending apocalypse, the song gained more resonance when the Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
developed a few weeks after Dylan began performing it.[55][a 2] Like "Blowin' in the Wind", "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" marked a new direction in songwriting, blending a stream-of-consciousness, imagist lyrical attack with traditional folk form.[56] Dylan's topical songs enhanced his early reputation, and he came to be seen as more than just a songwriter. Janet Maslin wrote of Freewheelin': "These were the songs that established [Dylan] as the voice of his generation—someone who implicitly understood how concerned young Americans felt about nuclear disarmament and the growing Civil Rights Movement: his mixture of moral authority and nonconformity was perhaps the most timely of his attributes."[57][a 3] Freewheelin' also included love songs and surreal talking blues. Humor was an important part of Dylan's persona,[58] and the range of material on the album impressed listeners, including the Beatles. George Harrison
George Harrison
said of the album, "We just played it, just wore it out. The content of the song lyrics and just the attitude—it was incredibly original and wonderful."[59] The rough edge of Dylan's singing was unsettling to some but an attraction to others. Joyce Carol Oates
Joyce Carol Oates
wrote: "When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying."[60] Many early songs reached the public through more palatable versions by other performers, such as Joan Baez, who became Dylan's advocate as well as his lover.[61] Baez was influential in bringing Dylan to prominence by recording several of his early songs and inviting him on stage during her concerts.[62][63] "It didn't take long before people got it, that he was pretty damned special," says Baez.[64] Others who had hits with Dylan's songs in the early 1960s included the Byrds, Sonny & Cher, the Hollies, Peter, Paul and Mary, the Association, Manfred Mann
Manfred Mann
and the Turtles. Most attempted a pop feel and rhythm, while Dylan and Baez performed them mostly as sparse folk songs. The covers became so ubiquitous that CBS
CBS
promoted him with the slogan "Nobody Sings Dylan Like Dylan."[65] "Mixed-Up Confusion", recorded during the Freewheelin' sessions with a backing band, was released as a single and then quickly withdrawn. In contrast to the mostly solo acoustic performances on the album, the single showed a willingness to experiment with a rockabilly sound. Cameron Crowe
Cameron Crowe
described it as "a fascinating look at a folk artist with his mind wandering towards Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley
and Sun Records."[66] Protest and Another Side

"The Times They Are a-Changin'"

Dylan said of "The Times They Are a-Changin'": "This was definitely a song with a purpose. I wanted to write a big song, some kind of theme song, with short concise verses that piled up on each other in a hypnotic way. The civil rights movement and the folk music movement were pretty close and allied together at that time."[22]

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In May 1963, Dylan's political profile rose when he walked out of The Ed Sullivan Show. During rehearsals, Dylan had been told by CBS television's head of program practices that "Talkin' John Birch Paranoid Blues" was potentially libelous to the John Birch Society. Rather than comply with censorship, Dylan refused to appear.[67] By this time, Dylan and Baez were prominent in the civil rights movement, singing together at the March on Washington on August 28, 1963.[68] Dylan's third album, The Times They Are a-Changin', reflected a more politicized Dylan.[69] The songs often took as their subject matter contemporary stories, with "Only a Pawn in Their Game" addressing the murder of civil rights worker Medgar Evers; and the Brechtian "The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll" the death of black hotel barmaid Hattie Carroll, at the hands of young white socialite William Zantzinger.[70] On a more general theme, "Ballad of Hollis Brown" and "North Country Blues" addressed despair engendered by the breakdown of farming and mining communities. This political material was accompanied by two personal love songs, "Boots of Spanish Leather" and "One Too Many Mornings".[71] During the Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
sessions in 1969, Dylan and Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
recorded a duet of the song which has not been released.[72][73] By the end of 1963, Dylan felt both manipulated and constrained by the folk and protest movements.[74] Accepting the "Tom Paine Award" from the National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee shortly after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, an intoxicated Dylan questioned the role of the committee, characterized the members as old and balding, and claimed to see something of himself and of every man in Kennedy's assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald.[75]

Bobby Dylan, as the college yearbook lists him: St. Lawrence University, upstate New York, November 1963

Another Side of Bob Dylan, recorded on a single evening in June 1964,[76] had a lighter mood. The humorous Dylan reemerged on "I Shall Be Free No. 10" and "Motorpsycho Nightmare". "Spanish Harlem Incident" and "To Ramona" are passionate love songs, while "Black Crow Blues" and "I Don't Believe You (She Acts Like We Never Have Met)" suggest the rock and roll soon to dominate Dylan's music. "It Ain't Me Babe", on the surface a song about spurned love, has been described as a rejection of the role of political spokesman thrust upon him.[77] His newest direction was signaled by two lengthy songs: the impressionistic "Chimes of Freedom", which sets social commentary against a metaphorical landscape in a style characterized by Allen Ginsberg as "chains of flashing images,"[78] and "My Back Pages", which attacks the simplistic and arch seriousness of his own earlier topical songs and seems to predict the backlash he was about to encounter from his former champions as he took a new direction.[79] In the latter half of 1964 and into 1965, Dylan moved from folk songwriter to folk-rock pop-music star. His jeans and work shirts were replaced by a Carnaby Street
Carnaby Street
wardrobe, sunglasses day or night, and pointed "Beatle boots". A London reporter wrote: "Hair that would set the teeth of a comb on edge. A loud shirt that would dim the neon lights of Leicester Square. He looks like an undernourished cockatoo."[80] Dylan began to spar with interviewers. Appearing on the Les Crane
Les Crane
television show and asked about a movie he planned, he told Crane it would be a cowboy horror movie. Asked if he played the cowboy, Dylan replied, "No, I play my mother."[81] Going electric Main articles: Electric Dylan controversy
Electric Dylan controversy
and Folk rock

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
making an impromptu guest appearance with the Byrds at Ciro's nightclub, March 26, 1965

Dylan's late March 1965 album Bringing It All Back Home
Bringing It All Back Home
was another leap,[82] featuring his first recordings with electric instruments. The first single, "Subterranean Homesick Blues", owed much to Chuck Berry's "Too Much Monkey Business";[83] its free association lyrics described as harkening back to the energy of beat poetry and as a forerunner of rap and hip-hop.[84] The song was provided with an early video, which opened D. A. Pennebaker's cinéma vérité presentation of Dylan's 1965 tour of Great Britain, Dont Look Back.[85] Instead of miming, Dylan illustrated the lyrics by throwing cue cards containing key words from the song on the ground. Pennebaker said the sequence was Dylan's idea, and it has been imitated in music videos and advertisements.[86] The second side of Bringing It All Back Home
Bringing It All Back Home
contained four long songs on which Dylan accompanied himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica.[87] "Mr. Tambourine Man" became one of his best-known songs when the Byrds recorded an electric version that reached number one in the US and UK.[88][89] "It's All Over Now, Baby Blue" and "It's Alright Ma (I'm Only Bleeding)" were two of Dylan's most important compositions.[87][90] In 1965, headlining the Newport Folk Festival, Dylan performed his first electric set since high school with a pickup group featuring Mike Bloomfield
Mike Bloomfield
on guitar and Al Kooper
Al Kooper
on organ.[91] Dylan had appeared at Newport in 1963 and 1964, but in 1965 met with cheering and booing and left the stage after three songs. One version has it that the boos were from folk fans whom Dylan had alienated by appearing, unexpectedly, with an electric guitar. Murray Lerner, who filmed the performance, said: "I absolutely think that they were booing Dylan going electric."[92] An alternative account claims audience members were upset by poor sound and a short set. This account is supported by Kooper and one of the directors of the festival, who reports his recording proves the only boos were in reaction to the MC's announcement that there was only enough time for a short set.[93][94] Nevertheless, Dylan's performance provoked a hostile response from the folk music establishment.[95][96] In the September issue of Sing Out!, Ewan MacColl wrote: "Our traditional songs and ballads are the creations of extraordinarily talented artists working inside disciplines formulated over time ...'But what of Bobby Dylan?' scream the outraged teenagers ... Only a completely non-critical audience, nourished on the watery pap of pop music, could have fallen for such tenth-rate drivel."[97] On July 29, four days after Newport, Dylan was back in the studio in New York, recording "Positively 4th Street". The lyrics contained images of vengeance and paranoia,[98] and it has been interpreted as Dylan's put-down of former friends from the folk community—friends he had known in clubs along West 4th Street.[99] Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited
and Blonde on Blonde

"Like a Rolling Stone"

Dylan's 1965 hit single, which appeared on the album Highway 61 Revisited. In 2004, it was chosen as the greatest song of all time by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine.[100]

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In July 1965, the single "Like a Rolling Stone" peaked at two in the U.S. and at four in the UK charts. At over six minutes, the song altered what a pop single could convey. Bruce Springsteen, in his speech for Dylan's inauguration into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, said that on first hearing the single, "that snare shot sounded like somebody'd kicked open the door to your mind".[101] In 2004 and in 2011, Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
listed it as number one of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time".[100][102] The song opened Dylan's next album, Highway 61 Revisited, named after the road that led from Dylan's Minnesota to the musical hotbed of New Orleans.[103] The songs were in the same vein as the hit single, flavored by Mike Bloomfield's blues guitar and Al Kooper's organ riffs. "Desolation Row", backed by acoustic guitar and understated bass,[104] offers the sole exception, with Dylan alluding to figures in Western culture in a song described by Andy Gill as "an 11-minute epic of entropy, which takes the form of a Fellini-esque parade of grotesques and oddities featuring a huge cast of celebrated characters, some historical (Einstein, Nero), some biblical (Noah, Cain and Abel), some fictional (Ophelia, Romeo, Cinderella), some literary ( T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
and Ezra Pound), and some who fit into none of the above categories, notably Dr. Filth and his dubious nurse."[105] In support of the album, Dylan was booked for two U.S. concerts with Al Kooper
Al Kooper
and Harvey Brooks from his studio crew and Robbie Robertson and Levon Helm, former members of Ronnie Hawkins's backing band the Hawks.[106] On August 28 at Forest Hills Tennis Stadium, the group was heckled by an audience still annoyed by Dylan's electric sound. The band's reception on September 3 at the Hollywood Bowl
Hollywood Bowl
was more favorable.[107] From September 24, 1965, in Austin, Texas, Dylan toured the U.S. and Canada for six months, backed by the five musicians from the Hawks who became known as the Band.[108] While Dylan and the Hawks met increasingly receptive audiences, their studio efforts floundered. Producer Bob Johnston
Bob Johnston
persuaded Dylan to record in Nashville in February 1966, and surrounded him with top-notch session men. At Dylan's insistence, Robertson and Kooper came from New York City to play on the sessions.[109] The Nashville sessions produced the double album Blonde on Blonde
Blonde on Blonde
(1966), featuring what Dylan called "that thin wild mercury sound".[110] Kooper described it as "taking two cultures and smashing them together with a huge explosion": the musical world of Nashville and the world of the "quintessential New York hipster" Bob Dylan.[111] On November 22, 1965, Dylan secretly married 25-year-old former model Sara Lownds.[112] Robertson writes in his memoir about receiving a phone call that morning to accompany the couple to the court, and then later to a reception hosted by Al Grossman at the Algonquin Hotel. Some of Dylan's friends, including Ramblin' Jack Elliott, say that, immediately after the event, Dylan denied he was married.[112] Journalist Nora Ephron
Nora Ephron
made the news public in the New York Post
New York Post
in February 1966 with the headline "Hush! Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
is wed."[113] Dylan toured Australia and Europe in April and May 1966. Each show was split in two. Dylan performed solo during the first half, accompanying himself on acoustic guitar and harmonica. In the second, backed by the Hawks, he played electrically amplified music. This contrast provoked many fans, who jeered and slow handclapped.[114] The tour culminated in a raucous confrontation between Dylan and his audience at the Manchester Free Trade Hall
Free Trade Hall
in England on May 17, 1966.[115] A recording of this concert was released in 1998: The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1966. At the climax of the evening, a member of the audience, angered by Dylan's electric backing, shouted: "Judas!" to which Dylan responded, "I don't believe you ... You're a liar!" Dylan turned to his band and said, "Play it fucking loud!"[116] as they launched into the final song of the night—"Like a Rolling Stone". During his 1966 tour, Dylan was described as exhausted and acting "as if on a death trip".[117] D. A. Pennebaker, the film maker accompanying the tour, described Dylan as "taking a lot of amphetamine and who-knows-what-else."[118] In a 1969 interview with Jann Wenner, Dylan said, "I was on the road for almost five years. It wore me down. I was on drugs, a lot of things ... just to keep going, you know?"[119] In 2011, BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
reported that, in an interview that Robert Shelton taped in 1966, Dylan said he had kicked heroin in New York City: "I got very, very strung out for a while ... I had about a $25-a-day habit and I kicked it."[120] Some journalists questioned the validity of this confession, pointing out that Dylan had "been telling journalists wild lies about his past since the earliest days of his career."[121][122] Motorcycle accident and reclusion After his tour, Dylan returned to New York, but the pressures increased. ABC Television had paid an advance for a TV show.[123] His publisher, Macmillan, was demanding a manuscript of the poem/novel Tarantula. Manager Albert Grossman had scheduled a concert tour for the latter part of the year. On July 29, 1966, Dylan crashed his 500cc Triumph Tiger 100
Triumph Tiger 100
motorcycle near his home in Woodstock, New York, and was thrown to the ground. Though the extent of his injuries was never disclosed, Dylan said that he broke several vertebrae in his neck.[124] Mystery still surrounds the circumstances of the accident since no ambulance was called to the scene and Dylan was not hospitalized.[124][125] Dylan's biographers have written that the crash offered Dylan the chance to escape the pressures around him.[124][126] Dylan confirmed this interpretation in his autobiography: "I had been in a motorcycle accident and I'd been hurt, but I recovered. Truth was that I wanted to get out of the rat race."[127] Dylan withdrew from public and, apart from a few appearances, did not tour again for almost eight years.[125][128] Once Dylan was well enough to resume creative work, he began to edit D. A. Pennebaker's film of his 1966 tour. A rough cut was shown to ABC Television and rejected as incomprehensible to a mainstream audience.[129] The film was subsequently titled Eat the Document
Eat the Document
on bootleg copies, and it has been screened at a handful of film festivals.[130] In 1967 he began recording with the Hawks at his home and in the basement of the Hawks' nearby house, "Big Pink".[131] These songs, initially demos for other artists to record, provided hits for Julie Driscoll
Julie Driscoll
and the Brian Auger Trinity ("This Wheel's on Fire"), The Byrds
The Byrds
("You Ain't Goin' Nowhere", "Nothing Was Delivered"), and Manfred Mann
Manfred Mann
("Mighty Quinn"). Columbia released selections in 1975 as The Basement Tapes. Over the years, more songs recorded by Dylan and his band in 1967 appeared on bootleg recordings, culminating in a five-CD set titled The Genuine Basement Tapes, containing 107 songs and alternative takes.[132] In the coming months, the Hawks recorded the album Music from Big Pink
Music from Big Pink
using songs they worked on in their basement in Woodstock, and renamed themselves the Band,[133] beginning a long recording and performing career of their own. In October and November 1967, Dylan returned to Nashville.[134] Back in the studio after 19 months, he was accompanied by Charlie McCoy
Charlie McCoy
on bass,[134] Kenny Buttrey on drums,[134] and Pete Drake on steel guitar.[134] The result was John Wesley Harding, a contemplative record of shorter songs, set in a landscape that drew on the American West and the Bible. The sparse structure and instrumentation, with lyrics that took the Judeo-Christian tradition seriously, departed from Dylan's own work and from the psychedelic fervor of the 1960s.[135] It included "All Along the Watchtower", with lyrics derived from the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
(21:5–9). The song was later recorded by Jimi Hendrix, whose version Dylan acknowledged as definitive.[22] Woody Guthrie
Woody Guthrie
died on October 3, 1967, and Dylan made his first live appearance in twenty months at a Guthrie memorial concert held at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
on January 20, 1968, where he was backed by the Band.[136]

'Lay Lady Lay'

"Lay Lady Lay", on the country album Nashville Skyline, has been one of Dylan's biggest hits, reaching No. 7 in the U.S.[137]

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Dylan's next release, Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
(1969), was mainstream country featuring Nashville musicians, a mellow-voiced Dylan, a duet with Johnny Cash, and the hit single "Lay Lady Lay".[138] Variety wrote, "Dylan is definitely doing something that can be called singing. Somehow he has managed to add an octave to his range."[139] During one recording session, Dylan and Cash recorded a series of duets but only their version of Dylan's "Girl from the North Country" was released on the album.[72][73] In May 1969, Dylan appeared on the first episode of Johnny Cash's television show and sang a duet with Cash of "Girl from the North Country", with solos of "Living the Blues" and "I Threw It All Away".[140] Dylan next traveled to England to top the bill at the Isle of Wight festival on August 31, 1969, after rejecting overtures to appear at the Woodstock Festival
Woodstock Festival
closer to his home.[141] 1970s In the early 1970s, critics charged that Dylan's output was varied and unpredictable. Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
writer Greil Marcus
Greil Marcus
asked "What is this shit?" on first listening to Self Portrait, released in June 1970.[142][143] It was a double LP including few original songs, and was poorly received.[144] In October 1970, Dylan released New Morning, considered a return to form.[145] This album included "Day of the Locusts", a song in which Dylan gave an account of receiving an honorary degree from Princeton University
Princeton University
on June 9, 1970.[146] In November 1968, Dylan had co-written "I'd Have You Anytime" with George Harrison;[147] Harrison recorded "I'd Have You Anytime" and Dylan's "If Not for You" for his 1970 solo triple album All Things Must Pass. Dylan's surprise appearance at Harrison's 1971 Concert for Bangladesh attracted media coverage, reflecting that Dylan's live appearances had become rare.[148] Between March 16 and 19, 1971, Dylan reserved three days at Blue Rock, a small studio in Greenwich Village, to record with Leon Russell. These sessions resulted in "Watching the River
River
Flow" and a new recording of "When I Paint My Masterpiece".[149] On November 4, 1971, Dylan recorded "George Jackson", which he released a week later. For many, the single was a surprising return to protest material, mourning the killing of Black Panther George Jackson in San Quentin State Prison that year.[150] Dylan contributed piano and harmony to Steve Goodman's album, Somebody Else's Troubles, under the pseudonym Robert Milkwood Thomas (referencing the play Under Milk Wood
Under Milk Wood
by Dylan Thomas and his own previous name) in September 1972.[151] In 1972, Dylan signed to Sam Peckinpah's film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, providing songs and backing music for the movie, and playing "Alias", a member of Billy's gang with some historical basis.[152] Despite the film's failure at the box office, the song "Knockin' on Heaven's Door" became one of Dylan's most covered songs.[153][154] Also in 1972, Dylan protested the move to deport John Lennon
John Lennon
and Yoko Ono, who had been convicted of possessing cannabis, by sending a letter to the U.S. Immigration Service, in part: "Hurray for John & Yoko. Let them stay and live here and breathe. The country's got plenty of room and space. Let John and Yoko stay!"[155] Return to touring

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and the Band touring in Chicago, 1974

Dylan began 1973 by signing with a new label, David Geffen's Asylum Records (and Island in the UK), when his contract with Columbia Records expired. On his next album, Planet Waves, he used the Band as backing group, while rehearsing for a tour. The album included two versions of "Forever Young", which became one of his most popular songs.[156] As one critic described it, the song projected "something hymnal and heartfelt that spoke of the father in Dylan",[157] and Dylan himself commented: "I wrote it thinking about one of my boys and not wanting to be too sentimental."[22] Columbia Records
Columbia Records
simultaneously released Dylan, a collection of studio outtakes (almost exclusively covers), widely interpreted as a churlish response to Dylan's signing with a rival record label.[158] In January 1974, Dylan returned to touring after seven years; backed by the Band, he embarked on a North American tour of 40 concerts. A live double album, Before the Flood, was on Asylum Records. Soon, according to Clive Davis, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
sent word they "will spare nothing to bring Dylan back into the fold".[159] Dylan had second thoughts about Asylum, miffed that while there had been millions of unfulfilled ticket requests for the 1974 tour, Geffen had sold only 700,000 copies of Planet Waves.[159] Dylan returned to Columbia Records, which reissued his two Asylum albums.

'Tangled Up in Blue'

Dylan said of the opening song from Blood on the Tracks: "I was trying to deal with the concept of time, and the way the characters change from the first person to the third person, and you're never sure if the first person is talking or the third person. But as you look at the whole thing it really doesn't matter."[22]

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After the tour, Dylan and his wife became estranged. He filled a small red notebook with songs about relationships and ruptures, and recorded an album entitled Blood on the Tracks
Blood on the Tracks
in September 1974.[160] Dylan delayed the release and re-recorded half the songs at Sound 80 Studios in Minneapolis
Minneapolis
with production assistance from his brother, David Zimmerman.[161] Released in early 1975, Blood on the Tracks
Blood on the Tracks
received mixed reviews. In the NME, Nick Kent
Nick Kent
described "the accompaniments [as] often so trashy they sound like mere practice takes."[162] In Rolling Stone, Jon Landau wrote that "the record has been made with typical shoddiness."[162] Over the years critics came to see it as one of Dylan's greatest achievements. In Salon.com, Bill Wyman wrote: "Blood on the Tracks is his only flawless album and his best produced; the songs, each of them, are constructed in disciplined fashion. It is his kindest album and most dismayed, and seems in hindsight to have achieved a sublime balance between the logorrhea-plagued excesses of his mid-1960s output and the self-consciously simple compositions of his post-accident years."[163] Novelist Rick Moody
Rick Moody
called it "the truest, most honest account of a love affair from tip to stern ever put down on magnetic tape."[164]

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
with Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
on the Rolling Thunder Revue
Rolling Thunder Revue
in 1975. Photo: Elsa Dorfman

In the middle of that year, Dylan wrote a ballad championing boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, imprisoned for a triple murder in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1966. After visiting Carter in jail, Dylan wrote "Hurricane", presenting the case for Carter's innocence. Despite its length—over eight minutes—the song was released as a single, peaking at 33 on the U.S. Billboard chart, and performed at every 1975 date of Dylan's next tour, the Rolling Thunder Revue.[a 4][165] The tour featured about one hundred performers and supporters from the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
folk scene, including T-Bone Burnett, Ramblin' Jack Elliott, Joni Mitchell,[166][167] David Mansfield, Roger McGuinn, Mick Ronson, Joan Baez, and Scarlet Rivera, whom Dylan discovered walking down the street, her violin case on her back.[168] Allen Ginsberg accompanied the troupe, staging scenes for the film Dylan was shooting. Sam Shepard
Sam Shepard
was hired to write the screenplay, but ended up accompanying the tour as informal chronicler.[169] Running through late 1975 and again through early 1976, the tour encompassed the release of the album Desire, with many of Dylan's new songs featuring a travelogue-like narrative style, showing the influence of his new collaborator, playwright Jacques Levy.[170][171] The 1976 half of the tour was documented by a TV concert special, Hard Rain, and the LP Hard Rain; no concert album from the better-received and better-known opening half of the tour was released until 2002's Live 1975.[172]

Dylan performing in the Feyenoord Football Club Stadium, Rotterdam, June 23, 1978

The 1975 tour with the Revue provided the backdrop to Dylan's nearly four-hour film Renaldo and Clara, a sprawling narrative mixed with concert footage and reminiscences. Released in 1978, the movie received poor, sometimes scathing, reviews.[173][174] Later in that year, a two-hour edit, dominated by the concert performances, was more widely released.[175] In November 1976, Dylan appeared at the Band's "farewell" concert, with Eric Clapton, Joni Mitchell, Muddy Waters, Van Morrison
Van Morrison
and Neil Young. Martin Scorsese's cinematic chronicle, The Last Waltz, in 1978 included about half of Dylan's set.[176] In 1976, Dylan wrote and duetted on "Sign Language" for Eric Clapton's No Reason To Cry.[177] In 1978, Dylan embarked on a year-long world tour, performing 114 shows in Japan, the Far East, Europe and the US, to a total audience of two million. Dylan assembled an eight-piece band and three backing singers. Concerts in Tokyo in February and March were released as the live double album, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
At Budokan.[178] Reviews were mixed. Robert Christgau
Robert Christgau
awarded the album a C+ rating, giving the album a derisory review,[179] while Janet Maslin defended it in Rolling Stone, writing: "These latest live versions of his old songs have the effect of liberating Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
from the originals."[180] When Dylan brought the tour to the U.S. in September 1978, the press described the look and sound as a 'Las Vegas Tour'.[181] The 1978 tour grossed more than $20 million, and Dylan told the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
that he had debts because "I had a couple of bad years. I put a lot of money into the movie, built a big house  ... and it costs a lot to get divorced in California."[178] In April and May 1978, Dylan took the same band and vocalists into Rundown Studios in Santa Monica, California, to record an album of new material: Street-Legal.[182] It was described by Michael Gray as, "after Blood On The Tracks, arguably Dylan's best record of the 1970s: a crucial album documenting a crucial period in Dylan's own life".[183] However, it had poor sound and mixing (attributed to Dylan's studio practices), muddying the instrumental detail until a remastered CD release in 1999 restored some of the songs' strengths.[184] Christian period Further information: Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
§ Conversion to Christianity

'Gotta Serve Somebody'

Dylan took five months off at the beginning of 1979 to attend Bible school.[22] His subsequent album Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
reached No. 3 on the U.S. Billboard 200
Billboard 200
chart and included this Grammy-winning song.

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In the late 1970s, Dylan converted to Evangelical Christianity,[185][186] undertaking a three-month discipleship course run by the Association of Vineyard Churches;[187][188] and released two albums of contemporary gospel music. Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
(1979) featured the guitar accompaniment of Mark Knopfler
Mark Knopfler
(of Dire Straits) and was produced by veteran R&B producer Jerry Wexler. Wexler said that Dylan had tried to evangelize him during the recording. He replied: "Bob, you're dealing with a 62-year-old Jewish atheist. Let's just make an album."[189] Dylan won the Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Male Rock Vocal Performance for the song "Gotta Serve Somebody". His second Christian-themed album, Saved (1980), received mixed reviews, described by Michael Gray as "the nearest thing to a follow-up album Dylan has ever made, Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
II and inferior"[190] When touring in late 1979 and early 1980, Dylan would not play his older, secular works, and he delivered declarations of his faith from the stage, such as:

Years ago they ... said I was a prophet. I used to say, "No I'm not a prophet" they say "Yes you are, you're a prophet." I said, "No it's not me." They used to say "You sure are a prophet." They used to convince me I was a prophet. Now I come out and say Jesus Christ is the answer. They say, "Bob Dylan's no prophet." They just can't handle it.[191]

Dylan's Christianity was unpopular with some fans and musicians.[192] Shortly before his murder, John Lennon
John Lennon
recorded "Serve Yourself" in response to Dylan's "Gotta Serve Somebody".[193] By 1981, Stephen Holden wrote in the New York Times
New York Times
that "neither age (he's now 40) nor his much-publicized conversion to born-again Christianity has altered his essentially iconoclastic temperament."[194] 1980s

Dylan in Toronto April 18, 1980

In late 1980, Dylan briefly played concerts billed as "A Musical Retrospective", restoring popular 1960s songs to the repertoire. Shot of Love, recorded early the next year, featured his first secular compositions in more than two years, mixed with Christian songs. "Every Grain of Sand" reminded some of William Blake's verses.[195] In the 1980s, reception of Dylan's recordings varied, from the well-regarded Infidels in 1983 to the panned Down in the Groove
Down in the Groove
in 1988. Michael Gray condemned Dylan's 1980s albums for carelessness in the studio and for failing to release his best songs.[196] As an example of the latter, the Infidels recording sessions, which again employed Knopfler on lead guitar and also as the album's producer, resulted in several notable songs that Dylan left off the album. Best regarded of these were "Blind Willie McTell", a tribute to the dead blues musician and an evocation of African American history,[197] "Foot of Pride" and "Lord Protect My Child". These three songs were released on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991.[198] Between July 1984 and March 1985, Dylan recorded Empire Burlesque.[199] Arthur Baker, who had remixed hits for Bruce Springsteen and Cyndi Lauper, was asked to engineer and mix the album. Baker said he felt he was hired to make Dylan's album sound "a little bit more contemporary".[199] In 1985 Dylan sang on USA for Africa's famine relief single "We Are the World". He also joined Artists United Against Apartheid providing vocals for their single "Sun City".[200] On July 13, 1985, he appeared at the climax at the Live Aid
Live Aid
concert at JFK Stadium, Philadelphia. Backed by Keith Richards
Keith Richards
and Ronnie Wood, he performed a ragged version of "Hollis Brown", his ballad of rural poverty, and then said to the worldwide audience exceeding one billion people: "I hope that some of the money ... maybe they can just take a little bit of it, maybe ... one or two million, maybe ... and use it to pay the mortgages on some of the farms and, the farmers here, owe to the banks."[201] His remarks were widely criticized as inappropriate, but they did inspire Willie Nelson
Willie Nelson
to organize a series of events, Farm Aid, to benefit debt-ridden American farmers.[202] In April 1986, Dylan made a foray into rap music when he added vocals to the opening verse of "Street Rock", featured on Kurtis Blow's album Kingdom Blow.[203] Dylan's next studio album, Knocked Out Loaded, in July 1986 contained three covers (by Little Junior Parker, Kris Kristofferson and the gospel hymn "Precious Memories"), plus three collaborations with (Tom Petty, Sam Shepard
Sam Shepard
and Carole Bayer Sager), and two solo compositions by Dylan. One reviewer commented that "the record follows too many detours to be consistently compelling, and some of those detours wind down roads that are indisputably dead ends. By 1986, such uneven records weren't entirely unexpected by Dylan, but that didn't make them any less frustrating."[204] It was the first Dylan album since Freewheelin' (1963) to fail to make the Top 50.[205] Since then, some critics have called the 11-minute epic that Dylan co-wrote with Sam Shepard, "Brownsville Girl", a work of genius.[206] In 1986 and 1987, Dylan toured with Tom Petty
Tom Petty
and the Heartbreakers, sharing vocals with Petty on several songs each night. Dylan also toured with the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
in 1987, resulting in a live album Dylan & The Dead. This received negative reviews: Allmusic said, "Quite possibly the worst album by either Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
or the Grateful Dead."[207] Dylan then initiated what came to be called the Never Ending Tour on June 7, 1988, performing with a back-up band featuring guitarist G. E. Smith. Dylan continued to tour with a small, evolving band for the next 20 years.[208]

Dylan in Barcelona, Spain, 1984

In 1987, Dylan starred in Richard Marquand's movie Hearts of Fire, in which he played Billy Parker, a washed-up rock star turned chicken farmer whose teenage lover (Fiona) leaves him for a jaded English synth-pop sensation played by Rupert Everett.[209] Dylan also contributed two original songs to the soundtrack—"Night After Night", and "I Had a Dream About You, Baby", as well as a cover of John Hiatt's "The Usual". The film was a critical and commercial flop.[210] Dylan was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
in January 1988, with Bruce Springsteen's introduction declaring, "Bob freed your mind the way Elvis freed your body. He showed us that just because music was innately physical did not mean that it was anti-intellectual."[211] The album Down in the Groove
Down in the Groove
in May 1988 sold even more unsuccessfully than his previous studio album.[212] Michael Gray wrote: "The very title undercuts any idea that inspired work may lie within. Here was a further devaluing of the notion of a new Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
album as something significant."[213] The critical and commercial disappointment of that album was swiftly followed by the success of the Traveling Wilburys. Dylan co-founded the band with George Harrison, Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison, and Tom Petty, and in late 1988 their multi-platinum Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
Vol. 1 reached three on the US album chart,[212] featuring songs that were described as Dylan's most accessible compositions in years.[214] Despite Orbison's death in December 1988, the remaining four recorded a second album in May 1990 with the title Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
Vol. 3.[215] Dylan finished the decade on a critical high note with Oh Mercy produced by Daniel Lanois. Michael Gray wrote that the album was: "Attentively written, vocally distinctive, musically warm, and uncompromisingly professional, this cohesive whole is the nearest thing to a great Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
album in the 1980s."[213][216] The track "Most of the Time", a lost love composition, was later prominently featured in the film High Fidelity, while "What Was It You Wanted?" has been interpreted both as a catechism and a wry comment on the expectations of critics and fans.[217] The religious imagery of "Ring Them Bells" struck some critics as a re-affirmation of faith.[218] 1990s Dylan's 1990s began with Under the Red Sky
Under the Red Sky
(1990), an about-face from the serious Oh Mercy. The album contained several apparently simple songs, including "Under the Red Sky" and "Wiggle Wiggle". The album was dedicated to "Gabby Goo Goo", a nickname for the daughter of Dylan and Carolyn Dennis, Desiree Gabrielle Dennis-Dylan, who was four.[219] Sidemen
Sidemen
on the album included George Harrison, Slash from Guns N' Roses, David Crosby, Bruce Hornsby, Stevie Ray Vaughan, and Elton John. Despite the line-up, the record received bad reviews and sold poorly.[220] In 1991, Dylan received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award from American actor Jack Nicholson.[221] The event coincided with the start of the Gulf War
Gulf War
against Saddam Hussein, and Dylan performed "Masters of War". Dylan then made a short speech, saying "My daddy once said to me, he said, 'Son, it is possible for you to become so defiled in this world that your own mother and father will abandon you. If that happens, God will believe in your ability to mend your own ways.'"[221][222] This sentiment was subsequently revealed to be a quote from 19th-century German Jewish intellectual, Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.[223] Over the next few years Dylan returned to his roots with two albums covering folk and blues numbers: Good as I Been to You
Good as I Been to You
(1992) and World Gone Wrong
World Gone Wrong
(1993), featuring interpretations and acoustic guitar work. Many critics and fans commented on the quiet beauty of the song "Lone Pilgrim",[224] written by a 19th-century teacher. In November 1994 Dylan recorded two live shows for MTV Unplugged. He said his wish to perform traditional songs was overruled by Sony
Sony
executives who insisted on hits.[225] The album from it, MTV Unplugged, included "John Brown", an unreleased 1962 song of how enthusiasm for war ends in mutilation and disillusionment.[226]

Dylan performs during the 1996 Lida Festival in Stockholm

Dylan's longtime road manager Victor Maymudes
Victor Maymudes
has claimed that the singer quit drinking alcohol in 1994.[227] Maymudes felt that Dylan sobering up made him "more introverted and a little less social."[227] With a collection of songs reportedly written while snowed in on his Minnesota ranch,[228] Dylan booked recording time with Daniel Lanois at Miami's Criteria Studios
Criteria Studios
in January 1997. The subsequent recording sessions were, by some accounts, fraught with musical tension.[229] Before the album's release Dylan was hospitalized with a life-threatening heart infection, pericarditis, brought on by histoplasmosis. His scheduled European tour was cancelled, but Dylan made a speedy recovery and left the hospital saying, "I really thought I'd be seeing Elvis soon."[230] He was back on the road by mid-year, and performed before Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
at the World Eucharistic Conference in Bologna, Italy. The Pope treated the audience of 200,000 people to a homily based on Dylan's lyric "Blowin' in the Wind".[231] In September Dylan released the new Lanois-produced album, Time Out of Mind. With its bitter assessment of love and morbid ruminations, Dylan's first collection of original songs in seven years was highly acclaimed. One critic wrote: "the songs themselves are uniformly powerful, adding up to Dylan's best overall collection in years."[232] This collection of complex songs won him his first solo "Album of the Year" Grammy Award.[233] In December 1997, U.S. President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
presented Dylan with a Kennedy Center
Kennedy Center
Honor in the East Room of the White House, paying this tribute: "He probably had more impact on people of my generation than any other creative artist. His voice and lyrics haven't always been easy on the ear, but throughout his career Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
has never aimed to please. He's disturbed the peace and discomforted the powerful."[234] In 1999, Dylan embarked on a North American tour with Paul Simon, where each alternated as headline act with a "middle" section where they performed together, starting on the first of June and ending September 18. The collaboration was generally well received. 2000s

'Things Have Changed'

Dylan's Oscar-winning song was featured in the movie Wonder Boys. The line "sapphire-tinted skies" echoes the verse of Shelley[235] while "forty miles of bad road" echoes Duane Eddy's hit single.

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Dylan commenced the 2000s by winning the Polar Music Prize
Polar Music Prize
in May 2000 and his first Oscar; his song "Things Have Changed", written for the film Wonder Boys, won an Academy Award
Academy Award
in March 2001.[236] The Oscar, by some reports a facsimile, tours with him, presiding over shows perched atop an amplifier.[237] "Love and Theft"
"Love and Theft"
was released on September 11, 2001. Recorded with his touring band, Dylan produced the album himself under the pseudonym Jack Frost.[238] The album was critically well received and earned nominations for several Grammy awards.[239] Critics noted that Dylan was widening his musical palette to include rockabilly, Western swing, jazz, and even lounge ballads.[240] "Love and Theft"
"Love and Theft"
generated controversy when The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
pointed out similarities between the album's lyrics and Japanese author Junichi Saga's book Confessions of a Yakuza.[241][242] In 2003, Dylan revisited the evangelical songs from his Christian period and participated in the CD project Gotta Serve Somebody: The Gospel Songs of Bob Dylan. That year Dylan also released the film Masked & Anonymous, which he co-wrote with director Larry Charles under the alias Sergei Petrov.[243] Dylan played the central character in the film, Jack Fate, alongside a cast that included Jeff Bridges, Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
and John Goodman. The film polarised critics: many dismissed it as an "incoherent mess";[244][245] a few treated it as a serious work of art.[246][247] In October 2004, Dylan published the first part of his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One. Confounding expectations,[248] Dylan devoted three chapters to his first year in New York City in 1961–1962, virtually ignoring the mid-1960s when his fame was at its height. He also devoted chapters to the albums New Morning
New Morning
(1970) and Oh Mercy (1989). The book reached number two on The New York Times' Hardcover Non-Fiction best seller list in December 2004 and was nominated for a National Book
Book
Award.[249] No Direction Home, Martin Scorsese's acclaimed film biography of Dylan,[250] was first broadcast on September 26–27, 2005, on BBC Two in the UK and PBS
PBS
in the US.[251] The documentary focuses on the period from Dylan's arrival in New York in 1961 to his motorcycle crash in 1966, featuring interviews with Suze Rotolo, Liam Clancy, Joan Baez, Allen Ginsberg, Pete Seeger, Mavis Staples, and Dylan himself. The film received a Peabody Award
Peabody Award
in April 2006[252] and a Columbia-duPont Award in January 2007.[253] The accompanying soundtrack featured unreleased songs from Dylan's early career.[254] Dylan earned yet another distinction in a 2007 study of US legal opinions and briefs that found his lyrics were quoted by judges and lawyers more than those of any other songwriter, 186 times versus 74 by the Beatles, who were second. Among those quoting Dylan were US Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts
Chief Justice John Roberts
and Justice Antonin Scalia, both conservatives. The most widely cited lines included "you don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows" from "Subterranean Homesick Blues" and "when you ain't got nothing, you got nothing to lose" from "Like a Rolling Stone".[255][256] Modern Times May 3, 2006, was the premiere of Dylan's radio presenting career, hosting a weekly radio program, Theme Time Radio Hour, for XM Satellite Radio, with song selections revolving around a chosen theme.[257][258] Dylan played classic and obscure records from the 1930s to the present day, including contemporary artists as diverse as Blur, Prince, L.L. Cool J
L.L. Cool J
and the Streets. The show was praised by fans and critics as "great radio," as Dylan told stories and made eclectic references with his sardonic humor, while achieving a thematic beauty with his musical choices.[259][260] In April 2009, Dylan broadcast the 100th show in his radio series; the theme was "Goodbye" and the final record played was Woody Guthrie's "So Long, It's Been Good to Know Yuh". This led to speculation that Dylan's radio excursion had ended.[261]

Dylan, the Spectrum, 2007

On August 29, 2006, Dylan released his Modern Times album. Despite some coarsening of Dylan's voice (a critic for The Guardian characterised his singing on the album as "a catarrhal death rattle"[262]) most reviewers praised the album, and many described it as the final installment of a successful trilogy, embracing Time Out of Mind and "Love and Theft".[263] Modern Times entered the U.S. charts at number one, making it Dylan's first album to reach that position since 1976's Desire.[264] The New York Times
New York Times
published an article exploring similarities between some of Dylan's lyrics in Modern Times and the work of the Civil War poet Henry Timrod.[265] Nominated for three Grammy Awards, Modern Times won Best Contemporary Folk/Americana Album and Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
also won Best Solo Rock Vocal Performance for "Someday Baby". Modern Times was named Album of the Year, 2006, by Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine,[266] and by Uncut in the UK.[267] On the same day that Modern Times was released the iTunes Music Store released Bob Dylan: The Collection, a digital box set containing all of his albums (773 tracks in total), along with 42 rare and unreleased tracks.[268] In August 2007, the award-winning film biography of Dylan I'm Not There, written and directed by Todd Haynes, was released—bearing the tagline "inspired by the music and many lives of Bob Dylan".[269][270] The movie used six different actors to represent different aspects of Dylan's life: Christian Bale, Cate Blanchett, Marcus Carl Franklin, Richard Gere, Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
and Ben Whishaw.[270][271] Dylan's previously unreleased 1967 recording from which the film takes its name[272] was released for the first time on the film's original soundtrack; all other tracks are covers of Dylan songs, specially recorded for the movie by a diverse range of artists, including Sonic Youth, Eddie Vedder, Mason Jennings, Stephen Malkmus, Jeff Tweedy, Karen O, Willie Nelson, Cat Power, Richie Havens, and Tom Verlaine.[273]

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
performs at Air Canada Centre, Toronto, November 7, 2006

On October 1, 2007, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
released the triple CD retrospective album Dylan, anthologising his entire career under the Dylan 07 logo.[274] As part of this campaign, Mark Ronson
Mark Ronson
produced a re-mix of Dylan's 1966 tune "Most Likely You Go Your Way and I'll Go Mine", which was released as a maxi-single. This was the first time Dylan had sanctioned a re-mix of one of his classic recordings.[275] The sophistication of the Dylan 07 marketing campaign was a reminder that Dylan's commercial profile had risen considerably since the 1990s. This first became evident in 2004, when Dylan appeared in a TV advertisement for Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
lingerie.[276] Three years later, in October 2007, he participated in a multi-media campaign for the 2008 Cadillac Escalade.[277][278] Then, in 2009, he gave the highest profile endorsement of his career, appearing with rapper will.i.am in a Pepsi
Pepsi
ad that debuted during the telecast of Super Bowl XLIII.[279] The ad, broadcast to a record audience of 98 million viewers, opened with Dylan singing the first verse of "Forever Young" followed by will.i.am doing a hip hop version of the song's third and final verse.[280] In October 2008, Columbia released The Bootleg Series Vol. 8 – Tell Tale Signs as both a two-CD set and a three-CD version with a 150-page hardcover book. The set contains live performances and outtakes from selected studio albums from Oh Mercy
Oh Mercy
to Modern Times, as well as soundtrack contributions and collaborations with David Bromberg and Ralph Stanley.[281] The pricing of the album—the two-CD set went on sale for $18.99 and the three-CD version for $129.99—led to complaints about "rip-off packaging" from some fans and commentators.[282][283] The release was widely acclaimed by critics.[284] The abundance of alternative takes and unreleased material suggested to one reviewer that this volume of old outtakes "feels like a new Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
record, not only for the astonishing freshness of the material, but also for the incredible sound quality and organic feeling of everything here."[285] Together Through Life
Together Through Life
and Christmas in the Heart Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
released his album Together Through Life
Together Through Life
on April 28, 2009. In a conversation with music journalist Bill Flanagan, published on Dylan's website, Dylan explained that the genesis of the record was when French film director Olivier Dahan
Olivier Dahan
asked him to supply a song for his new road movie, My Own Love Song; initially only intending to record a single track, "Life Is Hard," "the record sort of took its own direction".[286] Nine of the ten songs on the album are credited as co-written by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and Robert Hunter.[287] The album received largely favorable reviews,[288] although several critics described it as a minor addition to Dylan's canon of work. Andy Gill wrote in The Independent
The Independent
that the record "features Dylan in fairly relaxed, spontaneous mood, content to grab such grooves and sentiments as flit momentarily across his radar. So while it may not contain too many landmark tracks, it's one of the most naturally enjoyable albums you'll hear all year."[289] In its first week of release, the album reached number one in the Billboard 200
Billboard 200
chart in the U.S.,[290] making Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(67 years of age) the oldest artist to ever debut at number one on that chart.[290] It also reached number one on the UK album chart, 39 years after Dylan's previous UK album chart
UK album chart
topper New Morning. This meant that Dylan currently holds the record for the longest gap between solo number one albums in the UK chart.[291] On October 13, 2009, Dylan released a Christmas album, Christmas in the Heart, comprising such Christmas standards as "Little Drummer Boy", "Winter Wonderland" and "Here Comes Santa Claus".[292] Dylan's royalties from the sale of this album will benefit the charities Feeding America
Feeding America
in the USA, Crisis in the UK, and the World Food Programme.[293] The album received generally favorable reviews.[294] The New Yorker commented that Dylan had welded a pre-rock musical sound to "some of his croakiest vocals in a while", and speculated that Dylan's intentions might be ironic: "Dylan has a long and highly publicized history with Christianity; to claim there's not a wink in the childish optimism of 'Here Comes Santa Claus' or 'Winter Wonderland' is to ignore a half-century of biting satire."[295] In USA Today, Edna Gundersen pointed out that Dylan was "revisiting yuletide styles popularized by Nat King Cole, Mel Tormé, and the Ray Conniff Singers." Gundersen concluded that Dylan "couldn't sound more sentimental or sincere".[296] In an interview published in The Big Issue, journalist Bill Flanagan asked Dylan why he had performed the songs in a straightforward style, and Dylan responded: "There wasn't any other way to play it. These songs are part of my life, just like folk songs. You have to play them straight too."[297] 2010s Tempest On October 18, 2010, Dylan released Volume 9 of his Bootleg Series, The Witmark Demos. This comprised 47 demo recordings of songs taped between 1962 and 1964 for Dylan's earliest music publishers: Leeds Music in 1962, and Witmark Music from 1962 to 1964. One reviewer described the set as "a hearty glimpse of young Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
changing the music business, and the world, one note at a time."[298] The critical aggregator website Metacritic
Metacritic
awarded the album a Metascore of 86, indicating "universal acclaim".[299] In the same week, Sony
Sony
Legacy released Bob Dylan: The Original Mono Recordings, a box set that for the first time presented Dylan's eight earliest albums, from Bob Dylan (1962) to John Wesley Harding (1967), in their original mono mix in the CD format. The CDs were housed in miniature facsimiles of the original album covers, replete with original liner notes. The set was accompanied by a booklet featuring an essay by music critic Greil Marcus.[300][301] On April 12, 2011, Legacy Recordings
Legacy Recordings
released Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in Concert – Brandeis University
Brandeis University
1963, taped at Brandeis University on May 10, 1963, two weeks prior to the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. The tape was discovered in the archive of music writer Ralph J. Gleason, and the recording carries liner notes by Michael Gray, who says it captures Dylan "from way back when Kennedy was President and the Beatles hadn't yet reached America. It reveals him not at any Big Moment but giving a performance like his folk club sets of the period... This is the last live performance we have of Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
before he becomes a star."[302] The extent to which his work was studied at an academic level was demonstrated on Dylan's 70th birthday on May 24, 2011, when three universities organized symposia on his work. The University of Mainz,[303] the University of Vienna,[304] and the University of Bristol[305] invited literary critics and cultural historians to give papers on aspects of Dylan's work. Other events, including tribute bands, discussions and simple singalongs, took place around the world, as reported in The Guardian: "From Moscow to Madrid, Norway to Northampton and Malaysia to his home state of Minnesota, self-confessed 'Bobcats' will gather today to celebrate the 70th birthday of a giant of popular music."[306]

Dylan and the Obamas at the White House, after a performance celebrating music from the civil rights movement (February 9, 2010)

On October 4, 2011, Dylan's label, Egyptian Records, released an album of previously unheard Hank Williams
Hank Williams
songs, The Lost Notebooks of Hank Williams. Dylan had helped to curate this project, in which songs unfinished when Williams died in 1953 were completed and recorded by a variety of artists, including Dylan himself, his son Jakob Dylan, Levon Helm, Norah Jones, Jack White, and others.[307][308] On May 29, 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
awarded Dylan a Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
in the White House. At the ceremony, Obama praised Dylan's voice for its "unique gravelly power that redefined not just what music sounded like but the message it carried and how it made people feel".[309] On September 11, 2012, Dylan released his 35th studio album, Tempest.[310] The album features a tribute to John Lennon, "Roll On John", and the title track is a 14-minute song about the sinking of the Titanic.[311] Reviewing Tempest for Rolling Stone, Will Hermes gave the album five out of five stars, writing: "Lyrically, Dylan is at the top of his game, joking around, dropping wordplay and allegories that evade pat readings and quoting other folks' words like a freestyle rapper on fire." Hermes called Tempest "one of [Dylan's] weirdest albums ever", and opined, "It may also be the single darkest record in Dylan's catalog."[312] The critical aggregator website Metacritic
Metacritic
awarded the album a score of 83 out of 100, indicating "universal acclaim".[313] On August 27, 2013, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
released Volume 10 of Dylan's Bootleg Series, Another Self Portrait (1969–1971).[314] The album contained 35 previously unreleased tracks, including alternate takes and demos from Dylan's 1969–1971 recording sessions during the making of the Self Portrait and New Morning
New Morning
albums. The box set also included a live recording of Dylan's performance with the Band at the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
Festival in 1969. Another Self Portrait received favorable reviews, earning a score of 81 on the critical aggregator, Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim".[315] AllMusic critic Thom Jurek wrote, "For fans, this is more than a curiosity, it's an indispensable addition to the catalog."[316] On November 4, 2013, Columbia Records
Columbia Records
released Bob Dylan: Complete Album Collection: Vol. One, a boxed set containing all 35 of Dylan's studio albums, six albums of live recordings, and a collection, entitled Sidetracks, of singles, songs from films and non-album material.[317] The box includes new album-by-album liner notes written by Clinton Heylin with an introduction by Bill Flanagan. On the same date, Columbia released a compilation, The Very Best of Bob Dylan, which is available in both single CD and double CD formats.[318] To publicize the 35 album box set, an innovative video of the song "Like a Rolling Stone" was released on Dylan's website. The interactive video, created by director Vania Heymann, allowed viewers to switch between 16 simulated TV channels, all featuring characters who are lip-synching the lyrics of the 48-year-old song.[319][320] On February 2, 2014, Dylan appeared in a commercial for the Chrysler 200 car which was screened during the 2014 Super Bowl American football game. At the end of the commercial, Dylan says: "So let Germany brew your beer, let Switzerland make your watch, let Asia assemble your phone. We will build your car." Dylan's Super Bowl commercial generated controversy and op-ed pieces discussing the protectionist implications of his words, and whether the singer had "sold out" to corporate interests.[321][322][323][324][325] In 2013 and 2014, auction house sales demonstrated the high cultural value attached to Dylan's mid-1960s work, and the record prices that collectors were willing to pay for artefacts from this period. In December 2013, the Fender Stratocaster
Fender Stratocaster
which Dylan had played at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival
Newport Folk Festival
fetched $965,000, the second highest price paid for a guitar.[326][327] In June 2014, Dylan's hand-written lyrics of "Like a Rolling Stone", his 1965 hit single, fetched $2 million dollars at auction, a record for a popular music manuscript.[328][329] On October 28, 2014, Simon & Schuster published a massive 960 page, thirteen and a half pound edition of Dylan's lyrics, The Lyrics: Since 1962. The book was edited by literary critic Christopher Ricks, Julie Nemrow and Lisa Nemrow, to offer variant versions of Dylan's songs, sourced from out-takes and live performances. A limited edition of 50 books, signed by Dylan, was priced at $5,000. "It’s the biggest, most expensive book we’ve ever published, as far as I know," said Jonathan Karp, Simon & Schuster’s president and publisher.[330][331] On November 4, 2014, Columbia Records/ Legacy Recordings
Legacy Recordings
released The Basement Tapes Complete by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and the Band. These 138 tracks in a six-CD box form Volume 11 of Dylan's Bootleg Series. The 1975 album, The Basement Tapes, contained some of the songs which Dylan and the Band recorded in their homes in Woodstock, New York, in 1967. Subsequently, over 100 recordings and alternate takes have circulated on bootleg records. The sleeve notes for the new box set are by Sid Griffin, American musician and author of Million Dollar Bash: Bob Dylan, the Band, and the Basement Tapes.[332][333] Shadows in the Night, Fallen Angels and Triplicate On February 3, 2015, Dylan released Shadows in the Night, featuring ten songs written between 1923 and 1963,[334][335] which have been described as part of the Great American Songbook.[336] All the songs on the album were recorded by Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
but both critics and Dylan himself cautioned against seeing the record as a collection of "Sinatra covers".[334][337] Dylan explained, "I don't see myself as covering these songs in any way. They've been covered enough. Buried, as a matter a fact. What me and my band are basically doing is uncovering them. Lifting them out of the grave and bringing them into the light of day."[338] In an interview, Dylan said he had been thinking about making this record since hearing Willie Nelson's 1978 album Stardust.[339] Shadows In the Night received favorable reviews, scoring 82 on the critical aggregator Metacritic, which indicates "universal acclaim".[340] Critics praised the restrained instrumental backings and Dylan's singing, saying that the material had elicited his best vocal performances in recent years.[336][341] Bill Prince in GQ commented: "A performer who's had to hear his influence in virtually every white pop recording made since he debuted his own self-titled album back in 1962 imagines himself into the songs of his pre-rock'n'roll early youth."[337] In The Independent, Andy Gill wrote that the recordings "have a lingering, languid charm, which... help to liberate the material from the rusting manacles of big-band and cabaret mannerisms."[342] The album debuted at number one in the UK Albums Chart in its first week of release.[343] On October 5, 2015, IBM
IBM
launched a marketing campaign for its Watson computer system which featured Dylan. Dylan is seen conversing with the computer which says it has read all his lyrics and reports: "My analysis shows that your major themes are that time passes and love fades." Dylan replies: "That sounds about right."[344] On November 6, 2015, Sony
Sony
Music released The Bootleg Series Vol. 12: The Cutting Edge 1965–1966. This work consists of previously unreleased material from the three albums Dylan recorded between January 1965 and March 1966: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The records have been released in three formats: a 2-CD "Best Of" version, a 6-CD "Deluxe edition", and an 18-CD "Collector's Edition" in a limited edition of 5,000 units. On Dylan's website the "Collector's Edition" was described as containing "every single note recorded by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in the studio in 1965/1966".[345][346] The critical aggregator website Metacritic awarded Cutting Edge a score of 99, indicating universal acclaim.[347] The Best of the Cutting Edge entered the Billboard Top Rock Albums chart at number one on November 18, based on its first-week sales.[348] On March 2, 2016, it was announced that Dylan had sold an extensive archive of about 6,000 items to the George Kaiser Family Foundation and the University of Tulsa. It was reported that the sale price was "an estimated $15 million to $20 million", and the archive comprises notebooks, drafts of Dylan lyrics, recordings, and correspondence.[349] Filmed material in the collection includes 30 hours of outtakes from the 1965 tour documentary Dont Look Back, 30 hours of footage shot on Dylan's legendary 1966 electric tour, and 50 hours shot on the 1975 Rolling Thunder Revue. The archive will be housed at Helmerich Center for American Research, a facility at the Gilcrease Museum.[350] On May 20, Dylan released Fallen Angels, which was described as "a direct continuation of the work of 'uncovering' the Great Songbook that he began on last year’s Shadows In the Night."[351] The album contained twelve songs by classic songwriters such as Harold Arlen, Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn
and Johnny Mercer, eleven of which had been recorded by Sinatra.[351] Jim Farber wrote in Entertainment Weekly: "Tellingly, [Dylan] delivers these songs of love lost and cherished not with a burning passion but with the wistfulness of experience. They’re memory songs now, intoned with a present sense of commitment. Released just four days ahead of his 75th birthday, they couldn’t be more age-appropriate."[352] The album received a score of 79 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, denoting "generally favorable reviews".[353] On October 13, the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
committee announced it had awarded Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".[3][354] On November 11, 2016, Legacy Recordings
Legacy Recordings
released a 36-CD set, The 1966 Live Recordings, including every known recording of Bob Dylan’s 1966 concert tour. Legacy Recordings
Legacy Recordings
president Adam Block said: "While doing the archival research for The Cutting Edge 1965–1966, last year's box set of Dylan's mid-'60s studio sessions, we were continually struck by how great his 1966 live recordings really are."[355] The recordings commence with the concert in White Plains New York on February 5, 1966, and end with the Royal Albert Hall concert in London on May 27.[356] The liner notes for the set are by Clinton Heylin, author of the book, Judas!: From Forest Hills to the Free Trade Hall: A Historical View of Dylan’s Big Boo, a study of the 1966 tour.[357] The New York Times
New York Times
reported most of the concerts had "never been heard in any form", and described the set as "a monumental addition to the corpus".[358] On March 31, 2017, Dylan released his triple album, Triplicate, comprising 30 new recordings of classic American songs, including "As Time Goes By" by Herman Hupfeld and "Stormy Weather" by Harold Arlen and Ted Koehler. Dylan's 38th studio album was recorded in Hollywood's Capitol Studios
Capitol Studios
and features his touring band.[359] Dylan posted a long interview on his website to promote the album, and was asked if this material was an exercise in nostalgia. "Nostalgic? No I wouldn’t say that. It’s not taking a trip down memory lane or longing and yearning for the good old days or fond memories of what’s no more. A song like "Sentimental Journey" is not a way back when song, it doesn’t emulate the past, it’s attainable and down to earth, it’s in the here and now."[360] The album was awarded a score of 84 on critical aggregator website Metacritic, signifying "universal acclaim". Critics praised the thoroughness of Dylan's exploration of the great American songbook, though, in the opinion of Uncut: "For all its easy charms, Triplicate labours its point to the brink of overkill. After five albums' worth of croon toons, this feels like a fat full stop on a fascinating chapter."[361] Conor McPherson's play Girl from the North Country, where dramatic action is broken up by 20 Dylan songs, opened in London's The Old Vic on July 26, 2017. The project began when Dylan's office approached McPherson and suggested creating a play using Dylan songs. The drama received favorable reviews.[362][363] On November 3, Sony
Sony
Music released The Bootleg Series Vol. 13: Trouble No More 1979–1981, comprising 8 CDs and 1 DVD.[364] Trouble No More documents what Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
described as Dylan's "Born Again Christian period of 1979 to 1981 - an intense, wildly controversial time that produced three albums and some of the most confrontational concerts of his long career."[364] Reviewing the box set in The New York Times, Jon Pareles wrote, "Decades later, what comes through these recordings above all is Mr. Dylan’s unmistakable fervor, his sense of mission. The studio albums are subdued, even tentative, compared with what the songs became on the road. Mr. Dylan’s voice is clear, cutting and ever improvisational; working the crowds, he was emphatic, committed, sometimes teasingly combative. And the band tears into the music."[365] Trouble No More includes a DVD of a film directed by Jennifer Lebeau consisting of live footage of Dylan's gospel performances interspersed with sermons delivered by actor Michael Shannon. The box set album received an aggregate score of 84 on the critical website Metacritic, indicating "universal acclaim".[366] Never Ending Tour Main article: Never Ending Tour

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
performing at Finsbury Park, London, June 18, 2011

The Never Ending Tour
Never Ending Tour
commenced on June 7, 1988,[367] and Dylan has played roughly 100 dates a year for the entirety of the 1990s and 2000s—a heavier schedule than most performers who started out in the 1960s.[368] By May 2013, Dylan and his band had played more than 2,500 shows,[369][370] anchored by long-time bassist Tony Garnier, drummer George Recile, multi-instrumentalist Donnie Herron, and guitarist Charlie Sexton.[371] To the dismay of some of his audience,[372] Dylan's performances remain unpredictable as he alters his arrangements and changes his vocal approach night after night.[373] Critical opinion about Dylan's shows remains divided. Critics such as Richard Williams and Andy Gill have argued that Dylan has found a successful way to present his rich legacy of material.[374][375] Others have criticized his live performances for mangling and spitting out "the greatest lyrics ever written so that they are effectively unrecognisable", and giving so little to the audience that "it is difficult to understand what he is doing on stage at all."[376] Dylan's performances in China in April 2011 generated controversy. Some criticised him for not making any explicit comment on the political situation in China, and for, allegedly, allowing the Chinese authorities to censor his set list.[377][378] Others defended Dylan's performances, arguing that such criticism represented a misunderstanding of Dylan's art, and that no evidence for the censorship of Dylan's set list existed.[379][380] In response to these allegations, Dylan posted a statement on his website: "As far as censorship goes, the Chinese government had asked for the names of the songs that I would be playing. There's no logical answer to that, so we sent them the set lists from the previous 3 months. If there were any songs, verses or lines censored, nobody ever told me about it and we played all the songs that we intended to play."[381] In 2018, Bob Dylan's website announced Dylan would tour in Europe, commencing in Lisbon in March and ending in Verona, Italy, on 27 April.[382][383] Visual artist The cover of Dylan's album Self Portrait (1970) is a reproduction of a painting of a face by Dylan.[384] Another of his paintings is reproduced on the cover of the 1974 album Planet Waves. In 1994 Random House published Drawn Blank, a book of Dylan's drawings.[385] In 2007, the first public exhibition of Dylan's paintings, The Drawn Blank Series, opened at the Kunstsammlungen in Chemnitz, Germany;[386] it showcased more than 200 watercolors and gouaches made from the original drawings. The exhibition coincided with the publication of Bob Dylan: The Drawn Blank Series, which includes 170 reproductions from the series.[386][387] From September 2010 until April 2011, the National Gallery of Denmark exhibited 40 large-scale acrylic paintings by Dylan, The Brazil Series.[388] In July 2011, a leading contemporary art gallery, Gagosian Gallery, announced their representation of Dylan's paintings.[389] An exhibition of Dylan's art, The Asia Series, opened at the Gagosian Madison Avenue Gallery on September 20, displaying Dylan's paintings of scenes in China and the Far East.[390] The New York Times
New York Times
reported that "some fans and Dylanologists have raised questions about whether some of these paintings are based on the singer's own experiences and observations, or on photographs that are widely available and were not taken by Mr. Dylan." The Times pointed to close resemblances between Dylan's paintings and historic photos of Japan and China, and photos taken by Dmitri Kessel and Henri Cartier-Bresson.[391] The Magnum photo agency confirmed that Dylan had licensed the reproduction rights of these photographs.[392] Dylan's second show at the Gagosian Gallery, Revisionist Art, opened in November 2012. The show consisted of thirty paintings, transforming and satirizing popular magazines, including Playboy
Playboy
and Babytalk.[393][394] In February 2013, Dylan exhibited the New Orleans Series of paintings at the Palazzo Reale in Milan.[395] In August 2013, Britain's National Portrait Gallery in London hosted Dylan's first major UK exhibition, Face Value, featuring twelve pastel portraits.[396] In November 2013, the Halcyon Gallery
Halcyon Gallery
in London mounted Mood Swings, an exhibition in which Dylan displayed seven wrought iron gates he had made. In a statement released by the gallery, Dylan said, "I've been around iron all my life ever since I was a kid. I was born and raised in iron ore country, where you could breathe it and smell it every day. Gates appeal to me because of the negative space they allow. They can be closed but at the same time they allow the seasons and breezes to enter and flow. They can shut you out or shut you in. And in some ways there is no difference."[397][398] In November 2016, the Halcyon Gallery
Halcyon Gallery
featured a collection of drawings, watercolors and acrylic works by Dylan. The exhibition, The Beaten Path, depicted American landscapes and urban scenes, inspired by Dylan's travels across the USA.[399] The show was well reviewed by Vanity Fair, the Telegraph, and Asia Times Online, and is scheduled to tour in 2017.[400][401][402] Since 1994, Dylan has published seven books of paintings and drawings.[403] Discography Main articles: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
discography and List of songs written by Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(1962) The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan
The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan
(1963) The Times They Are a-Changin' (1964) Another Side of Bob Dylan
Another Side of Bob Dylan
(1964) Bringing It All Back Home
Bringing It All Back Home
(1965) Highway 61 Revisited
Highway 61 Revisited
(1965) Blonde on Blonde
Blonde on Blonde
(1966) John Wesley Harding (1967) Nashville Skyline
Nashville Skyline
(1969) Self Portrait (1970) New Morning
New Morning
(1970) Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid (1973) Dylan (1973) Planet Waves
Planet Waves
(1974) Blood on the Tracks
Blood on the Tracks
(1975) The Basement Tapes
The Basement Tapes
(1975) Desire (1976) Street Legal (1978) Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
(1979) Saved (1980) Shot of Love
Shot of Love
(1981) Infidels (1983) Empire Burlesque
Empire Burlesque
(1985) Knocked Out Loaded
Knocked Out Loaded
(1986) Down in the Groove
Down in the Groove
(1988) Oh Mercy
Oh Mercy
(1989) Under the Red Sky
Under the Red Sky
(1990) Good as I Been to You
Good as I Been to You
(1992) World Gone Wrong
World Gone Wrong
(1993) Time Out of Mind (1997) Love and Theft (2001) Modern Times (2006) Together Through Life
Together Through Life
(2009) Christmas in the Heart
Christmas in the Heart
(2009) Tempest (2012) Shadows in the Night
Shadows in the Night
(2015) Fallen Angels (2016) Triplicate (2017)

Bibliography Main article: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
bibliography Dylan has published Tarantula, a work of prose poetry; Chronicles: Volume One, the first part of his memoirs; several books of the lyrics of his songs, and seven books of his art. He has also been the subject of numerous biographies and critical studies. Personal life Romantic relationships Suze Rotolo Dylan's first serious relationship was with artist Suze Rotolo, a daughter of American Communist Party
American Communist Party
radicals. According to Dylan, "She was the most erotic thing I'd ever seen... The air was suddenly filled with banana leaves. We started talking and my head started to spin."[404] Rotolo was photographed arm-in-arm with Dylan on the cover of his album The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan. Critics have connected Rotolo to some of Dylan's early love songs, including "Don't Think Twice It's All Right". The relationship ended in 1964.[405] In 2008, Rotolo published a memoir about her life in Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
and relationship with Dylan in the 1960s, A Freewheelin' Time.[406] Joan Baez When Joan Baez
Joan Baez
first met Dylan in April 1961, she had already released her first album and was acclaimed as the "Queen of Folk".[407] On hearing Dylan perform his song "With God on Our Side," Baez later said, "I never thought anything so powerful could come out of that little toad".[408] In July 1963, Baez invited Dylan to join her on stage at the Newport Folk Festival, setting the scene for similar duets over the next two years.[409] By the time of Dylan's 1965 tour of the U.K, their romantic relationship had begun to fizzle out, as captured in D. A. Pennebaker's documentary film Dont Look Back.[409] Baez later toured with Dylan as a performer on his Rolling Thunder Revue in 1975–76, and sang four songs with Dylan on the live album of the tour, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1975, The Rolling Thunder Revue. Baez appeared with Dylan in the one-hour TV special Hard Rain, filmed at Fort Collins, Colorado, in May 1976. Baez also starred as 'The Woman In White' in the film Renaldo and Clara
Renaldo and Clara
(1978), directed by Dylan and filmed during the Rolling Thunder Revue. Dylan and Baez toured together again in 1984 with Carlos Santana.[409] Baez recalled her relationship with Dylan in Martin Scorsese's documentary film No Direction Home
No Direction Home
(2005). Baez wrote about Dylan in two autobiographies—admiringly in Daybreak (1968), and less admiringly in And A Voice to Sing With (1987). Baez's relationship with Dylan is the subject of her song "Diamonds & Rust", which has been described as "an acute portrait" of Dylan.[409] Sara Dylan Dylan married Sara Lownds, who had worked as a model and a secretary to Drew Associates, on November 22, 1965.[410] Their first child, Jesse Byron Dylan, was born on January 6, 1966, and they had three more children: Anna Lea (born July 11, 1967), Samuel Isaac Abram (born July 30, 1968), and Jakob Luke (born December 9, 1969). Dylan also adopted Sara's daughter from a prior marriage, Maria Lownds (later Dylan, born October 21, 1961). Sara Dylan played the role of Clara in Dylan's film Renaldo and Clara
Renaldo and Clara
(1978). Bob and Sara Dylan were divorced on June 29, 1977.[410] Maria married musician Peter Himmelman
Peter Himmelman
in 1988.[411] In the 1990s, Jakob became well known as the lead singer of the band the Wallflowers; Jesse is a film director and a successful businessman. Carolyn Dennis Dylan married his backup singer Carolyn Dennis (often professionally known as Carol Dennis) on June 4, 1986. Desiree Gabrielle Dennis-Dylan, their daughter had been born on January 31, 1986.[412] The couple divorced in October 1992. Their marriage and child remained a closely guarded secret until the publication of Howard Sounes' biography Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan, in 2001.[413] Home When not touring, Dylan is believed to live primarily in Point Dume, a promontory on the coast of Malibu, California, though he also owns property around the world.[414][415] Religious beliefs Growing up in Hibbing, Minnesota, Dylan and his family were part of the area's small but close-knit Jewish community, and in May 1954 Dylan had his Bar Mitzvah.[416] Around the time of his 30th birthday, in 1971, Dylan visited Israel, and also met Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the New York-based Jewish Defense League.[417] Time magazine quoted him saying about Kahane, "He's a really sincere guy. He's really put it all together."[418] Subsequently, Dylan downplayed the extent of his contact with Kahane.[419]

Dylan performs in Ahoy Rotterdam, the Netherlands, June 4, 1984

During the late 1970s, Dylan converted to Christianity. In November 1978, guided by his friend Mary Alice Artes, Dylan made contact with the Vineyard School of Discipleship.[186] Vineyard Pastor Kenn Gulliksen has recalled: "Larry Myers and Paul Emond went over to Bob's house and ministered to him. He responded by saying, 'Yes he did in fact want Christ in his life.' And he prayed that day and received the Lord."[420][421] From January to March 1979, Dylan attended the Vineyard Bible study classes in Reseda, California.[186][422] By 1984, Dylan was distancing himself from the "born again" label. He told Kurt Loder of Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
magazine: "I've never said I'm born again. That's just a media term. I don't think I've been an agnostic. I've always thought there's a superior power, that this is not the real world and that there's a world to come." In response to Loder's asking whether he belonged to any church or synagogue, Dylan laughingly replied, "Not really. Uh, the Church of the Poison Mind."[423] When it was asked of Dylan in a 1986 press conference in Australia "How much do you feel you are a vessel, a medium for a higher power, for God, that it [the music] flows through you... for Him?" Dylan replied, "Well I feel that way about most of the stuff that I do, I might not know it at the time, [that] that's what's happening or that might be the process, but when I see it later it seems to me that that's the way it happened."[424] In 1997, he told David Gates of Newsweek:

Here's the thing with me and the religious thing. This is the flat-out truth: I find the religiosity and philosophy in the music. I don't find it anywhere else. Songs like "Let Me Rest on a Peaceful Mountain" or "I Saw the Light"—that's my religion. I don't adhere to rabbis, preachers, evangelists, all of that. I've learned more from the songs than I've learned from any of this kind of entity. The songs are my lexicon. I believe the songs.[425]

In an interview published in The New York Times
New York Times
on September 28, 1997, journalist Jon Pareles reported that "Dylan says he now subscribes to no organized religion."[426] Dylan has supported the Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch movement,[427] and has privately participated in Jewish religious events, including the Bar Mitzvahs of his sons and attending Hadar Hatorah, a Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch yeshiva. In September 1989 and September 1991, he appeared on the Chabad
Chabad
telethon.[428] On Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
in 2007 he attended Congregation Beth Tefillah, in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was called to the Torah for the sixth aliyah.[429] Dylan has continued to perform songs from his gospel albums in concert, occasionally covering traditional religious songs. He has also made passing references to his religious faith—such as in a 2004 interview with 60 Minutes, when he told Ed Bradley
Ed Bradley
that "the only person you have to think twice about lying to is either yourself or to God." He also explained his constant touring schedule as part of a bargain he made a long time ago with the "chief commander—in this earth and in the world we can't see."[27] In a 2009 interview with Bill Flanagan
Bill Flanagan
promoting Dylan's Christmas LP, Christmas in the Heart, Flanagan commented on the "heroic performance" Dylan gave of "O Little Town of Bethlehem" and that he "delivered the song like a true believer". Dylan replied: "Well, I am a true believer."[297]

Accolades Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Bob Dylan

President Obama presents Dylan with a Medal of Freedom, May 2012

Play media

Sara Danius
Sara Danius
announces the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
2016.

Dylan has won many awards throughout his career including the 2016 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, twelve Grammy Awards, one Academy Award
Academy Award
and one Golden Globe Award. He has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, and Songwriters Hall of Fame. In May 2000, Dylan received the Polar Music Prize
Polar Music Prize
from Sweden's King Carl XVI.[430] In June 2007, Dylan received the Prince of Asturias Award in the Arts category.[431] Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
in May 2012.[432][433] In February 2015, Dylan accepted the MusiCares Person of the Year award from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, in recognition of his philanthropic and artistic contributions to society.[434] In November 2013, Dylan received the accolade of Légion d'Honneur
Légion d'Honneur
from the French education minister Aurélie Filippetti.[435] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
committee announced on October 13, 2016, that it would be awarding Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".[3][436] The New York Times
New York Times
reported: "Mr. Dylan, 75, is the first musician to win the award, and his selection on Thursday is perhaps the most radical choice in a history stretching back to 1901."[354] Dylan is the only person in history apart from George Bernard Shaw to be a recipient of both an Academy Award
Academy Award
and a Nobel prize. On October 21, a member of the Swedish Academy, writer Per Wästberg, termed Dylan "rude and arrogant" for ignoring the Nobel Committee's attempts to contact him.[437] Academy permanent secretary Sara Danius answered, "The Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
has never held a view on a prizewinner’s decision in this context, neither will it now."[438] After two weeks of speculation about Dylan's silence concerning the Nobel Prize,[439] he said in an interview with Edna Gundersen that getting the award was: "amazing, incredible. Whoever dreams about something like that?"[440] On November 17, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
announced that Dylan would not travel to Stockholm
Stockholm
for the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Ceremony due to "pre-existing commitments".[441] At the Nobel Banquet
Nobel Banquet
in Stockholm
Stockholm
on December 10, 2016, Dylan's banquet speech was given by Azita Raji, U.S. Ambassador to Sweden. The speech stated: "From an early age, I've been familiar with and reading and absorbing the works of those who were deemed worthy of such a distinction: Kipling, Shaw, Thomas Mann, Pearl Buck, Albert Camus, Hemingway. These giants of literature whose works are taught in the schoolroom, housed in libraries around the world and spoken of in reverent tones have always made a deep impression. That I now join the names on such a list is truly beyond words."[442] Patti Smith accepted Dylan's Nobel with a "transcendent performance" of his song "A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall" to orchestral accompaniment.[443] On April 2, 2017, the Academy secretary Danius said: "Earlier today the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
met with Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
for a private ceremony [with no media present] in Stockholm, during which Dylan received his gold medal and diploma. Twelve members of the Academy were present. Spirits were high. Champagne was had. Quite a bit of time was spent looking closely at the gold medal, in particular the beautifully crafted back, an image of a young man sitting under a laurel tree who listens to the Muse. Taken from Virgil’s Aeneid, the inscription reads: Inventas vitam iuvat excoluisse per artes, loosely translated as "And they who bettered life on earth by their newly found mastery."[444] On June 5, 2017, Dylan's Nobel Lecture was posted on the Nobel prize website.[445] The New York Times
New York Times
pointed out that, in order to collect the prize’s 8 million Swedish krona ($900,000), the Swedish Academy’s rules stipulate the laureate "must deliver a lecture within six months of the official ceremony, which would have made Mr. Dylan’s deadline June 10."[446] Academy secretary Danius commented: "The speech is extraordinary and, as one might expect, eloquent. Now that the lecture has been delivered, the Dylan adventure is coming to a close."[447] In his essay, Dylan writes about the impact that three important books made on him: Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front
All Quiet on the Western Front
and Homer's The Odyssey. He concludes: "Our songs are alive in the land of the living. But songs are unlike literature. They’re meant to be sung, not read. The words in Shakespeare’s plays were meant to be acted on the stage. Just as lyrics in songs are meant to be sung, not read on a page. And I hope some of you get the chance to listen to these lyrics the way they were intended to be heard: in concert or on record or however people are listening to songs these days. I return once again to Homer, who says, 'Sing in me, oh Muse, and through me tell the story'."[16] Alan Pasqua provided the uncredited piano accompaniment for the recorded speech.[448] Legacy Dylan has been described as one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, musically and culturally. He was included in the Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century where he was called "master poet, caustic social critic and intrepid, guiding spirit of the counterculture generation".[449] In 2008, The Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
jury awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power."[450] President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
said of Dylan in 2012, "There is not a bigger giant in the history of American music."[309] For 20 years, academics lobbied the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
to give Dylan the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature,[451][452][453][454] which awarded it to him in 2016,[354] making Dylan the first musician to be awarded the Literature Prize.[354] Horace Engdahl, a member of the Nobel Committee, described Dylan's place in literary history:

...a singer worthy of a place beside the Greek bards, beside Ovid, beside the Romantic visionaries, beside the kings and queens of the blues, beside the forgotten masters of brilliant standards.[455]

Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
has ranked Dylan at number one in its 2015 list of the 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time,[456] and listed "Like A Rolling Stone" as the "Greatest Song of all Time" in their 2011 list.[457] In 2008, it was estimated that Dylan had sold about 120 million albums worldwide.[458]

I loved him because he wrote some beautiful stuff. I used to love his so-called protest things. But I like the sound of him. I didn't have to listen to his words. He used to come with his acetate and say, "Listen to this, John. Did you hear the words?" And I said, "That doesn't matter, just the sound is what counts. The overall thing." You didn't have to hear what Bob Dylan's saying, you just have to hear the way he says it, like the medium is the message...I respected him, I respected him a lot.

John Lennon, 1970[459]

Initially modeling his writing style on the songs of Woody Guthrie,[460] the blues of Robert Johnson,[461] and what he termed the "architectural forms" of Hank Williams
Hank Williams
songs,[462] Dylan added increasingly sophisticated lyrical techniques to the folk music of the early 1960s, infusing it "with the intellectualism of classic literature and poetry".[463] Paul Simon
Paul Simon
suggested that Dylan's early compositions virtually took over the folk genre: "[Dylan's] early songs were very rich ... with strong melodies. 'Blowin' in the Wind' has a really strong melody. He so enlarged himself through the folk background that he incorporated it for a while. He defined the genre for a while."[464] When Dylan made his move from acoustic folk and blues music to a rock backing, the mix became more complex. For many critics, his greatest achievement was the cultural synthesis exemplified by his mid-1960s trilogy of albums—Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. In Mike Marqusee's words:

Between late 1964 and the middle of 1966, Dylan created a body of work that remains unique. Drawing on folk, blues, country, R&B, rock'n'roll, gospel, British beat, symbolist, modernist and Beat poetry, surrealism and Dada, advertising jargon and social commentary, Fellini and Mad magazine, he forged a coherent and original artistic voice and vision. The beauty of these albums retains the power to shock and console.[465]

Dylan's lyrics began to receive detailed scrutiny from academics and poets as early as 1998, when Stanford University sponsored the first international academic conference on Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
to be held in the United States.[466] In 2004, Richard F. Thomas, Classics professor at Harvard University, created a freshman seminar titled "Dylan" "to put the artist in context of not just popular culture of the last half-century, but the tradition of classical poets like Virgil
Virgil
and Homer."[467] William Arctander O'Brien, literary scholar and professor of German and Comparative Literature
Comparative Literature
at the University of California, San Diego, memorialized the significance of Dylan's contribution to world literature when he created a full academic course in 2009 devoted to Dylan, which analyzed and celebrated the "historical, political, economic, aesthetic, and cultural significance of Dylan’s work."[468] Literary critic Christopher Ricks published Dylan's Visions of Sin, a 500-page analysis of Dylan's work,[469] and has said: "I’d not have written a book about Dylan, to stand alongside my books on Milton and Keats, Tennyson and T.S. Eliot, if I didn’t think Dylan a genius of and with language.[470] Former British poet laureate Andrew Motion suggested his lyrics should be studied in schools.[471] The critical consensus that Dylan's song writing was his outstanding creative achievement was articulated by Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
where his entry stated: "Hailed as the Shakespeare
Shakespeare
of his generation, Dylan... set the standard for lyric writing."[472] Dylan's voice also received critical attention. New York Times
New York Times
critic Robert Shelton described his early vocal style as "a rusty voice suggesting Guthrie's old performances, etched in gravel like Dave Van Ronk's."[473] David Bowie, in his tribute, "Song for Bob Dylan", described Dylan's singing as "a voice like sand and glue". His voice continued to develop as he began to work with rock'n'roll backing bands; critic Michael Gray described the sound of Dylan's vocal work on "Like a Rolling Stone" as "at once young and jeeringly cynical".[474] As Dylan's voice aged during the 1980s, for some critics, it became more expressive. Christophe Lebold writes in the journal Oral Tradition, "Dylan's more recent broken voice enables him to present a world view at the sonic surface of the songs—this voice carries us across the landscape of a broken, fallen world. The anatomy of a broken world in "Everything is Broken" (on the album Oh Mercy) is but an example of how the thematic concern with all things broken is grounded in a concrete sonic reality."[475] Dylan is considered a seminal influence on many musical genres. As Edna Gundersen stated in USA Today: "Dylan's musical DNA has informed nearly every simple twist of pop since 1962."[476] Punk musician Joe Strummer praised Dylan for having "laid down the template for lyric, tune, seriousness, spirituality, depth of rock music."[477] Other major musicians who acknowledged Dylan's importance include Johnny Cash,[478] Jerry Garcia,[479] John Lennon,[480] Paul McCartney,[481] Pete Townshend,[482] Neil Young,[483] Bruce Springsteen,[100] David Bowie,[484] Bryan Ferry,[485] Nick Cave,[486][487] Patti Smith,[488] Syd Barrett,[489] Joni Mitchell,[490] Tom Waits[491] and Leonard Cohen.[492] Dylan significantly contributed to the initial success of both the Byrds and the Band: the Byrds achieved chart success with their version of "Mr. Tambourine Man" and the subsequent album, while the Band were Dylan's backing band on his 1966 tour, recorded The Basement Tapes with him in 1967,[493] and featured three previously unreleased Dylan songs on their debut album.[494] Some critics have dissented from the view of Dylan as a visionary figure in popular music. In his book Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom, Nik Cohn objected: "I can't take the vision of Dylan as seer, as teenage messiah, as everything else he's been worshipped as. The way I see him, he's a minor talent with a major gift for self-hype."[495] Australian critic Jack Marx credited Dylan with changing the persona of the rock star: "What cannot be disputed is that Dylan invented the arrogant, faux-cerebral posturing that has been the dominant style in rock since, with everyone from Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
to Eminem
Eminem
educating themselves from the Dylan handbook."[496] Fellow musicians have also presented dissenting views. Joni Mitchell described Dylan as a "plagiarist" and his voice as "fake" in a 2010 interview in the Los Angeles Times, despite the fact that Mitchell had toured with Dylan in the past, and both artists have covered each others songs.[497][498] Mitchell's comment led to discussions of Dylan's use of other people's material, both supporting and criticizing him.[499] Talking to Mikal Gilmore in Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
in 2012, Dylan responded to the allegation of plagiarism, including his use of Henry Timrod's verse in his album Modern Times,[265] by saying that it was "part of the tradition".[500][a 5] If Dylan's work in the 1960s was seen as bringing intellectual ambition to popular music,[465] critics in the 21st century described him as a figure who had greatly expanded the folk culture from which he initially emerged. Following the release of Todd Haynes' Dylan biopic I'm Not There, J. Hoberman wrote in his 2007 Village Voice review:

Elvis might never have been born, but someone else would surely have brought the world rock 'n' roll. No such logic accounts for Bob Dylan. No iron law of history demanded that a would-be Elvis from Hibbing, Minnesota, would swerve through the Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
folk revival to become the world's first and greatest rock 'n' roll beatnik bard and then—having achieved fame and adoration beyond reckoning—vanish into a folk tradition of his own making.[501]

When Dylan was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, The New York Times commented: "In choosing a popular musician for the literary world’s highest honor, the Swedish Academy, which awards the prize, dramatically redefined the boundaries of literature, setting off a debate about whether song lyrics have the same artistic value as poetry or novels."[354] Responses varied from the sarcasm of Irvine Welsh, who described it as "an ill conceived nostalgia award wrenched from the rancid prostates of senile, gibbering hippies",[502] to the enthusiasm of Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
who tweeted: "From Orpheus
Orpheus
to Faiz, song & poetry have been closely linked. Dylan is the brilliant inheritor of the bardic tradition. Great choice."[503] Archives and tributes Dylan's archive, comprising notebooks, song drafts, business contracts, recordings and movie out-takes, is held at the Gilcrease Museum's Helmerich Center for American Research in Tulsa, Oklahoma, which is also the home of the papers of Woody Guthrie.[349][504] While selections from the Dylan papers may be consulted at the Helmerich Center, the George Kaiser Family Foundation has announced a design competition for a major Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Center in Tulsa's Arts District.[505][506] In 2005, 7th Avenue East in Hibbing, Minnesota, the street on which Dylan lived from ages 6 to 18, received the honorary name Bob Dylan Drive.[507][508][509] In the town Hibbing, a walk of fame-styled "star" is embedded in a sidewalk with the words Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
as well as a cursive-Z for Dylan's nickname Zimmy in youth.[510] In 2006 a cultural pathway, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Way, was inaugurated in Duluth, Minnesota, the city where Dylan was born. The 1.8 mile path links "cultural and historically significant areas of downtown for the tourists".[511][512] In 2015, a massive Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
mural was unveiled in downtown Minneapolis, the city where Dylan attended university for a year. The mural was designed by Brazilian street artist Eduardo Kobra.[513] See also

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
– book

Notes

^ According to Dylan biographer Robert Shelton, the singer first confided his change of name to his high school girlfriend, Echo Helstrom, in 1958, telling her that he had found a "great name, Bob Dillon". Shelton surmises that Dillon had two sources: Marshal Matt Dillon was the hero of the TV western Gunsmoke; Dillon was also the name of one of Hibbing's principal families. While Shelton was writing Dylan's biography in the 1960s, Dylan told him, "Straighten out in your book that I did not take my name from Dylan Thomas. Dylan Thomas's poetry is for people that aren't really satisfied in their bed, for people who dig masculine romance." At the University of Minnesota, the singer told a few friends that Dillon was his mother's maiden name, which was untrue. He later told reporters that he had an uncle named Dillon. Shelton added that only when he reached New York in 1961 did the singer begin to spell his name "Dylan", by which time he was acquainted with the life and work of Dylan Thomas. Shelton (2011), pp. 44–45. ^ In a May 1963 interview with Studs Terkel, Dylan broadened the meaning of the song, saying "the pellets of poison flooding the waters" refers to "the lies people are told on their radios and in their newspapers". Cott (2006), p. 8. ^ The title "Spokesman of a Generation" was viewed by Dylan with disgust in later years. He came to feel it was a label the media had pinned on him, and in his autobiography, Chronicles, Dylan wrote: "The press never let up. Once in a while I would have to rise up and offer myself for an interview so they wouldn't beat the door down. Later an article would hit the streets with the headline "Spokesman Denies That He's A Spokesman". I felt like a piece of meat that someone had thrown to the dogs." Dylan (2004), p.119 ^ According to Shelton, Dylan named the tour Rolling Thunder and then "appeared pleased when someone told him to native Americans, rolling thunder means speaking the truth." A Cherokee
Cherokee
medicine man named Rolling Thunder appeared on stage at Providence, RI, "stroking a feather in time to the music". Shelton (2011), p. 310. ^ Dylan told Gilmore: "As far as Henry Timrod
Henry Timrod
is concerned, have you even heard of him? Who's been reading him lately? And who's pushed him to the forefront?... And if you think it's so easy to quote him and it can help your work, do it yourself and see how far you can get. Wussies and pussies complain about that stuff. It's an old thing—it's part of the tradition."

References Footnotes

^ Bob Dylan. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
and Museum ^ "Nobel laureate Bob Dylan: uneasy 'voice of a generation'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. October 14, 2016.  ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
2016" (PDF). Nobelprize.org. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2016.  ^ Sounes, p. 14, gives his Hebrew
Hebrew
name as Shabtai Zisel ben Avraham ^ A Chabad
Chabad
news service gives the variant Zushe ben Avraham, which may be a Yiddish
Yiddish
variant "Singer/Songwriter Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Joins Yom Kippur Services in Atlanta". Chabad.org News. September 24, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ Sounes, p. 14 ^ "Robert Allen Zimmerman". Minnesota Birth Index, 1935–2002. Ancestry.com. Retrieved September 6, 2011. Name: Robert Allen Zimmerman; Birth Date: May 24, 1941; Birth County: Saint Louis; Father: Abram H. Zimmerman; Mother: Beatrice Stone (subscription required) ^ a b Sounes, pp. 12–13. ^ Dylan, pp. 92–93. ^ Shelton, pp. 38–40. ^ "Hibbing". hibbing.yolasite.com.  ^ a b Gray, Michael (May 22, 2011). "One of a kind: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
at 70". Japan Times. Retrieved December 30, 2011.  ^ Heylin (1996), pp. 4–5. ^ Sounes, pp. 29–37. ^ Heylin, 1996, Bob Dylan: A Life In Stolen Moments, p. 6. ^ a b Dylan, Bob (June 6, 2017). "Bob Dylan's Nobel Lecture". Swedish Academy. Retrieved June 5, 2017.  ^ LIFE Books, "Bob Dylan, Forever Young, 50 Years of Song", Time Home Entertainment, Vol. 2, No 2, February 10, 2012, p. 15. ^ An interview with Vee suggests Zimmerman may have been eccentric in spelling his early pseudonym: "[Dylan] was in the Fargo/Moorhead area ... Bill [Velline] was in a record shop in Fargo, Sam's Record Land, and this guy came up to him and introduced himself as Elston Gunnn—with three n's, G-U-N-N-N." Bobby Vee
Bobby Vee
Interview, July 1999, Goldmine Reproduced online: "Early alias for Robert Zimmerman". Expecting Rain. August 11, 1999. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ Sounes, pp. 41–42. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 26–27. ^ " University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Scholars Walk: Nobel Prize". University of Minnesota. Retrieved December 15, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f Biograph, 1985, Liner notes & text by Cameron Crowe. ^ Shelton, pp. 65–82. ^ a b This is related in the documentary film No Direction Home, directed by Martin Scorsese. broadcast September 26, 2005, PBS
PBS
& BBC Two. ^ Heylin (1996), p. 7. ^ Dylan, pp. 78–79. ^ a b Leung, Rebecca (June 12, 2005). " "Dylan Looks Back". CBS
CBS
News. Retrieved February 25, 2009.  ^ Sounes, p. 72 ^ Dylan, p. 98. ^ Dylan, pp. 244–246. ^ Dylan, pp. 250–252. ^ Shelton (2011), pp. 74–78. ^ Shelton, Robert (July 29, 1961). "Folk Music Heard on 12-Hour Show". The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2017.  ^ Shelton, Robert (September 21, 1961). The New York Times, "Bob Dylan: A Distinctive Stylist" reproduced online: Shelton, Robert (September 21, 1961). "Bob Dylan: A Distinctive Stylist". Bob Dylan Roots. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ Unterberger, Richie (October 8, 2003). " Carolyn Hester biography". AllMusic. Retrieved December 8, 2016.  ^ Shelton (2011), No Direction Home, p. 87 ^ Greene, Andy (March 19, 2012). "50 years ago today: Bob Dylan released his debut album". CNN. Retrieved March 4, 2017.  ^ a b Scaduto, p. 110. ^ Gilliland 1969, show 31, track 3, 5:12. ^ A photo of Dylan with Spivey at this session was on the cover of his 1970 album, New Morning. See Gray (2006), pp. 630–631. ^ a b c Unterberger, Richie. "Blind Boy Grunt". AllMusic. Retrieved February 12, 2011.  ^ Shelton, pp. 157–158. ^ Gill, p. 23. ^ Sounes, p. 121. ^ Sounes, p. 116. ^ Sounes, pp. 94–95, 115. An interview with Silver on DVD, filmed for the documentary No Direction Home
No Direction Home
but not used, was included with the album Together Through Life. ^ Gray (2006), pp. 283–284. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 115–116. ^ a b Heylin (1996), pp. 35–39. ^ a b c d Llewellyn-Smith, Caspar (September 18, 2005). "Flash-back". The Observer. London. Retrieved June 17, 2012.  ^ Shelton, pp. 138–142. ^ Shelton, p. 156. ^ The booklet by John Bauldie accompanying Dylan's The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991 (1991) says: "Dylan acknowledged the debt in 1978 to journalist Marc Rowland: Blowin' In The Wind' has always been a spiritual. I took it off a song called 'No More Auction Block'—that's a spiritual and 'Blowin' In The Wind follows the same feeling.'" pp. 6–8. ^ Eder, Bruce. " Peter, Paul and Mary
Peter, Paul and Mary
biography". Billboard. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 101–103. ^ Ricks, pp. 329–344. ^ Maslin in Miller (ed.) Miller, (1981), The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
History of Rock & Roll, 1981, p. 220 ^ Scaduto, p. 35. ^ Mojo magazine, December 1993. p. 97 ^ Hedin, p. 259. ^ Sounes, pp. 136–138. ^ Joan Baez
Joan Baez
entry, Gray (2006), pp. 28–31. ^ Prague36 (December 26, 2014). " Joan Baez
Joan Baez
Discusses Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
/ 2009" – via YouTube.  ^ Prague36 (December 26, 2014). " Joan Baez
Joan Baez
Discusses Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
/ 2009" – via YouTube.  ^ Meacham, Steve (August 15, 2007). "It ain't me babe but I like how it sounds". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved September 24, 2008.  ^ Biograph, 1985, Liner notes & text by Cameron Crowe. Musicians on "Mixed Up Confusion": George Barnes & Bruce Langhorne (guitars); Dick Wellstood (piano); Gene Ramey (bass); Herb Lovelle (drums) ^ Dylan had recorded "Talkin' John Birch Society
John Birch Society
Blues" for his Freewheelin album, but the song was replaced by later compositions, including "Masters of War". See Heylin (2000), pp. 114–115. ^ Dylan performed "Only a Pawn in Their Game" and "When the Ship Comes In"; see Heylin (1996), p. 49. ^ Gill, pp. 37–41. ^ Ricks, pp. 221–233. ^ Williams, p. 56. ^ a b Bjorner, Olof (November 21, 2015). "5th Nashville Skyline session, 18 February 1969". bjorner.com. Retrieved October 31, 2016.  ^ a b " Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
record 'One Too Many Mornings'". YouTube. February 18, 1969. Retrieved October 31, 2016.  ^ Shelton, pp. 200–205. ^ Part of Dylan's speech went: "There's no black and white, left and right to me any more; there's only up and down and down is very close to the ground. And I'm trying to go up without thinking of anything trivial such as politics."; see, Shelton, pp. 200–205. ^ Heylin (1996), p. 60. ^ Shelton, p. 222. ^ In an interview with Seth Goddard for Life (July 5, 2001) Ginsberg said Dylan's technique had been inspired by Jack Kerouac: "(Dylan) pulled Mexico City Blues
Blues
from my hand and started reading it and I said, 'What do you know about that?' He said, 'Somebody handed it to me in '59 in St. Paul and it blew my mind.' So I said 'Why?' He said, 'It was the first poetry that spoke to me in my own language.' So those chains of flashing images you get in Dylan, like 'the motorcycle black Madonna two-wheeled gypsy queen and her silver studded phantom lover,' they're influenced by Kerouac's chains of flashing images and spontaneous writing, and that spreads out into the people." Reproduced online: "Online Interviews With Allen Ginsberg". University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. October 8, 2004. Retrieved September 11, 2008.  ^ Shelton, pp. 219–222. ^ Shelton, pp. 267–271; pp. 288–291. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 178–181. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 181–182. ^ Heylin (2009), pp. 220–222. ^ Marqusee, p. 144. ^ Gill, pp. 68–69. ^ Lee, p. 18. ^ a b Sounes, pp. 168–169. ^ Warwick, N.; Brown, T.; Kutner, J. (2004). The Complete Book
Book
of the British Charts (Third ed.). Omnibus Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84449-058-5.  ^ Whitburn, J. (2008). Top Pop Singles 1955–2006. Record Research Inc. p. 130. ISBN 0-89820-172-1.  ^ Shelton, pp. 276–277. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 208–216. ^ "Exclusive: Dylan at Newport—Who Booed?". Mojo. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ " Al Kooper
Al Kooper
talks Dylan, Conan, Hendrix, and lifetime in the music business". City Pages. Village Voice Media. April 28, 2010. p. 3. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2010.  ^ Jackson, Bruce (August 26, 2002). "The myth of Newport '65: It wasn't Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
they were booing". Buffalo Report. Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. Retrieved May 8, 2010.  ^ Shelton, pp. 305–314. ^ A year earlier, Irwin Silber, editor of Sing Out!, had published an "Open Letter to Bob Dylan", criticizing Dylan's stepping away from political songwriting: "I saw at Newport how you had somehow lost contact with people. Some of the paraphernalia of fame were getting in your way." Sing Out!, November 1964, quoted in Shelton, p. 313. This letter has been mistakenly described as a response to Dylan's 1965 Newport appearance. ^ Sing Out!, September 1965, quoted in Shelton, p. 313. ^ "You got a lotta nerve/To say you are my friend/When I was down/You just stood there grinning" Reproduced online:Dylan, Bob. "Positively 4th Street". bobdylan.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.  ^ Sounes, p. 186. ^ a b c "The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rock List Music. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Springsteen's Speech during Dylan's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, January 20, 1988 Quoted in Bauldie, p. 191. ^ "500 Greatest Songs Of All Time". Rolling Stone. May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ Gill, pp. 87–88. ^ Polizzotti identifies Charlie McCoy
Charlie McCoy
on guitar and Russ Savakus on bass as the musicians, see Polizzotti, Highway 61 Revisited, p. 133 ^ Gill, p. 89. ^ Heylin (1996), pp. 80–81 ^ Sounes, pp. 189–90. ^ Heylin (1996), pp. 82–94 ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 238–243. ^ "The closest I ever got to the sound I hear in my mind was on individual bands in the Blonde on Blonde
Blonde on Blonde
album. It's that thin, that wild mercury sound. It's metallic and bright gold, with whatever that conjures up." Dylan Interview, Playboy, March 1978; reprinted in Cott, Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews, p. 204. ^ Gill, p. 95. ^ a b Sounes, p. 193. ^ Shelton, p. 325. ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 244–261. ^ "Live 1966". NME. UK. September 6, 1998. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Dylan's dialogue with the Manchester audience is recorded (with subtitles) in Martin Scorsese's documentary No Direction Home ^ Heylin (2011), p. 251. ^ Heylin (2011), p. 250. ^ Rolling Stone, November 29, 1969. Reprinted in Cott (ed.), Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews, p. 140. ^ Jones, Rebecca (May 23, 2011). "Dylan tapes reveal heroin addiction". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ Greene, Andy (May 23, 2011). "Questions About Bob Dylan's Claim That He was Once a Heroin Addict". Rolling Stone. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ Brown, Mick (May 23, 2011). "Bob Dylan: finally an admission about his heroin use, but is it the truth?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 26, 2011.  ^ Sounes, p. 215. ^ a b c Sounes, pp. 217–219. ^ a b Scherman, Tony (July 29, 2006). "The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Motorcycle-Crash Mystery". American Heritage. Archived from the original on November 6, 2006. Retrieved June 18, 2014.  ^ Heylin (2000), p. 268. ^ Dylan, p. 114. ^ Heylin (1996), p. 143. ^ Sounes, p. 216. ^ Lee, pp. 39–63. ^ Sounes, pp. 222–225. ^ Marcus, pp. 236–265. ^ Helm, Levon and Davis, This Wheel's on Fire, p. 164; p. 174. ^ a b c d "Columbia Studio A, Nashville, Tennessee, John Wesley Harding sessions". Bjorner's Still On the Road. Retrieved November 10, 2008.  ^ Heylin (2000), pp. 282–288. ^ Heylin (2011), p. 289. ^ Shelton, p. 463. ^ Gill, p. 140. ^ Shelton (2011), p. 273. ^ NoRosesForMe (November 27, 2011). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
~ I Threw It All Away~ Live on The Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
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Series' Goes On Display In Milan". HuffPost. Retrieved February 9, 2013.  ^ Güner, Fisun (August 24, 2013). "Bob Dylan: Face Value, National Portrait Gallery". TheArtsDesk.com. Retrieved August 26, 2013.  ^ "The Legendary Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Unveils Seven Iron Gates Sculpture". artlyst.com. September 24, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013.  ^ "Mood Swings". Halcyon Gallery. November 1, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013.  ^ Dylan, Bob (November 5, 2016). "The Beaten Path". Halcyon Gallery. Retrieved December 2, 2016.  ^ Wilentz, Sean (November 5, 2016). "Bob Dylan's visual art is an important ode to America". Asia Times Online. Retrieved November 16, 2016.  ^ Asia Times, Staff (November 5, 2016). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
is headed back to China — on canvas". Asia Times Online. Retrieved November 16, 2016.  ^ Dylan, Bob (November 2, 2016). "In His Own Words: Why Bob Dylan Paints". Vanity Fair. Retrieved November 16, 2016.  ^ Drawn Blank, Random House (November 15, 1994); Bob Dylan: The Drawn Blank Series, Prestel (March 31, 2008); Bob Dylan: The Brazil Series, Prestel (October 25, 2010); Bob Dylan: The Asia Series, Gagosian Gallery (October 12, 2011); Revisionist Art: Thirty Works by Bob Dylan, Harry N. Abrams (March 26, 2013); Bob Dylan: Face Value, National Portrait Gallery (February 28, 2014); The Beaten Path, Halcyon Gallery
Halcyon Gallery
(November 5, 2016) ^ Dylan, Chronicles, 2004, p. 264. ^ Gray, The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Encyclopedia, 2006, pp. 592–594. ^ Suze Rotolo, A Freewheelin' Time, Aurum Press, 2008, ISBN 9781845133924 ^ Hajdu, Positively 4th Street, 2001, p.76 ^ Menand, Louis (September 4, 2006). "Bob on Bob". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 20, 2016.  ^ a b c d Gray, The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Encyclopedia, 2006, pp. 28–31. ^ a b Gray (2006), pp. 198–200. ^ " Peter Himmelman
Peter Himmelman
Puts Family Before Rock 'n' Roll". NPR. October 12, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2016.  ^ Sounes, pp. 371–373. ^ "Dylan's Secret Marriage Uncovered". BBC News. April 12, 2001. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ Chagollan, Steve (April 26, 2013). "Bob Dylan's Designer Brings It All Back Home". Variety.com. Retrieved September 16, 2017.  ^ Adams, Guy (March 18, 2009). "How did Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
upset his neighbours? (The answer is blowin' in the wind)". The Independent. London. Retrieved July 14, 2010.  ^ According to Robert Shelton, Dylan's teacher was "Rabbi Reuben Maier of the only synagogue on the Iron Range, Hibbing's Agudath Achim Synagogue". See Shelton, pp. 35–36. ^ Heylin (2000), p. 328. ^ "People, May 31, 1971". Time. May 31, 1971. Retrieved December 9, 2010.  ^ Heylin (2000), p. 329. ^ Heylin (2000), Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades Revisited, p. 494. ^ Gray, 2006, The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Encyclopedia, pp. 76–80. ^ Heylin, 1996, Bob Dylan: A Life In Stolen Moments, p. 206. ^ Rolling Stone, June 21, 1984, reprinted in Cott (ed.), Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews, p. 288. ^ FilmStretchAustralia (2013-05-27), Dylan press conference, 1986, Brett Whiteley Studio, Sydney, retrieved 2018-03-05  ^ Gates, David (October 6, 1997). "Dylan Revisited". Newsweek. Retrieved June 8, 2010.  ^ Pareles, Jon (September 28, 1997). "A Wiser Voice Blowin' In the Autumn Wind". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.  Reprinted in Cott, Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews, pp. 391–396. ^ Fishkoff, p. 167. ^ Heylin (1996), pp. 317, 343. ^ Bloom, Nate (September 27, 2007). "Celebrity Jews: Dylan goes to shul". Jweekly.com. Retrieved October 20, 2016.  ^ "Dylan awarded Polar Music Prize". MTV. December 1, 2000. Retrieved October 3, 2016.  ^ "Bob Dylan, Prince Of Asturias Award For The Arts 2007". Fundación Princesa de Asturias. 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.  ^ "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Recipients". White House. April 26, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2012.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom". Rolling Stone. May 29, 2012. Retrieved October 19, 2016.  ^ Sisario, Ben (February 7, 2015). "At Grammys Event, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Speech Steals the Show". The New York Times
New York Times
(ArtsBeat Blog). Retrieved February 8, 2015.  ^ Gibsone, Harriet (November 14, 2013). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
awarded French Legion of Honour". The Guardian. Retrieved October 3, 2016.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
wins 2016 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature". CNN. October 13, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
criticised as 'impolite and arrogant' by Nobel academy member". The Guardian. October 22, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2016.  ^ Stack, Liam (October 22, 2016). "Bob Dylan's Silence on Nobel Prize Is Called 'Impolite and Arrogant' by Academy Member". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ Kirsch, Adam (October 26, 2016). "The Meaning of Bob Dylan's Silence". The New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2016.  ^ Gundersen, Enda (October 28, 2016). "World exclusive: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
– I'll be at the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
ceremony... if I can". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
has decided not to come to Stockholm". Svenska Akadamien. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
– Banquet Speech". nobelprize.org. December 10, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.  ^ Amanda Petrusich, "A Transcendent Patti Smith
Patti Smith
Accepts Bob Dylan's Nobel Prize", New Yorker, December 10, 2016 ^ Danius, Sara (April 2, 2017). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
has received the Nobel medal and diploma". Swedish Academy. Archived from the original on April 2, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017.  ^ Bob, Dylan. " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
- Nobel Lecture". Nobelprize.org.  ^ Sisario, Ben (June 5, 2017). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Delivers His Nobel Prize Lecture, Just in Time". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2017.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
finally delivers his Nobel lecture". BBC News. June 5, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017.  ^ Sisario, Ben, "A Really Cool Gig’: Playing Piano for Bob Dylan’s Nobel Lecture", The New York Times, June 7, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2017. ^ Cocks, Jay (June 14, 1999). "The Time 100: Bob Dylan". shrout.co.uk/TIME. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ "The 2008 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
Winners Special
Special
Awards and Citations". pulitzer.org. November 10, 2008. Retrieved May 13, 2014.  ^ "Finally and Formally Launched as a Candidate for the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1997". expectingrain.com. May 24, 2002. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ Ball, Gordon (March 7, 2007). "Dylan and the Nobel" (PDF). Oral Tradition. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ "Dylan's Words Strike Nobel Debate". CBS
CBS
News. October 6, 2004. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ Flood, Alison (September 19, 2012). "Bob Dylan's Nobel odds rise, but not his chances". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 20, 2012.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Sends Warm Words but Skips Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Ceremonies", The New York Times, Dec. 10, 2016 ^ "Bob Dylan – 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 1, 2016.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Like a Rolling Stone
Like a Rolling Stone
lyrics to go on sale". BBC News. May 1, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2014.  ^ "Highest Selling Artists worldwide (Album Sales Only)". bigfooty.com. December 2007. Retrieved May 13, 2014.  ^ Wenner, Jann S. Lennon Remembers, Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
Press (2000) p. 148 ^ Dylan, pp. 243–246. ^ Dylan, pp. 281–288. ^ Dylan, pp. 95–97. ^ "Bob Dylan". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ Fong-Torres, The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
Interviews, Vol. 2, p. 424. Reproduced online:" Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
interview (1972)". Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Roots. June 6, 1972. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2009.  ^ a b Marqusee, p. 139. ^ Markworth, Tino. Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
– The 1998 International Conference at Stanford University. Retrieved March 12, 2017. ^ Schuessler, Jessica (October 14, 2016). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
101: A Harvard Professor Has the Coolest Class on Campus". The New York Times.  ^ "LTCS 111 – Special
Special
Topics in Popular Culture in Historical Context". University of California San Diego Course book. Retrieved October 17, 2016.  ^ Ricks, Christopher (2003). Dylan's Visions of Sin. Penguin/Viking. ISBN 0-670-80133-X.  ^ Doyle, Martin (October 13, 2016). "Bob Dylan's Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
divides Irish writers and literary critics". The Irish Times. Retrieved December 15, 2016.  ^ Motion, Andrew (September 22, 2007). " Andrew Motion
Andrew Motion
explains why Bob Dylan's lyrics should be studied in schools". The Times. London. Retrieved October 10, 2008.  ^ Al Kooper. "Bob Dylan: American musician". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 5, 2016.  ^ Shelton, pp. 108–111. ^ Gray (2006), p. 413. ^ Lebold, Christophe (March 1, 2007). "A Face like a Mask and a Voice that Croaks: An Integrated Poetics of Bob Dylan's Voice, Personae, and Lyrics". Oral Tradition. Retrieved May 3, 2010.  ^ Gundersen, Edna (May 17, 2001). "Forever Dylan". USA Today. Retrieved September 9, 2014.  ^ "Bob Dylan: His Legacy to Music". BBC News. May 29, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ "I don't have to tell you who Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
is—the greatest writer of our time." Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
from the intro to "Wanted Man", At San Quentin, recorded February 24, 1969. ^ Richardson, P. (2015). No Simple Highway. St. Martin's Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-250-01062-9. Retrieved May 13, 2016. Dylan's influence on Garcia and Hunter was a given; both admired his songwriting and thought he gave rock music a modicum of respectability and authority. "He took [rock music] out of the realm of ignorant guys banging away on electrical instruments and put it somewhere else altogether," Garcia said later.  ^ Lennon: "In Paris in 1964 was the first time I ever heard Dylan at all. Paul got the record (The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan) from a French DJ. For three weeks in Paris we didn't stop playing it. We all went potty about Dylan.": Beatles, (2000), The Beatles
The Beatles
Anthology, pp. 112–114. ^ McCartney: "I'm in awe of Bob ... He hit a period where people went, 'Oh, I don't like him now.' And I said, 'No. It's Bob Dylan.' To me, it's like Picasso, where people discuss his various periods, 'This was better than this, was better than this.' But I go, 'No. It's Picasso. It's all good.' "Siegel, Robert (June 27, 2007). "Paul McCartney interview". A.V. Club. Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ "They asked me what effect Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
had on me," Townshend said. "That's like asking how I was influenced by being born." Flanagan, (1990), Written In My Soul, p. 88. ^ "Bob Dylan, I'll never be Bob Dylan. He's the master. If I'd like to be anyone, it's him. And he's a great writer, true to his music and done what he feels is the right thing to do for years and years and years. He's great. He's the one I look to." Time interview with Neil Young, September 28, 2005. Reproduced online : Tyrangiel, Josh (September 28, 2005). "Resurrection of Neil Young". Time. Retrieved September 15, 2008.  ^ Song for Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
on the album Hunky Dory, David Bowie, 1971 ^ In 2007, Ferry released an album of his versions of Dylan songs, Dylanesque ^ Mojo: What, if push comes to shove, is your all-time favourite album? Nick Cave: "I guess it's Slow Train Coming
Slow Train Coming
by Bob Dylan. That's a great record, full of mean-spirited spirituality. It's a genuinely nasty record, certainly the nastiest 'Christian' album I've ever come across." Mojo, January 1997 ^ Maes, Maurice (December 31, 2001). " Nick Cave
Nick Cave
and Bob Dylan". Nick Cave Collector's Hell. Retrieved September 15, 2008.  ^ Time Out interview with Patti Smith, May 16, 2007: "The people I revered in the late '60s and the early '70s, their motivation was to do great work and great work creates revolution. The motivation of Jimi Hendrix, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
or The Who wasn't marketing, to get rich, or be a celebrity.""Patti Smith: interview". Time Out. May 16, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2008.  ^ Barrett, Syd. " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Blues". pink floyd.org. Retrieved May 4, 2010.  ^ Hilburn, Robert (May 19, 1991). "The Impact of Dylan's Music 'Widened the Scope of Possibilities'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, 2011.  ^ " Tom Waits
Tom Waits
on his cherished albums of all time". Observer Music Monthly. London. March 22, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.  ^ Willman, Chris (October 14, 2016). " Leonard Cohen
Leonard Cohen
Corrects Himself". Billboard. Retrieved November 13, 2016.  ^ Marcus, Greil (April 10, 2010). " The Basement Tapes
The Basement Tapes
(1975)". bobdylan.com. Retrieved July 1, 2017.  ^ Hoskyns, pp. 153–157. ^ Cohn, pp. 164–165. ^ Marx, Jack (September 2, 2008). "Tangled Up In Blah". The Australian. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ Diehl, Matt (April 22, 2010). "It's a Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
concert". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Larson, Bethany (April 23, 2010). "Folk Face-Off: Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
vs. Bob Dylan". Flavorwire.com. Retrieved August 4, 2011.  ^ Wilentz, Sean (April 30, 2010). "Is Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
a Phony?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 2, 2010.  ^ Gilmore, Mikal (September 27, 2012). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Unleashed". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 11, 2013.  ^ Hoberman, J. (November 20, 2007). "Like A Complete Unknown". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ " Irvine Welsh
Irvine Welsh
slams Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
award for Bob Dylan". The Scotsman. October 13, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.  ^ Taylor, Charles (October 13, 2015). "Writers divided on Bob Dylan's Nobel honor". " CBS
CBS
news". Retrieved October 16, 2016.  ^ Blistein, Jon. "Massive Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Archive Opens in Oklahoma". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ Fulcher, Merlin (April 4, 2017). "The George Kaiser Family Foundation has launched a contest for a new archive and museum dedicated to Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
in Tulsa, Oklahoma". Architectural Journal. Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Center". George Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved April 6, 2017.  ^ Buncombe, Andrew (June 3, 2005). " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
finally honoured by his home town". The Independent. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ "Bob Dylan's hometown of Hibbing struggles with how to honor its most famous son Minnesota Public Radio News". Mprnews.org. December 9, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ Aleah Vinick, Iron Range
Iron Range
Tourism Bureau et al. (December 12, 2012). "Hibbing Podcast
Podcast
Project" (podcast). Minnesota Historical Society (interviews of Hibbingsans about local sights of interest) CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Dylan reveals his favorite song that includes his name in the lyrics Minnesota Public Radio News". Mprnews.org. March 24, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Way". bobdylanway.com. June 1, 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ " Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Way, Duluth MN". city-data.com. April 10, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2017.  ^ Kerr, Euan (September 8, 2015). "Towering, kaleidoscopic Dylan mural is now complete". mprnews.org. Retrieved March 30, 2017. 

Sources

Bauldie, John, ed. (1992). Wanted Man: In Search of Bob Dylan. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-015361-6.  Beatles, The (2000). The Beatles
The Beatles
Anthology. Cassell & Co. ISBN 0-304-35605-0.  Bell, Ian (2012). Once Upon a Time: The Lives of Bob Dylan. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78057-573-5.  Cohn, Nik (1970). Awopbopaloobop Alopbamboom. Paladin. ISBN 0-586-08014-7.  Cott, Jonathan, ed. (2006). Dylan on Dylan: The Essential Interviews. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-92312-1.  Dettmar, Kevin J., ed. (2008). The Cambridge Companion to Bob Dylan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-71494-X.  Dalton, David (2012). Who Is That Man?: In Search of the Real Bob Dylan. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-2339-4.  Daly, Steven; Kamp, David (2005). The Rock Snob's Dictionary: An Essential Lexicon of Rockological Knowledge. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-1873-8.  Dylan, Bob (2004). Chronicles: Volume One. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2815-4.  Fishkoff, Sue (2003). The Rebbe's Army: Inside the World of Chabad-Lubavitch. Schocken Books. ISBN 0-8052-1138-1.  Flanagan, Bill (1990). Written In My Soul. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-2224-1.  Fong-Torres, Ben, ed. (1973). The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
Interviews. 2. Warner Paperback Library.  Gill, Andy (1999). Classic Bob Dylan: My Back Pages. Carlton. ISBN 1-85868-599-0.  Any Gill & Kevin Odegard (2004). A Simple Twist Of Fate: Bob Dylan and the Making of Blood on the Tracks. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81413-7.  Gilliland, John (1969). "Ballad in Plain D: An introduction to the Bob Dylan era" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.  Gray, Michael (2000). Song & Dance Man III: The Art of Bob Dylan. Continuum International. ISBN 0-8264-5150-0.  Gray, Michael (2006). The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Encyclopedia. Continuum International. ISBN 0-8264-6933-7.  Hajdu, David (2001). Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Farina, and Richard Farina. Farrar Straus Giroux. ISBN 0-374-28199-8.  Harvey, Todd (2001). The Formative Dylan: Transmission & Stylistic Influences, 1961–1963. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4115-0.  Hedin, Benjamin, ed. (2004). Studio A: The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Reader. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-32742-6.  Helm, Levon (2000). This Wheel's on Fire: Levon Helm
Levon Helm
and the Story of the Band. Stephen Davis. a capella. ISBN 1-55652-405-6.  Heylin, Clinton (1990). Saved!: The Gospel Speeches of Bob Dylan. Hanuman Books. ISBN 0-937815-38-1.  Heylin, Clinton (1996). Bob Dylan: A Life In Stolen Moments. Book Sales. ISBN 0-7119-5669-3.  Heylin, Clinton (2000). Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades: Take Two. Viking. ISBN 0-670-88506-1.  Heylin, Clinton (2009). Revolution In The Air: The Songs of Bob Dylan, Volume One: 1957–73. Constable. ISBN 978-1-84901-051-1.  Heylin, Clinton (2010). Still On The Road: The Songs of Bob Dylan, Volume Two: 1974–2008. Constable. ISBN 978-1-84901-011-5.  Heylin, Clinton (2011). Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades: 20th Anniversary Edition. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-27240-2.  Hoskyns, Barney (1993). Across The Great Divide: The Band
The Band
and America. Viking. ISBN 0-670-84144-7.  Lee, C. P. (2000). Like a Bullet of Light: The Films of Bob Dylan. Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-900924-06-4.  Marcus, Greil (2001). The Old, Weird America: The World of Bob Dylan's Basement Tapes. Picador. ISBN 0-312-42043-9.  Marcus, Greil (2005). Like a Rolling Stone: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
at the Crossroads. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-22385-0.  Marqusee, Mike (2005). Wicked Messenger: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and the 1960s. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1-58322-686-9.  Marshall, Scott (2002). Restless Pilgrim: The Spiritual Journey of Bob Dylan. Relevant Books. ISBN 0-9714576-2-X.  Miller, Jim (ed.) (1981), The Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
History of Rock & Roll, Picador, ISBN 0-330-26568-7 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Muir, Andrew (2001). Razor's Edge: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
& the Never Ending Tour. Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-900924-13-7.  Polizzotti, Mark (2006). Highway 61 Revisited. Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-1775-2.  Ricks, Christopher (2003). Dylan's Visions of Sin. Penguin/Viking. ISBN 0-670-80133-X.  Scaduto, Anthony (2001) [1972]. Bob Dylan. Helter Skelter. ISBN 1-900924-23-4.  Shelton, Robert (1986). No Direction Home. New English Library. ISBN 0-450-04843-8.  Shelton, Robert (2011). No Direction Home: The Life and Music of Bob Dylan, Revised and updated edition. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84938-911-2.  Shepard, Sam (2004). Rolling Thunder Logbook (reissue ed.). Da Capo. ISBN 0-306-81371-8.  Sounes, Howard (2001). Down The Highway: The Life Of Bob Dylan. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1686-8.  Williams, Richard (1992). Dylan: A Man Called Alias. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-1084-9.  Williamson, Nigel (2004). The Rough Guide to Bob Dylan. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-139-9. 

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v t e

Bob Dylan

Discography Awards Bibliography Songs written by Dylan

Studio albums

Bob Dylan The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan The Times They Are a-Changin' Another Side of Bob Dylan Bringing It All Back Home Highway 61 Revisited Blonde on Blonde John Wesley Harding Nashville Skyline Self Portrait New Morning Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid Dylan Planet Waves Blood on the Tracks The Basement Tapes Desire Street-Legal Slow Train Coming Saved Shot of Love Infidels Empire Burlesque Knocked Out Loaded Down in the Groove Oh Mercy Under the Red Sky Good as I Been to You World Gone Wrong Time Out of Mind Love and Theft Modern Times Together Through Life Christmas in the Heart Tempest Shadows in the Night Fallen Angels Triplicate

Live albums

Before the Flood Hard Rain Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
at Budokan Real Live Dylan & the Dead The 30th Anniversary Concert Celebration MTV Unplugged Live 1961–2000: Thirty-Nine Years of Great Concert Performances Live at The Gaslight 1962 Live at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
1963 In Concert – Brandeis University
Brandeis University
1963 The 1966 Live Recordings

Compilations

Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits
Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits
Vol. II Masterpieces Biograph Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits
Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits
Volume 3 The Best of Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(1997) The Best of Bob Dylan, Vol. 2 The Essential Bob Dylan Bob Dylan: The Collection The Best of Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(2005) Blues Dylan The Original Mono Recordings The 50th Anniversary Collection Bob Dylan: The Complete Album Collection Vol. One The 50th Anniversary Collection
The 50th Anniversary Collection
1963 The 50th Anniversary Collection
The 50th Anniversary Collection
1964

Bootlegs

Great White Wonder List of Basement Tapes songs (1967,1975) The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 (Rare & Unreleased) 1961–1991 Volume 4: The Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
concert Vol. 5: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1975, The Rolling Thunder Revue Vol. 6: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1964, Concert at Philharmonic Hall Vol. 7: No Direction Home: The Soundtrack Vol. 8: Tell Tale Signs: Rare and Unreleased 1989–2006 Vol. 9: The Witmark Demos: 1962–1964 Vol. 10: Another Self Portrait (1969–1971) Vol. 11: The Basement Tapes
The Basement Tapes
Complete Vol. 12: The Cutting Edge 1965–1966 Vol. 13: Trouble No More 1979–1981

Concert tours

England Tour (1965) World Tour (1966) Tour with The Band
The Band
(1974) Rolling Thunder Revue
Rolling Thunder Revue
(1975–1976) World Tour (1978) Gospel Tour (1979–1980) World Tour (1981) European Tour (1984) True Confessions Tour (1986) Tour with the Grateful Dead
Grateful Dead
(1987) Temples in Flames Tour (1987)

Never Ending Tour

1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Films

Dont Look Back Eat the Document Renaldo and Clara Masked and Anonymous No Direction Home I'm Not There 65 Revisited The Other Side of the Mirror: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live at the Newport Folk Festival 1963–1965 Trouble No More - A Musical Film

Writings

Tarantula Writings and Drawings Chronicles: Volume One

Books about Dylan

The Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Encyclopedia Bob Dylan, Performing Artist Invisible Republic The Cambridge Companion to Bob Dylan

Related

The Band Electric Dylan controversy Theme Time Radio Hour Traveling Wilburys Artists who have covered Dylan songs Chimes of Freedom (album) The Lost Notebooks of Hank Williams Lost on the River: The New Basement Tapes Suze Rotolo The Telegraph magazine Sara Dylan (first wife) Carolyn Dennis (second wife) Jesse Dylan
Jesse Dylan
(son) Jakob Dylan
Jakob Dylan
(son)

Book Category Portal

v t e

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
singles discography

1962

"Mixed-Up Confusion" / "Corrina, Corrina"

1963

"Blowin' in the Wind" / "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right"

1965

"The Times They Are a-Changin'" / "Honey, Just Allow Me One More Chance" "Maggie's Farm" / "On the Road Again" "Subterranean Homesick Blues" / "She Belongs to Me" "Like a Rolling Stone" / "Gates of Eden "Positively 4th Street" / "From a Buick 6" "Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?" / "Highway 61 Revisited"

1966

"One of Us Must Know (Sooner or Later)" / "Queen Jane Approximately" "Rainy Day Women ♯12 & 35" / "Pledging My Time" "I Want You" / "Just Like Tom Thumb's Blues" (live with The Hawks) "Just Like a Woman" / "Obviously 5 Believers"

1967

"Leopard-Skin Pill-Box Hat" / "Most Likely You Go Your Way And I'll Go Mine" "If You Gotta Go, Go Now" / "To Ramona" (only in Europe)

1968

"Drifter's Escape" / "John Wesley Harding" "All Along the Watchtower" / "I'll Be Your Baby Tonight"

1969

"I Threw It All Away" / "Drifter's Escape" "Lay Lady Lay" / "Peggy Day" "Tonight I'll Be Staying Here with You" / "Country Pie"

1970

"If Not for You" / "New Morning" "Wigwam" / "Copper Kettle"

1971

"Watching the River
River
Flow" / "Spanish is the Loving Tongue" "George Jackson" (band version) / "George Jackson" (acoustic version)

1973

"Knockin' on Heaven's Door" / "Turkey Chase" (instrumental from Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid) "A Fool Such as I" / "Lily of the West"

1974

"On a Night Like This" / "You Angel You" "Something There Is About You" / "Tough Mama" "Most Likely You Go Your Way (And I'll Go Mine)" (live with The Band) "All Along the Watchtower" / "It Ain't Me Babe"

1975

"Tangled Up in Blue" / "If You See Her, Say Hello" "Million Dollar Bash" / "Tears of Rage" "Hurricane" (Part 1) / "Hurricane" (Part 2)

1976

"Mozambique" / "Oh Sister" "Stuck Inside of Mobile With the Memphis Blues
Blues
Again" (live) / "Rita May"

1978

"Baby, Stop Crying" / "We Better Talk
Talk
This Over" "Changing of the Guards" / "Señor (Tales of Yankee Power)" "Is Your Love In Vain?" / "We Better Talk
Talk
This Over"

1979

" Maggie's Farm
Maggie's Farm
(live) / "All Along the Watchtower" "Forever Young" (live) / "All Along the Watchtower" / "I Want You" "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" / "When You Gonna Wake Up?" "Gotta Serve Somebody" / "Trouble in Mind" "Precious Angel" / "Trouble in Mind"

1980

"Slow Train" / "Do Right to Me Baby" "Solid Rock" / "Covenant Woman" "Saved" / "Are You Ready?"

1981

"Heart of Mine" / "Let It Be Me" "Dead Man, Dead Man" / "Lenny Bruce"

1983

"Union Sundown" / "Angel Flying too Close to the Ground" "I and I" / "Angel Flying too Close to the Ground" "Sweetheart Like You" / "Union Sundown"

1984

"Jokerman" / "Isis"

1985

"Tight Connection to My Heart (Has Anybody Seen My Love)" / "We Better Talk
Talk
this Over" "When the Night Comes Falling from the Sky" / "Emotionally Yours"

1986

"Band of the Hand" / "Joe's Death" (Michael Rubini) "Got My Mind Made Up" / "The Usual"

1988

"Silvio" / "Driftin' too Far from the Shore"

1989

"Everything Is Broken" / "Death is Not the End" "Slow Train" (live with The Grateful Dead)

1990

"Political World" / "Ring Them Bells" (only in the UK and Australia) "Most of the Time" / " Most of the Time
Most of the Time
(edit piece) "Unbelievable" / "10,000 Men"

1991

"Series of Dreams" / "Seven Curses" "Blind Willie McTell" / "It Takes a Lot to Laugh, It Takes a Train to Cry" (from The Bootleg Series Volumes 1-3) "Step it Up and Go" — (no b-side)

1993

"My Back Pages" (with Roger McGuinn, Tom Petty, Neil Young, Eric Clapton, George Harrison) — (no b-side)

1995

"Dignity" (live on MTV Unplugged) / "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall" (live version) "Knockin' on Heaven's Door" / "John Brown" (both live on MTV Unplugged)

1998

"Not Dark Yet" / "Tombstone Blues" (live) / "Ballad of a Thin Man" (live) / "Boots of Spanish Leather" (live) "Love Sick" / "Tombstone Blues" (live)

2000

"Things Have Changed" / "Make You Feel My Love" (live) / "Hurricane" / "Song to Woody" (live)

2006

"Someday Baby" / "Someday Baby" (edit piece) "Rollin' and Tumblin'" / "Not Dark Yet" / "High Water (for Charley Patton)"

2007

"Most Likely You Go Your Way (And I'll Go Mine)" ( Mark Ronson
Mark Ronson
remix version) / "Most Likely You Go Your Way (And I'll Go Mine)" (album version)

2008

"Dreamin' of You" (edit piece) / "Dreamin' of You" (album version)

2009

"Beyond Here Lies Nothin'" / "Down Along the Cove" (live) "I Feel a Change Comin' On" / "I Feel a Change Comin' On" (edit piece) "Must Be Santa" / "'Twas the Night Before Christmas"

2010

"The Times They Are a-Changin'" (demo version) / "Like a Rolling Stone"

2012

"Duquesne Whistle"

2013

"Wigwam" (demo version) / "Thirsty Boots"

v t e

The Band

Rick Danko Levon Helm Garth Hudson Richard Manuel Robbie Robertson

Richard Bell Randy Ciarlante Stan Szelest Jim Weider

Studio albums

Music from Big Pink The Band Stage Fright Cahoots Moondog Matinee Northern Lights – Southern Cross Islands Jericho High On The Hog Jubilation

with Bob Dylan

Planet Waves The Basement Tapes

Live albums

Rock of Ages Before the Flood The Last Waltz
The Last Waltz
(1978 album) Live at Watkins Glen The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Live 1966 The Last Waltz
The Last Waltz
(2002 album) Live at the Academy of Music 1971

Compilations

The Best of The Band Anthology To Kingdom Come Across The Great Divide The Best of The Band, Vol. II Greatest Hits A Musical History The Bootleg Series Vol. 11: The Basement Tapes
The Basement Tapes
Complete

Films

The Last Waltz Festival Express

Singles

"Uh-Uh-Uh" "The Stones I Throw" "Go Go Liza Jane" "The Weight" / "I Shall Be Released" "Rag Mama Rag" / "The Unfaithful Servant" "Up on Cripple Creek" / "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down" "Time to Kill" / "The Shape I'm In" "Life Is a Carnival" "On a Night Like This" (with Bob Dylan) "Most Likely You Go Your Way (And I'll Go Mine)" (with Bob Dylan) "Ophelia" "Atlantic City"

Other songs

"Tears of Rage" "We Can Talk" "Long Black Veil" "Chest Fever" "Lonesome Suzie "This Wheel's on Fire" "Across the Great Divide" "When You Awake" "Whispering Pines" "Jemima Surrender" "Look Out Cleveland" "King Harvest (Has Surely Come)" "Sleeping" "The W.S. Walcott Medicine Show" "Daniel and the Sacred Harp" "Stage Fright" "When I Paint My Masterpiece" "Don't Do It" "Mystery Train" "Acadian Driftwood" "It Makes No Difference" "Georgia on My Mind" "Blind Willie McTell"

Related

Discography Bob Dylan Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
World Tour 1966 Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
and The Band
The Band
1974 Tour Cate Brothers Ronnie Hawkins Big Pink List of Basement Tapes songs List of Basement Tapes songs (1975) No Reason to Cry John Simon This Wheel's on Fire: Levon Helm
Levon Helm
and the Story of The Band Allen Toussaint

v t e

Traveling Wilburys

Bob Dylan George Harrison Jeff Lynne Roy Orbison Tom Petty

Studio albums

Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
Vol. 1 Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
Vol. 3

Compilations

The Traveling Wilburys
Traveling Wilburys
Collection

Songs and singles

"Handle with Care" "Tweeter and the Monkey Man" "End of the Line" "Nobody's Child" "She's My Baby" "Inside Out" "Wilbury Twist"

Related

Jim Keltner Dhani Harrison Full Moon Fever

Book Category

v t e

Bob Dylan's Theme Time Radio Hour

Seasons

Season One Season Two Season Three

Releases

Together Through Life The Best of Bob Dylan's Theme Time Radio Hour

Awards received by Bob Dylan

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

2016 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Jean-Pierre Sauvage
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
(France) Fraser Stoddart
Fraser Stoddart
(United Kingdom, United States) Ben Feringa
Ben Feringa
(Netherlands)

Literature

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(United States)

Peace (2016)

Juan Manuel Santos
Juan Manuel Santos
(Colombia)

Physics

David J. Thouless
David J. Thouless
(United Kingdom, United States) Duncan Haldane
Duncan Haldane
(United Kingdom, United States) J. Michael Kosterlitz
J. Michael Kosterlitz
(United Kingdom, United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Yoshinori Ohsumi
Yoshinori Ohsumi
(Japan)

Economic Sciences

Oliver Hart (United Kingdom, United States) Bengt Holmström
Bengt Holmström
(Finland)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

v t e

Kennedy Center
Kennedy Center
Honorees (1990s)

1990

Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder

1991

Roy Acuff Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw

1992

Lionel Hampton Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor

1993

Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams

1994

Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger

1995

Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon

1996

Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief

1997

Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella

1998

Bill Cosby Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black

1999

Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Song

1934–1940

"The Continental"

Music: Con Conrad Lyrics: Herb Magidson (1934)

"Lullaby of Broadway"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Al Dubin (1935)

"The Way You Look Tonight"

Music: Jerome Kern Lyrics: Dorothy Fields
Dorothy Fields
(1936)

"Sweet Leilani"

Music and lyrics: Harry Owens
Harry Owens
(1937)

"Thanks for the Memory"

Music: Ralph Rainger Lyrics: Leo Robin (1938)

"Over the Rainbow"

Music: Harold Arlen Lyrics: E. Y. Harburg (1939)

"When You Wish Upon a Star"

Music: Leigh Harline Lyrics: Ned Washington (1940)

1941–1950

"The Last Time I Saw Paris"

Music: Jerome Kern Lyrics: Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
(1941)

"White Christmas"

Music and lyrics: Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin
(1942)

"You'll Never Know"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Mack Gordon
Mack Gordon
(1943)

"Swinging on a Star"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Johnny Burke (1944)

"It Might as Well Be Spring"

Music: Richard Rodgers Lyrics: Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
(1945)

"On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer
(1946)

"Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah"

Music: Allie Wrubel Lyrics: Ray Gilbert (1947)

"Buttons and Bows"

Music: Jay Livingston Lyrics: Ray Evans (1948)

"Baby, It's Cold Outside"

Music and lyrics: Frank Loesser
Frank Loesser
(1949)

"Mona Lisa"

Music and lyrics: Ray Evans and Jay Livingston
Jay Livingston
(1950)

1951–1960

"In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening"

Music: Hoagy Carmichael Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer
(1951)

"High Noon (Do Not Forsake Me, Oh My Darlin')"

Music: Dimitri Tiomkin Lyrics: Ned Washington (1952)

"Secret Love"

Music: Sammy Fain Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1953)

"Three Coins in the Fountain"

Music: Jule Styne Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn
(1954)

"Love Is a Many Splendored Thing"

Music: Sammy Fain Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1955)

"Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)"

Music and lyrics: Jay Livingston
Jay Livingston
and Ray Evans (1956)

"All the Way"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn
(1957)

"Gigi"

Music: Frederick Loewe Lyrics: Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
(1958)

"High Hopes"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn
(1959)

"Never on Sunday"

Music and lyrics: Manos Hatzidakis
Manos Hatzidakis
(1960)

1961–1970

"Moon River"

Music: Henry Mancini Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer
(1961)

"Days of Wine and Roses"

Music: Henry Mancini Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer
(1962)

"Call Me Irresponsible"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn
(1963)

"Chim Chim Cher-ee"

Music and lyrics: Richard M. Sherman
Richard M. Sherman
and Robert B. Sherman
Robert B. Sherman
(1964)

"The Shadow of Your Smile"

Music: Johnny Mandel Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1965)

"Born Free"

Music: John Barry Lyrics: Don Black (1966)

" Talk
Talk
to the Animals"

Music and lyrics: Leslie Bricusse (1967)

"The Windmills of Your Mind"

Music: Michel Legrand Lyrics: Alan and Marilyn Bergman (1968)

"Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head"

Music: Burt Bacharach Lyrics: Hal David
Hal David
(1969)

"For All We Know"

Music: Fred Karlin Lyrics: Robb Royer
Robb Royer
and Jimmy Griffin (1970)

1971–1980

"Theme from Shaft"

Music and lyrics: Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes
(1971)

"The Morning After"

Music and lyrics: Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn (1972)

"The Way We Were"

Music: Marvin Hamlisch Lyrics: Alan and Marilyn Bergman (1973)

"We May Never Love Like This Again"

Music and lyrics: Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn (1974)

"I'm Easy"

Music and lyrics: Keith Carradine
Keith Carradine
(1975)

"Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born)"

Music: Barbra Streisand Lyrics: Paul Williams (1976)

"You Light Up My Life"

Music and lyrics: Joseph Brooks (1977)

"Last Dance"

Music and lyrics: Paul Jabara
Paul Jabara
(1978)

"It Goes Like It Goes"

Music: David Shire Lyrics: Norman Gimbel (1979)

"Fame"

Music: Michael Gore Lyrics: Dean Pitchford (1980)

1981–1990

"Arthur's Theme (Best That You Can Do)"

Music and lyrics: Burt Bacharach, Carole Bayer Sager, Christopher Cross and Peter Allen (1981)

"Up Where We Belong"

Music: Jack Nitzsche
Jack Nitzsche
and Buffy Sainte-Marie Lyrics: Will Jennings (1982)

"Flashdance... What a Feeling"

Music: Giorgio Moroder Lyrics: Keith Forsey and Irene Cara (1983)

"I Just Called to Say I Love You"

Music and lyrics: Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1984)

"Say You, Say Me"

Music and lyrics: Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
(1985)

"Take My Breath Away"

Music: Giorgio Moroder Lyrics: Tom Whitlock (1986)

"(I've Had) The Time of My Life"

Music: Franke Previte, John DeNicola and Donald Markowitz Lyrics: Franke Previte (1987)

"Let the River
River
Run"

Music and lyrics: Carly Simon
Carly Simon
(1988)

"Under the Sea"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Howard Ashman (1989)

"Sooner or Later (I Always Get My Man)"

Music and lyrics: Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1990)

1991–2000

"Beauty and the Beast"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Howard Ashman (1991)

"A Whole New World"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1992)

"Streets of Philadelphia"

Music and lyrics: Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
(1993)

"Can You Feel the Love Tonight"

Music: Elton John Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1994)

"Colors of the Wind"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Stephen Schwartz (1995)

"You Must Love Me"

Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1996)

"My Heart Will Go On"

Music: James Horner Lyrics: Will Jennings (1997)

"When You Believe"

Music and lyrics: Stephen Schwartz (1998)

"You'll Be in My Heart"

Music and lyrics: Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1999)

"Things Have Changed"

Music and lyrics: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(2000)

2001–2010

"If I Didn't Have You (Disney song)"

Music and lyrics: Randy Newman
Randy Newman
(2001)

"Lose Yourself"

Music: Eminem, Jeff Bass and Luis Resto Lyrics: Eminem
Eminem
(2002)

"Into the West"

Music and lyrics: Fran Walsh, Howard Shore
Howard Shore
and Annie Lennox
Annie Lennox
(2003)

"Al otro lado del río"

Music and lyrics: Jorge Drexler
Jorge Drexler
(2004)

"It's Hard out Here for a Pimp"

Music and lyrics: Juicy J, Frayser Boy and DJ Paul
DJ Paul
(2005)

"I Need to Wake Up"

Music and lyrics: Melissa Etheridge
Melissa Etheridge
(2006)

"Falling Slowly"

Music and lyrics: Glen Hansard
Glen Hansard
and Markéta Irglová
Markéta Irglová
(2007)

"Jai Ho"

Music: A. R. Rahman Lyrics: Gulzar
Gulzar
(2008)

"The Weary Kind"

Music and lyrics: Ryan Bingham
Ryan Bingham
and T Bone Burnett
T Bone Burnett
(2009)

"We Belong Together"

Music and lyrics: Randy Newman
Randy Newman
(2010)

2011–present

"Man or Muppet"

Music and lyrics: Bret McKenzie
Bret McKenzie
(2011)

"Skyfall"

Music and lyrics: Adele
Adele
Adkins and Paul Epworth (2012)

"Let It Go"

Music and lyrics: Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
(2013)

"Glory"

Music and lyrics: John Stephens and Lonnie Lynn (2014)

"Writing's on the Wall"

Music and lyrics: James Napier and Sam Smith (2015)

"City of Stars"

Music: Justin Hurwitz Lyrics: Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2016)

"Remember Me"

Music and lyrics: Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Original Song

1960s

"Town Without Pity" Lyrics by Ned Washington, Music by Dimitri Tiomkin (1961) "Circus World" Lyrics by Ned Washington, Music by Dimitri Tiomkin (1964) "Forget Domani" Lyrics by Norman Newell, Music by Riz Ortolani
Riz Ortolani
(1965) "Strangers in the Night" Lyrics by Charles Singleton, Eddie Snyder, Music by Bert Kaempfert
Bert Kaempfert
(1966) "If Ever I Would Leave You" Lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner, Music by Frederick Loewe (1967) "The Windmills of Your Mind" Lyrics by Alan and Marilyn Bergman, Music by Michel Legrand (1968) "Jean" Music & Lyrics by Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
(1969)

1970s

"Whistling Away the Dark" Lyrics by Johnny Mercer, Music by Henry Mancini (1970) "Life Is What You Make It" Lyrics by Johnny Mercer, Music by Marvin Hamlisch (1971) "Ben" Lyrics by Don Black, Music by Walter Scharf (1972) "The Way We Were" Lyrics by Alan and Marilyn Bergman, Music by Marvin Hamlisch (1973) "I Feel Love" Lyrics by Betty Box, Music by Euel Box (1974) "I'm Easy" Music & Lyrics by Keith Carradine
Keith Carradine
(1975) "Evergreen" Lyrics by Paul Williams, Music by Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1976) "You Light Up My Life" Music & Lyrics by Joseph Brooks (1977) "Last Dance" Music & Lyrics by Paul Jabara
Paul Jabara
(1978) "The Rose" Music & Lyrics by Amanda McBroom
Amanda McBroom
(1979)

1980s

"Fame" Lyrics by Dean Pitchford, Music by Michael Gore (1980) "Arthur's Theme (Best That You Can Do)" Music & Lyrics by Peter Allen, Burt Bacharach, Christopher Cross, & Carole Bayer Sager (1981) "Up Where We Belong" Lyrics by Wilbur Jennings, Music by Jack Nitzsche & Buffy Sainte-Marie
Buffy Sainte-Marie
(1982) "Flashdance... What a Feeling" Lyrics by Irene Cara, Keith Forsey, Music by Giorgio Moroder
Giorgio Moroder
(1983) "I Just Called to Say I Love You" Music & Lyrics by Stevie Wonder (1984) "Say You, Say Me" Music & Lyrics by Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
(1985) "Take My Breath Away" Lyrics by Tom Whitlock, Music by Giorgio Moroder (1986) "(I've Had) The Time of My Life" Lyrics by Franke Previte, Music by John DeNicola & Donald Markowitz (1987) "Let the River
River
Run" Music & Lyrics by Carly Simon/"Two Hearts" Lyrics by Phil Collins, Music by Lamont Dozier
Lamont Dozier
(1988) "Under the Sea" Lyrics by Howard Ashman, Music by Alan Menken
Alan Menken
(1989)

1990s

"Blaze of Glory" Music & Lyrics by Jon Bon Jovi
Jon Bon Jovi
(1990) "Beauty and the Beast" Lyrics by Howard Ashman, Music by Alan Menken (1991) "A Whole New World" Lyrics by Tim Rice, Music by Alan Menken
Alan Menken
(1992) "Streets of Philadelphia" Music & Lyrics by Bruce Springsteen (1993) "Can You Feel the Love Tonight" Lyrics by Tim Rice, Music by Elton John (1994) "Colors of the Wind" Lyrics by Stephen Schwartz, Music by Alan Menken (1995) "You Must Love Me" Lyrics by Tim Rice, Music by Andrew Lloyd Webber (1996) "My Heart Will Go On" Lyrics by Wilbur Jennings, Music by James Horner (1997) "The Prayer" Music & Lyrics by David Foster, Tony Renis, Carole Bayer Sager, Alberto Testa (1998) "You'll Be in My Heart" Music & Lyrics by Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1999)

2000s

"Things Have Changed" Music and lyrics by Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(2000) "Until..." Music and lyrics by Sting (2001) "The Hands That Built America" Music and lyrics by Bono, Adam Clayton, The Edge
The Edge
& Larry Mullen Jr.
Larry Mullen Jr.
(2002) "Into the West" Music and lyrics by Annie Lennox, Howard Shore
Howard Shore
& Frances Walsh (2003) "Old Habits Die Hard" Music and lyrics by Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
& David A. Stewart (2004) "A Love That Will Never Grow Old" Lyrics by Bernie Taupin, Music by Gustavo Santaolalla
Gustavo Santaolalla
(2005) "The Song of the Heart" Music and lyrics by Prince Rogers Nelson (2006) "Guaranteed" Music and lyrics by Eddie Vedder
Eddie Vedder
(2007) "The Wrestler" Music and lyrics by Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
(2008) "The Weary Kind" Music and lyrics by Ryan Bingham
Ryan Bingham
& T Bone Burnett (2009)

2010s

"You Haven't Seen the Last of Me" Music & Lyrics by Diane Warren (2010) "Masterpiece" Music & Lyrics by Madonna, Julie Frost and Jimmy Harry (2011) "Skyfall" by Adele
Adele
Adkins and Paul Epworth (2012) "Ordinary Love" by U2 and Danger Mouse (2013) "Glory" by Common and John Legend
John Legend
(2014) "Writing's on the Wall" by Sam Smith and Jimmy Napes (2015) "City of Stars" by Justin Hurwitz, Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2016) "This Is Me" by Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2017)

Complete List (1960s) (1970s) (1980s) (1990s) (2000s) (2010s)

v t e

Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Album of the Year

1959–1979

The Music from Peter Gunn
The Music from Peter Gunn
Henry Mancini
Henry Mancini
(1959) Come Dance with Me! – Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1960) The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
Bob Newhart
Bob Newhart
(1961) Judy at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
Judy Garland
Judy Garland
(1962) The First Family – Vaughn Meader
Vaughn Meader
(1963) The Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
Album – Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1964) Getz/Gilberto
Getz/Gilberto
– Stan Getz, João Gilberto
João Gilberto
(1965) September of My Years Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1966) A Man and His Music Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1967) Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
The Beatles
The Beatles
(1968) By the Time I Get to Phoenix – Glen Campbell
Glen Campbell
(1969) Blood, Sweat & Tears – Blood, Sweat & Tears (1970) Bridge over Troubled Water
Bridge over Troubled Water
– Simon & Garfunkel (1971) Tapestry – Carole King
Carole King
(1972) The Concert for Bangladesh
Concert for Bangladesh
– Various (1973) Innervisions
Innervisions
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1974) Fulfillingness' First Finale
Fulfillingness' First Finale
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1975) Still Crazy After All These Years
Still Crazy After All These Years
Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(1976) Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the Key of Life
Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1977) Rumours – Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
(1978) Saturday Night Fever – Bee Gees/Various (1979)

1980–2000

52nd Street – Billy Joel
Billy Joel
(1980) Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
Christopher Cross
(1981) Double Fantasy
Double Fantasy
John Lennon
John Lennon
and Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
(1982) Toto IV
Toto IV
– Toto (1983) Thriller – Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
(1984) Can't Slow Down – Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
(1985) No Jacket Required
No Jacket Required
Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1986) Graceland – Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(1987) The Joshua Tree
The Joshua Tree
– U2 (1988) Faith – George Michael
George Michael
(1989) Nick of Time – Bonnie Raitt
Bonnie Raitt
(1990) Back on the Block
Back on the Block
Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
and various artists (1991) Unforgettable... with Love Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
(1992) Unplugged – Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
(1993) The Bodyguard – Whitney Houston
Whitney Houston
(1994) MTV Unplugged
MTV Unplugged
Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(1995) Jagged Little Pill
Jagged Little Pill
Alanis Morissette
Alanis Morissette
(1996) Falling into You
Falling into You
Celine Dion
Celine Dion
(1997) Time Out of Mind – Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(1998) The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
Lauryn Hill
(1999) Supernatural – Santana (2000)

2001–present

Two Against Nature
Two Against Nature
Steely Dan
Steely Dan
(2001) O Brother, Where Art Thou? Soundtrack (2002) Come Away with Me
Come Away with Me
Norah Jones
Norah Jones
(2003) Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Outkast
Outkast
(2004) Genius Loves Company
Genius Loves Company
Ray Charles
Ray Charles
and various artists (2005) How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb
– U2 (2006) Taking the Long Way
Taking the Long Way
Dixie Chicks
Dixie Chicks
(2007) River: The Joni Letters – Herbie Hancock
Herbie Hancock
(2008) Raising Sand
Raising Sand
Robert Plant
Robert Plant
& Alison Krauss
Alison Krauss
(2009) Fearless – Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
(2010) The Suburbs
The Suburbs
Arcade Fire
Arcade Fire
(2011) 21 – Adele
Adele
(2012) Babel – Mumford & Sons (2013) Random Access Memories
Random Access Memories
Daft Punk
Daft Punk
(2014) Morning Phase
Morning Phase
Beck
Beck
(2015) 1989 – Taylor Swift
Taylor Swift
(2016) 25 – Adele
Adele
(2017) 24K Magic – Bruno Mars
Bruno Mars
(2018)

v t e

MusiCares Person of the Year

David Crosby
David Crosby
(1991) Bonnie Raitt
Bonnie Raitt
(1992) Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
(1993) Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
(1994) Tony Bennett
Tony Bennett
(1995) Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
(1996) Phil Collins
Phil Collins
(1997) Luciano Pavarotti
Luciano Pavarotti
(1998) Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
(1999) Elton John
Elton John
(2000) Paul Simon
Paul Simon
(2001) Billy Joel
Billy Joel
(2002) Bono
Bono
(2003) Sting (2004) Brian Wilson
Brian Wilson
(2005) James Taylor
James Taylor
(2006) Don Henley
Don Henley
(2007) Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin
(2008) Neil Diamond
Neil Diamond
(2009) Neil Young
Neil Young
(2010) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2011) Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
(2012) Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
(2013) Carole King
Carole King
(2014) Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(2015) Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie
(2016) Tom Petty
Tom Petty
(2017) Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
(2018)

v t e

Laureates of the Polar Music Prize

1990s

Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
/ the Baltic states
Baltic states
(1992) Dizzy Gillespie
Dizzy Gillespie
/ Witold Lutosławski
Witold Lutosławski
(1993) Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
/ Nikolaus Harnoncourt
Nikolaus Harnoncourt
(1994) Elton John
Elton John
/ Mstislav Rostropovich
Mstislav Rostropovich
(1995) Joni Mitchell
Joni Mitchell
/ Pierre Boulez
Pierre Boulez
(1996) Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
/ Eric Ericson
Eric Ericson
(1997) Ray Charles
Ray Charles
/ Ravi Shankar
Ravi Shankar
(1998) Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
/ Iannis Xenakis
Iannis Xenakis
(1999)

2000s

Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
/ Isaac Stern
Isaac Stern
(2000) Burt Bacharach
Burt Bacharach
/ Robert Moog
Robert Moog
/ Karlheinz Stockhausen
Karlheinz Stockhausen
(2001) Miriam Makeba
Miriam Makeba
/ Sofia Gubaidulina
Sofia Gubaidulina
(2002) Keith Jarrett
Keith Jarrett
(2003) B.B. King
B.B. King
/ György Ligeti
György Ligeti
(2004) Gilberto Gil
Gilberto Gil
/ Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau
(2005) Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
/ Valery Gergiev
Valery Gergiev
(2006) Sonny Rollins
Sonny Rollins
/ Steve Reich
Steve Reich
(2007) Pink Floyd
Pink Floyd
/ Renée Fleming
Renée Fleming
(2008) Peter Gabriel
Peter Gabriel
/ José Antonio Abreu
José Antonio Abreu
/ El Sistema (2009)

2010s

Björk
Björk
/ Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2010) Kronos Quartet
Kronos Quartet
/ Patti Smith
Patti Smith
(2011) Paul Simon
Paul Simon
/ Yo-Yo Ma
Yo-Yo Ma
(2012) Youssou N'Dour
Youssou N'Dour
/ Kaija Saariaho
Kaija Saariaho
(2013) Chuck Berry
Chuck Berry
/ Peter Sellars
Peter Sellars
(2014) Emmylou Harris
Emmylou Harris
/ Evelyn Glennie
Evelyn Glennie
(2015) Max Martin
Max Martin
/ Cecilia Bartoli
Cecilia Bartoli
(2016) Sting / Wayne Shorter
Wayne Shorter
(2017) Metallica
Metallica
/ Afghanistan National Institute of Music (2018)

v t e

Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
Special
Special
Citations and Awards (Arts)

Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
and Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
for Oklahoma! (1944) Roger Sessions
Roger Sessions
(1974) Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
(1976) Milton Babbitt
Milton Babbitt
(1982) William Schuman (1985) George Gershwin
George Gershwin
(1998) Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
(1999) Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk
(2006) John Coltrane
John Coltrane
(2007) Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
(2008) Hank Williams
Hank Williams
(2010)

Complete list (Journalism) (Letters) (Arts) (Service)

v t e

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Class of 1988

Performers

The Beach Boys
The Beach Boys
(Al Jardine, Mike Love, Brian Wilson, Carl Wilson, Dennis Wilson) The Beatles
The Beatles
(George Harrison, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr) The Drifters
The Drifters
(Ben E. King, Rudy Lewis, Clyde McPhatter, Johnny Moore, Bill Pinkney, Charlie Thomas, and Gerhart Thrasher) Bob Dylan The Supremes
The Supremes
(Florence Ballard, Diana Ross, Mary Wilson)

Early influences

Woody Guthrie Lead Belly Les Paul

Non-performers (Ahmet Ertegun Award)

Berry Gordy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 111894442 LCCN: n50030190 ISNI: 0000 0001 2147 9733 GND: 118528408 SELIBR: 184248 SUDOC: 080786073 BNF: cb13893566v (data) BIBSYS: 90123409 ULAN: 500341966 MusicBrainz: 72c536dc-7137-4477-a521-567eeb840fa8 NLA: 35052711 NDL: 00438512 NKC: jn20000700458 ICCU: ITICCURAVV27452 BNE: XX821701 RKD: 25

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