Board games are tabletop games that typically use moved or placed on a pre-marked board (playing surface) and often include elements of table, card, role-playing, and miniatures games as well. Most feature a competition between two or more players. In checkers, a player wins by capturing all opposing pieces, while Eurogames often end with a calculation of final scores. ''Pandemic'' is a cooperative game where players all win or lose as a team, and peg solitaire is a puzzle for one person. There are many varieties of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, such as checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, such as ''Cluedo''. Rules can range from the very simple, such as in Snakes and Ladders; to deeply complex, as in ''Advanced Squad Leader''. The time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game, but is not necessarily correlated with the number or complexity of rules; games like chess or Go possess relatively simple , but have great strategic depth.


Ancient board games

Classical board games are divided into four categories of game: race games (such as Pachisi), space games (such as Noughts and Crosses), chase games (such as Hnefatafl), and games of displacement (such as chess). Board games have been played, traveled, and evolved in most cultures and societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites, artifacts and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC respectively, is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb (3300–2700 BC). Also from predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals, another ancient Egyptian board game, appeared around 2000 BC. The first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was also popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Mesopotamia over 5,000 years ago. Ashtapada, Chess, Pachisi and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztecs and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago. The earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. File:Maler der Grabkammer der Nefertari 003.jpg|Senet, one of the oldest known board games File:Game of Hounds and Jackals MET DP264105.jpg|Hounds and Jackals (Egypt, 13th Dynasty) File: Men Playing Board Games.jpg|'' Men Playing Board Games'', from The Sougandhika Parinaya Manuscript File:British Museum Royal Game of Ur.jpg|thumb|Royal Game of Ur, southern Iraq, about 2600-2400 BCE File:Macuilxochitl Patolli.png|Patolli game being watched by Macuilxochitl as depicted on page 048 of the Codex Magliabechiano File:Met, Earthenware figures playing liubo, Han Dynasty.JPG|Tomb models of two men playing a game of liubo, Han dynasty File:Pottery game players.JPG|Han dynasty glazed pottery tomb figurines playing Liubo, with six sticks laid out to the side of the game board


Board games have a long tradition in Europe. The oldest records of board gaming in Europe date back to Homer's Iliad (written in the 8th century BC), in which he mentions the Ancient Greek game of ''Petteia''. This game of ''petteia'' would later evolve into the Roman ''Ludus Latrunculorum.'' Board gaming in ancient Europe was not unique to the Greco-Roman world, with records estimating that the ancient Norse game of ''Hnefatafl'' was developed sometime before 400AD. In ancient Ireland, the game of ''Fidchell'' or ''Ficheall'', is said to date back to at least 144 AD, though this is likely an anachronism. A fidchell board dating from the 10th century has been uncovered in Co. Westmeath, Ireland. The association of dice and cards with gambling led to all dice games except backgammon being treated as lotteries by dice in the gaming acts of 1710 and 1845. Early board game producers in the second half of the eighteenth century were mapmakers. The global popularization of Board Games, with special themes and branding, coincided with the formation of the global dominance of the British Empire. John Wallis was an English board game publisher, bookseller, map/chart seller, printseller, music seller, and cartographer. With his sons John Wallis Jr. and Edward Wallis, he was one of the most prolific publishers of board games of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. John Betts’ ''A Tour of the British Colonies and Foreign Possessions'' and William Spooner’s ''A Voyage of Discovery'' were popular in the British empire. is a genre of wargaming developed in 19th century Prussia to teach battle tactics to officers. File:Attic Black-Figure Neck Amphora - Achilles and Ajax playing a board game overseen by Athena.jpg|Achilles and Ajax playing a board game overseen by Athena, Attic Black-figure Neck Amphora, ca. 510 BCE File:German - Box for Board Games - Walters 7193 - Bottom.jpg|''Box for Board Games'', c. 15th century, Walters Art Museum File:Gaming table with chessboard.jpg|An early games table desk (Germany, 1735) featuring chess/draughts (''left'') and nine men's morris (''right'') File:'Game of Skittles', copy of painting by Pieter de Hooch, Cincinnati Art Museum.JPG|'Game of Skittles', copy of 1660-68 painting by Pieter de Hooch in the Saint Louis Art Museum

United States

In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing, although draughts (checkers), bowling, and card games were not unknown. The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, and pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, and told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In ''Thoughts on Lotteries'' (1826) Thomas Jefferson wrote:
Almost all these pursuits of chance .e., of human industryproduce something useful to society. But there are some which produce nothing, and endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, dice, billiards, etc. And although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, and the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, infancy, imbecility, etc., and suppress the pursuit altogether, and the natural right of following it. There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, and injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, lotteries, raffles, etc. These they do not suppress, but take their regulation under their own discretion.
The board game ''Traveller's Tour Through the United States'' and its sister game ''Traveller's Tour Through Europe'' were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States. As the U.S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment, enlightenment, and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction. The earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. ''The Mansion of Happiness'' (1843), for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness (Heaven). ''The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army'' (1844) pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing ''suttee'' against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence, temperance, and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and ... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in papermaking and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of relatively inexpensive board games. The most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and capitalism. In 1860, ''The Checkered Game of Life'' rewarded players for mundane activities such as attending college, marrying, and getting rich. Daily life rather than eternal life became the focus of board games. The game was the first to focus on secular virtues rather than religious virtues, and sold 40,000 copies its first year. ''Game of the District Messenger Boy, or Merit Rewarded'', published in 1886 by the New York City firm of McLoughlin Brothers, was one of the first board games based on materialism and capitalism published in the United States. The game is a typical roll-and-move track board game. Players move their tokens along the track at the spin of the arrow toward the goal at the track's end. Some spaces on the track will advance the player while others will send him back. In the affluent 1880s, Americans witnessed the publication of Algeresque rags to riches games that permitted players to emulate the capitalist heroes of the age. One of the first such games, ''The Game of the District Messenger Boy'', encouraged the idea that the lowliest messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to its topmost rung. Such games insinuated that the accumulation of wealth brought increased social status. Competitive capitalistic games culminated in 1935 with ''Monopoly'', the most commercially successful board game in U.S. history. McLoughlin Brothers published similar games based on the telegraph boy theme including ''Game of the Telegraph Boy, or Merit Rewarded'' (1888). Greg Downey notes in his essay, "Information Networks and Urban Spaces: The Case of the Telegraph Messenger Boy", that families who could afford the deluxe version of the game in its chromolithographed, the wood-sided box would not "have sent their sons out for such a rough apprenticeship in the working world." Margaret Hofer described the period of the 1880s–1920s as "The Golden Age" of board gaming in America. Board game popularity was boosted, like that of many items, through mass production, which made them cheaper and more easily available. Although there are no detailed statistics, some scholars suggest that the 20th century saw a decline in the popularity of the hobby.

Other parts of the world

Outside of Europe and the U.S., many traditional board games are popular. In China, Go and many variations of Chess are popular. In Africa and the Middle East, Mancala is a popular board game archetype with a lot of regional variations. In India, a community game called Carrom is popular.

21st century

The late 1990s onwards have seen substantial growth in the reach and market of board games. This has been attributed to, among other factors, the Internet, which has made it easier for people to find out about games and to find opponents to play against, as well as with a general increase in leisure time and consumer spending on entertainment. Around the year 2000 the board gaming industry began significant growth with companies producing a rising number of new games to be sold to a growing worldwide audience. In the 2010s, a number of publications referred to board games as having a new Golden Age, though some board-gamers prefer to call it a 'renaissance', as The Golden Age is both predefined and a common term. Board game venues are also growing in popularity; in 2016, over 5,000 board game cafes opened in the U.S. alone. Board game cafes are also reported to be very popular in China.

Luck, strategy, and diplomacy

Some games, such as chess, depend completely on player skill, while many children's games such as ''Candy Land'' and ''Snakes and Ladders'' require no decisions by the players and are decided purely by luck. Many games require some level of both skill and luck. A player may be hampered by bad luck in backgammon, ''Monopoly'', or ''Risk''; but over many games a skilled player will win more often. The elements of luck can also make for more excitement at times, and allow for more diverse and multifaceted strategies, as concepts such as expected value and risk management must be considered. Luck may be introduced into a game by a number of methods. The use of dice of various sorts goes back to the earliest board games. These can decide everything from how many steps a player moves their token, as in ''Monopoly'', to how their forces fare in battle, as in ''Risk'', or which resources a player gains, as in ''Catan''. Other games such as ''Sorry!'' use a deck of special cards that, when shuffled, create randomness. ''Scrabble'' does something similar with randomly picked letters. Other games use spinners, timers of random length, or other sources of randomness. German-style board games are notable for often having less luck element than many North American board games. Another important aspect of some games is diplomacy, that is, players making deals with one another. Negotiation generally features only in games with three or more players, cooperative games being the exception. An important facet of ''Catan'', for example, is convincing players to trade with you rather than with opponents. In ''Risk'', two or more players may team up against others. ''Easy'' diplomacy involves convincing other players that someone else is winning and should therefore be teamed up against. ''Advanced'' diplomacy (e.g., in the aptly named game ''Diplomacy'') consists of making elaborate plans together, with the possibility of betrayal. In perfect information games, such as chess, each player has complete information on the state of the game, but in other games, such as ''Tigris and Euphrates'' or ''Stratego'', some information is hidden from players. This makes finding the best move more difficult and may involve estimating probabilities by the opponents.

Other media

Many board games are now available as video games, which can include the computer playing as one or more opponents. Many board games can now be played online against a computer and/or other players. Some websites (such as boardgamearena.com, yucata.de, etc) allow play in real time and immediately show the opponents' moves, while others use email to notify the players after each move. The Internet and cheaper home printing has also influenced board games via print-and-play games that may be purchased and printed. Some games use external media such as audio cassettes or DVDs in accompaniment to the game. There are also virtual tabletop programs that allow online players to play a variety of existing and new board games through tools needed to manipulate the game board, but do not necessarily enforce the game's rules, leaving this up to the players. There are generalized programs such as ''Vassal'', ''Tabletop Simulator'' and ''Tabletopia'' that can be used to play any board or card game, while programs like ''Roll20'' and ''Fantasy Grounds'' that are more specialized for role-playing games. Some of these virtual tabletops have worked with the license holders to allow for use of their game's assets within the program; for example, ''Fantasy Grounds'' has licenses for both ''Dungeons & Dragons'' and ''Pathfinder'' materials, while ''Tabletop Simulator'' allows game publishers to provide paid downloadable content for their games. However, as these games offer the ability to add in content through user modifications, there are also unlicensed uses of board game assets available through these programs.


While the board gaming market is estimated to be smaller than that for video games, it has also experienced significant growth from the late 1990s. A 2012 article in ''The Guardian'' described board games as "making a comeback". Other expert sources suggest that board games never went away, and that board games have remained a popular leisure activity which has only grown over time. Another from 2014 gave an estimate that put the growth of the board game market at "between 25% and 40% annually" since 2010, and described the current time as the "golden era for board games". The rise in board game popularity has been attributed to quality improvement (more elegant mechanics, , artwork, and graphics) as well as increased availability thanks to sales through the Internet. Crowd-sourcing for board games is a large facet of the market, with $176 million raised on Kickstarter in 2019 alone. A 1991 estimate for the global board game market was over $1.2 billion. A 2001 estimate for the United States "board games and puzzle" market gave a value of under $400 million, and for United Kingdom, of about £50 million. A 2009 estimate for the Korean market was put at 800 million won, and another estimate for the American board game market for the same year was at about $800 million. A 2011 estimate for the Chinese board game market was at over 10 billion yuan. (Some estimates may split board games from collectible card, miniature and role-playing games; for example another 2014 estimate distinguishing board games from other types of hobby games gave the estimate for the U.S. and Canada market at only $75 million, with the total size of what it defined as the hobby game market at over $700 million, with a 2015 estimate suggesting a value of almost $900 million) A 2013 estimate put the size of the German toy market at 2.7 billion euros (out of which, the board games and puzzle market is worth about 375 million euros), and Polish markets, at 2 billion and 280 million złoties, respectively. Per capita, in 2009 Germany was considered to be the best market, with the highest number of games sold per individual.

Research into gaming

A dedicated field of research into gaming exists, known as game studies or ludology. While there has been a fair amount of scientific research on the psychology of older board games (e.g., chess, Go, mancala), less has been done on contemporary board games such as ''Monopoly'', ''Scrabble'', and ''Risk''. Much research has been carried out on chess, in part because many tournament players are publicly ranked in national and international lists, which makes it possible to compare their levels of expertise. The works of Adriaan de Groot, William Chase, Herbert A. Simon, and Fernand Gobet have established that knowledge, more than the ability to anticipate moves, plays an essential role in chess-playing. Linearly arranged board games have been shown to improve children's spatial numerical understanding. This is because the game is similar to a number line in that they promote a linear understanding of numbers rather than the innate logarithmic one. Research studies show that board games such as ''Snakes and Ladders'' result in children showing significant improvements in aspects of basic number skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, numerical estimation and number comprehension. They also practice fine motor skills each time they grasp a game piece. Playing board games has also been tied to improving children's executive functions and help reducing risks of dementia for the elderly. Related to this is a growing academic interest in the topic of game accessibility, culminating in the development of guidelines for assessing the accessibility of modern tabletop games and the extent to which they are playable for people with disabilities. Additionally, board games can be therapeutic. Bruce Halpenny, a games inventor said when interviewed about his game, ''The Great Train Robbery'':
With crime you deal with every basic human emotion and also have enough elements to combine action with melodrama. The player's imagination is fired as they plan to rob the train. Because of the gamble they take in the early stage of the game there is a build-up of tension, which is immediately released once the train is robbed. Release of tension is therapeutic and useful in our society because most jobs are boring and repetitive.Stealing the show. ''Toy Retailing News'', Volume 2 Number 4 (December 1976), p. 2
Playing games has been suggested as a viable addition to traditional educational curriculum if the content is appropriate and the gameplay informs students on the curriculum content.


There are a number of ways in which board games can be classified, and considerable overlap may exist, so that a game belong in several categories. The following is a list of some of the most common: * Abstract strategy games – e.g. Chess, Checkers, Go, Reversi, tafl games, or modern games such as ''Abalone'', ''Dameo'', ''Stratego'', ''Hive'', or ''GIPF'' * Alignment games – e.g. Renju, Gomoku, Connect6, Nine men's morris, or Tic-tac-toe * Auction games – e.g. ''Hoity Toity'', ''Power Grid'' * Chess variants – traditional variants e.g. shogi, xiangqi, or janggi; modern variants e.g. Chess960, Grand Chess, Hexagonal chess, or Alice Chess * Configuration games – e.g. Lines of Action, Hexade, or ''Entropy'' * Connection games – e.g. TwixT, Hex, or Havannah * Cooperative games – e.g. ''Max the Cat'', ''Caves and Claws'', or ''Pandemic'' * Count and capture games – e.g. mancala games * Cross and circle games – e.g. Yut, Ludo, or ''Aggravation'' * Deduction games – e.g. ''Mastermind'' or ''Black Box'' * Dexterity games – e.g. ''Tumblin' Dice'' or ''Pitch Car'' * Economic simulation games – e.g. ''The Business Game'', ''Monopoly'', ''The Game of Life'' or ''Power Grid'' * Educational games – e.g. ''Arthur Saves the Planet'', ''Cleopatra and the Society of Architects'', or ''Shakespeare: The Bard Game'' * Elimination games – e.g. draughts, Alquerque, Fanorona, Yoté, or Surakarta * Family games – e.g. ''Roll Through the Ages'', ''Birds on a Wire'', or ''For Sale'' * Fantasy games – e.g. ''Shadows Over Camelot'' * German-style board games or ''Eurogames'' – e.g. ''Catan'', ''Carcassonne'', Decatur • The Game, Carson City, or ''Puerto Rico'' * Guessing games – e.g. ''Pictionary'' or Battleship * Hidden-movement games – e.g. ''Clue'' or Escape from the Aliens in Outer Space * Hidden-role games – e.g. ''Mafia'' or ''The Resistance'' * Historical simulation games – e.g. ''Through the Ages'' or ''Railways of the World'' * Horror games – e.g. ''Arkham Horror'' * Large multiplayer games – e.g. ''Take It Easy'' or ''Swat'' (2010) * Learning/communication non-competitive games – e.g. The Ungame (1972) * Mancala games – e.g. Wari, Oware, or The Glass Bead Game * Multiplayer games – e.g. ''Risk'', ''Monopoly'', or Four-player chess * Musical games – e.g. ''Spontuneous'' * Negotiation games – e.g. ''Diplomacy'' * Paper-and-pencil games – e.g. Tic-tac-toe or Dots and Boxes * Physical skill games – e.g. ''Camp Granada'' * Position games (no captures; win by leaving the opponent unable to move) – e.g. Konane, mū tōrere, or the L game * Race games – e.g. Pachisi, backgammon, Snakes and Ladders, Hyena chase, or ''Worm Up'' * Role-playing games – e.g. Dungeons & Dragons * Roll-and-move games – e.g. ''Monopoly'' or ''Life'' * Running-fight games – e.g. Bul * Share-buying games (games in which players buy stakes in each other's positions) – typically longer economic-management games, e.g. ''Acquire'' or ''Panamax'' * Single-player puzzle games – e.g. peg solitaire or Sudoku * Spiritual development games (games with no winners or losers) – e.g. ''Transformation Game'' or ''Psyche's Key'' * Storytelling games – e.g. ''Dixit'' or ''Tales of the Arabian Nights'' * Stacking games – e.g. Lasca or ''DVONN'' * Territory games – e.g. Go or Reversi * Tile-based games – e.g. ''Carcassonne'', ''Scrabble'', ''Tigris and Euphrates'', or ''Evo'' * Train games – e.g. ''Ticket to Ride'', ''Steam'', or 18xx * Trivia games – e.g. ''Trivial Pursuit'' * Two-player-only themed games – e.g. ''En Garde'' or ''Dos de Mayo'' * Unequal forces (or "hunt") games – e.g. Fox and Geese or Tablut * Wargames – ranging from ''Risk'', ''Diplomacy'', or ''Axis & Allies'', to ''Attack!'' or ''Conquest of the Empire'' * Word games – e.g. ''Scrabble'', ''Boggle'', Anagrams, or ''What's My Word?'' (2010)


Although many board games have a jargon all their own, there is a generalized terminology to describe concepts applicable to basic game mechanics and attributes common to nearly all board games.

See also

* Board game awards * BoardGameGeek—a website for board game enthusiasts * ''Going Cardboard''—a documentary movie * History of games * Interactive movie—DVD games * List of board games * List of game manufacturers * Mind sport


Further reading

* Austin, Roland G. "Greek Board Games." ''Antiquity'' 14. September 1940: 257–271 * * * * * * Fiske, Willard. ''Chess in Iceland and in Icelandic Literature—with historical notes on other table-games''. Florentine Typographical Society, 1905. * * Golladay, Sonja Musser,
"Los Libros de Acedrex Dados E Tablas: Historical, Artistic and Metaphysical Dimensions of Alfonso X’s Book of Games"
(PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007) *
PDF version
* * * * * * * * Rollefson, Gary O., "A Neolithic Game Board from Ain Ghazal, Jordan", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 286. (May 1992), pp. 1–5. * * ** Reprint: Random House Value Publishing, 1994.

External links

International Board Game Studies Association

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