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The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
are a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
range. This province consists of northern and southern physiographic regions, which divide near the Roanoke River gap.[1] The mountain range is located in the eastern United States, starting at its southernmost portion in Georgia, then ending northward in Pennsylvania. To the west of the Blue Ridge, between it and the bulk of the Appalachians, lies the Great Appalachian Valley, bordered on the west by the Ridge and Valley province of the Appalachian range. The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
are noted for having a bluish color when seen from a distance. Trees put the "blue" in Blue Ridge, from the isoprene released into the atmosphere,[2] thereby contributing to the characteristic haze on the mountains and their distinctive color.[3] Within the Blue Ridge province are two major national parks: the Shenandoah National Park, in the northern section, and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in the southern section. The Blue Ridge also contains the Blue Ridge Parkway, a 469-mile (755 km) long scenic highway that connects the two parks and is located along the ridge crest-lines with the Appalachian Trail.[4]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Geology 3 History 4 Flora and fauna

4.1 Flora 4.2 Fauna

5 In music 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit] See also: List of mountains of the Blue Ridge
List of mountains of the Blue Ridge
and Southern Sixers Although the term "Blue Ridge" is sometimes applied exclusively to the eastern edge or front range of the Appalachian Mountains, the geological definition of the Blue Ridge province extends westward to the Ridge and Valley area, encompassing the Great Smoky Mountains, the Great Balsams, the Roans, the Blacks, the Brushy Mountains (a "spur" of the Blue Ridge) and other mountain ranges.

The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
as seen from Blowing Rock, North Carolina.

The Blue Ridge extends as far north into Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as South Mountain. While South Mountain dwindles to mere hills between Gettysburg and Harrisburg, the band of ancient rocks that forms the core of the Blue Ridge continues northeast through the New Jersey
New Jersey
and Hudson River
Hudson River
highlands, eventually reaching The Berkshires
The Berkshires
of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the Green Mountains
Green Mountains
of Vermont. The Blue Ridge contains the highest mountains in eastern North America south of Baffin Island. About 125 peaks exceed 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in elevation.[5] The highest peak in the Blue Ridge (and in the entire Appalachian chain) is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet (2,037 m). There are 39 peaks in North Carolina and Tennessee
Tennessee
higher than 6,000 feet (1,800 m); by comparison, in the northern portion of the Appalachian chain only New Hampshire's Mt. Washington rises above 6,000 feet. Southern Sixers
Southern Sixers
is a term used by peak baggers for this group of mountains.[6] The Blue Ridge Parkway
Blue Ridge Parkway
runs 469 miles (755 km) along crests of the Southern Appalachians and links two national parks: Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains. In many places along the parkway, there are metamorphic rocks (gneiss) with folded bands of light-and dark-colored minerals, which sometimes look like the folds and swirls in a marble cake. Geology[edit]

Blue Ridge Mountains, viewed from Chimney Rock Mountain Overlook in North Carolina

Most of the rocks that form the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
are ancient granitic charnockites, metamorphosed volcanic formations, and sedimentary limestone. Recent studies completed by Richard Tollo, a professor and geologist at George Washington University, provide greater insight into the petrologic and geochronologic history of the Blue Ridge basement suites. Modern studies have found that the basement geology of the Blue Ridge is made of compositionally unique gneisses and granitoids, including orthopyroxene-bearing charnockites. Analysis of zircon minerals in the granite completed by John Aleinikoff at the U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey
has provided more detailed emplacement ages.

The northernmost extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains, in northern Maryland

Many of the features found in the Blue Ridge and documented by Tollo and others have confirmed that the rocks exhibit many similar features in other North American Grenville-age terranes. The lack of a calc-alkaline affinity and zircon ages less than 1,200 Ma suggest that the Blue Ridge is distinct from the Adirondacks, Green Mountains, and possibly the New York- New Jersey
New Jersey
Highlands. The petrologic and geochronologic data suggest that the Blue Ridge basement is a composite orogenic crust that was emplaced during several episodes from a crustal magma source. Field relationships further illustrate that rocks emplaced prior to 1,078-1,064 Ma preserve deformational features. Those emplaced post-1,064 Ma generally have a massive texture and missed the main episode of Mesoproterozoic compression.[7] The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
began forming during the Silurian Period
Silurian Period
over 400 million years ago. Approximately 320 Mya, North America and Europe collided, pushing up the Blue Ridge. At the time of their emergence, the Blue Ridge were among the highest mountains in the world, and reached heights comparable to the much younger Alps. Today, due to weathering and erosion over hundreds of millions of years, the highest peak in the range, Mount Mitchell
Mount Mitchell
in North Carolina, is only 6,684 feet high – still the highest peak east of the Rockies. History[edit]

The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
in the background from Lynchburg, Virginia

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The English who settled colonial Virginia
Virginia
in the early 17th century recorded that the native Powhatan
Powhatan
name for the Blue Ridge was Quirank. At the foot of the Blue Ridge, various tribes including the Siouan Manahoacs, the Iroquois, and the Shawnee
Shawnee
hunted and fished. A German physician-explorer, John Lederer, first reached the crest of the Blue Ridge in 1669 and again the following year; he also recorded the Virginia
Virginia
Siouan
Siouan
name for the Blue Ridge (Ahkonshuck). At the Treaty of Albany negotiated by Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood (1676-1740), of Virginia
Virginia
with the Iroquois
Iroquois
between 1718 and 1722, the Iroquois
Iroquois
ceded lands they had conquered south of the Potomac River and east of the Blue Ridge to the Virginia
Virginia
Colony. This treaty made the Blue Ridge the new demarcation point between the areas and tribes subject to the Six Nations, and those tributary to the Colony. When colonists began to disregard this by crossing the Blue Ridge and settling in the Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
in the 1730s, the Iroquois
Iroquois
began to object, finally selling their rights to the Valley, on the west side of the Blue Ridge, at the Treaty of Lancaster in 1744. During the Gettysburg Campaign
Gettysburg Campaign
of the American Civil War, the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
commanding, slipped across the Potomac to begin the second invasion of the North. They moved slowly across the Blue Ridge, using the mountains to screen their movements. Flora and fauna[edit] The forest environment provides natural habitat for many plants, trees, and animals. Flora[edit] See also: Category: Flora of the Appalachian Mountains The Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
have stunted oak and oak-hickory forest habitats, which comprise most of the Appalachian slope forests. Flora also includes grass, shrubs, hemlock and mixed-oak pine forests.[8] While the Blue Ridge range includes the highest summits in the eastern United States, the climate is nevertheless too warm to support an alpine zone, and thus the range lacks the tree line found at lower elevations in the northern half of the Appalachian range. The highest parts of the Blue Ridge are generally vegetated in dense Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests.[citation needed] Fauna[edit] The area is host to many animals, including:[8]

Many species of amphibians and reptiles A large diversity of fish species, many of which are endemic American black bear Songbirds and other bird species Bobcat Coyote Grouse Whitetail deer Wild boar Wild turkey

In music[edit]

They are included in the later lyrics of "Freight Train", an American folk song first written by Elizabeth Cotten
Elizabeth Cotten
in the early 20th century. ("To watch those old Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
climb. As I ride ol' Number Nine.")[9] The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (as published in 1913) was recorded by Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
and Oliver Hardy
Oliver Hardy
and features in their 1937 film Way Out West. This version of the song climbed to the number 2 spot in the UK Top 40 charts in 1975. A particularly well known song about the Blue Ridge is "My Home's Across the Blue Ridge Mountains", first recorded by the Carolina Tar Heels (1929), later by the Carter Family (1937), and still later by others, including Doc Watson
Doc Watson
and Joan Baez.[citation needed] The John Denver
John Denver
hit, "Take Me Home, Country Roads" (1971), mentions them in the line "Blue Ridge Mountains, Shenandoah River",[10] a song about West Virginia. (These geographic features only traverse a tiny portion of the easternmost tip of the state, but the song was written in the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
outside of the state, according to its authors.[11]) The bluegrass song, "Blue Ridge Cabin Home", was performed and recorded by many artists,[citation needed] including Flatt and Scruggs. The song, "Stonewall Jackson's Way", mentions the Blue Ridge Mountains.[12] The bluegrass song, "My Little Georgia Rose", mentions the Blue Ridge Mountains.[13] The Clemson University
Clemson University
alma mater[14] opens with the line, "Where the Blue Ridge yawns its greatness...", in reference to the school's location at foot of the mountains The bluegrass song "Blue Ridge Mountain" (2014) by American group Hurray for the Riff Raff
Hurray for the Riff Raff
mentions the Blue Ridge Mountains, along with small facets of the culture surrounding them. The song "Levi" from Old Crow Medicine Show's album Carry Me Back (2012), about First Lt.,[15] opens with the lines, "Born up on the Blue Ridge/At the Carolina line/Baptized on the banks of the New River". The song "Blue Ridge Mountains" from Fleet Foxes' self-titled album Fleet Foxes
Fleet Foxes
(2010) has the lyrics "I heard that you missed your connecting flight, to the Blue Ridge Mountains, over near Tennessee."[16]

See also[edit]

Appalachian balds Appalachian bogs Appalachian temperate rainforest Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests Cove (Appalachian Mountains)

References[edit]

^ "Physiographic divisions of the conterminous U. S." U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-06.  ^ Johnson, A. W (1998). Invitation To Organic Chemistry. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-7637-0432-2.  ^ "Blue Ridge Parkway, Frequently Asked Questions". National Park Service. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-29.  ^ Leighty, Dr. Robert D. (2001). "Blue Ridge Physiographic Province". Contract Report. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD) Information Sciences Office. Retrieved 2007-12-29.  ^ Medina, M.A.; J.C. Reid; R.H. Carpenter (2004). "Physiography of North Carolina" (PDF). North Carolina
North Carolina
Geological Survey, Division of Land Resources. Retrieved 2007-12-29.  ^ South Beyond 6000 ^ Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinkoff, John N.; Borduas, Elizabeth A. (2004). " Petrology
Petrology
and Geochronology
Geochronology
of Grenville-Age Magmatism, Blue Ridge Province, Northern Virginia". Northeastern Section (39th Annual) and Southeastern Section (53rd Annual) Joint Meeting. Geological Society of America.  ^ a b "Blue Ridge Mountains". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ History and lyrics of Peter, Paul and Mary
Peter, Paul and Mary
[1] ^ John Denver. " Take Me Home, Country Roads
Take Me Home, Country Roads
Lyrics". Lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ "Bill & John Denver". Billdanoff.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ "Stonewall Jackson's Way". Poetry and Music of the War Between the States. Retrieved 2007-12-29.  ^ [2] ^ "Alma Mater". Clemson.edu.  ^ "Levi Barnard". NPR.  ^ Fleet Foxes. " Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
Lyrics". Lyricsfreak.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 

Olson, Ted (1998). Blue Ridge Folklife, University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-023-0.

External links[edit]

Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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Mountains of Georgia

Blue Ridge Mountains

Big Bald Mountain Big John Dick Mountain Black Mountain Black Rock Mountain Blood Mountain Brasstown Bald Coosa Bald Cowrock Mountain Currahee Mountain Dick's Knob Double Spring Knob Flat Top Fort Mountain Glade Mountain Glassy Mountain Grassy Mountain Grassy Ridge Hightower Bald Horsetrough Mountain Jacks Knob Levelland Mountain Mount Oglethorpe Rabun Bald Rich Mountain Slaughter Mountain Springer Mountain Tray Mountain Wildcat Mountain Wolfpen Ridge Young Lick Rich Knob Screamer Mountain Three Sisters Yonah Mountain Rock Mountain Rocky Knob Rocky Mountain

Ridge-and-Valley

Baugh Mountain Blossom Hill Horseleg Mountain Lookout Mountain Lumpkin Hill Johns Mountain Old Shorter Hill Jackson Hill Pigeon Mountain Snodgrass Hill Taylor Ridge Turkey Mountain

Others

Alcovy Mountain Arabia Mountain Bear Mountain Blackjack Mountain Chenocetah Mountain Dowdell's Knob Kennesaw Mountain Little Kennesaw Mountain Mount Wilkinson Panola Mountain Pine Log Mountain Pine Mountain (Bartow County) Pine Mountain (Cobb County) Sawnee Mountain Six Flags Hill Stone Mountain Sweat Mountain

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Mountains of Maryland

Allegheny Mountains

Backbone Mountain Dans Mountain Haystack Mountain Negro Mountain Roundtop Hill

Blue Ridge Mountains

Catoctin Mountain Elk Ridge Lambs Knoll Quirauk Mountain South Mountain Sugarloaf Mountain

Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians

Big Savage Mountain Breakneck Hill Collier Mountain Evitts Mountain Savage Mountain Tonoloway Ridge Warrior Mountain

Others

Hoye-Crest Martin Mountain Ridge Nicholas Mountain Polish Mountain Town Hill

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Mountains of North Carolina

Blue Ridge Mountains

Bald Mountains

Max Patch

Black Mountains

Celo Knob Mount Craig Mount Mitchell

Brushy Mountains

Hibriten Mountain Pores Knob

Great Balsam Mountains

Black Balsam Knob Chestnut Mountain (Transylvania County) Cold Mountain Richland Balsam Shining Rock Tanasee Bald

Great Craggy Mountains

Beaucatcher Mountain

Great Smoky Mountains

Andrews Bald Charlies Bunion Clingmans Dome Gregory Bald Marks Knob Mount Cammerer Mount Chapman Mount Collins Mount Guyot Mount Hardison Mount Kephart Mount Sequoyah Mount Sterling Old Black Shuckstack Silers Bald Spence Field Thunderhead Mountain Tricorner Knob

Plott Balsams

Eaglenest Mountain North Eaglenest Mountain Waterrock Knob

Unaka Range

Big Yellow Mountain Grassy Ridge
Grassy Ridge
Bald Little Yellow Mountain Roan Mountain

Unicoi Mountains

Bob Stratton Bald Hooper Bald

Others

Adams Mountain Bear's Paw Bee Mountain Beech Mountain Bluerock Mountain Brier Knob Brown Mountain Chestnut Mountain (Caldwell County) Crossing Knob Doe Hill Mountain Elk Knob Fire Scale Mountain Flattop Mountain Grandfather Mountain Grandmother Mountain Howard Knob Humpback Mountain Little Chestnut Mountain Mount Pisgah Peak Mountain Pixie Mountain Rich Mountain Rich Mountain Bald Sassafras Mountain Snake Mountain Spanish Oak Mountain Stone Mountain Sugar Mountain Table Rock Three Top Mountain Tomkins Knob Woody's Knob

Sauratown Mountains

Moore's Knob Pilot Mountain

Uwharrie Mountains

Caraway Mountains Morrow Mountain

Others

Albert Mountain Big Butt Mountain Cane Creek Mountains Crowder's Mountain Devil's Courthouse Kings Pinnacle Looking Glass Rock Mayfield Mountain McAlpine Mountain Mount Jefferson Mulatto Mountain Occoneechee Mountain Old Butt Knob South Mountains Standing Indian Mountain Terrells Mountain Wayah Bald Wesser Bald Whiteside Mountain

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Mountains of Pennsylvania

Allegheny Mountains

Allegheny Front Allegheny Mountain Bald Eagle Mountain Blue Knob Brush Mountain Herman Point Kinton Knob Laurel Hill Mount Davis Negro Mountain North Mountain Pine Knob Ritchey Knob Schaefer Head Sugarloaf Knob Wills Mountain

Allegheny Plateau

Blue Ridge Mountain Camelback Mountain Elk Hill Endless Mountains Forkston Mountain Miller Mountain Mount Ararat Mount Pisgah (Bradford County) Penobscot Knob Pocono Mountains Red Rock Mountain

Blue Ridge Mountains

South Mountain

Reading Prong

Applebutter Hill Chestnut Hill Christines Hill Focht Hill Hexenkopf Hill Kirchberg Kohlberg Lehigh Mountain Morgan Hill Pektor Hill Saucon Hill South Mountain Swoveberg

Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians

Bald Mountain Bear Mountain Bear Pond Mountains Big Mountain Big Savage Mountain Blue Mountain Clarks Knob Cross Mountain Dunning Mountain Hawk Mountain Martin Hill Mount Minsi Nesquehoning Mountain Parnell Knob The Pinnacle Savage Mountain Sharp Mountain Sideling Hill Tuscarora Mountain Tussey Mountain Williamsburg Mountain

Others

Buck Mountain Buckingham Mountain Butler Knob Catawissa Mountain Central Mountain Conewago Mountains Conococheague Mountain Haycock Mountain Haystack Mountain Jacks Mountain McCauley Mountain Moosic Mountains Mount Nittany Mount Pisgah (Carbon County) Nescopeck Mountain Osterhout Mountain Peters Mountain Pimple Hill Pisgah Mountain Sidneys Knob Turkey Hill Watchung Outliers

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Mountains of South Carolina

Blue Ridge Mountains

Pinnacle Mountain Sassafras Mountain Saluda Mountains

Others

Brown's Mountain Caesars Head Glassy Mountain Henry's Knob Joes Mountain Little Mountain Nanny Mountain Thicketty Mountain Whitaker Mountain

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Mountains of Tennessee

Blue Ridge Mountains

Bald Mountains

Max Patch

Great Smoky Mountains

Bote Mountain Chilhowee Mountain Chimney Tops Clingmans Dome Coon Butt English Mountain Gregory Bald Mount Cammerer Mount Chapman Mount Collins Mount Guyot Mount Kephart Mount Le Conte Mount Sequoyah Old Black Silers Bald Spence Field Thunderhead Mountain Tricorner Knob

Unicoi Mountains

Oswald Dome

Unaka Range

Roan Mountain

Others

Iron Mountains Snake Mountain

Cumberland Mountains

Crab Orchard Mountains Frozen Head Tri-State Peak

Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians

Bays Mountain House Mountain

Others

Big Frog Mountain Brown Mountain Gee Hill Little Mountain Lone Mountain Mount Evil Penile Hill

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Mountains of Virginia

Allegheny Mountains

Allegheny Mountain Peters Mountain Reddish Knob Shenandoah Mountain

Blue Ridge Mountains

Apple Orchard Mountain Battle Mountain Broken Hills Bull Run Mountains Catoctin Mountain Elk Pond Mountain Furnace Mountain Hawksbill Mountain High Knob Hogback Mountain Holston Mountain Humpback Rock Knob Mountain Loudoun Heights Maintop Mountain Mary's Rock Mount Jefferson Mount Rogers Neighbor Mountain Old Rag Mountain Paris Mountain Peaks of Otter Pignut Mountain Poor Mountain The Priest Purcell Knob Ragged Mountains Rocky Mountain Short Hill Mountain Southwest Mountains Stony Man Mountain Turkeycock Mountain Twelve O'clock Knob Whitetop Mountain

Cumberland Mountains

High Knob Pine Mountain Tri-State Peak

Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians

Beartown Mountain Big Schloss Clinch Mountain Elliott Knob Fort Lewis Mountain Great North Mountain Massanutten Mountain Powell Mountain Salt Pond Mountain Timber Ridge

Others

Camp Rock Carpenter Mountain Cedar Mountain House Mountain Kate's Mountain McAfee Knob Nakedtop Pantops Mountain Roanoke Mountain Short Mountain Signal Knob Willis Mountain

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Mountains of West Virginia

Allegheny Mountains

Allegheny Mountain Back Allegheny Mountain Bald Knob Barton Knob Cheat Mountain Droop Mountain Elleber Ridge Gaudineer Knob Knobly Mountain Laurel Mountain Mount Porte Crayon North Fork Mountain North Mountain Peters Mountain River Knobs Reddish Knob Shavers Fork Mountain Complex Shavers Mountain Shenandoah Mountain Sleepy Creek Mountain Snowshoe Mountain Spring Gap Mountain Spruce Knob Spruce Mountain Thorny Flat White Top

Blue Ridge Mountains

Blue Ridge Mountain Raven Rocks

Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians

Baker Mountain Bear Garden Mountain Big Schloss Cacapon Mountain Castle Mountain (Hampshire County) Castle Mountain (Pendleton County) Cooper Mountain Great North Mountain High Knob Horsepen Mountain Keeney Knob Little Cacapon Mountain Mill Creek Mountain Nathaniel Mountain New Creek Mountain North River Mountain Patterson Creek Mountain Saddle Mountain Schaffenaker Mountain Short Mountain South Branch Mountain Third Hill Mountain

Others

Bickett Knob Bickle Knob Black Mountain Black Rock Buffalo Bull Knob Burner Mountain Caesar Mountain Calders Peak Camp Hill Close Mountain Cottle Knob Day Mountain Dorsey Knob Evick Knob Greenwood Mountain Gregg Knob Gunstock Knob Gwinn Mountain Honsocker Knob Hump Mountain Ice Mountain Limestone Mountain Michael Mountain Paddy Knob Pifer Mountain Pinnickinnick Mountain See All Sewell Mountain Socrates Mountain Tallery Mountain Twin Sugars Ugly Mountain Viney Mountain Weaver Knob

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 Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Harrisburg (capital)

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Metro areas

Altoona Baltimore-Washington Erie Harrisburg–Carlisle Johnstown Lancaster Lebanon Lehigh Valley New York Philadelphia Pittsburgh Reading Scranton‑Wilkes-Barre State College Williamsport York-Hanover

Largest cities

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Largest municipalities

Abington Bensalem Bethel Park Bristol Cheltenham Cranberry Darby Falls Hampden Haverford Hempfield Lower Macungie Lower Makefield Lower Merion Lower Paxton Manheim McCandless Middletown Millcreek Township Monroeville Mount Lebanon Norristown Northampton North Huntingdon Penn Hills Radnor Ridley Ross Shaler Spring State College Tredyffrin Upper Darby Upper Merion Warminster West Chester Whitehall York Township

Regions

Allegheny Mountains Allegheny National Forest Allegheny Plateau Atlantic Coastal Plain Bald Eagle Valley Blue Ridge Central Coal Region Cumberland Valley Delaware Valley Dutch Country Eastern Endless Mountains Great Valley Mahoning Valley Happy Valley Laurel Highlands Lehigh Valley Main Line Moshannon Valley Nittany Valley Northeastern Northern Tier Northwestern North Penn Valley Ohio Valley Oil Region Oley Valley Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Highlands Penns Valley Philicon Valley Piedmont Pocono Mountains Ridge and Valley Saucon Valley South Central Southeastern Southern Southwestern Susquehanna Valley Western Wyoming Valley

Counties

Adams Allegheny Armstrong Beaver Bedford Berks Blair Bradford Bucks Butler Cambria Cameron Carbon Centre Chester Clarion Clearfield Clinton Columbia Crawford Cumberland Dauphin Delaware Elk Erie Fayette Forest Franklin Fulton Greene Huntingdon Indiana Jefferson Juniata Lackawanna Lancaster Lawrence Lebanon Lehigh Luzerne Lycoming McKean Mercer Mifflin Monroe Montgomery Montour Northampton Northumberland Perry Philadelphia Pike Potter Schuylkill Snyder Somerset Sullivan Susquehanna Tioga Union Venango Warren Washington Wayne Westmoreland Wyoming York

v t e

 State of Maryland

Annapolis (capital)

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Regions

Allegheny Mountains Atlantic coastal plain Baltimore–Washington metro area Blue Ridge Chesapeake Cumberland Valley Delaware Valley Delmarva Peninsula Eastern Shore Piedmont Ridge and Valley Southern Maryland Western Maryland Western Shore

Cities

Aberdeen Annapolis Baltimore Bowie Brunswick Cambridge College Park Cumberland Frederick Gaithersburg Greenbelt Hagerstown Havre de Grace Laurel Rockville Salisbury Takoma Park Westminster

Towns

Bel Air Denton Easton Elkton Ocean City Port Deposit

CDPs

Arbutus Arnold Aspen Hill Baltimore
Baltimore
Highlands Bethesda Camp Springs Carney Catonsville Chillum Clinton Cockeysville-Hunt Valley Colesville Columbia Crofton Dundalk Edgewood Eldersburg Elkridge Ellicott City Essex Fairland Ferndale Fort Washington Germantown Glen Burnie Green Haven Hillcrest Heights Landover Langley Park Lanham Lansdowne Lochearn Lutherville Middle River Milford Mill Montgomery Village Odenton Olney Owings Mills Oxon Hill Parkville Perry Hall Pikesville Potomac Randallstown Redland Reisterstown Rosedale St. Charles Severn Severna Park Silver Spring South Gate Suitland Timonium Towson Urbana Waldorf Wheaton-Glenmont White Oak Woodlawn

Counties

Allegany Anne Arundel Baltimore Calvert Caroline Carroll Cecil Charles Dorchester Frederick Garrett Harford Howard Kent Montgomery Prince George's Queen Anne's St. Mary's Somerset Talbot Washington Wicomico Worcester

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 State of West Virginia

Charleston (capital)

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Insignia

Coat of arms Flag Motto Seal

Regions

Allegheny Mountains Allegheny Plateau Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Blue Ridge Charleston Metropolitan Area Cumberland Plateau Cumberland Mountains Eastern Panhandle Huntington Metropolitan Area North-Central West Virginia Northern Panhandle Potomac Highlands Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians Shenandoah Valley Southern West Virginia Western West Virginia

Metro areas

Charleston Huntington Morgantown Martinsburg Parkersburg-Vienna Wheeling Winchester Weirton

Largest cities

Beckley Charleston Fairmont Huntington Martinsburg Morgantown Parkersburg Wheeling Weirton

Counties

Barbour Berkeley Boone Braxton Brooke Cabell Calhoun Clay Doddridge Fayette Gilmer Grant Greenbrier Hampshire Hancock Hardy Harrison Jackson Jefferson Kanawha Lewis Lincoln Logan Marion Marshall Mason McDowell Mercer Mineral Mingo Monongalia Monroe Morgan Nicholas Ohio Pendleton Pleasants Pocahontas Preston Putnam Raleigh Randolph Ritchie Roane Summers Taylor Tucker Tyler Upshur Wayne Webster Wetzel Wirt Wood Wyoming

v t e

 Commonwealth of Virginia

Richmond (capital)

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Regions

Allegheny Mountains Atlantic Coastal Plain Blue Ridge Chesapeake Bay Cumberland Mountains Delmarva Peninsula Eastern Shore Hampton Roads Middle Peninsula Northern Neck Northern Virginia Piedmont Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians Shenandoah Valley South Hampton Roads Southside Southwest Virginia Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Tidewater Tri-Cities Virginia
Virginia
Peninsula

Metro areas

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford Bluefield Bristol Charlottesville Danville Harrisonburg Lynchburg Martinsville Richmond Roanoke Staunton-Waynesboro Norfolk- Virginia
Virginia
Beach Washington-Arlington-Alexandria Winchester

Counties

Accomack Albemarle Alleghany Amelia Amherst Appomattox Arlington Augusta Bath Bedford Bland Botetourt Brunswick Buchanan Buckingham Campbell Caroline Carroll Charles City Charlotte Chesterfield Clarke Craig Culpeper Cumberland Dickenson Dinwiddie Essex Fairfax Fauquier Floyd Fluvanna Franklin Frederick Giles Gloucester Goochland Grayson Greene Greensville Halifax Hanover Henrico Henry Highland Isle of Wight James City King and Queen King George King William Lancaster Lee Loudoun Louisa Lunenburg Madison Mathews Mecklenburg Middlesex Montgomery Nelson New Kent Northampton Northumberland Nottoway Orange Page Patrick Pittsylvania Powhatan Prince Edward Prince George Prince William Pulaski Rappahannock Richmond Roanoke Rockbridge Rockingham Russell Scott Shenandoah Smyth Southampton Spotsylvania Stafford Surry Sussex Tazewell Warren Washington Westmoreland Wise Wythe York

Independent cities

Alexandria Bristol Buena Vista Charlottesville Chesapeake Colonial Heights Covington Danville Emporia Fairfax Falls Church Franklin Fredericksburg Galax Hampton Harrisonburg Hopewell Lexington Lynchburg Manassas Manassas Park Martinsville Newport News Norfolk Norton Petersburg Poquoson Portsmouth Radford Richmond Roanoke Salem Staunton Suffolk Virginia
Virginia
Beach Waynesboro Williamsburg Winchester

v t e

 State of Tennessee

Nashville (capital)

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Tennessee
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East Tennessee Middle Tennessee West Tennessee

Regions

Blue Ridge Mountains Cumberland Mountains Cumberland Plateau Highland Rim Mississippi Plain Nashville Basin Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Tri-Cities

Largest cities

Bartlett Bristol Chattanooga Clarksville Cleveland Franklin Hendersonville Jackson Johnson City Kingsport Knoxville Memphis Murfreesboro Nashville

Counties

Anderson Bedford Benton Bledsoe Blount Bradley Campbell Cannon Carroll Carter Cheatham Chester Claiborne Clay Cocke Coffee Crockett Cumberland Davidson Decatur DeKalb Dickson Dyer Fayette Fentress Franklin Gibson Giles Grainger Greene Grundy Hamblen Hamilton Hancock Hardeman Hardin Hawkins Haywood Henderson Henry Hickman Houston Humphreys Jackson Jefferson Johnson Knox Lake Lauderdale Lawrence Lewis Lincoln Loudon Macon Madison Marion Marshall Maury McMinn McNairy Meigs Monroe Montgomery Moore Morgan Obion Overton Perry Pickett Polk Putnam Rhea Roane Robertson Rutherford Scott Sequatchie Sevier Shelby Smith Stewart Sullivan Sumner Tipton Trousdale Unicoi Union Van Buren Warren Washington Wayne Weakley White Williamson Wilson

v t e

 State of North Carolina

Raleigh (capital)

Topics

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Regions

Western

Foothills High Country

Piedmont

Metrolina (Charlotte) Piedmont Triad Triangle

Eastern

Sandhills Cape Fear Crystal Coast Inner Banks Outer Banks

Largest cities

Asheville Cary Chapel Hill Charlotte Concord Durham Fayetteville Gastonia Greensboro Greenville High Point Jacksonville Raleigh Wilmington Winston‑Salem

Smaller cities

Albemarle Apex Asheboro Burlington Conover Eden Elizabeth City Garner Goldsboro Graham Havelock Henderson Hendersonville Hickory Kannapolis Kings Mountain Kinston Laurinburg Lenoir Lexington Lumberton Monroe Morganton New Bern Newton Reidsville Roanoke Rapids Rocky Mount Salisbury Sanford Shelby Statesville Thomasville Wake Forest Wilson

Major towns

Beaufort Boone Brevard Carrboro Clayton Cornelius Dunn Fuquay-Varina Harrisburg Holly Springs Hope Mills Huntersville Indian Trail Kernersville Knightdale Leland Matthews Midland Mint Hill Mooresville Morehead City Morrisville Mount Pleasant Oxford Shallotte Smithfield Southern Pines Tarboro Waynesville Winterville

Counties

Alamance Alexander Alleghany Anson Ashe Avery Beaufort Bertie Bladen Brunswick Buncombe Burke Cabarrus Caldwell Camden Carteret Caswell Catawba Chatham Cherokee Chowan Clay Cleveland Columbus Craven Cumberland Currituck Dare Davidson Davie Duplin Durham Edgecombe Forsyth Franklin Gaston Gates Graham Granville Greene Guilford Halifax Harnett Haywood Henderson Hertford Hoke Hyde Iredell Jackson Johnston Jones Lee Lenoir Lincoln Macon Madison Martin McDowell Mecklenburg Mitchell Montgomery Moore Nash New Hanover Northampton Onslow Orange Pamlico Pasquotank Pender Perquimans Person Pitt Polk Randolph Richmond Robeson Rockingham Rowan Rutherford Sampson Scotland Stanly Stokes Surry Swain Transylvania Tyrrell Union Vance Wake Warren Washington Watauga Wayne Wilkes Wilson Yadkin Yancey

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 State of South Carolina

Columbia (capital)

Regions

Atlantic Coastal Plain Blue Ridge Mountains Grand Strand High Hills of Santee Lake Murray Country Lowcountry Metrolina Midlands Ninety-Six District Olde English District Pee Dee Piedmont Sandhills Sea Islands Upstate

Seal of South Carolina

Larger cities

Charleston Columbia Greenville North Charleston Rock Hill Spartanburg

Smaller cities

Aiken Anderson Beaufort Bennettsville Camden Cayce Conway Easley Florence Forest Acres Gaffney Georgetown Greenwood Greer Goose Creek Hilton Head Island Isle of Palms Laurens Lexington Mauldin Myrtle Beach North Augusta North Myrtle Beach Orangeburg Simpsonville Summerville Sumter Union Walterboro West Columbia York

Towns

Abbeville Barnwell Batesburg-Leesville Bluffton Clemson Darlington Dillon Edgefield Fort Mill Fountain Inn Great Falls Hardeeville Irmo Jefferson Kingstree Liberty Marion McCormick Moncks Corner Mount Pleasant Newberry Pageland Pendleton Pickens Seneca Sullivan's Island Travelers Rest Walhalla Westminster Williamston

CDPs

Berea Carolina Forest Dentsville Gantt Garden City Ladson Parker Red Hill Saint Andrews Seven Oaks Socastee Taylors Wade Hampton

Counties

Abbeville Aiken Allendale Anderson Bamberg Barnwell Beaufort Berkeley Calhoun Charleston Cherokee Chester Chesterfield Clarendon Colleton Darlington Dillon Dorchester Edgefield Fairfield Florence Georgetown Greenville Greenwood Hampton Horry Jasper Kershaw Lancaster Laurens Lee Lexington Marion Marlboro McCormick Newberry Oconee Orangeburg Pickens Richland Saluda Spartanburg Sumter Union Williamsburg York

Topics

Airports Amusement parks Census areas Colleges and universities Congressional districts Famous people Governors Highways Historic places History Legislature Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Rivers Shopping malls Sports venues State House State parks Tourist attractions Wildlife refuges

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

v t e

 State of Georgia

Atlanta
Atlanta
(capital)

Topics

Index Geology History Congressional delegations Government Law People Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Music Elections Geography State Parks Symbols Transportation Tourist Attractions

Seal of Georgia

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

Atlantic coastal plain Blue Ridge Central Georgia Cumberland Plateau Golden Isles Historic South Lower Coastal Plain Metro Atlanta North Georgia North Georgia
North Georgia
Mountains Northeast Georgia Piedmont Ridge and Valley Sea Islands Southern Rivers Southeast Georgia Southwest Georgia Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Wiregrass Region

Largest cities

Albany Atlanta Athens Augusta Columbus Johns Creek Macon Marietta Roswell Sandy Springs Savannah Valdosta Warner Robins

Counties

Appling Atkinson Bacon Baker Baldwin Banks Barrow Bartow Ben Hill Berrien Bibb Bleckley Brantley Brooks Bryan Bulloch Burke Butts Calhoun Camden Candler Carroll Catoosa Charlton Chatham Chattahoochee Chattooga Cherokee Clarke Clay Clayton Clinch Cobb Coffee Colquitt Columbia Cook Coweta Crawford Crisp Dade Dawson Decatur DeKalb Dodge Dooly Dougherty Douglas Early Echols Effingham Elbert Emanuel Evans Fannin Fayette Floyd Forsyth Franklin Fulton Gilmer Glascock Glynn Gordon Grady Greene Gwinnett Habersham Hall Hancock Haralson Harris Hart Heard Henry Houston Irwin Jackson Jasper Jeff Davis Jefferson Jenkins Johnson Jones Lamar Lanier Laurens Lee Liberty Lincoln Long Lowndes Lumpkin Macon Madison Marion McDuffie McIntosh Meriwether Miller Mitchell Monroe Montgomery Morgan Murray Muscogee Newton Oconee Oglethorpe Paulding Peach Pickens Pierce Pike Polk Pulaski Putnam Quitman Rabun Randolph Richmond Rockdale Schley Screven Seminole Spalding Stephens Stewart Sumter Talbot Taliaferro Tattnall Taylor Telfair Terrell Thomas Tift Toombs Towns Treutlen Troup Turner Twiggs Union Upson Walker Walton Ware Warren Washington Wayne Webster Wheeler White Whitfield Wilcox Wilkes Wilkinson Worth (

.