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The blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), also known as the blue-and-gold macaw, is a large South American parrot with blue top parts and yellow under parts. It is a member of the large group of neotropical parrots known as macaws. It inhabits forest (especially varzea, but also in open sections of terra firme or unflooded forest), woodland and savannah of tropical South America. They are popular in aviculture because of their striking color, ability to talk, ready availability in the marketplace, and close bonding to humans.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Breeding 5 Conservation and threats 6 Aviculture 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Taxonomy[edit] The blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758)[2] is a member of the genus Ara (Lacepede 1799), one of six genera of Central and South American macaws.[3] Description[edit]

Jurong Bird
Bird
Park

These birds can reach a length of 76–86 cm (30–34 in) and weigh 0.900–1.5 kg (2–3 lb), making them some of the larger members of their family. They are vivid in appearance with blue-green wings and tail, dark-blue chin, golden under parts, and a green forehead. Their beaks are black. The naked face is white, turning pink in excited birds, and lined with small, black feathers. Blue-and-yellow macaws live from 30 to 35 years in the wild and reach sexual maturity between the ages of 3 and 6 years.[4] Little variation in plumage is seen across the range. Some birds have a more orange or "butterscotch" underside color, particularly on the breast. This was often seen in Trinidad birds and others of the Caribbean
Caribbean
area. The blue-and-yellow macaw uses its powerful beak for breaking nutshells, and for climbing up and hanging from trees.[4] Distribution and habitat[edit] This species occurs in Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The range extends slightly into Central America, where it is restricted to Panama. The species' range formerly included Trinidad, but it became extinct there by 1970 as a result of human activities. Between 1999 and 2003, wild-caught blue-and-gold macaws were translocated from Guyana to Trinidad, in an attempt to re-establish the species in a protected area around Nariva swamp. A small breeding population descended from introduced birds is found in Puerto Rico,[1] and another has inhabited Miami-Dade County, Florida, since the mid-1980s.[5] Breeding[edit]

20 days old blue-and-yellow macaw

The blue-and-yellow macaw generally mates for life. They nest almost exclusively in dead palms and most nests are in Mauritia flexuosa palms.The female typically lays two or three eggs. The female incubates the eggs for about 28 days. One chick is dominant and gets most of the food; the others perish in the nest. Chicks fledge from the nest about 97 days after hatching. The male bird's color signals readiness for breeding. The brighter and bolder the colors, the better the chance of getting a mate.[6] Conservation and threats[edit] The blue-and-yellow macaw is on the verge of being extirpated in Paraguay, but it still remains widespread and fairly common in a large part of mainland South America. The species is therefore listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
by BirdLife International. It is listed on CITES Appendix II, trade restricted.[1] Aviculture[edit]

At Walsrode
Walsrode
Bird
Bird
Park, Germany

Even well-tended blue-and-yellow macaws are known to "scream" for attention, and make other loud noises. Loud vocalizations, especially "flock calls", and destructive chewing are natural parts of their behavior and should be expected in captivity. Due to their large size, they also require plentiful space in which to fly around. According to World Parrot
Parrot
Trust, an enclosure for a blue-and-yellow macaw should, if possible, be at least 15 m (50 ft) in length.[7] Gallery[edit]

Head in high detail, Vogelburg (bird park), Weilrod, Germany

Flying at Zoo de Pont-Scorff, Morbihan, France

At World of Birds, Cape Town, South Africa

Sleepy couple at Weltvogelpark Walsrode
Weltvogelpark Walsrode
( Walsrode
Walsrode
Bird
Bird
Park, Germany)

Head of blue-and-yellow macaw

Ara ararauna in Antioquia

Extended wings Cougar Mountain Zoo

See also[edit]

List of macaws

References[edit]

^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Ara ararauna". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.  ^ "Blue and Gold Macaws". The Spruce. Patricia Sund. Retrieved 19 October 2017.  ^ "World Birds Taxonomic List". Zoonomen. Retrieved 31 October 2017.  ^ a b ffrench, Richard; O'Neill, John Patton; Eckelberry, Don R. (1991). A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago (2nd ed.). Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8014-9792-6.  ^ Krishnan, Karunya. "Macaws on campus 'awesome' but noisy." The Miami Hurricane. 2009. ^ Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-84309-164-6.  ^ "Blue and Gold Macaw
Macaw
(Ara ararauna) Parrot
Parrot
Care". World Parrot Trust. Retrieved 28 January 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Doane, Bonnie Munro & Qualkinbush, Thomas (1994): My parrot, my friend : an owner's guide to parrot behavior. Howell Book House, New York. ISBN 0-87605-970-1 Hilty, Steven L. (2003): Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5 Forshaw, J.M. Parrots of the World. New Jersey. T.F.H. Publications Inc. 1978. ISBN 0-87666-959-3

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ara ararauna.

Data related to Ara ararauna at Wikispecies World Parrot
Parrot
Trust Parrot
Parrot
Encyclopedia – Species
Species
Profile Blue-and-yellow macaw
Blue-and-yellow macaw
videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection.

v t e

Macaws

Genus

Species
Species
(extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct, ₴ indicates evidence only from sub-fossils)

Anodorhynchus

Glaucous macaw Hyacinth macaw Lear's macaw

Cyanopsitta

Spix's macaw

Ara

Blue-and-yellow macaw
Blue-and-yellow macaw
(or blue-and-gold macaw) Blue-throated macaw Military macaw Great green macaw
Great green macaw
(or Buffon's macaw) Scarlet macaw Red-and-green macaw
Red-and-green macaw
(or green-winged macaw) Red-fronted macaw Chestnut-fronted macaw
Chestnut-fronted macaw
(or severe macaw) Cuban macaw
Cuban macaw
Saint Croix macaw
Saint Croix macaw
† ₴ Lesser Antillean macaw
Lesser Antillean macaw
† ₴

Orthopsittaca

Red-bellied macaw

Primolius

Blue-headed macaw Blue-winged macaw
Blue-winged macaw
(or Illiger's macaw) Golden-collared macaw
Golden-collared macaw
(or yellow-collared macaw)

Diopsittaca

Red-shouldered macaw
Red-shouldered macaw
(Hahn's macaw or noble macaw)

Hypothetical extinct macaws

Martinique macaw Red-headed macaw Jamaican red macaw Dominican green-and-yellow macaw

Neotropical
Neotropical
parrots (tribe: Arini) List of macaws Mini-macaws

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q205477 ADW: Ara_ararauna ARKive: ara-ararauna eBird: baymac EoL: 1177961 GBIF: 5959231 iNaturalist: 19018 ITIS: 177661 IUCN: 22685539 NCBI: 9226 Sp

.