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The Blambangan Kingdom was the last Javanese Hindu
Hindu
kingdom that flourished between the 13th and 18th centuries, based in the eastern corner of Java.[1] The capital was at Banyuwangi.[2] It had a long history of its own, developing contemporaneously with the largest Hindu
Hindu
kingdom in Java, Majapahit
Majapahit
(1293–1527). At the time of the collapse of Majapahit
Majapahit
in the late fifteenth century, Blambangan stood on its own as the one solitary Hindu
Hindu
state left in Java, controlling the larger part of Java’s Oosthoek.[3] The historical record and the study of Blambangan Kingdom is scarce, which contributed to the obscurity of its history. Contemporary Javanese mostly know the kingdom through its link to the popular epic folklore, the legend of Damarwulan
Damarwulan
and Menak Jingga. The fictional story which is set in Majapahit
Majapahit
period, told that the rebellious King of Blambangan named Menak Jingga, desired the hand of Majapahit
Majapahit
Queen Kencanawungu.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Formation and growth 1.2 Decline

2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading

History[edit] Formation and growth[edit] During Majapahit
Majapahit
period circa 13th century, the eastern realm was regarded as peripheral area of the Javanese kingdom, which centered in Trowulan, Majapahit
Majapahit
and surrounding Brantas River
Brantas River
basin. Whereas eastern salient areas such as Lumajang
Lumajang
is regarded as the outlying provinces.[4] The Majapahit
Majapahit
kingdom was established in 1293 by Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
with the help of cunning and able Arya Wiraraja, the Regent of Madura. As the reward of Wiraraja's support, in 1295, Raden Wijaya
Raden Wijaya
agreed to give the eastern salient of Java, which includes Blambangan areas with Lumajang as its capital. The Nagarakretagama, composed in 1365, mentioned that the central part of eastern corner of Java
Java
wast visited by King Hayam Wuruk
Hayam Wuruk
in his royal tour in 1359. The poem contains interesting information about the region.[5] The eastern realm become the vassal or as mancanagara (provinces) of Majapahit. However, it seems that the eastern realm steadily has grown quite independently. The eastern salient become the host of eastern court which rival Majapahit
Majapahit
central authority. The rivalry erupted in Paregreg war (1404-1406), which was fought as the contest of succession between Western court led by Wikramawardhana, against Eastern court led by Bhre Wirabhumi. In 1406 the western troops led by Bhre Tumapel, the son of Wikramawardhana, penetrated the eastern palace and defeated Bhre Wirabhumi.[6] After the collapse of Majapahit
Majapahit
in the late 15th century, Blambangan stood alone as the sole Javanese Hindu
Hindu
polity in Java. The kingdom subsequently was contested and harassed by successive of expansive Javanese Islamic states to the west, from Demak to Pajang and Mataram.[1] On the eastern side across the strait, the Balinese courts of Gelgel and Mengwi, also has invested its political interest in the region, as the Balinese regarded Blambangan as a buffer state to ward off Islamic expansive influences.[1] In the first decades of the 16th century, Tomé Pires' informants reported that the "heathen" Blambangan kingdom was the most powerful Javanese kingdom east of Surabaya.[5] At that time, the port of Panarukan was the commercial as well as the political center of the kingdom. For almost three centuries, Blambangan was situated between two different political factions, the Islamic state of Mataram in the west, and various Hindu
Hindu
realms in Bali
Bali
(Gelgel, Buleleng, and Mengwi) in the east. Both neighbouring powers simultaneously contested the territory of Blambangan to appease their own political and religious ambitions. Decline[edit] The Balinese used Blambangan as a buffer against the Islamic expansion initiated by Muslim Mataram from the west and also found it useful to bolster the economy of Bali
Bali
which was heavily overshadowed by endemic warfare. In the second half of the 16th century, a few Roman Catholic missionaries from Portuguese colony in Malacca arrived in East Java
Java
to try to convert the local people. They visited Panarukan and Blambangan, and reported that the port of Panarukan was contested between the Muslim rulers of Pasuruhan alied with Surabaya, against the "heathen" King of Blambangan.[5] The conquest of Blambangan by the forces of Sultan Agung of Mataram took place in 1639, which also the end of Panarukan's independence.[5] With the lost of its important port, Panarukan, the center of Blambangan kingdom was receded to inland south to present day Blambangan area, with its port in Banyuwangi. In 1665, Tawang Alun II Danureja, the 8th king of Blambangan, opened the forest of Sudiamara and establishes a new capital in Macan Putih, Kabat subdistrict located about 10 kilometres from Banyuwangi.[1] Of the nine rulers who once ruled Blambangan, Tawang Alun II (1665-1691) is considered as one of the greatest king of Blambangan. During his reign, Blambangan territory reaches Jember, Lumajang, Situbondo
Situbondo
and Bali. Blambangan society at that time lived peacefully and prosperous, after all time engaged in various warfare against the expansionist neighboring kingdoms to the west and east.[1] The VOC archieve mentined the spectacular ngaben (cremation) ceremony of Tawang Alun II, that among his 400 wifes, 271 of them performed suttee (self immolation).[1] In 1697, the Balinese Kingdom of Buleleng, sent its expedition to Blambangan, which established Balinese influence in the region.[7] In early 18th century, the Dutch and British contested each other’s political and economic power in the region. Internal disputes about the succession at the court of Blambangan impaired the kingdom, making it vulnerable to foreign intervention. See also[edit]

Indonesia portal

Monarchs of Java Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire Osing People

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g "Menjejaki Sejarah Keagungan Kerajaan Blambangan". Tempo.co (in Indonesian). 31 May 2010.  ^ Java
Java
Adventure Guide. Tuttle Publishing. 15 April 2014. p. 429. ISBN 978-1-4629-0927-8.  ^ S. Kalyanaraman (2011). Rastram: Hindu
Hindu
History in United Indian Ocean States. Sarasvati Research Center. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-9828971-1-9.  ^ Theodore G.Th. Pigeaud (2013). Java
Java
in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Springer. p. 419. ISBN 9789401771337.  ^ a b c d Theodore Gauthier Th. Pigeaud (2013). Islamic States in Java 1500–1700: Eight Dutch Books and Articles by Dr H.J. de Graaf, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789401571876.  ^ Victor M Fic (2 Jan 2014). From Majapahit
Majapahit
and Sukuh to Megawati Sukarnoputri. Abhinav Publications. p. 104.  ^ H.G.C. Schulte Nordholt (2010). The Spell of Power: A History of Balinese Politics, 1650-1940, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. BRILL. ISBN 9789004253759. 

Further reading[edit]

Margana, Sri (2007). Java's last frontier : the struggle for hegemony of Blambangan, c. 1763-1813. CNWS/TANAP, Faculty of Arts, Leiden University. 

v t e

Former states in Indonesia

Java

Hindu/Buddhist

Blambangan Galuh Isyana Janggala Kahuripan Kalingga Majapahit Medang Medang Kamulan Rajasa Salakanagara Sanjaya Shailendra Singhasari Srivijaya Sunda Tarumanagara

Islamic

Banten Cirebon Demak Kalinyamat Mataram Pajang Sumedang Larang Surakarta Yogyakarta

Sumatra

Hindu/Buddhist

Dharmasraya Kantoli Kediri Majapahit Melayu Mauli Pannai Samaskuta Sanfotsi Srivijaya

Islamic

Aceh Aru Asahan Deli Jambi Johor Langkat Malacca Pagaruyung Riau-Lingga Samudera Pasai Serdang Siak

Kalimantan

Banjar Brunei Bulungan Kutai Lanfang Republic Negara Daha Pontianak Sambas Sarawak Tanjungpura

Sulawesi

Gowa Bone Luwu Toraja Wajo

Lesser Sunda Islands

Bali Bima Larantuka Sumbawa Tambora

West Timor

Amabi Amanatun Amanuban Amarasi Sonbai Wehali

Maluku

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