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The MILIZIA VOLONTARIA PER LA SICUREZZA NAZIONALE (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the BLACKSHIRTS (Italian : Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or SQUADRISTI (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
. Its members were distinguished by their black uniforms (modelled on those of the Arditi
Arditi
, Italy's elite troops of World War I) and their loyalty to Benito Mussolini , the Duce
Duce
(leader) of Fascism
Fascism
, to whom they swore an oath. The founders of the paramilitary groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers and young landowners opposing peasants' and country labourers' unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. In 1943 the MVSN was integrated into the Italian armed forces .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Organization

* 2.1 Basic organization * 2.2 Territorial organization * 2.3 Security militia * 2.4 Ethiopian Campaign

* 3 Blackshirt Division organization

* 3.1 Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (3 October 1935) * 3.2 Organization of Blackshirt Divisions (10 June 1940)

* 4 Commandant-General * 5 Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 6 World War II
World War II
* 7 Appearance

* 8 Ranks

* 8.1 Officers * 8.2 Other Ranks

* 9 Legacy

* 10 See also

* 10.1 General

* 11 Notes * 12 External links

HISTORY

The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
were established as the squadristi in 1919 and consisted of many disgruntled former soldiers. It was given the task of leading fights against their bitter enemies – the Socialists. They may have numbered 200,000 by the time of Mussolini's March on Rome
Rome
from 27 to 29 October 1922. In 1922 the squadristi were reorganized into the milizia and formed numerous bandiere, and on 1 February 1923 the Blackshirts
Blackshirts
became the Volunteer Militia for National Security (Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, or MVSN), which lasted until the 8 September 1943 Armistice of Cassibile . The Italian Social Republic , located in the areas of northern Italy occupied by Germany, reformed the MVSN on 8 December 1943 into the National Republican Guard (Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana, or GNR).

ORGANIZATION

Main articles: Founding of Blackshirts , Milizia Coloniale , and Albanian Fascist Militia

Benito Mussolini was the leader, or Commandant-General and First Honorary Corporal, of the blackshirts, but executive functions were carried out by the Chief of Staff, equivalent to an army general. The MVSN was formed in imitation of the ancient Roman army
Roman army
, as follows:

BASIC ORGANIZATION

The terms after the first are not words common to European armies (e.g., the Italian battaglione has cognates in many languages). Instead, they derive from the structure of the armies of ancient Rome .

* Zona (zone) = division * Legione (legion ) = regiment , each legion was a militia unit consisting of a small active cadre and a large reserve of civilian volunteers. * Coorte (cohort ) = battalion * Centuria (centuria ) = company * Manipolo (maniple ) = platoon * Squadra (squad ) = squad

These units were also organized on the triangular principle as follows:

* 3 squadre = 1 manipolo (maniple ) * 3 manipoli = 1 centuria (centuria ) * 3 centuriae = 1 coorte (cohort ) * 3 coorti = 1 legione (legion ) * 3 legioni = 1 divisioni (field division) * 3 or more legioni = 1 zona (zone - an administrative division)

TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION

The MVSN original organization consisted of 15 zones controlling 133 legions (one per province ) of three cohorts each and one Independent Group controlling 10 legions. In 1929 it was reorganized into four raggruppamenti, but later in October 1936 it was reorganized into 14 zones controlling only 133 legions with two cohorts each, one of men 21 to 36 years old and the other of men up to 55 years old. There were also special units in Rome, on Ponza Island and the black uniformed Moschettieri del Duce
Duce
("The Leader's Musketeers", Mussolini's Guard), the Albanian Militia (four legions) and Milizia Coloniale in Africa (seven legions). National Fascist Party logo.

SECURITY MILITIA

Special
Special
militias were also organized to provide security police and gendarmerie functions, these included:

* Forestry Militia * Frontier Militia * Highway Militia * Port Militia * Posts and Telegraph Militia * Railway Militia * University Militia

* Anti-aircraft and Coastal Artillery Militia, a combined command which controlled two militias:

* Anti-Aircraft Militia * Coastal Artillery Militia

ETHIOPIAN CAMPAIGN

Blackshirts
Blackshirts
seize a railway station in Dire Dawa
Dire Dawa
.

During the 1935–36 Abyssinian Campaign seven CCNN Divisions were organized:

* 1st (23rd of March) CCNN Division * 2nd (28th of October) CCNN Division * 3rd (21 April) CCNN Division * 4th (3 January) CCNN Division * 5th (1 February) CCNN Division * 6th (Tevere) CCNN Division

The first six Divisions were sent to Ethiopia and participated in the war.

* 7th (Cirene) CCNN Division – The 7th CCNN Division "Cirene" was never deployed overseas or even fully equipped before it was disbanded.

BLACKSHIRT DIVISION ORGANIZATION

ORGANIZATION OF BLACKSHIRT DIVISIONS (3 OCTOBER 1935)

* Divisional HQ

* 3 x Legions each with:

* 1 Legionary Machine Gun Company with 16 machine guns

* 2 Legionary Infantry Battalions, each with:

* 1 Machine Gun Company with 8x8mm Breda machine guns and * 3 Infantry Companies each with 9 light machine guns and 3x45mm mortars * 1 pack-artillery battery with 4x65mm L17 each.

* 1 x Artillery Battalion (Army) with 3 batteries (65/17 ) * 1 x Engineers company (mixed Army and Blackshirts) * 2 x Replacements Battalions (1 Infantry, 1 Mixed) * 1 x Medical Section * 1 x Logistics Section (food) * 1 x Pack-Mules unit (1600 mules) * 1 x Mixed Trucks unit (80 light trucks)

The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
Rifle Battalions had three rifle companies but no MMG company. The rifle companies had three platoons (three squads with one LMG each). Each Legion had a MMG company with four platoons of three weapons each (plus two spare ones). The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
replacements battalions were organized as the Blackshirts
Blackshirts
Rifle Battalions, but its platoon were overstrength (60 men each) and with only 1 x LMG in each platoon.

ORGANIZATION OF BLACKSHIRT DIVISIONS (10 JUNE 1940)

* Division Command

* 2 Black Shirt Legions - each

* 3 Battalions * 1 81mm Mortar Company * 1 Accompanying Battery 65mm/17 Mtn guns

* 1 Machine Gun Battalion

* 1 Artillery Regiment:

* 2 Artillery Groups * 1 Artillery Group * 2 AA Batteries 20mm

* 1 Mixed Engineering Battalion

* 1 Ambulance Section Sanita * 3 Field Hospitals (Planned when available) * 1 Supply Section

* 1 Section Mixed Transport

COMMANDANT-GENERAL

* Emilio De Bono (1923 - 1924) * Asclepia Gandolfo (1924 - 1925) * Maurizio Ferrante Gonzaga ( 1925 - 1926) * Benito Mussolini (1926 - July 25, 1943) * Quirino Armellini (July 26, 1943 - September 8, 1943) * Renato Ricci (September 20, 1943 - December 8, 1943)

SPANISH CIVIL WAR

Three CCNN Divisions were sent to participate in the Spanish Civil War as part of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie . The Blackshirt (Camicie Nere, or CCNN) Divisions contained regular soldiers and volunteer militia from the Fascist Party. The CCNN divisions were semi-motorised.

* 1st CCNN Division "Dio lo Vuole" ("God Wills it") * 2nd CCNN Division "Fiamme Nere" ("Black Flames") * 3rd CCNN Division "Penne Nere" ("Black Feathers")

The 3rd CCNN Division was disbanded and consolidated with the 2nd CCNN Division in April 1937 after their defeat at Guadalajara . After the campaigns in Northern Spain
Spain
in October 1937, the 2nd CCNN Division was consolidated with the 1st CCNN and renamed the XXIII de Marzo Division "Llamas Negras" .

WORLD WAR II

Blackshirts
Blackshirts
during Operation Barbarossa

In 1940 the MVSN was able to muster 340,000 first-line combat troops, providing three divisions (1st, 2nd and 4th - all three of which were lost in the North African Campaign ) and, later in 1942, a fourth division ("M") and fifth division Africa were forming.

Mussolini also pushed through plans to raise 142 MVSN combat battalions of 650 men each to provide a Gruppo di Assalto to each army division. These Gruppi consisted of two cohorts (each of three centuriae of 3 manipoli of 2 squadre each) plus Gruppo Supporto company of two heavy machine gun manipoli (with three HMG each) and two 81 mm mortar manipoli (with 3 Mortars each).

Later 41 Mobile groups were raised to become the third regiment in Italian Army divisions as it was determined through operational experience that the Italian army's binary divisions were too small in both manpower and heavy equipment. These mobile groups suffered heavy casualties due to being undermanned, under equipped and under trained.

The MVSN fought in every theater where Italy did.

APPEARANCE

The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
wore the same uniform as the Italian army with the addition of a black shirt and tie, a black fez .

RANKS

With translated material from the corresponding Italian article Benito Mussolini as First Honorary Corporal of the MVSN.

Mussolini as Comandante Generale was made Primo Caporale Onorario (First Honorary Corporal) in 1935 and Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was made Caporale Onorario (Honorary Corporal) in 1937. All other ranks closely approximated those of the old Roman army
Roman army
as follows.

OFFICERS

RANK INSIGNIA ROYAL ITALIAN ARMY EQUIVALENT (WITH UK/US EQUIVALENT)

Primo Caporale d'Onore (First Honorary Corporal of the MVSN) First Marshal of the Empire (None/General of the Armies)

Caporale d'Onore (Honorary Corporal of the MVSN) Marshal of Italy (Field Marshal/General of the Army)

Comandante Generale ( Commandant
Commandant
General) Army General (General)

Luogotenente Generale Capo di Stato Maggiore (Chief of Staff Lieutenant-General) Corps General (Lieutenant-General)

Luogotenente Generale (Lieutenant-General) Divisional General (Major-General)

Console Generale (Consul-General) Brigade General (Brigadier/Brigadier General)

Console (Consul) Colonel

Primo Seniore (First Senior) Lieutenant-Colonel

Seniore (Senior) Major

Centurione (Centurion) Captain

Capo Manipolo (Chief Maniple) Lieutenant (Lieutenant/First Lieutenant)

Sotto Capo Manipolo (Sub-Chief Maniple) Sublieutenant (Second Lieutenant)

OTHER RANKS

RANK INSIGNIA ARMY EQUIVALENT (WITH UK/US EQUIVALENT)

Primo Aiutante (First Adjutant) Marshal-Major (Conductor/Command Sergeant Major)

Aiutante Capo (Chief Adjutant) Chief Marshal (WO1/Sergeant Major)

Aiutante (Adjutant) Ordinary Marshal (WO2/Master Sergeant)

Primo Capo Squadra (First Squadron Chief) Sergeant-Major (Staff Sergeant)

Capo Squadra (Squadron Chief) Sergeant

Vice Capo Squadra (Vice-Squadron Chief) Corporal-Major (Corporal)

Camicia Nera Scelta (Select Blackshirt) Corporal (Lance-Corporal/PFC)

Camicia Nera (Blackshirt) N/A Appointee (Private)

Legionario (Legionary) N/A Recruit/Soldier (Recruit/Private)

LEGACY

Infamous Daily Mail
Daily Mail
article congratulating the British Union of Fascists .

The ethos and sometimes the uniform were later copied by others who shared Mussolini's political ideas, including Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in Nazi Germany , who issued brown shirts to the "Storm Troops" ( Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
) and black uniforms to the "Defense Squad" ( Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
, also colloquially known as "Brownshirts", because they wore black suit-like tunics with brown shirts), Sir Oswald Mosley in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(whose British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
were also known as the "Blackshirts"), the Warriors for the Advancement of the Bulgarian National Spirit who wore red shirts, William Dudley Pelley in the United States
United States
( Silver Legion of America or "Silver Shirts"), in Mexico
Mexico
the Camisas Doradas or "Golden Shirts", Plínio Salgado in Brazil
Brazil
(whose followers wore green shirts), and Eoin O\'Duffy in the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(Army Comrades Association or " Blueshirts
Blueshirts
"). "Blueshirts" can also refer to Canadian fascists belonging to the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party and to the members of Falange Española , the most influential party within Franco\'s dictatorship in Spain
Spain
. The paramilitary fascist Iron Guard members in Romania wore green shirts.

After the Armistice of Cassibile was signed, the Blackshirts
Blackshirts
were dissolved; in the pro-fascist Italian Social Republic they were replaced by the National Republican Guard and the Black Brigades in the militia role, alongside the Republican Police Corps .

SEE ALSO

* Blackshirts
Blackshirts
– Albania * Redshirts – Bulgaria * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
– Canada * Blue Shirts – China ( Kuomintang
Kuomintang
)

* Brownshirts – Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* Blackshirts
Blackshirts
– Nazi Germany * Gestapo
Gestapo
– Nazi Germany

* Blueshirts
Blueshirts
– Ireland * Greenshirts – Ireland * Greenshirts – United Kingdom * Greenshirts – Brazil * Redshirts – Italy * Redshirts – Mexico * Goldshirts – Mexico * Greyshirts – ethnically Dutch South Africans * Greenshirts – Romania * Blackshirts
Blackshirts
– United Kingdom * Silvershirts – United States * Black Brigades * Italian Social Republic * Red Army
Red Army

GENERAL

* Militia * Paramilitary * Political color * Political uniform * Squadrismo * Integralismo * Black Shorts – parody of the blackshirts in the writings of P.G. Wodehouse

NOTES

* ^ Bosworth, R. J. B, Mussolini's Italy: Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915–1945 (Penguin Books, 2005), p. 117 * ^ The Blackshirt Division Order of Battle comes from "Storia delle Unità Combattenti della MVSN 1923-1943" by Ettore Lucas and Giorgio de Vecchi, Giovanni Volpe Editore 1976 pages 63 to 116 plus errata. * ^ Italian Army Infantry Regulation of 1939 (Page 472/473)I * ^ The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
Division TO&E comes from an original document (order sheet "Ministero della Guerra, Comando del Corpo di Stato Maggiore - Ufficio Ordinamento e Mobilitazione . Prot.2076 del 18-06-1935"). * ^ The Blackshirts
Blackshirts
Division TO;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Fascism
Fascism

THEORY

CORE TENETS

* Nationalism
Nationalism
* Imperialism
Imperialism
* Authoritarianism * One-party state
One-party state
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Dictatorship
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Propaganda
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TOPICS

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and ideology * Fascism
Fascism
worldwide * Symbolism

IDEAS

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VARIANTS

* Italian * National Socialism * Japanese fascism * Falangism * British * Austrian * Metaxism * National Radicalism * Rexism * Clerical * Legionarism * Integralism

MOVEMENTS

AFRICA

* Greyshirts * Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag

ASIA

* Brit HaBirionim * Ganap Party * Sakurakai
Sakurakai
* Tōhōkai * Blue Shirts Society

NORTHERN / NORTHWESTERN EUROPE

* Ailtirí na hAiséirghe * Black Front (Netherlands) * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Breton Social-National Workers\' Movement * British Fascists * British People\'s Party (1939) * British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
* La Cagoule * Clerical People\'s Party * Faisceau * Flemish National Union * French Popular Party
French Popular Party
* General Dutch Fascist League * Imperial Fascist League
Imperial Fascist League
* Lapua Movement
Lapua Movement
* Nasjonal Samling * National Corporate Party (Greenshirts ) * National Fascisti * Nationalist Party (Iceland)
Nationalist Party (Iceland)
* National Socialist Bloc * National Socialist Dutch Workers Party * National Socialist League * National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands * National Socialist Movement of Norway * National Socialist Workers\' Party (Sweden) * New Party (UK)
New Party (UK)
* Patriotic People\'s Movement (Finland) * Pērkonkrusts
Pērkonkrusts
* Rexism

CENTRAL EUROPE

* Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
* Austrian National Socialism * Fatherland Front (Austria) * Hungarian National Socialist Party * National Front (Switzerland) * Nazism
Nazism
* Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* Sudeten German Party

SOUTHERN EUROPE

* Albanian Fascist Party * Democratic Fascist Party * Falange * Greek National Socialist Party * Italian Fascism
Fascism
* Italian Social Republic * Metaxism * National Fascist Party * National Union (Portugal) * Republican Fascist Party
Republican Fascist Party
* Sammarinese Fascist Party * Ustaše
Ustaše
* ZBOR

EASTERN AND SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

* Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party * Crusade of Romanianism * Iron Guard * National Fascist Community
National Fascist Community
* National Fascist Movement * National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement * National Social Movement (Bulgaria) * National Radical Camp Falanga
National Radical Camp Falanga
* National Romanian Fascio * National Renaissance Front * Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) * Romanian Front * Russian Fascist Party * Russian Women\'s Fascist Movement * Slovak People\'s Party * Union of Bulgarian National Legions
Union of Bulgarian National Legions
* Vlajka
Vlajka

NORTH AMERICA

* Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

* Canadian Union of Fascists * Parti national social chrétien

* Gold shirts * German American Bund
German American Bund
* Silver Legion of America

SOUTH AMERICA

* Falangism in Latin America * Brazilian Integralism * Bolivian Socialist Falange * National Socialist Movement of Chile * Revolutionary Union

PEOPLE

* Abba Ahimeir
Abba Ahimeir
* Nimio de Anquín
Nimio de Anquín
* Sadao Araki * Marc Augier * Maurice Bardèche * Jacques Benoist-Méchin * Henri Béraud
Henri Béraud
* Zoltán Böszörmény * Giuseppe Bottai * Robert Brasillach * Alphonse de Châteaubriant
Alphonse de Châteaubriant
* Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
* Gustavs Celmiņš * Enrico Corradini * Carlo Costamagna * Richard Walther Darré
Richard Walther Darré
* Marcel Déat * Léon Degrelle
Léon Degrelle
* Pierre Drieu La Rochelle * Gottfried Feder
Gottfried Feder
* Giovanni Gentile
Giovanni Gentile
* Joseph Goebbels
Joseph Goebbels
* Hans F. K. Günther
Hans F. K. Günther
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Fumimaro Konoe
Fumimaro Konoe
* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Hideki Tojo
Hideki Tojo
* Ikki Kita * Vihtori Kosola
Vihtori Kosola
* Agostino Lanzillo * Dimitrije Ljotić * Leopoldo Lugones * Curzio Malaparte * Ioannis Metaxas * Robert Michels * Oswald Mosley
Oswald Mosley
* Benito Mussolini * Eoin O\'Duffy * Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin * Sergio Panunzio * Giovanni Papini * Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
* William Dudley Pelley * Alfred Ploetz * Robert Poulet * Vidkun Quisling * José Antonio Primo de Rivera
José Antonio Primo de Rivera
* Lucien Rebatet * Dionisio Ridruejo * Alfredo Rocco
Alfredo Rocco
* Konstantin Rodzaevsky * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Plínio Salgado * Rafael Sánchez Mazas * Margherita Sarfatti * Carl Schmitt
Carl Schmitt
* Ardengo Soffici * Othmar Spann * Ugo Spirito * Ferenc Szálasi
Ferenc Szálasi
* Gonzalo Torrente Ballester * Georges Valois * Anastasy Vonsyatsky

WORKS

LITERATURE

* The Doctrine of Fascism
Fascism
* Fascist Manifesto * Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals * Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
* My Life * The Myth of the Twentieth Century * Zweites Buch * Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

PERIODICALS

* La Conquista del Estado * Das Reich * Der Angriff
Der Angriff
* Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung * Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen * Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden * Figli d\'Italia * Fronten * Gândirea
Gândirea
* Gioventù Fascista * Je suis partout * La France au travail * Münchener Beobachter * Novopress * NS Månedshefte * Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift * Das Schwarze Korps * Der Stürmer * Il Popolo d\'Italia * Sfarmă-Piatră * Signal * Vlajka
Vlajka
* Völkischer Beobachter
Völkischer Beobachter
* Nash Put\' * Fashist
Fashist
* l\'Alba

FILM

* Der Sieg des Glaubens * Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht * Triumph of the Will
Triumph of the Will

SCULPTURE

* Allach

RELATED TOPICS

* Art of the Third Reich * Fascist architecture * Heroic realism * Nazi architecture * Nazism
Nazism
and cinema * Nazi plunder * Syndicalism * Conservatism
Conservatism

ORGANIZATIONS

INSTITUTIONAL

* Ahnenerbe
Ahnenerbe
* Chamber of Fasci and Corporations * Grand Council of Fascism
Fascism
* Imperial Way Faction * Italian Nationalist Association * Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen * Quadrumvirs

ACTIVIST

* Fascist Union of Youth * German American Bund
German American Bund
* National Youth Organisation (Greece)
National Youth Organisation (Greece)
* Russian Fascist Organization * Union of Fascist Little Ones * Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) * Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

PARAMILITARY

* Albanian Militia * Black Brigades * Blackshirts * Blueshirts
Blueshirts
* Einsatzgruppen * Gold shirts * Greenshirts * Greyshirts * Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
* Heimwehr * Iron Wolf (organization) * Lăncieri * Makapili
Makapili
* Silver Legion of America * Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
* Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
* Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
* Werwolf
Werwolf

INTERNATIONAL

* Axis powers
Axis powers
* NSDAP/AO
NSDAP/AO
* ODESSA
ODESSA

HISTORY

1910S

* Arditi
Arditi
* Fascio

1920S

* Aventine Secession * Acerbo Law * Corfu incident * March on Rome
March on Rome
* Beer Hall Putsch
Beer Hall Putsch
* Italian economic battles

1930S

* March of the Iron Will
March of the Iron Will
* German federal election, November 1932 * German federal election, March 1933 * Enabling Act * 6 February 1934 crisis * 1934 Montreux Fascist conference
1934 Montreux Fascist conference
* Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 4th of August Regime
4th of August Regime
* Anti-Comintern Pact
Anti-Comintern Pact

1940S

* World War II
World War II
* The Holocaust * End in Italy * Denazification
Denazification
* Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials

LISTS

* Anti-fascists * Books about Hitler * British fascist parties * Fascist movements by country (A-F * G-M * N-T * U-Z ) * Nazi ideologues * Nazi leaders * Speeches by Hitler * SS personnel

RELATED TOPICS

* Alt-right
Alt-right
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Ku Klux Klan
* Neo-fascism * Neo- Nazism
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