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Blackpool
Blackpool
/ˈblækpuːl/ ( listen) is a seaside resort on the Lancashire
Lancashire
coast in North West England. The town is on the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre
Wyre
estuaries, 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Preston, 27 miles (43 km) north of Liverpool, 28 miles (45 km) northwest of Bolton
Bolton
and 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Manchester. It had an estimated population of 139,720 at the 2011 Census, making it the most populous town in Lancashire.[2][3] Throughout the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Early Modern period, Blackpool
Blackpool
was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, and remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast in the summer to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile (11 km)[4] sandy beach were able to use a new private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool
Blackpool
from Manchester in the same year, and from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in Blackpool
Blackpool
such that its population grew from less than 500 in 1801 to over 2,500 in 1851. St John's Church in Blackpool
Blackpool
was consecrated in 1821. Blackpool
Blackpool
rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England
England
when a railway was built in the 1840s connecting it to the industrialised regions of Northern England. The railway made it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Blackpool, triggering an influx of settlers, such that in 1876 Blackpool
Blackpool
was incorporated as a borough, governed by its own town council and aldermen. In 1881, Blackpool
Blackpool
was a booming resort with a population of 14,000 and a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, trams, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres.[4] By 1901 the population of Blackpool
Blackpool
was 47,000, by which time its place was cemented as "the archetypal British seaside resort".[4] By 1951 it had grown to 147,000. Shifts in tastes, combined with opportunities for Britons to travel overseas, affected Blackpool's status as a leading resort in the late 20th century. Nevertheless, Blackpool's urban fabric and economy remains relatively undiversified, and firmly rooted in the tourism sector, and the borough's seafront continues to attract millions of visitors every year.[4] In addition to its sandy beaches, Blackpool's major attractions and landmarks include Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower, Blackpool Illuminations, the Pleasure Beach, Blackpool
Blackpool
Zoo, Sandcastle Water Park, the Winter Gardens, and the UK's only surviving first-generation tramway.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Early history 1.3 Taking the cure 1.4 Arrival of the railways 1.5 Electricity 1.6 Towards the present

2 Local government 3 Demographics

3.1 Population change

4 Economy 5 Geography

5.1 Physical 5.2 Climate 5.3 Green belt

6 Tourism

6.1 Conferences 6.2 Entertainment 6.3 Events and festivals 6.4 Gay Blackpool 6.5 Pollution

7 Regeneration 8 Landmarks and places of interest

8.1 Major landmarks and attractions 8.2 Other attractions

9 Former attraction

9.1 Tall structures

10 Transport

10.1 Air 10.2 Bus and coach 10.3 Railway 10.4 Road 10.5 Tram

11 Filmography 12 Music

12.1 1960s 12.2 1970s 12.3 1980s and 1990s 12.4 2000 onwards 12.5 Songs about Blackpool 12.6 Notable musicians born in Blackpool

13 Media 14 Sport

14.1 Boxing
Boxing
and mixed martial arts 14.2 Cricket 14.3 Football 14.4 Rugby 14.5 Running 14.6 Wrestling

15 Religion 16 Education 17 Shipwrecks 18 Areas, districts and estates 19 Crimes 20 Notable people 21 Twin towns/Sister cities 22 See also 23 Notes 24 References 25 Bibliography 26 External links

History[edit] Toponymy[edit]

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Blackpool
Blackpool
gets its name from a historic drainage channel (possibly Spen Dyke) that ran over a peat bog, discharging discoloured water into the Irish Sea, which formed a black pool (on the other side of the sea, "Dublin" (Dubh Linn) is derived from the Irish for "black pool"). Another explanation is that the local dialect for stream was "pul" or "poole", hence "Black poole". People originating from Blackpool
Blackpool
are called Blackpudlians although Sandgrownians or Sandgrown'uns is sometimes used[citation needed] (as too for persons originating from Morecambe
Morecambe
and Southport) or Seasiders (although this is more commonly associated with Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C.). Early history[edit]

View of Blackpool, 1784

A 13,500-year-old elk skeleton was found with man-made barbed bone points (probably from spears) on Blackpool
Blackpool
Old Road in Carleton in 1970. Now displayed in the Harris Museum
Harris Museum
this provided the first evidence of humans living on the Fylde as far back as the Palaeolithic era.[5] The Fylde
The Fylde
was also home to a British tribe, the Setantii
Setantii
(the "dwellers in the water") a sub-tribe of the Brigantes, who from about AD80 were controlled by Romans from their fort at Dowbridge, Kirkham. During the Roman occupation the area was covered by oak forests and bog land. Some of the earliest villages on the Fylde, which were later to become part of Blackpool
Blackpool
town, were named in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
in 1086. Many of them were Anglo-Saxon settlements. Some though had 9th and 10th century Viking
Viking
place names. The Vikings and Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
seem to have co-existed peacefully, with some Anglo-Saxon and Viking
Viking
placenames later being joined together – such as Layton-with-Warbreck and Bispham-with-Norbreck. Layton was controlled by the Butlers, Barons of Warrington
Warrington
from the 12th century. In medieval times Blackpool
Blackpool
emerged as a few farmsteads on the coast within Layton-with-Warbreck, the name coming from "le pull", a stream that drained Marton Mere and Marton Moss into the sea close to what is now Manchester
Manchester
Square. The stream ran through peatlands that discoloured the water, so the name for the area became "Black Poole". In the 15th century the area was just called Pul, and a 1532 map calls the area "the pole howsys alias the north howsys". In 1602, entries in Bispham Parish Church
Bispham Parish Church
baptismal register include both Poole
Poole
and for the first time blackpoole. The first house of any substance, Foxhall, was built toward the end of the 17th century by Edward Tyldesley, the Squire of Myerscough and son of the Royalist Sir Thomas Tyldesley. An Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in 1767 enclosed a common, mostly sand hills on the coast, that stretched from Spen Dyke southwards. Plots of the land were allocated to landowners in Bispham, Layton, Great Marton
Great Marton
and Little Marton. The same act also provided for the layout of a number of long straight roads that would be built in the areas south of the town centre, such as Lytham Road, St. Annes Road, Watson Road and Highfield Road.[6] Taking the cure[edit] By the middle of the 18th century, the practice of sea bathing to cure diseases was becoming fashionable among the wealthier classes, and visitors began making the arduous trek to Blackpool
Blackpool
for that purpose. In 1781, Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton built a private road to Blackpool, and a regular stagecoach service from Manchester
Manchester
and Halifax was established. A few amenities, including four hotels, an archery stall and bowling greens, were developed, and the town grew slowly. The 1801 census records the town's population at 473. The growth was accelerated by the actions of Henry Banks, often considered to be the "Father of Blackpool". In 1819 he purchased the Lane Ends estate, including the Lane Ends Hotel, and built the first holiday cottages. In 1837, his son-in-law Dr. John Cocker built Blackpool's first assembly rooms, which still stand on the corner of Victoria Street and Bank Hey street. Arrival of the railways[edit]

Blackpool
Blackpool
sands in 1895

The most significant event in the early growth of the town occurred in 1846, with the completion of a branch line to Blackpool
Blackpool
from Poulton on the main Preston and Wyre Joint Railway
Preston and Wyre Joint Railway
line from Preston to Fleetwood. Fleetwood
Fleetwood
declined as a resort, as its founder and principal financial backer, Peter Hesketh-Fleetwood, went bankrupt. In contrast, Blackpool
Blackpool
boomed. A sudden influx of visitors, arriving by rail, provided the motivation for entrepreneurs to build accommodation and create new attractions, leading to more visitors and a rapid cycle of growth throughout the 1850s and 1860s. In 1851 a Board of Health was formed. Gas lighting
Gas lighting
was introduced in 1852, and piped water in 1864. By 1851, the town's population was over 2,500. The growth was intensified by the practice among the Lancashire
Lancashire
cotton mill owners of closing the factories for a week every year to service and repair machinery. These became known as wakes weeks. Each town's mills would close for a different week, allowing Blackpool
Blackpool
to manage a steady and reliable stream of visitors over a prolonged period in the summer. In 1863, the North Pier was completed, rapidly becoming a centre of attraction for elite visitors. Central Pier was completed in 1868, with a theatre and a large open-air dance floor. The town expanded southward beyond what is today known as the Golden Mile, towards South Shore, and South Pier was completed in 1893, making Blackpool
Blackpool
the only town in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with three piers. In 1878, the Winter Gardens complex opened, incorporating ten years later the Opera House, said to be the largest in Britain outside London. From the 1880s until the First World War, Blackpool
Blackpool
was one of the regular destinations for the Bass Excursions, when fifteen trains would take 8-9000 employees of Bass's Burton brewery on an annual trip to the seaside. The town was granted a Charter of Incorporation as a municipal borough in 1876. W.H. Cocker, son of Dr John Cocker, and therefore grandson of Henry Banks, was its first mayor. The town would become a county borough in 1904. Electricity[edit]

Photochrom
Photochrom
of the Promenade
Promenade
c. 1898

Much of Blackpool's growth and character from the 1870s on was predicated on the town's pioneering use of electrical power. In 1879, it became the first municipality in the world to have electric street lighting, as large parts of the promenade were wired. The lighting and its accompanying pageants reinforced Blackpool's status as the North of England's most prominent holiday resort, and its specifically working class character. It was the forerunner of the present-day Blackpool
Blackpool
Illuminations. In 1885 one of the world's first electric tramways was laid down as a conduit line running from Cocker Street to Dean Street on the Promenade. The line was operated by the Blackpool Electric Tramway Company until 1892 when their lease expired and Blackpool
Blackpool
Corporation took over running the line. A further line was added in 1895 from Manchester
Manchester
Square along Lytham Road to South Shore, and the line was extended north, first to Gynn Square in 1899, and then to Fleetwood. In 1899 the conduit system was replaced by overhead wires. The tramway has remained in continuous service to this day. By the 1890s, the town had a population of 35,000, and could accommodate 250,000 holidaymakers. The number of annual visitors, many staying for a week, was estimated at three million. 1894 saw the opening of two of the town's most prominent buildings, the Grand Theatre on Church Street, and Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
on the Promenade. The Grand Theatre was one of Britain's first all-electric theatres. The first decade of the new century saw the development of the Promenade
Promenade
as we know it today, and further development southwards beyond South Shore towards Harrowside and Squires Gate. The Pleasure Beach was first established about this time. Seasonal static illuminations were first set up in 1912, although due to World War I and its aftermath they only enjoyed two seasons until they were re-introduced in 1925. The illuminations extended the holiday season into September and early October. Towards the present[edit] The inter-war period saw Blackpool
Blackpool
attain pre-eminence as a holiday destination. By 1920, Blackpool
Blackpool
claimed around eight million visitors per year, three times as many as its nearest British rivals, still drawn largely from the mill towns of East Lancashire
Lancashire
and the West Riding of Yorkshire. Stanley Park was laid out in 1920 and opened in 1926. The area round the park has become renowned for some of the most desirable residences in the area. In 1937, Littlewoods
Littlewoods
opened its first department store in the town.[7] Documents have been found to suggest that the reason Blackpool
Blackpool
escaped heavy damage in World War II
World War II
was that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had earmarked the town to remain a place of leisure after his planned invasion.[8] Despite this, on 11 September 1940, German bombs fell near Blackpool North railway station and eight people were killed in nearby houses in Seed Street This site today is occupied by the new Town Hall offices and Sainsbury's Supermarket. No plaque is erected to remember the injured or dead. In the same war, the Free Polish Air Force
Polish Air Force
made its headquarters in exile at Blackpool
Blackpool
in Talbot Square, after the force evacuated to Britain from France. The nearby Layton Cemetery
Layton Cemetery
contains the war graves of 26 Polish airmen.[9] The famous No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron[10] was formed in Blackpool, and became the most successful Fighter Command unit shooting down 126 German machines in only 42 days during the Battle of Britain.[11] Blackpool's population boom was complete by 1951, by which time some 147,000 people were living in the town – compared to 47,000 in 1901 and a mere 14,000 in 1881.[12] In the decade after the war, the town continued to attract more visitors, reaching a zenith of 17 million per year. However, several factors combined to make this growth untenable. The decline of the textile industry led to a de-emphasis of the traditional week-long break, known as wakes week. The rise of package holidays took many of Blackpool's traditional visitors abroad, where the weather was more reliably warm and dry, and improved road communications, epitomised by the construction of the M55 motorway
M55 motorway
in 1975, made Blackpool
Blackpool
more feasible as a day trip rather than an overnight stay. The economy, however, remains relatively undiversified, and firmly rooted in the tourism sector. The Blackpool
Blackpool
Co-operative Society Emporium, a flagship store built in 1938, which incorporated the Jubilee Theatre, stood on Coronation Street, until 1988 when it was demolished for a planned shopping centre. The site remained empty until eventually becoming a car park and then was re developed when the Hounds Hill Centre was expanded to include the Debenham's Store.[13] Local government[edit] See also: Blackpool
Blackpool
local elections

Blackpool
Blackpool
Town Hall (1895–1900) by Messrs Potts, Son & Henning

Though the Blackpool Urban Area extends beyond the statutory boundaries of Blackpool
Blackpool
to encompass Fleetwood, Cleveleys, Thornton, Poulton-le-Fylde
Poulton-le-Fylde
and Lytham St Annes, Blackpool
Blackpool
remains administratively separate. Between 1904 and 1974, Blackpool
Blackpool
formed a county borough independent of the administrative county of Lancashire. With the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, Blackpool's county borough status was abolished and it was made part of the shire county of Lancashire. On 1 April 1998, however, Blackpool
Blackpool
was made a unitary authority and re-formed as an autonomous local government unit. It remains part of Lancashire
Lancashire
for ceremonial purposes, however. As of the 2015 election Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
is currently controlled by the Labour Party, who took control from the Conservatives in 2011. They are the largest party represented with 29 councillors followed by the Conservative Party with 13 councillors.

Year Labour Conservatives

2015 29 13

Demographics[edit] The population of Blackpool
Blackpool
has been declining constantly since 2001 and is expected to decline even further in the future.[14]

Population change[edit]

Population growth
Population growth
in Blackpool
Blackpool
since 1981

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1951 144,199 —    

1961 153,452 +0.62%

1971 149,417 −0.27%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1981 138,599 −0.75%

1991 145,997 +0.52%

2001 142,193 −0.26%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

2011 142,065 −0.01%

2016 139,720 −0.33%

Source: [15]

Economy[edit] This is a chart of the trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of Blackpool
Blackpool
at current basic prices by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.[16]

Year Regional GVA[note 1] Agriculture[note 2] Industry[note 3] Services[note 4]

1995 1,276 9 276 992

2000 1,444 1 210 1,234

2003 1,598 1 220 1,377

TVR
TVR
was a major employer in Blackpool

While Blackpool
Blackpool
hosts a large number of small businesses and self-employed people, there are some large employers. The government-owned National Savings and Investments
National Savings and Investments
is based at Marton, together with their Hardware random number generator, ERNIE
ERNIE
( "Electronic Random Number Indicator Equipment"), which picks the Premium Bond
Premium Bond
numbers, while other government agencies are based at Warbreck and Norcross further up the Fylde coast. Burton's Biscuit Company Tangerine Confectionery
Tangerine Confectionery
produce biscuits and other confectionery products, Klarius UK manufactures automotive components, Victrex
Victrex
manufactures high performance polymers and the Glasdon Group is a plastics manufacturer making litter bins, park benches and reflective road signs. TVR
TVR
formerly produced sports cars at its Bispham factory.[17] Blackpool
Blackpool
was also the original site of Swallow Sidecar Company, forerunner of Jaguar Cars. The 2015 HSBC research on rental yields ranks Blackpool
Blackpool
in the top three cities with the best rental returns.[18] The numerous urban regeneration projects, the property prices which are among the most affordable in the UK, and the high rental yields create a very favourable environment for real estate investors.[19] Retail is also becoming a major contributor to Blackpool's economy;[citation needed] many Blackpool
Blackpool
residents work in the retail sector, either in the town centre or the retail parks on the edge of town. Blackpool's main shopping streets are Church Street, Victoria Street, Birley Street, Market Street, Corporation Street, Bank Hey Street, Abingdon Street and Talbot Road. There is currently one shopping centre within the town, Houndshill Shopping Centre. This has recently been redeveloped with the opening of a new Debenhams
Debenhams
department store along with other major high street names. Geography[edit] Physical[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
rests in the middle of the western edge of The Fylde, which is a coastal plain atop a peninsula. The seafront consists of a 7-mile sandy beach,[20] with a flat coastline in the south of the district, which rises once past the North Pier to become the North Cliffs, with the highest point nearby at the Bispham Rock Gardens
Bispham Rock Gardens
at around 34 metres (112 ft).[21][22] The majority of the town district is built up, with very little semi-rural space such as at Marton Mere. Due to the low-lying terrain, Blackpool
Blackpool
experiences occasional flooding,[23] with a large-scale project completed in 2017 to rebuild the seawall and promenade to mitigate this.[24] Climate[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
has, like all of the UK, a temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system. Thus the same cool summer, frequent overcast skies, and small annual temperature range is typical. The absolute minimum temperature stands at −15.1 °C (4.8 °F),[25] recorded during December 1981. Although, −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) was recorded in January 1881.[26][better source needed] The lowest temperature to occur in recent years is −11.9 °C (10.6 °F)[27] during December 2010. In a more normal winter, the coldest night averages −7.6 °C (18.3 °F).[28] The absolute maximum temperature recorded at Blackpool
Blackpool
was 33.7 °C (92.7 °F)[29] during July 1976. The highest temperature to occur in recent years is 33.5 °C (92.3 °F) during July 2015.[30] In a more normal summer, the warmest day will likely average 28.1 °C (82.6 °F),[31] with slightly fewer than 5 days[32] a year attaining a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above. Rainfall averages slightly less than 900 mm (35 in), with over 1 mm of precipitation occurring on 143 days of the year.

Climate data for Blackpool
Blackpool
10m asl, 1981–2010, extremes 1960–

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 15.6 (60.1) 19.1 (66.4) 24.0 (75.2) 28.6 (83.5) 31.3 (88.3) 33.7 (92.7) 32.2 (90) 26.8 (80.2) 23.7 (74.7) 16.8 (62.2) 14.2 (57.6) 33.7 (92.7)

Average high °C (°F) 7.2 (45) 7.4 (45.3) 9.4 (48.9) 12.1 (53.8) 15.5 (59.9) 17.7 (63.9) 19.6 (67.3) 19.4 (66.9) 17.4 (63.3) 13.9 (57) 10.1 (50.2) 7.5 (45.5) 13.1 (55.6)

Average low °C (°F) 1.9 (35.4) 1.7 (35.1) 3.3 (37.9) 4.7 (40.5) 7.4 (45.3) 10.5 (50.9) 12.8 (55) 12.7 (54.9) 10.4 (50.7) 7.6 (45.7) 4.7 (40.5) 2.0 (35.6) 6.7 (44.1)

Record low °C (°F) −11.3 (11.7) −13.2 (8.2) −9.7 (14.5) −6.1 (21) −1.9 (28.6) −1.0 (30.2) 3.3 (37.9) 1.9 (35.4) −0.7 (30.7) −4.3 (24.3) −7.0 (19.4) −15.1 (4.8) −15.1 (4.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 78.8 (3.102) 57.6 (2.268) 63.7 (2.508) 52.3 (2.059) 54.1 (2.13) 62.8 (2.472) 61.1 (2.406) 77.1 (3.035) 82.4 (3.244) 103.6 (4.079) 94.5 (3.72) 94.7 (3.728) 882.7 (34.752)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.0 78.9 112.3 168.6 217.9 201.2 197.8 182.9 141.9 98.8 61.9 48.1 1,566.5

Source #1: MetOffice[33]

Source #2: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[34]

Green belt[edit] Further information: North West Green Belt Blackpool
Blackpool
is within a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, and is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the Blackpool
Blackpool
and nearby Merseyside
Merseyside
conurbations from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield reuse, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.[35] As the town's urban area is highly built up, only 70 hectares (0.70 km2; 0.27 sq mi) (2017)[36] of green belt exists within the borough, covering the cemetery, its grounds and nearby academy/college playing fields by Carleton, as well as the football grounds near the airport by St Annes.[37] Further afield, portions are dispersed around the wider Blackpool
Blackpool
urban area into the surrounding Lancashire
Lancashire
districts of Fylde and Wyre, helping to keep the settlements of Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Warton/Freckleton and Kirkham separated.[38] Tourism[edit]

The Big One at Pleasure Beach

Blackpool
Blackpool
is heavily dependent on tourism. In what is often regarded as its heyday (1900–1950), Blackpool
Blackpool
thrived as the factory workers of Northern England
England
took their annual holidays there en masse. Any photograph from that era shows crowds of tourists on the beach and promenade. Blackpool
Blackpool
was also a preferred destination of visitors from Glasgow
Glasgow
and remains so to this day.[39] The town went into decline when cheap air travel arrived in the 1960s and the same workers decamped to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastal resorts due to competitive prices and the more reliable weather.[40] Today Blackpool
Blackpool
remains the most popular seaside resort in the UK; however, the town has suffered a serious drop in numbers of visitors which have fallen from 17 million in 1992 to 10 million today.[41] Similarly Pleasure Beach Blackpool
Blackpool
was the country's most popular free attraction with 6 million visitors a year but has lost over a million visitors since 1998 and has recently introduced a £6 entrance fee.[42] Today, many visitors stay for the weekend rather than for a week at a time. In July 2010, an independent survey of 4,500 members of the general public by consumer magazine Which? Holiday (now Which? Travel) found that Blackpool
Blackpool
was the UK's favourite seaside resort, followed by Brighton, Whitby, Bournemouth
Bournemouth
and Scarborough. Blackpool
Blackpool
has now improved the seawall and promenade, and Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
has been revamped. In February 2012, a number of tourist attractions in Blackpool collaborated to produce the Blackpool
Blackpool
Resort Pass which allows for discounted access in one ticket. The original pass included visits to Merlin Entertainments attractions and Blackpool
Blackpool
Pleasure Beach. In February 2013, Marketing Blackpool, formerly the Tourism division of Blackpool
Blackpool
Council, led the relaunch of the Blackpool
Blackpool
Resort Pass which includes additional attractions including Blackpool
Blackpool
Zoo, Sandcastle Waterpark and Blackpool
Blackpool
Model Village and Gardens. Blackpool
Blackpool
has a pioneering publicly owned Municipal wireless network Wi-Fi, which covers the entire town centre, promenade and beach front. Visitors can take a virtual tour of Blackpool, and full internet access is available. Conferences[edit]

The Tower and Illuminations

Blackpool's Central Pier in winter

Outside the main holiday season, Blackpool's Winter Gardens routinely hosts major political and trade union conferences, ranging from that of the Conservative Party and the Transport and General Workers Union with thousands of delegates and visitors, to substantially smaller gatherings such as the Communication Workers Union conference. The Labour Party, though, now uses facilities in Manchester
Manchester
when, every alternate year, its annual conference is in the North of England. The National Union of Students last held its Annual Conference in Blackpool
Blackpool
in 2009; they will now be hosted by the Sage Gateshead. In January 2011, Blackpool
Blackpool
hosted the NEEC Conference (formerly the North of England
England
Education Conference), a key date in the education calendar. The Winter Gardens also hold the National Pensioners' Parliament.[43] The 'Young Farmers' convention has been held regularly in Blackpool since the late 1960s.[44] Entertainment[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
remains a summer entertainment venue, specialising in variety shows featuring entertainers catering to a broad range of tastes, from family friendly Ken Dodd
Ken Dodd
to the 'adults only' humour of Roy 'Chubby' Brown. Ken Dodd
Ken Dodd
could regularly be seen throughout late summer at the Grand Theatre. He died on 11 March 2018. The Grand Theatre (locally known as 'The Grand') was designed by Victorian theatre architect Frank Matcham
Frank Matcham
and was opened in 1894 after a construction period of seven months, at a cost of £20,000 between December 1893 and July 1894. The project was conceived and financed by local theatre manager Thomas Sergenson who had been using the site of the Grand for several years to stage a circus. He had also transformed the fortunes of other local theatres.

Grand Theatre, Blackpool

Matcham's brief was to build Sergenson the "prettiest theatre in the land". The Grand was Matcham's first theatre to use an innovative 'cantilever' design to support the tiers, thereby reducing the need for the usual pillars and so allowing clear views of the stage from all parts of the auditorium. Sergenson's successful directorship of the theatre ended in 1909 when he sold the operation to the Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
Company for a considerable profit. The success of the Grand continued through World War I
World War I
and on until the 1930s. The theatre now faced stiff competition from the newly introduced talking films and the building was operated as a cinema outside the summer tourist season. This practice continued until 1938 when the nearby Winter Gardens Opera House was constructed. The theatre was able to stay open during World War II
World War II
but the post-war rise in the popularity of television was probably the cause of the theatre's dwindling popularity toward the 1960s.[citation needed] Plans were filed for the demolition of the historic site in 1972 but the Grand's status as a Grade II* listed building was sought and obtained by a group of friends, thereby preventing this from taking place. An agreement was reached with the Grand's owners, EMI, that a refurbishment of the then unused building would take place if it could be used as a bingo hall. After three years of bingo use, the group of friends, now called the Friends of the Grand, with the support of Blackpool Borough
Blackpool Borough
Council, negotiated to lease and eventually buy the theatre back from EMI
EMI
over a period of a few years. The purchase was complete by 1 October 1980 and a refurbishment, achieved partly through voluntary effort, was begun. Finally, on 23 March 1981 the Grand re-opened as a theatre once again to stage an Old Vic performance of William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
featuring Timothy West
Timothy West
and Prunella Scales. The theatre's return was further confirmed in May of the same year when a Royal Variety Performance
Royal Variety Performance
was staged in the presence of Prince Charles. The town also plays host to the longest running seaside show in Britain, Legends, which features multiple tribute artistes with a live band and dance troupe, first appearing at the North Pier in 1999, then at the Central Pier from 2000 to 2012 and now at the Sands Venue, located in the Palatine buildings (formerly the Palace nightclub) on the promenade near Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower. Current tribute artistes include "Neil Diamond", "Adele", "Elton John" and "Robbie Williams". Events and festivals[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
plays host to several major events each year. From music festivals and dance competitions, to the greatest free light show on earth.

Event/Festival Years Description

Blackpool
Blackpool
Illuminations 1879–present Blackpool
Blackpool
Illuminations, consisting of a series of lighted displays and collages arranged along the entire length of the seafront, 7 miles (11 km) in total, attract many visitors from late August to early November.

Blackpool
Blackpool
Air Show 1909–present The air show is an annual free event which features the world-famous RAF Red Arrows, a group of daredevil wing walkers, some of the most spectacular pilots in the country as well as a range of new and exciting displays.

Blackpool
Blackpool
Dance Festival 1920–present A world-famous annual ballroom dance competition of international significance,[45] as featured in the 1996 film Shall We Dance?

Punk Rock Rebellion Festival 1996–present Blackpool
Blackpool
has played host to the Punk rock
Punk rock
Rebellion Festival, an annual event which after a couple of intervening years in nearby Morecambe
Morecambe
made its permanent home in Blackpool.[46]

Gay Blackpool[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
is often described as the "gay capital of the North" (with Brighton
Brighton
often being described as "the gay capital of the South").[47][48] Blackpool
Blackpool
had its first gay pride celebration in 2006.[49] Historically, seaside resorts have been able to provide niches for minority groups.[50] Blackpool, like other English resorts, has had a reputation for being a safe community for gay people.[50] During World War II, there was a proliferation of cafés, pubs and clubs where homosexual men could meet in Blackpool.[51] In the 1990s, the town began to be promoted as a gay tourist destination.[50] Blackpool
Blackpool
contains several bars, pubs and nightclubs aimed at the LGBT community. These include Funny Girls
Funny Girls
(a burlesque cabaret showbar), Buzz, Flamingo, the Flying Handbag, Roxy's, Mardi Gras, and Taboo/Lucys @ tabago.[52] Pollution[edit] In the late 20th century and early 21st century, pollution in the seawater at Blackpool
Blackpool
caused considerable concern. In particular it was found that bacteria counts frequently exceeded the standards of the Environment Agency.[53][54][55][56][57] However, sea water quality has improved significantly in recent years, with the resort's south beach winning a Blue Flag award in 2016, and three other beaches achieving Seaside Award Status.[58][59] Regeneration[edit]

Blackpool's regenerated Promenade

Blackpool
Blackpool
is continually striving to improve its position within today's tourist industry. One controversial proposal, which had the involvement of the local council, was to transform Blackpool
Blackpool
into a casino resort along the lines of the Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip
and Atlantic City, making it the centre point of gambling in the UK. During all the seven-year campaign the Council did not allow a single public meeting, where the public could hear the case for, and the case against the proposals.[citation needed] Early in the campaign a survey indicated 95% of Blackpool
Blackpool
residents would prefer non-gambling related regeneration.[citation needed] For over five years the Gazette refused to publish any of the concerns of those critical of the slot machine proposals.[citation needed] Ultimately, Manchester
Manchester
was selected for the initial trial by the Government's Casinos Advisory Panel.[60] Since this decision, Blackpool's council and MPs have lobbied Parliament extensively, claiming their bid was misunderstood. The local newspaper, the Blackpool
Blackpool
Gazette, sent a petition signed by over 11,500 local residents and visitors demanding the decision be reconsidered. On 29 March 2007, the Advisory Panel's recommendations were approved by the House of Commons, but rejected by the House of Lords, meaning the bill would be reconsidered by parliament.[61] However, in early 2008 the House of Lords
House of Lords
voted against the super-casino proposal, and the Government proceeded no further with the idea.[citation needed]

Unique street lighting on Birley Street

The Talbot Gateway is a planned £285m civic quarter, for which international project management specialist AMEC
AMEC
has been chosen to transform a currently rundown area around Blackpool
Blackpool
North railway station into what Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
hope will be a world-class gateway with new office and retail space as well as a public square, dubbed the Talbot Plaza. The development would be 'wrapped' around Blackpool North railway station so that rail passengers arrive at street level into the new plaza with views down onto the seafront, making their arrival into Blackpool
Blackpool
a much more pleasant experience than at present. The regeneration company behind much of the towns current and future development, ReBlackpool, are working with Blackpool
Blackpool
Council and AMEC
AMEC
to prepare a planning application.[62] Regeneration work was completed in July 2009 on Waterloo Road in South Shore that transformed the area into a modern shopping centre. £1 million of public investment is helping to improve the public realm and act as a catalyst for the regeneration of South Shore.[63] In March 2010 it was confirmed that a deal had been made between Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
and Leisure Parcs to purchase some of Blackpool's most notable landmarks.[64] The deal, totalling £38.9m, had national and local government backing and included the purchase of:

Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower The Winter Gardens The Sea Life Centre Louis Tussauds Wax Works The Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
Dungeon Indoor Golf Centre Bonny Street Market Mr T's Amusement Arcade

It was also announced that the Tower would be run by Merlin Entertainments Group (who run the London Eye) as well as it seeing a programme of repairs totalling £10m, the first phase was scheduled to be complete for the 2011 season. Merlin Entertainments Group also took over the running of Louis Tussauds Wax Works, converting it into their bigger and better-known brand, Madame Tussauds Wax Works.[65] The Winter Gardens were purchased by Blackpool
Blackpool
Council; the complex is operated by Crown Entertainment Centres Ltd.[66] Both the Northwest Development Agency (NWDA) and Blackpool's regeneration company Re Blackpool
Blackpool
were crucial players in securing the deal. Landmarks and places of interest[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
boasts some important landmarks, most of which appeared originally as part of the flourishing tourist industry. Major landmarks and attractions[edit]

Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower, a Blackpool
Blackpool
landmark.

Blackpool's famous Winter Gardens

Coral Island on Blackpool's Promenade

Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower, opened in 1894, has been a dominant landmark of the Blackpool
Blackpool
skyline since that time. Inspired by the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
in Paris, France, it is 518 feet (158 m) in height. Beneath the tower is a complex of leisure facilities, entertainment venues and restaurants, including the world-famous Tower Ballroom
Tower Ballroom
and Tower Circus. North Pier, the northernmost of Blackpool's three piers, includes a small shopping arcade, a small tramway and the North Pier Theatre toward the end of the pier. The pier end also used to have a helicopter pad, but this was damaged in a Christmas storm in 1997 and collapsed into the sea. Grand Theatre, Blackpool
Grand Theatre, Blackpool
was built by Frank Matcham
Frank Matcham
in 1894. It offers an eclectic mix of drama, dance, opera, ballet and comedy including a yearly Pantomime. Central Pier is the middle (central) pier, and includes a large Ferris wheel and shops. Sandcastle Water Park is the UK's largest indoor waterpark, home to 18 slides and attractions including the largest indoor rollercoaster waterslide in the world, 'The Masterblaster', and the first indoor 'Sidewinder' in the world. Two new slides have been built: Aztec Falls (a bowl slide) and Montazooma (a mat slide). South Pier is the southernmost pier. Almost directly opposite the Pleasure Beach, it houses a theme park. Pleasure Beach Blackpool
Pleasure Beach Blackpool
is an amusement park with rides including the Pepsi Max Big One, which was the world's fastest and tallest complete circuit rollercoaster between 1994 and 1996. The Winter Gardens is a large entertainment and conference venue in the town centre. It includes the Opera House (one of the largest theatres in Europe), Pavilion Theatre, Empress Ballroom, Spanish Hall, Arena and Olympia. Stanley Park is a Grade II historic park and gardens with golf course, cricket club, sports arena, lake, art deco restaurant, model village, gardens etc. The Imperial Hotel is a massive red-brick Victorian hotel, which has hosted high-profile guests such as Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, Queen Elizabeth II and Margaret Thatcher.

Other attractions[edit]

Blackpool
Blackpool
Sands stretch along the whole seafront and comprise the main natural attraction for tourists. Funny Girls
Funny Girls
is a drag cabaret burlesque showbar, located on Dickson Road. Blackpool Zoo
Blackpool Zoo
provides a home to over 1,500 animals from all over the world. Viva Cabaret
Cabaret
Showbar & Events Suite is a Vegas-style production show venue next to the Tower. The Comedy Carpet
Comedy Carpet
is an area of 2,200m2 opposite the Tower, with jokes and punchlines set into the pavement. It is one of Britain's largest public artworks. The Great Promenade
Promenade
Show is a series of modern artwork installations along Blackpool's South Promenade, including the Blackpool
Blackpool
High Tide Organ, an unusual musical monument that uses the movements of the sea to make music. Madame Tussaud's Waxworks is a waxwork museum, featuring models of celebrities, musicians, sports personalities and a Chamber of Horrors. The Odeon Cinema is situated on a multi-complex site, on Rigby Road, with 10 screens. Sea Life Centres
Sea Life Centres
is a large aquarium featuring a walkthrough shark tank, located on the Promenade
Promenade
near Central Pier.

Former attraction[edit]

The Doctor Who
Doctor Who
Exhibition, which closed in 2009, was the biggest Doctor Who
Doctor Who
exhibition in the UK, containing props and costumes from the long-running BBC
BBC
TV series, including some from recently aired programmes.

Tall structures[edit] Main article: List of tallest buildings and structures in Blackpool Transport[edit] Air[edit] Blackpool International Airport
Blackpool International Airport
operated regular charter and scheduled flights throughout the UK and Europe. The airport is actually just over the borough boundary into Fylde Borough, although a proposal to reorganise Blackpool's borders would see the airport incorporated into Blackpool
Blackpool
Borough. This airport, formerly known as Blackpool
Blackpool
Squires Gate Airport, is one of the oldest in the UK having hosted public flying meetings in 1909 and 1910. After a gap, it has been active from the 1930s to mid 2014 and from December 2014 to date. Airlines that served Blackpool
Blackpool
before its temporary closure in late 2014 included Jet2.com
Jet2.com
and Aer Arran. The Airport was reopened to small aircraft after failing to find a buyer in December 2014.[67] Consumer champion Which? Holiday found that Blackpool Airport
Blackpool Airport
was the favourite among its members in a major independent survey. The airport, which flies to about 20 destinations, received an overall customer score of 80 per cent. It received five stars for the efficiency of check-in, the time it takes to clear security and distance from check-in to the gate, and the overall airport experience, including signage, design of the airport and attitude of staff. Other than Blackpool's current services to Belfast and the Isle Of Man, access to the town by air is via Liverpool
Liverpool
John Lennon
John Lennon
Airport or Manchester
Manchester
Airport, both approximately 60 miles away by road. In 1927 the local council announced that an airfield would be built near Stanley Park, which would become Stanley Park Aerodrome offering flights to the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
for £1-16s–0d (£1.80).[68] The airport opened in 1929 and was officially opened by then British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
Ramsay MacDonald
in 1931.[69] However, with the opening of Squires Gate Airport a decision was announced in 1936 by the Ministry of Transport to close the Stanley Park airfield. In fact, civil operations continued until the outbreak of war with scheduled services to the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
and elsewhere.[70] During the war, Stanley Park was used as a Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
training station, known as No. 3 School of Technical Training. Vickers
Vickers
assembled many Wellington bombers here and Beaufighters were repaired for the RAF. The airfield closed in 1947. The land on which the airport stood now covers Blackpool Zoo
Blackpool Zoo
and a hotel and golf course. The hangars from the old airport are still in use as the elephant enclosure for the zoo.[69] Bus and coach[edit]

A Blackpool Transport
Blackpool Transport
bus en route to Fleetwood

Blackpool Transport
Blackpool Transport
operates the main bus services in and around Blackpool. Stagecoach operates the regional bus and coach services in and out of Blackpool, under the operational name of Stagecoach in Lancashire
Lancashire
or Stagecoach Express. National Express operates the main long-distance coach services in and out of Blackpool.

Facilities include:

Blackpool
Blackpool
Talbot Road Bus Station, which was the main town centre bus station but is now used by only Stagecoach services. Blackpool Transport stopped using the bus station in the early 2000s after a disagreement with Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
regarding the state of the bus station building. Blackpool Transport
Blackpool Transport
now use Market Street and Corporation Street, in the town centre, as their bus interchange. National Express have also recently stopped using this bus station, moving to the new National Express Blackpool
Blackpool
Central Coach Station. Blackpool
Blackpool
Central Coach Station,[71] which is mainly used by the National Express service along with some independent coach operators. The coach station has a booking office and toilet facilities. Blackpool
Blackpool
Lonsdale Road Coach Station, the main coach station the South Shore district of Blackpool. This is mainly used by independent coach operators and also by some National Express services. The coach station has a café, shop and toilet facilities but is in a state of disrepair. Blackpool
Blackpool
Colosseum Bus & Coach Station, which was the main bus and coach station in South Shore. Located next to Blackpool
Blackpool
Transport Headquarters, it was demolished to make way for a Somerfield supermarket.

Railway[edit]

Blackpool
Blackpool
North

Blackpool
Blackpool
Pleasure Beach

Blackpool
Blackpool
South

Layton

Squires Gate

Blackpool
Blackpool
Central

South Shore

Railway station Site of former railway station

Interior of Blackpool
Blackpool
North station

Train operators that serve Blackpool
Blackpool
are:

Northern Virgin Trains

Stations in the town are, or were:

Blackpool
Blackpool
North (originally Talbot Road) Blackpool
Blackpool
Pleasure Beach Blackpool
Blackpool
South (originally Waterloo Road) Layton (originally Bispham) Squires Gate (just outside the borough boundary but serving Blackpool International Airport) Blackpool
Blackpool
Central (originally Hounds Hill; closed 1964) Burlington Road Halt
Burlington Road Halt
(closed 1949), reopened as Blackpool
Blackpool
Pleasure Beach Railway Station in 1987 South Shore (renamed Lytham Road 1903, closed 1916)

Blackpool
Blackpool
once had two railway termini with a total of over 30 platforms, mainly used by excursion traffic in the summer. Blackpool Central, close to Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower, was closed in 1964, while Blackpool North was largely demolished and rebuilt as a smaller facility. The route of the former excursion line into Blackpool
Blackpool
Central is now used as a link road from the M55 motorway
M55 motorway
to the town centre. The line into Blackpool
Blackpool
via Lytham St Annes
Lytham St Annes
now has a station serving Blackpool Pleasure Beach but terminates at Blackpool
Blackpool
South station. The line into North station is now the more important. Road[edit] The M55 motorway
M55 motorway
links the town to the national motorway network. Other major roads in the town are the A583 to Kirkham and Preston, the A587 to Fleetwood, the A586 to Poulton-le-Fylde, Garstang
Garstang
and Lancaster and the A584 and B5261 which both lead to Lytham St Annes Tram[edit]

A map of the tram network

Flexity 2 tram, No 011 at Tower tram station in April 2012

A un-modified double-decker 'Balloon' Tram on The Promenade
Promenade
at Bispham

Main article: Blackpool
Blackpool
tramway Blackpool tramway
Blackpool tramway
runs from Starr Gate
Starr Gate
in Blackpool
Blackpool
to Fleetwood
Fleetwood
and is the only surviving first-generation tramway in the United Kingdom.[72] The tramway dates back to 1885 and is one of the oldest electric tramways in the world. It is run by Blackpool
Blackpool
Transport, owned by Blackpool
Blackpool
Council. The tramway runs for 11 miles (18 km) and carries 6,500,000 passengers each year.[73] The tramway was for a long time the only working tramway in the United Kingdom outside of museums. It was also the UK's first electric system. However, there are now a number of other tramways, including Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink, South London Tramlink, Nottingham
Nottingham
Express Transit and Sheffield Supertram. On 1 February 2008 it was announced that the Government had agreed to a joint Blackpool Transport
Blackpool Transport
and Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
bid for funding toward the total upgrade of the track. The government contributed £60.3m of the total £85.3m cost. Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
and Lancashire County Council each provided about £12.5m. The Government's decision meant that the entire length of the tramway from Starr Gate
Starr Gate
to Fleetwood
Fleetwood
was upgraded and also sixteen state-of-the-art trams joined the fleet.[74] In April 2012, the tramway reopened after the major reconstruction. Day to day services are run by the 16 Flexity 2 trams. Several double deck 'Balloon' trams from the older fleet have been widened to work alongside the new trams to provide additional capacity in the summer months. Several non-modified older trams also operate a 'heritage' service from Pleasure Beach to Little Bispham on weekends and holidays.[75] An extension of the new service to Blackpool North Railway Station
Blackpool North Railway Station
is planned to open by April 2019. Filmography[edit]

View from the tower, looking south

The resort is featured in the 1934 film Sing as We Go, starring Gracie Fields, as well as other cinema and TV productions, including Forbidden (1949), Hindle Wakes (1952), Holiday (1957),[76] Coasting (1990),[77] Funny Bones
Funny Bones
(1995) starring Lee Evans and Oliver Platt
Oliver Platt
and directed by St. Annes born Peter Chelsom, and The Parole Officer (2001) starring Steve Coogan. The Japanese film Shall We Dance? (1996) closes with a scene at the World Ballroom Dancing Championships in Blackpool. All the hair styling for the film was completed by Blackpool-born-and-bred hairstylist Eileen Clough, who has been in the trade since the 1960s. In the Hollywood remake of the film (2004), directed by Peter Chelsom, Blackpool
Blackpool
is mentioned but not shown. Blackpool
Blackpool
is the setting for Bhaji on the Beach
Bhaji on the Beach
(1993) directed by Gurinder Chadha. The film Like It Is (1998) directed by Paul Oremland was also partly filmed in Blackpool. The opening scenes were filmed in the Flamingo. The 2005 television comedy/thriller series Funland revolved around the fictionalised, seedier aspects of Blackpool. The town also features heavily in the BBC
BBC
television serial Blackpool, starring David Morrissey, Sarah Parish and David Tennant
David Tennant
and first broadcast in 2004, and the one-off follow-up Viva Blackpool, broadcast in June 2006. In 2006 Lion Television filmed The Great British Summer, which featured many iconic buildings in Blackpool. The Royal Windsor Hotel was featured, with the owner talking all about the hotel seasons and industry. Bernard Manning
Bernard Manning
was also shown at the hotel doing his spot through the season hosted by a local DJ (BMD) and other local acts. The Great British Summer was narrated by Alan Titchmarsh. Between 10 September 2012 and 19 November 2012 the resort was featured in Channel 4's 999: What's Your Emergency?. The resort was also featured in the three-part reality television series, Blackpool Lights on Channel 5 in December 2013.[78][79] As well as this, the 2016 Tim Burton
Tim Burton
film Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children also features Blackpool
Blackpool
and its key tourist attraction, The Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower. Blackpool
Blackpool
was once again featured in a Channel 5 documentary series from 26 October 2017, this time entitled Bargain Loving Brits in Blackpool. The series ran for six episodes until 30 November 2017.[80] Music[edit] Reginald Dixon, MBE, ARCM, who held the position as organist at the Tower Ballroom, Blackpool
Blackpool
from March 1930 until March 1970 made and sold more recordings than any other organist.[81] Blackpool
Blackpool
Symphony Orchestra was founded by Percy Dayman in 1920. It presents an annual series of concerts and organises educational and community outreach projects.[82] 1960s[edit] The Beatles
The Beatles
had a long and varied association with Blackpool, including a significant event in John Lennon's early childhood[83] and multiple gigs in the town between 1963 and 1965.[84] Formed in Blackpool
Blackpool
in 1963, The Rockin' Vickers
Vickers
were a rock and roll beat combo most notable for featuring Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister, then known as Ian Frasier, later of Hawkwind
Hawkwind
and more famously Motörhead, as a guitarist. The band recorded four singles before splitting in 1967. The other Rockin' Vickers
Vickers
guitarist, Nick Gribbon, continues to perform in pubs in and around Blackpool
Blackpool
as Nick Unlimited, with an open door policy that has given many talented younger Blackpool musicians their first opportunity to play live.[85] The Executives were a Blackpool
Blackpool
band who recorded a handful of singles in the 1960s including the original 1964 version of March of the Mods, which became a top 40 hit for Joe Loss and His Orchestra in the same year. The tune was written by Tony Carr, the father of Executives' frontman Roy Carr,[86] who later became a well-known music journalist with New Musical Express
New Musical Express
and the author of several books on popular music and executive editor of music magazines including New Musical Express, Melody Maker
Melody Maker
and Vox.[87] Executives bass player Glenn Cornick became a founding member of Jethro Tull, later forming Wild Turkey. Tony Williams, The Executives' guitarist, joined Stealers Wheel soon after its formation in 1967 and also briefly joined Jethro Tull in 1978 as a touring bassist. Blackpool
Blackpool
was notorious for having imposed an indefinite ban on the Rolling Stones from performing in the town in 1964 after a riot broke out among the audience who had found their performance "suggestive" during their concert at the Empress Ballroom. The ban was lifted forty-four years later in March 2008.[88][89] The Jimi Hendrix
Jimi Hendrix
– Experience video and DVD features concert footage of Hendrix's performance at Blackpool's Opera House in 1967.[90] 1970s[edit] Complex were formed in Blackpool
Blackpool
in 1970 and self-released 2 albums in 1971. Only 99 copies of their self-titled debut were pressed and this extremely rare vinyl album has since been described as "one of the "Holy Trinity" items of rare British Psychedelia".[91] The band continued to play until 1978 when they disbanded with the onset of punk.[92] Limited edition remastered versions of both Complex albums were released by Guersson in 2012.[93][94] A number of bands from Blackpool
Blackpool
achieved a level of success during the punk and post-punk era. Factory Records' Section 25[95] were formed in 1977 in Poulton-Le-Fylde, a small market town on the outskirts of Blackpool, as were the 1976–79 version of punk band Skrewdriver, who recorded several singles and an album for the Chiswick record label[96] (the skinhead "white power" rock act of the same name that gained notoriety later, contained only one member of the original band). Both bands claimed Blackpool
Blackpool
as their place of origin. 1980s and 1990s[edit] Another Blackpool
Blackpool
band signed to Factory was Tunnelvision,[97][98] who recorded just one single for the label in 1981. When Barry Lights relocated his Lightbeat record label from Leeds to Blackpool
Blackpool
in 1981, the label's first Blackpool
Blackpool
signing was electronic rock band Zoo Boutique.[99] After releasing the debut single by Fleetwood
Fleetwood
punk band One Way System, Lights set up specialist hardcore punk Beat the System label. Blackpool
Blackpool
punk band The Fits were amongst the first to benefit, eventually releasing four indie chart hit singles in 1982–85.[100] The Membranes
The Membranes
who featured John Robb initially set up their own Vinyl Drip record label in 1981 before achieving three indie top 20 hits from 1984–86,[100] reaching number 6 in John Peel's Festive Fifty
Festive Fifty
in 1984[101] and making a pre-recorded appearance on Channel 4
Channel 4
rock show The Tube. The Ceramic Hobs formed in 1985 and to date have "made more than 30 uncategorisable releases on vinyl, CD and cassette for many different worldwide record labels".[102][103] Blackpool
Blackpool
musician Lucifer's "Cyber Punk Rock" EPs of 1994 contained the first full vocal songs intended for playback on a computer.[104][105] 2000 onwards[edit] 21st century musical exports from Blackpool
Blackpool
include Karima Francis, The Locals, who first appeared on BBC
BBC
Introducing when they were just 15,[106] Goonies Never Say Die, Litterbug, Aiden Grimshaw who came ninth on the 2010 series of X Factor, The Senton Bombs, UFX/Uncle Fester and Little Boots, who topped the BBC
BBC
Sound of... poll in 2009. The White Stripes
The White Stripes
recorded their first official DVD, Under Blackpool Lights, at the Empress Ballroom
Empress Ballroom
in the Winter Gardens on 27 and 28 January 2004. Get Up Kids
Get Up Kids
guitarist Jim Suptic's Kansas City, Missouri indie rock band Blackpool Lights is named after the DVD title. In 2005, a compilation album, The Ugly Truth About Blackpool
Blackpool
Volume One, chronologically documenting the best of Blackpool
Blackpool
indie rock music from 1977 to 2005, was released by Andy Higgins' JSNTGM Records in conjunction with the Arts Council, Blackpool
Blackpool
Evening Gazette and Blackpool
Blackpool
Council.[107][108] Volume 2, showcasing the best Blackpool indie bands active in 2005/6 was released the following year.[109][110] Other Blackpool
Blackpool
recording artists on JSNTGM include Sick 56, Erase Today and Litterbug.[111] Each August since 2006, Blackpool
Blackpool
has been the venue for the largest festival of punk rock in the world, the annual Rebellion Festival, which is held in the Winter Gardens over four days and features over 200 punk bands.[112] In early 2013, Grime music in Blackpool
Blackpool
increased dramatically with the invention of BGMedia. They now have over 28 million views as they were made famous after becoming viral on YouTube.[113] Songs about Blackpool[edit] In 1937 George Formby's song "With My Little Stick of Blackpool
Blackpool
Rock", was banned by BBC
BBC
radio for having suggestive lyrics.[114] The Kinks' song "Autumn Almanac" contains the following lines: "... I go to Blackpool
Blackpool
for my holidays/Sit in the open sunlight ..." "She Sold Blackpool
Blackpool
Rock" was a minor success in 1969 for Honeybus
Honeybus
as the follow up to their 1968 top ten hit single "I Can't Let Maggie Go". Graham Nash's semi-autobiographical song "Military Madness" begins "In an upstairs room in Blackpool
Blackpool
/ By the side of a northern sea / The army had my father / And my mother was having me". Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
recorded a song entitled "Blackpool" amongst a number of demo home recordings in the years 1971 and 1972.[115] The Jethro Tull song "Up the 'Pool" from the 1972 Living in the Past album is about Blackpool, singer Ian Anderson
Ian Anderson
and other members of the band's childhood home. Another Tull track about the beach attractions of Blackpool
Blackpool
is "Big Dipper", from the 1976 album Too Old to Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die!. In the early 1980s the then Blackpool
Blackpool
based band The Membranes
The Membranes
used the town as the subject matter for their Tatty Seaside Town 1988 single, which was later covered by Therapy? Other songs written about Blackpool
Blackpool
include Oh Blackpool
Blackpool
by Beautiful South and several different songs called Blackpool, by Sham 69, Macc Lads, Roy Harper and The Delgados. "Blackpool" is also the title song from a production co-written with author Irvine Welsh
Irvine Welsh
and Vic Godard (Subway Sect) in 2002, later released as a four-song EP called "Blackpool". A song called " Blackpool
Blackpool
Fool" appears on the Frank Sidebottom album A,B,C & D(1997).[116] Songs that mention Blackpool
Blackpool
in the lyrics include "Elvis Impersonator: Blackpool
Blackpool
Pier", the opening track of the Manic Street Preachers album Everything Must Go, which contains the lyrics "20ft high off Blackpool
Blackpool
Promenade" amongst other references to Blackpool. The opening line of Soft Cell's 1982 "Say Hello, Wave Goodbye" hit (later a hit for David Gray in 1998) "Standing at the door of the Pink Flamingo, Crying in the rain" is believed to be a reference to Blackpool's famous gay nightclub The Flamingo. Låpsley's chillout song "Painter (Valentine)" includes the lines "you can paint these wings and make me fly/ crush coming over like the R.E.M kind/ orange in the colour like Blackpool
Blackpool
on the sunrise". Franz Ferdinand's 2013 "Love Illumination" single was originally called " Blackpool
Blackpool
Illuminati".[117] Folk songs written about the town include The Houghton Weavers anthem "The Blackpool
Blackpool
Belle" ("Oh the Blackpool
Blackpool
Belle was a getaway train that went from Northern stations. What a beautiful sight on a Saturday night bound for the illuminations"), Jasper Carrot's "Day Trip To Blackpool" ("Didn't we have a miserable time the day we went to Blackpool? An 'orrible day, we got drunk on the way And spent our money on chips and bingo...")[118] and Mike Harding's single "Talking Blackpool
Blackpool
Blues" ("Well my Mam and Dad and Gran and me / We went to Blackpool
Blackpool
by the sea / It rained and rained for most of the day / But we all got tanned in a funny sort of way").[119] Notable musicians born in Blackpool[edit]

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John Evan, Keyboard player of Jethro Tull (1969-1980), leader of The Blades, John Evan
John Evan
Band and John Evan
John Evan
Smash; Jeffrey Hammond-Hammond, bass guitarist of Jethro Tull, (1970-1975), David Ball (of Soft Cell), singer-songwriter Roy Harper, Chris Lowe
Chris Lowe
(of Pet Shop Boys), Nick McCarthy (of Franz Ferdinand), Larry Cassidy
Larry Cassidy
(of Section 25), Gary Miller (who had a hit with The Yellow Rose of Texas), Graham Nash
Graham Nash
(of The Hollies
The Hollies
/ Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young), Robert Smith (of The Cure), Jon Gomm
Jon Gomm
(acoustic guitarist), folk singer Maddy Prior
Maddy Prior
and singer-songwriter Rae Morris. Victoria Christina Hesketh, better known as her stage name Little Boots, was also born in Blackpool. The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool. Media[edit] Newspapers that cover the Blackpool
Blackpool
area include the Blackpool Gazette, the daily newspaper covering the Fylde Coast area, known locally as The Gazette. They also publish a free weekly newspaper, the Blackpool
Blackpool
Reporter, which is delivered to householders in Blackpool. The Gazette also publishes a daily online version in Polish, Witryna Polska (Polish Gazette) to cater for the local Polish community.[120] The Lancashire
Lancashire
Evening Post is a daily evening newspaper covering the county of Lancashire. Blackpool
Blackpool
has a pioneering publicly owned Municipal wireless network, Wi-Fi which covers the entire town centre & promenade & beach front. Visitors can take a virtual tour of Blackpool, to discover all they need to know to enjoy their time in Blackpool. Full internet access is available via the publicly owned Municipal wireless network, The vouchers are available from the Tourist information office, Council offices & a selection of town centre businesses and conference venues as well as at a selection of Blackpool
Blackpool
libraries displaying the Wireless Blackpool
Blackpool
logo. Using a WiFi enabled laptop or mobile device simply connect to the Wireless network to gain instant access to a selection of local sites. To access the World Wide Web you will then need to use a Wireless Blackpool
Blackpool
voucher. Simply scratch off the silver panel on the voucher and enter the individual Username and Password into the relevant boxes on the Wireless Blackpool
Blackpool
landing page.[121][122] Local radio is provided by Radio Wave, a commercial radio station based on Mowbray Drive in Blackpool
Blackpool
which covers the Fylde Coast area. The radio station broadcasts on 96.5FM and is owned by media company UTV. Blackpool
Blackpool
also falls in the coverage area of BBC
BBC
Radio Lancashire, Rock FM, Magic 999, Smooth FM 100.4 and 105.4 Real Radio. Blackpool
Blackpool
Gay Radio provides a part-time radio service catering for the local gay community featuring a mix of music, local features, news and celebrity interviews. Blackpool
Blackpool
also has four music related internet radio stations:

Fylde FM, the Fylde Coast's largest internet radio station.[123] Radio Vibe ( Blackpool
Blackpool
Fylde & Wyre), an online music service only.[124] Splash Net Radio[125] Fylde Community Radio for the Fylde Borough, who are aiming for a FM licence for 2013, available on line.

Radio Victoria, based in Victoria Hospital broadcasts throughout the hospital and is aiming for an FM licence for 2013 Each supplies a variety of music broadcast throughout the world 24-hours a day. National television with local opt outs is provided by ITV Granada, the ITV franchise holder for the North West, BBC
BBC
North West, the regional BBC
BBC
station for the North West region. Blackpool
Blackpool
also has a dedicated local TV news service, That's Lancashire, organised by the That's TV network. This is broadcast from their studio in Preston.[126] Sport[edit]

Bloomfield Road
Bloomfield Road
Stadium, home of Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C.

Boxing
Boxing
and mixed martial arts[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
has 2 main venues for boxing fight nights, they are the Tower Circus Arena and the Winter Gardens which both hold regular fight nights throughout the year. Events at these venues have been screened on Sky Sports, British Eurosport
British Eurosport
and Channel M. Current promotions stables who host events in Blackpool
Blackpool
are Matchroom Boxing and VIP Boxing
Boxing
Promotions. Blackpool
Blackpool
is home to many current and former professional boxers including Brian Rose (born in Birmingham), Jack Arnfield, Jeff Thomas (born in Dordrecht), Mathew Ellis (born in Oldham), Matty Askin
Matty Askin
(born in Barnsley), RP Davies and Scott Cardle. Not forgetting the late Neville Rowe MMA fighters Leeroy Barnes who fights out of Cage Warriors, Shak Khan who is also a Pro wrestler/Street (Shoot) fighter and Karl Etherington the son of Judo champ Bill Etherington are also from Blackpool. Cricket[edit] Blackpool Cricket Club are Blackpool's major cricketing team; they won the League Cup in 2013, and were National Champions in 1990. They won the Lancashire
Lancashire
Cup on eight occasions between 1973 and 1996 and were League Champions fourteen times.[citation needed] Their home is in the grounds of Stanley Park, which also hosts Lancashire
Lancashire
County Cricket Club. Football[edit] The town's professional football club is Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C., who have spent 31 seasons in the top division and won the 1953 FA Cup Final. There are other, smaller football clubs located within Blackpool, including A.F.C. Blackpool, Blackpool
Blackpool
Wren Rovers and Squires Gate. Rugby[edit] Blackpool Borough
Blackpool Borough
were the first professional rugby league club in the town. However, they eventually folded after leaving the town in 1987. Blackpool Panthers
Blackpool Panthers
were formed in 2004 and played in Co-operative Championship One. They ground-shared at Woodlands Memorial Ground, the home of Fylde Rugby Club
Fylde Rugby Club
in the neighbouring town of Lytham St Annes. The club ceased to exist after the 2010 season due to lack of finance.[127] Blackpool
Blackpool
also has a rugby union club, called Blackpool RUFC. Their home ground is Norbreck Rugby Ground. The resort formerly held the now discontinued Northern Rail Cup
Northern Rail Cup
Final at Bloomfield Road, a Rugby League knockout competition for all clubs outside of the Super League attracting many thousands of visitors. Running[edit] The annual Blackpool
Blackpool
Marathon is staged on the Promenade
Promenade
each April. Thousands of competitors run on the closed Promenade, organised by Fylde Coast Runners. Wrestling[edit] The Pleasure Beach's Horseshoe Show Bar was home to professional wrestling events throughout the season. These were promoted by Bobby Baron. The bar shows were home to a "Wrestling Booth", where members of the public could challenge the wrestlers for cash prizes for each round they survived. These challenges would be taken by shooters: wrestlers skilled in the brutal submission holds of Catch Wrestling, which they could deploy to defend the prize money even against skilled amateur wrestlers. Booths such as these had been a foundation stone of the professional wrestling industry since the 19th century – Barron's booth is reputed to have been the last of its kind in the world.[128] Numerous renowned professional wrestlers worked as carnival shooters at the booth, including future WWE
WWE
star William Regal
William Regal
(then known as Steve Regal), his then tag team partner Robbie Brookside, promoter, trainer and champion Shak Khan (who runs a school for teaching Catch Wrestling in Blackpool), future British Ladies' Wrestling champion Klondyke Kate, and others including Dave Duran, (John Palin) The booth ended with Baron's death in 1994, although other promoters have since held shows in the bar.[128] Additionally, the Tower Circus was a frequent venue for wrestling shows. A photograph of noted heel Jack Pye in action at the circus was, for some time in the late 2000s, displayed by the entrance to the circus. The tradition was revived by All Star Wrestling
All Star Wrestling
when they promoted a summer season at the venue in 2008, and a similar summer season in 2012 at the Winter Gardens. WWE
WWE
held a tournament at the Empress Ballroom
Empress Ballroom
on 14-15 January 2017 to crown the inaugural WWE
WWE
United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Champion. In attendance were Regal and WWE
WWE
legend Triple H, who commented to local journalists, " Blackpool
Blackpool
has this reputation. It’s easy to get to, a lot of people come here and when they come here they lose it and that’s what we wanted. I almost feel like there wasn’t really another choice.." [129] Tyler Bate
Tyler Bate
won the inaugural tournament to become the first WWE United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Champion.[130] Religion[edit]

Sacred Heart Church, town centre

Blackpool
Blackpool
has a number of Christian churches including eighteen Anglican and ten Roman Catholic churches.[131] Other Christian groups in the town include Blackpool
Blackpool
Baptist Tabernacle, Blackpool
Blackpool
Christian Centre, Blackpool
Blackpool
Community Church, Kings Christian Centre, Liberty Church, (Metropolitan Community Church) and New Life Community Church.[131] The Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes in Whinney Heys Road, built in 1955–57, is now redundant and is being converted into a community centre by the Historic Chapels Trust.[132] There is a residential Buddhist Centre in North Shore, Keajra Kadampa Buddhist Centre, a member of the New Kadampa Tradition
New Kadampa Tradition
– International Kadampa Buddhist Union.[131] There are two mosques: the purpose-built Blackpool Central Mosque
Blackpool Central Mosque
& Islamic Community Centre is located on Revoe Street and provides prayer facilities for local Muslims, and the Blackpool
Blackpool
Islamic Community Centre (BICC) which offers Islamic education.[133] There are two synagogues in Blackpool
Blackpool
for its Jewish population. The Blackpool Reform Jewish Congregation
Blackpool Reform Jewish Congregation
is located on Raikes Parade with a synagogue hall and classroom facilities, a purpose-built sanctuary hall and an assembly room. Blackpool
Blackpool
United Hebrew Congregation (closed) is located on Leamington Road with a synagogue hall and community centre.[131] The synagogue closed in May 2012 due to a declining orthodox Jewish population, the last minister Rabbi David Braunold having retired in 2011. As of January 2016 the synagogue building was awaiting new use. Blackpool
Blackpool
also has small communities of Bahá'í, Hindus, Jains, Mormons and Sikhs.[134] The Blackpool
Blackpool
Faith Forum was established in 2001 in conjunction with Blackpool Council
Blackpool Council
to provide interfaith dialogue between the various faith groups in the town, to raise awareness of the various faiths in the town and to promote a multifaith community. It is linked to the Interfaith
Interfaith
Network of UK.[135][136] In February 2007 a youth forum was established, Blackpool
Blackpool
Faith Forum for Youth (BIFFY).[137] Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in Blackpool As well as 29 state primary schools and 8 state secondary schools, there is also a range of activities for children and young people in the town. Some of these are delivered by Blackpool
Blackpool
Young People Services (a part of Blackpool
Blackpool
Council).[138] Shipwrecks[edit] Main article: Blackpool
Blackpool
shipwrecks A number of shipwrecks have occurred on the coastline of Blackpool. The most recent occurrence has been the grounding of the MS Riverdance in January 2008. Famously, in 1897, HMS Foudroyant, Nelson's flagship before HMS Victory, was grounded close to North Pier in a storm. Areas, districts and estates[edit]

Blackpool

Anchorsholme

Bispham

Grange Park

Great Marton

Layton

Little Bispham

Moor Park

North Shore

South Shore

Squires Gate

Stanley Park

Starr Gate

Places in Blackpool

Anchorsholme Bispham Bloomfield Brunswick Churchtown Claremont Common Edge Devonshire Grange Park Great Marton Great Marton
Great Marton
Moss Great Marton
Great Marton
Moss Side Greenhill Greenlands Hawes Side Highfurlong Hoohill Ingthorpe Layton Little Bispham Little Carleton Little Marton
Little Marton
Moss Side Little Norbreck Marton Marton Fold Mereside Moor Park Norbreck North Shore Palatine Queenstown Revoe South Shore Squires Gate Stanley Park Starr Gate Walker's Hill Warbreck Waterloo Whiteholme

Crimes[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
has experienced numerous high-profile crimes since the early 20th century. In 2012, Blackpool
Blackpool
was identified as a "crime hotspot"[139], and in 2016 was revealed as having the fourth-highest murder rate in the UK.[140] Rates of violent crime, sexual assault and domestic violence exceed national averages.[141] In 1913, the "Brides in the Bath" serial killer George Joseph Smith drowned his second wife Alice in their rented room of a boarding house on Regent Road. He was due to be the beneficiary of a sizeable life insurance policy upon his wife's death.[142] In 1971 Supt Gerry Richardson, 38, was shot dead while chasing a gang of London thugs who had robbed a resort jewellers. The five-man group bungled the raid on Preston's Jewellers in the Strand. They arrived late and failed to check a back room where the shop manager had already raised a silent alarm connected to Blackpool
Blackpool
Police Station. As the gang made their getaway they became involved in a high-speed chase through the streets of North Shore which ended with Supt Richardson's tragic murder at the hands of "Fat" Freddie Sewell. Supt Richardson was posthumously awarded the George Cross
George Cross
in 1972. Wounded Inspector Carl Walker also received the George Cross.[143][144] In 1972, Dr Ahmad Alami (the son of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem) murdered 3 sleeping children at Blackpool
Blackpool
Victoria Hospital, he also stabbed two nurses, and other children asleep on the ward.[145] Alami was diagnosed as a 'Paranoid schizophrenic' and judged unfit to stand trial, and was detained at Broadmoor high security hospital for several years before being released and deported back to his native Jordan. In 1999, Stuart Michael Diamond was convicted of the brutal murder of a homeless 17-year-old heroin addict, Christopher Hartley. Diamond murdered Hartley and dismembered his body before 'dumping' the remains in a hotel 'swill bin'; Hartley's head was never recovered.[146] In 2007, the jury in the case of the alleged rape and murder of Blackpool
Blackpool
schoolgirl Charlene Downes, 14, heard a police surveillance tape of Jordanian Iyad Albattikhi, 29, and Iranian Mohammed Reveshi, 50, allegedly detailing her stabbing, and her later alleged disposal in their "Funny Boyz" kebab shop's mincing machine by the prosecution. Albattikhi allegedly boasted that he had sold her remains in kebabs.[147] Both men were acquitted of the alleged offence. John Bromley-Davenport, for the defence, said: "We have uncovered within the Blackpool
Blackpool
Police force an astonishing catalogue of incompetence, failure to disclose, manipulation and lies, some of which were uttered on oath during the trial last year. If the jury at that trial had swallowed the lies and been duped by the manipulation then a grave miscarriage of justice would have occurred."[148] On 25 July 2010, a nurse named Jane Clough was stabbed to death in Victoria Hospital's car park. Her ex-boyfriend Jonathan Vass, a paramedic, was later found guilty of her murder.[149] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Blackpool Blackpool
Blackpool
has been the birthplace and/or home to a number of notable people, including:

Jo Appleby (b. 1978) – soprano singer with Amici Forever David Atherton (b. 1944) – conductor Hylda Baker
Hylda Baker
(1905–1986) – comedian Dave Ball (b. 1959) – musician (Soft Cell) Zoë Ball
Zoë Ball
(b. 1970) – English TV and radio presenter Neville Bannister (b. 1937) – footballer ( Bolton
Bolton
Wanderers, Lincoln City, Hartlepool United, Rochdale, Fleetwood
Fleetwood
Town) Ronnie Baxter
Ronnie Baxter
(b. 1961) – darts player Lennie Bennett (1938–2009) – comedian George Berry (b. 1957) – footballer Charlie Cairoli (1910–1980) – famous clown, born in Milan
Milan
but became famous in Blackpool
Blackpool
where he lived from 1939 to his death in 1980. He is buried at Carleton Cemetery. George Carman (1929–2001) – barrister Frank Carson
Frank Carson
(1926–2012) – comedian Violet Carson
Violet Carson
(1898–1983) – Coronation Street
Coronation Street
actress who played the part of Ena Sharples. She lived in Bispham until her death. Ronnie Clayton (1923–2007) – British Featherweight Boxing
Boxing
Champion 1947–54, twice Lonsdale Belt winner Jimmy Clitheroe
Jimmy Clitheroe
(1921–1973) – British comedy actor, lived most of his life in the Greenlands area on Bispham Road, Blackpool, where he died in 1973 Jenna Coleman
Jenna Coleman
(b. 1986) – actress (Emmerdale, Waterloo Road, Titanic, Doctor Who) Alistair Cooke
Alistair Cooke
(1908–2004) – journalist and commentator Robert Crampton (b. 1964) – The Times
The Times
journalist, born and spent the first six years of his life in the town. Steven Croft (b. 1984) – cricketer Robert Cuthbertson – footballer, now lives in Blackpool Raine Davison (b. 1984) – actress Reginald Dixon (1904–1985) – organist of the Wurlitzer organ at Blackpool Tower
Blackpool Tower
Ballroom John Evan
John Evan
(b. 1948) – musician Jethro Tull Judy Flynn (b. 1963/1964) – actress Dan Forshaw
Dan Forshaw
(b. 1981) – jazz musician Aiden Grimshaw (b. 1991) – X Factor Series 7 contestant Jeffrey Hammond
Jeffrey Hammond
(b. 1946) – musician Jethro Tull Steve Harrison – award-winning advertising creative; founder of Harrison Troughton Wunderman Roy Harper (b. 1941) – musician Barney Harwood
Barney Harwood
(b. 1979) – TV presenter Victoria Christina Hesketh (Little Boots) (b. 1984) – musician, born in Blackpool
Blackpool
Victoria Hospital David Hoyle – performance artist Edwin Hughes (1830–1927) – ("Balaclava Ned"), the last survivor of the Charge of the Light Brigade
Charge of the Light Brigade
at Balaklava
Balaklava
in the Crimea lived in Blackpool
Blackpool
and is buried in Layton cemetery. John Inman
John Inman
– actor, lived in the Warbreck area near to Holy Family Primary School. Matty Kay – footballer Augustus Kenderdine
Augustus Kenderdine
– landscape and portrait painter Cynthia Lennon
Cynthia Lennon
– first wife of John Lennon Jacqueline Leonard – actress Ian Levine – songwriter Syd Little
Syd Little
– comedian (Little and Large) Brian London
Brian London
– boxer Joe Longthorne – singer Chris Lowe
Chris Lowe
– musician – (Pet Shop Boys) Andrew Lyons – footballer (Crewe Alexandra, Wigan Athletic) John Mahoney
John Mahoney
– actor (Frasier), educated at St Josephs formerly on Newton Drive Sir Stanley Matthews
Sir Stanley Matthews
(1915–2000) – footballer ( Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C.) (the Seasiders)from 1947 to 1961. The 1953 FA win against Bolton Wanderers was called the Matthews Cup Final. Gavin McCann
Gavin McCann
– footballer ( Bolton
Bolton
Wanderers) Nick McCarthy
Nick McCarthy
– musician (Franz Ferdinand) Stacey McClean – singer (S Club 8) Vic McGlynn – radio presenter Tony Melody – actor, lived in Greenlands area until his death in 2008. Victoria Monks
Victoria Monks
– music hall artiste (1884–1927) Pauline Moran – actress Aaron Morris (1991–) – comedian and TV presenter, lives in Blackpool David Morley – poet, professor Janet Munro – actress Graham Nash
Graham Nash
– (The Hollies, Crosby, Stills & Nash) Bernadette Nolan
Bernadette Nolan
– singer and actress Coleen Nolan
Coleen Nolan
– singer and TV presenter Chris Patten
Chris Patten
– politician and former Hong Kong governor Daryl Peach – World Pool Champion Jodie Prenger
Jodie Prenger
– singer and actress Maddy Prior
Maddy Prior
– singer (Steeleye Span) Peter Purves
Peter Purves
– TV presenter William Regal
William Regal
WWE
WWE
wrestler John Robb – musician, author and TV presenter Nikki Sanderson
Nikki Sanderson
– actress ( Coronation Street
Coronation Street
and Hollyoaks) Michael Smith – Nobel Prize-winning chemist Robert Smith – musician (The Cure) Frank Swift
Frank Swift
(1913–1958) – goalkeeper ( Manchester
Manchester
City and England) Layla Subritzky (b. 1988) – (Big Brother 9 Housemate)[150] Hayley Tamaddon
Hayley Tamaddon
(b. 1977) – actress ( Emmerdale
Emmerdale
& Coronation Street) David Thewlis
David Thewlis
(b. 1963) – actor ( Remus Lupin
Remus Lupin
in the Harry Potter film series) Ricky Tomlinson
Ricky Tomlinson
(b. 1939) – actor (Bobby Grant in Brookside), (Jim Royle in The Royle Family), born in Bispham. Billy Townley (1866–1950) – first player to score a hat-trick in an F.A cup final. Also instrumental in popularising Football in Germany. Roger Uttley (b. 1949) – rugby union player William Watt – journalist for the Blackpool
Blackpool
Gazette Daniel Whiston
Daniel Whiston
(b. 1976) – ice skater (Dancing on Ice) Tony Williams (b. 1947) – musician ( Stealers Wheel
Stealers Wheel
and Jethro Tull) Shelly Woods
Shelly Woods
(b. 1986) – elite wheelchair athlete Scott Wright (b. 1974) – actor (Coronation Street) Tim Woolcock (b. 1952) – painter

Twin towns/Sister cities[edit] Blackpool
Blackpool
is twinned with:

Bottrop, Germany[151] Sanya, China[152]

See also[edit]

Listed buildings in Blackpool

Notes[edit]

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding ^ includes hunting and forestry ^ includes energy and construction ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

References[edit]

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(Video 2001)". Internet Movie Database.  ^ "PsychedelicRock'n'roll: Complex – Complex (MONSTER GARAGE PSYCHEDELIC UK 1970)". psychedelic-rocknroll.blogspot.co.uk.  ^ "Complex". marmalade-skies.co.uk.  ^ "Complex claim a world record". Blackpool
Blackpool
Gazette.  ^ "Complex : The Way We Feel". Guerssen.com. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ " Section 25 Discography". discogs. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ " Skrewdriver
Skrewdriver
Discography". punk77.co.uk.  ^ "Tunnelvision – Biography -". LTM Recordings.  ^ [3] Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Zoo Boutique – Forgive And Forget / Happy Families (Vinyl)". discogs. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ a b Lazell, Barry (1997). Indie Hits 1980–1999. Cherry Red Books. ISBN 0-9517206-9-4.  ^ "Radio 1 – Keeping It Peel – Festive 50s – 1984". BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ [4][dead link] ^ "Ceramic Hobs Discography". discogs. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "Dunk Rock and co rewind – Lancashire
Lancashire
Evening Post". Lep.co.uk. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "Dunk Rock and co rewind". Lancashire
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Evening Post. 14 March 2014. p. 58.  ^ "The Locals". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009.  ^ "Various – The Ugly Truth About Blackpool
Blackpool
Volume One (CD)". discogs. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "JSNTGM". jsntgm.com.  ^ "Various – The Ugly Truth About Blackpool
Blackpool
Volume Two (CD)". discogs. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ "JSNTGM". jsntgm.com.  ^ "JSNTGM". jsntgm.com.  ^ . Rebellion Festivals Ltd http://www.rebellionfestivals.com/history.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ BGMedia. "BGMedia YouTube Channel".  ^ "Ban this George Formby
George Formby
filth... : News 2007 : Chortle : The UK Comedy Guide". Chortle. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ "THE MACCA'S SECRET VAULT (4th Vault)" (in French). Maccafan.net. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ " Frank Sidebottom
Frank Sidebottom
Blackpool
Blackpool
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Blackpool
– Jasper Carrott Lyrics". Leoslyrics.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ "Early Mike Harding
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Bibliography[edit]

Andrews, Robert (2002). The Rough Guide to Britain. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-881-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Commons
has media related to Blackpool.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Blackpool.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Blackpool.

Blackpool
Blackpool
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Blackpool
Blackpool
Council Blackpool
Blackpool
Entertainment Venues History  "Blackpool". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907. 

Coordinates: 53°48′51″N 3°03′1″W / 53.81417°N 3.05028°W / 53.81417; -3.05028

v t e

Attractions in Blackpool

Central Pier Blackpool
Blackpool
Illuminations Golden Mile North Pier Pleasure Beach Sandcastle Waterpark South Pier Stanley Park Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower Blackpool
Blackpool
Tramway Winter Gardens Blackpool
Blackpool
Zoo

v t e

Geography of Blackpool

Towns

Blackpool

Suburbs & villages

Anchorsholme Bispham Grange Park Layton Marton North Shore South Shore Squires Gate Starr Gate

Topography

The Fylde Blackpool
Blackpool
Sands

Parks & reserves

Bispham Rock Gardens Carleton Cemetery Fylde Memorial Arboretum and Community Woodland George Bancroft Park Kincraig Lake Ecological Reserve Kingscote Park Layton Cemetery Marton Mere Local Nature Reserve Moor Park Salisbury Woodland Gardens Stanley Park

v t e

Buildings and structures in Blackpool

Grade I

Blackpool
Blackpool
Tower

Grade II*

Grand Theatre Winter Gardens

Empress Ballroom Opera House Theatre

Places of worship

Sacred Heart Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes

Grade II

Central Library The Elms Grundy Art Gallery Little Marton
Little Marton
Mill Miners' Convalescent Home North Pier

Places of worship

Bispham United Hebrew Holy Trinity St John

Unlisted

Carleton Crematorium Central Pier Funny Girls High Tide Organ Houndshill Shopping Centre Isle of Man
Isle of Man
to England
England
Interconnector South Pier Syndicate Trinity Hospice Victoria Hospital Zoo

Hotels

Cliffs Grand Metropole Imperial Norbreck Castle

Places of worship

Central Mosque Reform Jewish Noor-A-Madina Mosque St Mark St Stephen on-the-Cliffs St Thomas

Demolished

Alhambra Mecca Stanley Park Aerodrome

Lists

Listed

v t e

Culture and infrastructure of Blackpool

Transport

Blackpool
Blackpool
Airport Blackpool
Blackpool
and Fleetwood
Fleetwood
Tramroad Blackpool
Blackpool
branch lines Blackpool
Blackpool
Electric Tramway Company Blackpool– Liverpool
Liverpool
line Blackpool
Blackpool
Tramway Blackpool
Blackpool
Transport British NorthWest Airlines English Electric Balloon tram Flexity 2 Flykeen Airways List of tram stops Preston and Wyre
Wyre
Joint Railway

Railway stations

Blackpool
Blackpool
North Blackpool
Blackpool
Pleasure Beach Blackpool
Blackpool
South Layton

Disused stations

Blackpool
Blackpool
Central South Shore

Sport

A.F.C. Blackpool Blackpool
Blackpool
Borough Blackpool
Blackpool
Cricket
Cricket
Club Blackpool
Blackpool
F.C.

Athletic Grounds Bloomfield Road History to 1962 History since 1962 Ladies Muckers Raikes Hall

Blackpool
Blackpool
Panthers Blackpool
Blackpool
Sea Eagles Blackpool
Blackpool
Seagulls Blackpool
Blackpool
Wren Rovers F.C. Northern Rail Nines Squires Gate F.C. 2015 World Seniors Championship

History

Shipwrecks

Abana HMS Foudroyant Riverdance Sirene

Media

Blackpool
Blackpool
Gazette Radio Wave 96.5

Politics

Council Council elections

2000 03 07 11 15

Constituencies: Blackpool
Blackpool
North

By-election: 1962

Blackpool
Blackpool
North and Cleveleys Blackpool
Blackpool
North and Fleetwood Blackpool
Blackpool
South North Lancashire

By-elections: 1874 78 85

Health

Blackpool
Blackpool
Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Miners' Convalescent Home Trinity Hospice Victoria Hospital

v t e

Schools in Blackpool

Primary schools

Devonshire Primary Academy Unity Academy

Secondary schools

Blackpool
Blackpool
Aspire Academy Highfield Leadership Academy Montgomery High School St George's School St Mary's Catholic Academy South Shore Academy Unity Academy

Further education

Blackpool
Blackpool
and The Fylde
The Fylde
College Blackpool
Blackpool
Sixth Form College

Defunct schools

Bispham High School Arnold School Elmslie School

v t e

Ceremonial county of Lancashire

North West England
England
Portal

Unitary authorities

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool

Boroughs or districts

City of Lancaster City of Preston Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Pendle Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Major settlements

Accrington Adlington Bacup Barnoldswick Blackburn Blackpool Brierfield Burnley Carnforth Chorley Cleveleys Clitheroe Colne Darwen Earby Fleetwood Garstang Great Harwood Haslingden Kirkham Lancaster Leyland Longridge Lytham St Annes Morecambe Nelson Ormskirk Oswaldtwistle Padiham Penwortham Poulton-le-Fylde Preesall Preston Rawtenstall Rishton Skelmersdale Waterfoot Whitworth See also: List of civil parishes in Lancashire

Rivers

Calder Darwen Douglas Hodder Irwell Lune Ribble Wyre

Canals

Lancaster Leeds and Liverpool

Topics

Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements Schools SSSIs Country houses Grade I buildings Grade II* buildings History Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

v t e

Districts of North West England

Cheshire

Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Halton Warrington

Cumbria

Allerdale Barrow-in-Furness Carlisle Copeland Eden South Lakeland

Greater Manchester

Bolton Bury Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Trafford Wigan

Lancashire

Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Burnley Chorley Fylde Hyndburn Lancaster Pendle Preston Ribble Valley Rossendale South Ribble West Lancashire Wyre

Merseyside

Knowsley Liverpool St Helens Sefton Wirral

v t e

Unitary authorities of England

Districts

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Councils

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Cornwall Derby Durham Darlington East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wokingham York

Local elections

Bath and North East Somerset Bedford Blackburn
Blackburn
with Darwen Blackpool Bournemouth Bracknell Forest Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Bristol Central Bedfordshire Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Cornwall County Durham Darlington Derby East Riding of Yorkshire Halton Hartlepool Herefordshire Isle of Wight Kingston upon Hull Leicester Luton Medway Middlesbrough Milton Keynes North East Lincolnshire North Lincolnshire North Somerset Northumberland Nottingham Peterborough Plymouth Poole Portsmouth Reading Redcar and Cleveland Rutland Shropshire Slough Southampton Southend-on-Sea South Gloucestershire Stockton-on-Tees Stoke-on-Trent Swindon Telford and Wrekin Thurrock Torbay Warrington West Berkshire Wiltshire Windsor and Maidenh

.