HOME
The Info List - Black Ships



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

The BLACK SHIPS (in Japanese : 黒船, KUROFUNE, Edo Period term) was the name given to Western vessels arriving in Japan
Japan
in the 16th and 19th centuries.

In 1543 Portuguese initiated the first contacts, establishing a trade route linking Goa
Goa
to Nagasaki
Nagasaki
. The large carracks engaged in this trade had the hull painted black with pitch , and the term came to represent all western vessels. In 1639, after suppressing a rebellion blamed on the Christian influence , the ruling Tokugawa shogunate retreated into an isolationist policy, the Sakoku . During this "locked state", contact with Japan
Japan
by Westerners was restricted to Dejima
Dejima
island at Nagasaki
Nagasaki
.

In 1844, William II of the Netherlands urged Japan
Japan
to open, but was rejected. On July 8, 1853, the U.S. Navy steamed four warships into the bay at Edo
Edo
and threatened to attack if Japan
Japan
did not begin trade with the West. Their arrival marked the reopening of the country to political dialogue after more than two hundred years of self-imposed isolation. Trade
Trade
with Western nations would not come until the Treaty of Amity and Commerce more than five years later.

In particular, kurofune refers to Mississippi , Plymouth , Saratoga , and Susquehanna of the Perry Expedition for the opening of Japan, 1852–1854 , that arrived on July 14, 1853 at Uraga Harbor (part of present-day Yokosuka ) in Kanagawa Prefecture , Japan
Japan
under the command of United States
United States
Commodore Matthew Perry. Black refers to the black color of the older sailing vessels, and the black smoke from the coal -fired steam engines of the American ships. In this sense, the kurofune became a symbol of the ending of isolation. Brooklyn Museum – Commodore Matthew Perry's "Black Ship"

CONTENTS

* 1 First kurofune ships: nau do trato * 2 Gunboat diplomacy * 3 In popular culture * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

FIRST KUROFUNE SHIPS: NAU DO TRATO

Portuguese black carrack in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, in the early 17th century.

In 1543 Portuguese traders arrived in Japan
Japan
initiating the first contacts with the West. Soon they established a trade route linking their headquarters in Goa
Goa
, via Malacca to Nagasaki
Nagasaki
. Large carracks engaged in the flourishing " Nanban trade ", introducing modern inventions from the European traders, such as refined sugar, optics, and firearms; it was the firearms, arquebuses , which became a major innovation of the Sengoku period — a time of intense internal warfare — when the matchlocks were replicated. Later, they engaged in triangular trade , exchanging silver from Japan
Japan
with silk from China
China
via Macau .

Carracks of 1200 to 1600 tons, named nau do trato ("treaty ship") or nau da China
China
by the Portuguese, engaged in this trade had the hull painted black with pitch , and the term came to apply for all western vessels. The name was inscribed in the Nippo Jisho , the first western Japanese dictionary compiled in 1603.

In 1549 Spanish missionary Francis Xavier started a Jesuit mission in Japan. Christianity spread, mingled with the new trade, making 300,000 converts among peasants and some daimyō (warlords). In 1637 the Shimabara Rebellion blamed on the Christian influence was suppressed. Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries faced progressively tighter restrictions, and were confined to the island of Dejima
Dejima
before being expelled in 1639.

The Tokugawa shogunate retreated back into a policy of isolationism identified as Sakoku (鎖国, "locked country"), forbidding contact with most outside countries. Only a limited-scale trade and diplomatic relations with China
China
, Korea
Korea
, the Ryukyu Islands , and the Netherlands
Netherlands
was maintained. The Sakoku policy remained in effect until 1853 with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry and the opening of Japan.

GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY

Commodore Perry's superior military force was the principal factor in negotiating a treaty allowing American trade with Japan, thus effectively ending the Sakoku (鎖国) period of more than 200 years in which trading with Japan
Japan
had been permitted to the Dutch and Chinese exclusively.

The sight of the four ships entering Edo Bay , roaring black smoke into the air and capable of moving under their own power, deeply frightened the Japanese. Perry ignored the requests arriving from the shore that he should move to Nagasaki—the official port for trade with the outside—and threatened in turn to take his ships directly to Edo
Edo
, and burn the city to the ground if he was not allowed to land. It was eventually agreed upon that he should land nearby at Kurihama , whereupon he delivered his letter and left.

The following year, at the Convention of Kanagawa , Perry returned with a fleet of eight of the fearsome Black Ships, to demonstrate the power of the United States
United States
navy, and to lend weight to his announcement that he would not leave again, until he had a treaty. In the interim following his previous visit, the Tokugawa shogunate had learned about the staggering destruction of the Chinese fleet by a handful of British warships in 1841 during the First Opium War , and about China's subsequent loss of Hong Kong to British sovereignty. The shogunate realized that—if they wished for their country to avoid a similar fate—they would need to make peace with the west.

After a roughly a month of negotiations, the Shogun\'s officials presented Perry with the Treaty of Peace and Amity . Perry refused certain conditions of the treaty but agreed to defer their resolution to a later time, and finally establishing formal diplomatic relations between Japan
Japan
and the United States. The eight ships departed, leaving behind a consul at Shimoda to negotiate a more permanent agreement. The Harris Treaty was signed with the United States
United States
on July 29, 1858, and within five years of the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Amity, Japan
Japan
had moved to sign treaties with other western countries.

The surprise and fear inspired by the first visit of the Black Ships are described in this famous kyōka (a humorous poem in 31-syllable waka form): Commodore Perry's fleet for his second visit to Japan in 1854.

泰平の Taihei no

眠りを覚ます Nemuri o samasu

上喜撰 Jōkisen

たった四杯で Tatta shihai de

夜も眠れず Yoru mo nemurezu

This poem is a complex set of puns (in Japanese, kakekotoba or "pivot words"). Taihei (泰平) means "tranquil"; Jōkisen (上喜撰) is the name of a costly brand of green tea containing large amounts of caffeine ; and shihai (四杯) means "four cups", so a literal translation of the poem is:

Awoken from sleep of a peaceful quiet world by Jokisen tea; with only four cups of it one can't sleep even at night.

There is an alternative translation, based on the pivot words. Taihei can refer to the " Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
" (太平); jōkisen also means "steam-powered ships " (蒸気船); and shihai also means "four vessels". The poem, therefore, has a hidden meaning:

The steam-powered ships break the halcyon slumber of the Pacific; a mere four boats are enough to make us lose sleep at night.

Kurofune ("The Black Ships") is also the title of the first Japanese opera, composed by Kosaku Yamada
Kosaku Yamada
, "based on the story of Tojin Okichi, a geisha caught up in the turmoil that swept Japan
Japan
in the waning years of the Tokugawa shogunate", which premiered in 1940.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

A TV miniseries starring Richard Chamberlain entitled Shōgun (1980), based on a novel of the same name by James Clavell , described the fictional experiences of an English sea pilot named John Blackthorne , shipwrecked in Japan
Japan
around 1600. Blackthorne makes frequent mention of wanting to attack the Black Ship, with his own ship, the Erasmus.

Another film concerning Perry's arrival in Japan
Japan
was The Bushido Blade (1981) starring Richard Boone as Commodore Perry.

In the Capcom made arcade action RPG beat 'em up hybrid video game Warzard , the character Kenji has his quest begin when flying technologically advanced black ships proceed to invade and decimate his home country of Zipang, and is sent on a mission to discover and annihilate the origins of the invaders of his nation.

The Japanese anime series Hetalia: World Series dedicated two episodes from its fourth season on the topic of the Black Ships.

The Japanese anime series Dream Festival features a duo idol unit (Yuto Kuroishi and Keigo Kazama) named Kurofune. Likely Yuto Kuroishi and Keigo Kazama produced this name by taking the Kuro (黒) meaning "black" from "Kuroishi" and combining it with Fune (船) which contains the Kanji radical Kaza or Fu (風) from Kazama. So their unit name is their names combined.

In the Creative Assembly
Creative Assembly
computer game Total War: Shogun 2 , a Portuguese sailing vessel called the Black Ship can be captured and is the single most powerful naval unit in the game.

The Black Ships
Black Ships
play an important part of the Japanese miniseries Yae no Sakura , about the life of Niijima Yae .

The Black Ships
Black Ships
appear in the historical novel The Thousand Autumns of Jacob de Zoet (2010) by the British author David Mitchell .

SEE ALSO

* Treaty of Shimoda
Treaty of Shimoda
* Pallada * French Military Mission to Japan
Japan
(1867-1868) * Gunboat diplomacy * Dutch missions to Edo
Edo
* Manifest destiny * Sakoku * Unequal Treaties
Unequal Treaties
* United States
United States
Korean Expedition of 1871 * Pacific Overtures
Pacific Overtures
* Madama Butterfly
Madama Butterfly
, a representation of the roughly the same times in a European perspective

NOTES

* ^ "Perry Ceremony Today; Japanese and U. S. Officials to Mark 100th Anniversary". New York Times. July 8, 1953. * ^ Charles Ralph Boxer (1951). The Christian Century in Japan: 1549–1650. University of California Press. p. 91. GGKEY:BPN6N93KBJ7. Retrieved 23 July 23, 2013. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (1993). The Portuguese empire in Asia, 1500–1700: a political and economic history. University of Michigan: Longman. p. 138. ISBN 0-582-05069-3 . * ^ Rodrigues, Helena. "Nau do trato". Cham. Cham. Retrieved 5 June 2011. * ^ M. D. D. Newitt (1 January 2005). A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion: 1400 – 1668. New York: Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-23980-6 . Retrieved July 23, 2013. * ^ Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, (1984) 1991. * ^ A B Nishiyama, Kazuo (2000-01-01). Doing Business With Japan: Successful Strategies for Intercultural Communication. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 9780824821272 . * ^ A B Beasley, William G (1972). The Meiji Restoration. Stamford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0804708150 . * ^ "\'Black Ships\' opera". New National Theatre Tokyo. * ^ "Simon Holledge\'s interview with Hiroshi Oga citing the premiere of the \'Black Ships\' opera". Archived from the original on 2010-05-31. * ^ "How David Mitchell Brings Historical Fiction To Life", NPR , Weekend Edition Saturday, August 21, 2010

REFERENCES

* Arnold, Bruce Makoto (2005). Diplomacy Far Removed: A Reinterpretation of the U.S. Decision to Open Diplomatic Relations with Japan
Japan
(Thesis). University of Arizona. * Perry, Matthew Calbraith (1856). Narrative of the expedition of an American Squadron to the China
China
Seas and Japan, 1856. New York: D. Appleton and Company. * Taylor, Bayard (1855). A visit to India, China, and Japan
Japan
in the year 1853. New York: G.P. Putnam's sons.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Black Ship Festival celebrating the arrival of the Blackships and the opening of Japan
Japan
to the