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The Black Forest
Forest
(German: Schwarzwald, pronounced [ˈʃvaʁt͡svalt]) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine
Rhine
valley to the west and south. Its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is roughly oblong in shape with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 50 km (31 mi).[1]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Natural regions

1.1.1 Work of the Institute of Applied Geography

1.2 Mountains 1.3 Rivers and lakes

2 Geology

2.1 Basement 2.2 Uplift of the mountains 2.3 Platform 2.4 Ice age
Ice age
and topography

3 Climate

3.1 Precipitation 3.2 Temperature and sunshine

4 History 5 Economy

5.1 Mining 5.2 Forestry 5.3 Glass making, charcoal burning and potash mining 5.4 Precision engineering, clock and jewellery manufacture 5.5 Hydropower

6 Political jurisdiction 7 Tourism
Tourism
and transport

7.1 Tourist attractions 7.2 Hiking trails 7.3 Museums 7.4 Road transport 7.5 Railway
Railway
transport 7.6 Administration 7.7 Points of interest

8 Conservation areas 9 Fauna 10 Culture

10.1 Dialects 10.2 Traditional costume 10.3 Art 10.4 Crafts 10.5 Cuisine 10.6 Fasnet

11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography

14.1 Geography 14.2 Economy, geology and mining 14.3 Art history 14.4 Nature 14.5 Fiction 14.6 General

15 External links

Geography[edit]

Woods and pastures of the High Black Forest
Forest
near Breitnau

The Black Forest
Forest
stretches from the High Rhine
Rhine
in the south to the Kraichgau
Kraichgau
in the north. In the west it is bounded by the Upper Rhine Plain (which, from a natural region perspective, also includes the low chain of foothills); in the east it transitions to the Gäu, Baar and hill country west of the Klettgau. The Black Forest
Forest
is the highest part of the South German Scarplands
South German Scarplands
and much of it is densely wooded, a fragment of the Hercynian Forest
Forest
of Antiquity. It lies upon rocks of the crystalline basement and Bunter Sandstone, and its natural boundary with the surrounding landscapes is formed by the emergence of muschelkalk, which is absent from the Black Forest
Forest
bedrock. Thanks to the fertility of the soil which is dependent on the underlying rock, this line is both a vegetation boundary as well as the border between the Altsiedelland ("old settlement land") and the Black Forest, which was not permanently settled until the High Middle Ages. From north to south the Black Forest
Forest
extends for over 160 km (99 miles), attaining a width of up to 50 kilometres in the south, and up to 30 kilometres in the north (31 mi × 19 mi).[2] Tectonically
Tectonically
the range forms a lifted fault block, which rises prominently in the west from the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Plain, whilst seen from the east it has the appearance of a heavily forested plateau. Natural regions[edit] The natural regions of the Black Forest
Forest
are separated by various features: Geomorphologically, the main division is between the gentle eastern slopes with their mostly rounded hills and broad plateaux (so-called Danubian relief, especially prominent in the north and east on the Bunter Sandstone) and the deeply incised, steeply falling terrain in the west that drops into the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Graben; the so-called Valley Black Forest
Forest
(Talschwarzwald) with its Rhenanian relief. It is here, in the west, where the highest mountains and the greatest local differences in height (of up to 1000 metres) are found. The valleys are often narrow and ravine-like; but rarely basin-shaped. The summits are rounded and there are also the remnants of plateaux and arête-like landforms. Geologically the clearest division is also between east and west. Large areas of the eastern Black Forest, the lowest layer of the South German Scarplands composed of Bunter Sandstone, are covered by seemingly endless coniferous forest with their island clearings. The exposed basement in the west, predominantly made up of metamorphic rocks and granites, was, despite its rugged topography, easier to settle and appears much more open and inviting today with its varied meadow valleys.

The Feldberg, the highest mountain in the Black Forest, SE of Freiburg

The most common way of dividing the regions of the Black Forest
Forest
is, however, from north to south. Until the 1930s, the Black Forest
Forest
was divided into the Northern and Southern Black Forest, the boundary being the line of the Kinzig valley. Later the Black Forest
Forest
was divided into the heavily forested Northern Black Forest, the lower, central section, predominantly used for agriculture in the valleys, was the Central Black Forest
Forest
and the much higher Southern Black Forest with its distinctive highland economy and ice age glacial relief. The term High Black Forest
Forest
referred to the highest areas of the South and southern Central Black Forest. The boundaries drawn were, however, quite varied. In 1931, Robert Gradmann called the Central Black Forest
Forest
the catchment area of the Kinzig and in the west the section up to the lower Elz and Kinzig tributary of the Gutach.[3] A pragmatic division, which is oriented not just on natural and cultural regions, uses the most important transverse valleys. Based on that, the Central Black Forest
Forest
is bounded by the Kinzig in the north and the line from Dreisam
Dreisam
to Gutach in the south, corresponding to the Bonndorf Graben
Bonndorf Graben
zone and the course of the present day B 31. In 1959, Rudolf Metz combined the earlier divisions and proposed a modified tripartite division himself, which combined natural and cultural regional approaches and was widely used.[4] His Central Black Forest
Forest
is bounded in the north by the watershed between the Acher
Acher
and Rench
Rench
and subsequently between the Murg and Kinzig or Forbach and Kinzig, in the south by the Bonndorf Graben
Bonndorf Graben
zone, which restricts the Black Forest
Forest
in the east as does the Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt
Graben
Graben
further north by its transition into the Northern Black Forest.[5] Work of the Institute of Applied Geography[edit] The Handbook of the Natural Region Divisions of Germany
Germany
published by the Federal Office of Regional Geography (Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde) since the early 1950s names the Black Forest
Forest
as one of six tertiary level major landscape regions within the secondary level region of the South German Scarplands
South German Scarplands
and, at the same time, one of nine new major landscape unit groups. It is divided into six so-called major units (level 4 landscapes).[6] This division was refined and modified in several, successor publications (1:200,000 individual map sheets) up to 1967, each covering individual sections of the map. The mountain range was also divided into three regions. The northern boundary of the Central Black Forest
Forest
in this classification runs south of the Rench
Rench
Valley and the Kniebis
Kniebis
to near Freudenstadt. Its southern boundary varied with each edition.[7] In 1998 the Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
State Department for Environmental Protection (today the Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
State Department for the Environment, Survey and Nature Conservation) published a reworked Natural Region Division of Baden-Württemberg.[8] It is restricted to the level of the natural regional major units and has been used since for the state's administration of nature conservation:[9]

№ Natural region Area in km² Population Pop./km² Settlement area in % Open land in % Forest in % Major centres of population Middle-sized centres of population

150 Black Forest
Forest
Foothills[10] 0930 268,000 289 7.69 29.33 62.92 Pforzheim Calw, Freudenstadt

151 Black Forest
Forest
Grinden
Grinden
and Enz
Enz
Hills[11] 0699 060,000 086 1.92 06.39 91.51

152 Northern Black Forest
Forest
Valleys[12] 0562 107,000 190 4.12 19.48 76.41

Baden-Baden, Gaggenau/Gernsbach

153 Central Black Forest[13] 1,422 188,000 133 3.35 30.25 66.39

Haslach/Hausach/Wolfach, Waldkirch, Schramberg

154 Southeastern Black Forest[14] 0558 080,923 112 3.03 32.44 64.49 Villingen-Schwenningen

155 High Black Forest[15] 1,990 213,000 107 2.44 26.93 70.31

Schopfheim, Titisee-Neustadt

Slopes of the Northern Black Forest
Forest
to the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Plain (Northern Black Forest
Forest
Valleys)

The Black Forest
Forest
Foothills (Schwarzwald-Randplatten, 150) geomorphologically form plateaux on the north and northeast periphery of the mountain range that descend to the Kraichgau
Kraichgau
in the north and the Heckengäu
Heckengäu
landscapes in the east. They are incised by valleys, especially those of the Nagold river system, into individual interfluves; a narrow northwestern finger extends to beyond the Enz near Neuenbürg
Neuenbürg
and also borders the middle reaches of the Alb to the west as far as a point immediately above Ettlingen. To the southwest it is adjoined by the Black Forest
Forest
Grinden
Grinden
and Enz
Enz
Hills (Grindenschwarzwald und Enzhöhen, 151), along the upper reaches of the Enz
Enz
and Murg, forming the heart of the Northern Black Forest. The west of the Northern Black Forest
Forest
is formed by the Northern Black Forest
Forest
Valleys (Nördliche Talschwarzwald, 152) with the middle reaches of the Murg around Gernsbach, the middle course of the Oos to Baden-Baden, the middle reaches of the Bühlot
Bühlot
above Bühls and the upper reaches of the Rench
Rench
around Oppenau. Their exit valleys from the mountain range are all oriented towards the northwest.

Grassland economy in side valleys of the Kinzig, Central Black Forest

The Central Black Forest
Forest
(153) is mainly restricted to the catchment area of the River Kinzig above Offenburg
Offenburg
as well as the Schutter and the low hills north of the Elz. The Southeastern Black Forest
Forest
(Südöstliche Schwarzwald, 154) consists mainly of the catchment areas of the upper reaches of the Danube
Danube
headstreams, the Brigach
Brigach
and Breg as well as the left side valleys of the Wutach north of Neustadt – and thus draining from the northeast of the Southern Black Forest. To the south and west it is adjoined by the High Black Forest
Forest
(Hochschwarzwald, 155) with the highest summits in the whole range around the Feldberg and the Belchen. Its eastern part, the Southern Black Forest
Forest
Plateau, is oriented towards the Danube, but drained over the Wutach and the Alb into the Rhine. The southern crest of the Black Forest
Forest
in the west is deeply incised by the Rhine
Rhine
into numerous ridges. Immediately right of the Wiese
Wiese
above Lörrach
Lörrach
rises the relatively small Bunter Sandstone-Rotliegendes table of the Weintenau Uplands (Weitenauer Bergland) in the extreme southwest of the Black Forest; morphologically, geologically and climatically it is separate from the other parts of the Southern Black Forest
Forest
and, in this classification, is also counted as part of the High Black Forest.

The Belchen in the Southern Black Forest
Forest
with its bare dome, seen from Münstertal

Mountains[edit] See also: List of mountains and hills in the Black Forest At 1,493 m above sea level (NHN) the Feldberg in the Southern Black Forest
Forest
is the range's highest summit. Also in the same area are the Herzogenhorn
Herzogenhorn
(1,415 m) and the Belchen (1,414 m). In general the mountains of the Southern or High Black Forest
Forest
are higher than those in the Northern Black Forest. The highest Black Forest
Forest
peak north of the Freiburg–Höllental–Neustadt line is the Kandel (1,241.4 m). Like the highest point of the Northern Black Forest, the Hornisgrinde
Hornisgrinde
(1,163 m), or the Southern Black Forest lookout mountains, the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
(1,284.4 m) and Blauen (1,164.7 m[16]) it lies near the western rim of the range. Rivers and lakes[edit]

The River Schiltach
Schiltach
in Schiltach

The Schluchsee, north of St. Blasien.

Rivers in the Black Forest
Forest
include the Danube
Danube
(which originates in the Black Forest
Forest
as the confluence of the Brigach
Brigach
and Breg rivers), the Enz, the Kinzig, the Murg, the Nagold, the Neckar, the Rench, and the Wiese. The Black Forest
Forest
occupies part of the continental divide between the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
drainage basin (drained by the Rhine) and the Black Sea
Black Sea
drainage basin (drained by the Danube). The longest Black Forest
Forest
rivers are (length includes stretches outside the Black Forest):

Enz
Enz
(105 kilometres, 65 mi) Kinzig (93 kilometres, 58 mi) Elz (90 kilometres, 56 mi) Wutach (91 kilometres, 57 mi) Nagold (90 kilometres, 56 mi), hydrological main artery of the Nagold- Enz
Enz
systems Danube
Danube
(86 kilometres, 53 mi), headstreams:

Breg (46 kilometres, 29 mi) Brigach
Brigach
(40 kilometres, 25 mi)

Murg (79 kilometres, 49 mi) Rench
Rench
(57 kilometres, 35 mi) Schutter (56 kilometres, 35 mi) Wiese
Wiese
(55 kilometres, 34 mi) Acher
Acher
(54 kilometres, 34 mi) Dreisam
Dreisam
(incl. Rotbach 49 kilometres, 30 mi) Alb (incl. Menzenschwander Alb
Menzenschwander Alb
43 kilometres, 27 mi) Glatt (37 kilometres, 23 mi), Möhlin (32 kilometres, 20 mi) Wolf (31 kilometres, 19 mi) Schiltach
Schiltach
(30 kilometres, 19 mi) Wehra
Wehra
(incl. Rüttebach 28 kilometres, 17 mi) Oos (25 kilometres, 16 mi) Glasbach (18 kilometres, 11 mi), hydrological main artery of the Neckar
Neckar
system

Important lakes of natural, glacial origin in the Black Forest
Forest
include the Titisee, the Mummelsee
Mummelsee
and the Feldsee. Especially in the Northern Black Forest
Forest
are a number of other, smaller tarns. Numerous reservoirs like the — formerly natural but much smaller — Schluchsee
Schluchsee
with the other lakes of the Schluchseewerk, the Schwarzenbach Reservoir, the Kleine Kinzig Reservoir
Reservoir
or the Nagold Reservoir
Reservoir
are used for electricity generation, flood protection or drinking water supply. Geology[edit]

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Topography of the Black Forest

The Black Forest
Forest
consists of a cover of sandstone on top of a core of gneiss and granites. Formerly it shared tectonic evolution with the nearby Vosges
Vosges
Mountains. Later during the Middle Eocene
Eocene
a rifting period affected the area and caused formation of the Rhine
Rhine
graben. During the last glacial period of the Würm glaciation, the Black Forest
Forest
was covered by glaciers; several tarns (or lakes) such as the Mummelsee
Mummelsee
are remains of this period. Basement[edit] The geological foundation of the Black Forest
Forest
is formed by the crystalline bedrock of the Variscan basement. This is covered in the east and northeast by bunter sandstone slabs, the so-called platforms. On the western edge a descending, step-fault-like, foothill zone borders the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Graben
Graben
consisting of rocks of the Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic
Jurassic
periods. The dominant rocks of the basement are gneiss (ortho- and paragneisses, in the south also migmatites and diatexites, for example on the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
and Kandel). These gneisses were penetrated by a number of granitic bodies during the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period. Among the bigger ones are the Triberg
Triberg
Granite
Granite
and the Forbach Granite, the youngest is the Bärhalde Granite. In the south lies the zone of Badenweiler-Lenzkirch, in which Palaeozoic rocks have been preserved (volcanite and sedimentary rocks), which are interpreted as the intercalated remains of a microcontinental collision. Still further in the southeast (around Todtmoos) is a range of exotic inclusions: gabbro from Ehrsberg, serpentinites and pyroxenites near Todtmoos, norite near Horbach), which are possibly the remnants of an accretionary wedge from a continental collision. Also noteworthy are the basins in the rotliegendes, for example the Schramberg
Schramberg
or the Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Basin, with, in places thick, quartz-porphyry and tuff plates (exposed, for example, on the rock massif of Battert
Battert
near Baden-Baden). Thick rotliegendes rock, covered by bunter, also occurs in the north of the Dinkelberg
Dinkelberg
block (several hundred metres thick in the Basel
Basel
geothermal borehole). Even further to the southeast, under the Jura, lies the North Swiss Permocarboniferous Basin. Uplift of the mountains[edit] Since the downfaulting of the Upper Rhine
Rhine
Graben
Graben
during the Eocene epoch, the two shoulders on either side have been uplifted: the Black Forest
Forest
to the east and the Vosges
Vosges
to the west. In the centre lies the Kaiserstuhl volcano which dates to the Miocene. In the times that followed, the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
platform on the uplands was largely eroded, apart from remains of bunter sandstone and Rotliegendes, but it has survived within the graben itself. During the Pliocene
Pliocene
a pronounced, but uneven bulge occurred which especially affected the southern Black Forest, including the Feldberg. As a result, the upper surface of the basement in the northern part of the forest around the Hornisgrinde
Hornisgrinde
is considerably lower. In the central Black Forest, the tectonic syncline of the Kinzig and Murg emerged. Geomorphologist Walther Penck
Walther Penck
(1888–1923) regarded the Black Forest as an uplifting geologic dome and modelled his theory of piedmonttreppen (piedmont benchlands) on it.[17][18] Platform[edit] Above the crystalline basement of the Northern Black Forest
Forest
and the adjacent parts of the Central Black Forest
Forest
the bunter sandstone platforms rise in prominent steps. The most resistant surface strata on the stepped terrain of the grinden uplands and the heights around the upper reaches of the Enz, which have been heavily eroded by the tributaries of the Murg, is the silicified main conglomerate (Middle Bunter). To the east and north are the nappes of the Upper Bunter (platten sandstones and red clays). South of the Kinzig the bunter sandstone zone narrows to a fringe in the east of the mountain range. Ice age
Ice age
and topography[edit] It is considered proven that the Black Forest
Forest
was heavily glaciated during the peak periods of at least the Riss and Würm glaciations. (up to about 10,000 years ago). This glacial geomorphology characterizes almost all of the High Black Forest
Forest
as well as the main ridge of the Northern Black Forest. Apart from that, it is only discernible from a large number of cirques mainly facing northeast. Especially in this direction snow accumulated on the shaded and leeward slopes of the summit plateau to form short cirque glaciers that made the sides of these funnel-shaped depressions. There are still tarns in some of these old cirques, partly a result of the anthropogenic elevation of the low-side lip of the cirque, such as the Mummelsee, Wildsee, Schurmsee, Glaswaldsee, Buhlbachsee, Nonnenmattweiher
Nonnenmattweiher
and Feldsee. The Titisee
Titisee
formed as glacial lake behind a glacial moraine. Climate[edit] Climatically the mountain range differs from its surrounding countryside in having lower temperatures and higher rainfall. The highlands of the Black Forest
Forest
are characterized by regular rainfall throughout the year. However, temperatures do not fall evenly with increasing elevation, nor does the rainfall increase uniformly. Rather, the precipitation rises quickly even in the lower regions and is disproportionately heavy on the rainier western side of the mountains. Precipitation[edit]

Winter on the Schauinsland. In the background are the Vosges

The wettest areas are the highlands around the Hornisgrinde
Hornisgrinde
in the north and around the Belchen and Feldberg in the south, where annual rainfall reaches 1,800-2,100 mm.[19] Moisture-laden Atlantic westerlies dump about as much rain in the Northern Black Forest, despite its lower elevation, than in the higher area of the Southern Black Forest.[20] There, the Vosges
Vosges
act as a rain shield in the face of the prevailing winds. On the exposed east side of the Central Black Forest, it is much drier again. Thus, the annual rainfall here is only about 750 l/m² in places. Temperature and sunshine[edit] Thermally, the higher elevations of the Black Forest
Forest
are characterized by relatively small annual fluctuations and steamed extreme values. This is due to the frequent light winds and greater cloud cover in summer. During the winter months, frequent high pressure means that the summits are often bathed in sunshine, while the valleys disappear under a thick blanket of fog as a result of pockets of cold air (temperature inversion). History[edit]

The Black Forest
Forest
on the Tabula Peutingeriana: a mountain chain with fantastically formed trees as a symbol of an unsettled and virtually inaccessible terrain

Black Forest
Forest
farmhouse, 1898

An unmarried Black Forest
Forest
woman wearing a red Bollenhut, 1898

This is the shape of the Black Forest

In ancient times, the Black Forest
Forest
was known as Abnoba
Abnoba
mons, after the Celtic deity, Abnoba. In Roman times (Late Antiquity), it was given the name Marciana Silva ("Marcynian Forest", from the Germanic word marka = "border").[21] The Black Forest
Forest
probably represented the border area of the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
("border people") who were settled east of the Roman limes. They, in turn, were part of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, who subsequently gave their name to the historic state of Swabia. With the exception of Roman settlements on the perimeter (e.g. the baths in Badenweiler, and mines near Badenweiler
Badenweiler
and Sulzburg) and the construction of the Roman road of Kinzigtalstraße, the colonization of the Black Forest
Forest
was not carried out by the Romans, but by the Alemanni. They settled and first colonized the valleys, crossing the old settlement boundary, the so-called "red sandstone border", for example, from the region of Baar. Soon afterwards, increasingly higher areas and adjacent forests were colonized, so that by the end of the 10th century, the first settlements could be found in the red (bunter) sandstone region. These include, for example, Rötenbach, which was first mentioned in 819. Some of the uprisings (including the Bundschuh movement) that preceded the German Peasants' War, originated in the 16th century from the Black Forest. Further peasant unrest, in the shape of the saltpetre uprisings, took place over the next two centuries in Hotzenwald. Remnants of military fortifications dating from the 17th and 18th centuries can be found in the Black Forest, especially on the mountain passes. Examples include the multiple baroque fieldworks of Margrave Louis William of Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
or individual defensive positions such as Alexander's Redoubt, the Röschenschanze and the Swedish Redoubt (Schwedenschanze). Originally, the Black Forest
Forest
was a mixed forest of deciduous trees and firs - see the history of the forest in Central Europe. At the higher elevations spruce also grew. In the middle of the 19th century, the Black Forest
Forest
was almost completely deforested by intensive forestry and was subsequently replanted, mostly with spruce monocultures. In 1990, extensive damage to the forest was caused by Hurricanes Vivian and Wiebke.[22] On 26 December 1999, Hurricane Lothar raged across the Black Forest
Forest
and caused even greater damage, especially to the spruce monocultures. As had happened following the 1990 storms, large quantities of fallen logs were kept in provisional wet storage areas for years. The effects of the storm are demonstrated by the Lothar Path, a forest educational and adventure trail at the nature centre in Ruhestein
Ruhestein
on a highland timber forest of about 10 hectares that was destroyed by a hurricane. Several areas of storm damage, both large and small, were left to nature and have developed today into a natural mixed forest again. Economy[edit] Mining[edit]

Hornisgrinde
Hornisgrinde
plateau and raised bog (2004). Behind: transmission mast and wind generators

Mining
Mining
developed in the Black Forest
Forest
due to its ore deposits, which were often lode-shaped. The formation of these deposits (Schauinsland Pit: zinc, lead, about 700–1000 g silver/ton of lead; baryte, fluorite, less lead and zinc in the Kinzig valley; BiCoNi ores near Wittichen, uranium discovered in the Krunkelbach valley near Menzenschwand
Menzenschwand
but never officially mined) often used to be linked to the intrusion of Carboniferous
Carboniferous
granite in the para- and orthogneisses. More recent research has revealed that most of these lode fillings are much younger ( Triassic
Triassic
to Tertiary). Economic deposits of other minerals included: fluorite in the Northern Black Forest
Forest
near Pforzheim, baryte in the central region near Freudenstadt, fluorite along with lead and silver near Wildschapbach, baryte and fluorite in the Rankach valley and near Ohlsbach, in the Southern Black Forest near Todtnau, Wieden and Urberg. Small liquid magmatic deposits of nickel-magnetite gravel in norite were mined or prospected in the Hotzenwald
Hotzenwald
forest near Horbach and Todtmoos. Strata-bound deposits include iron ores in the Dogger layer of the foothill zone and uranium near Müllenbach/Baden-Baden. Stone coal is only found near Berghaupten
Berghaupten
and Diersburg, but was always only of local importance. Chronology: Stone Age
Stone Age
mining of haematite (as red pigment) near Sulzburg. By the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. iron ore was being mined by the Celts
Celts
in the Northern Black Forest
Forest
(for example in Neuenbürg). Especially in the Middle Black Forest, but also in the south (for example in the Münster valley) ore mining was already probably taking place in Roman times (mining of silver and lead ore; evidence of this at Sulzburg
Sulzburg
and possibly Badenweiler). Until the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
the High Black Forest
Forest
was practically unsettled. In the course of inland colonisation in the Late High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
even the highlands were cultivated by settlers from the abbeys (St. Peter's, St. Märgen's). In the Late High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
(from about 1100) mining experienced another boom, especially around Todtnau, in the Münster and Suggen valleys and, later, on the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
too. It is believed that around 800–1,000 miners lived and worked in the Münster valley until the end of the Middle Ages. After the Plague, which afflicted the valley in 1516, the German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War
(1524–26) and the Thirty Years' War, mining in the region declined until just a few pits remained. An important mining area was the Kinzig valley and its side valleys. The small mining settlement of Wittichen
Wittichen
near Schenkenzell
Schenkenzell
in the upper Kinzig valley had many pits in which in baryte, cobalt and silver of many kinds were mined. A circular, geological footpath runs today past the old pits and tips. Another boom began in the early 18th century after the loss of the Alsace
Alsace
to France. It lasted until the 19th century. May pits from this period may be visited today as show mines; for example the Teufelsgrund Pit (Münstertal), the Finstergrund
Finstergrund
Pit near Wieden, the Hoffnungsstollen ("Hope Gallery") at Todtmoos, the mine in the Schauinsland, the formerly especially silver-rich Wenzel Pit
Wenzel Pit
in Oberwolfach
Oberwolfach
and Gr. Segen Gottes ("God's Great Blessing") in Haslach-Schnellingen. Non-ferrous metal mining in the Black Forest
Forest
continued until the middle of the 20th century near Wildschapbach and on the Schauinsland (to 1954); fluorite and baryte are still mined today at the Clara Pit in the Rankach valley in Oberwolfach. Iron ores of the Dogger formation was worked until the 1970s near Ringsheim
Ringsheim
and was smelted in Kehl. Compared with the Harz
Harz
and Ore Mountains
Ore Mountains
the quantities of silver extracted in the Black Forest
Forest
were rather modest and reached only about 10 per cent of that produced in the other silver-mining regions. There are many show mines in the Black Forest. These include: the Frischglück Pit near Neuenbürg, the Hella Glück Pit near Neubulach, the Silbergründle Pit near Seebach, the Himmlich Heer Pit near Hallwangen, the Heilige Drei Könige Pit near Freudenstadt, the Segen Gottes Pit near Haslach, the Wenzel Pit
Wenzel Pit
near Oberwolfach, the Caroline Pit near Sexau, the Suggental Silver
Silver
Mine near Waldkirch, the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
Pit near Freiburg, the Teufelsgrund Pit near Münstertal, the Finstergrund
Finstergrund
Pit near Wieden and the Hoffnungsstollen Pit near Todtmoos. Forestry[edit]

Trunks of White Fir
White Fir
from Gersbach hold up the largest unsupported wooden roof in the world at Expo 2000

For several centuries logs from the Black Forest
Forest
were rafted down the Enz, Kinzig, Murg, Nagold and Rhine
Rhine
rivers for use in the shipping industry, as construction timber and for other purposes. This branch of industry boomed in the 18th century and led to large-scale clearances. As most of the long, straight pine logs were transported downriver for shipbuilding in the Netherlands, they were referred to as "Dutchmen". The logs were used in the Netherlands, above all, as piles for house construction in the sandy and wet ground. Even today in Amsterdam large numbers of historic building are built on these posts and the reforestation of the Black Forest
Forest
with spruce monocultures testifies to the destruction of the original mixed forest. With the expansion of the railway and road network as alternative transportation, rafting largely came to an end in the late 19th century. Today, fir trees, especially those which are very tall and branchless to a great height, are shipped mainly to Japan. The global advertising impact of Expo 2000
Expo 2000
fuelled a resurgence of timber exports. The importance of the timber resources of the Black Forest
Forest
has also increased sharply recently due to the increasing demand for wood pellets for heating. Glass making, charcoal burning and potash mining[edit] The timber resources of the Black Forest
Forest
provided the basis for other sectors of the economy that have now largely disappeared. Charcoal burners (Köhler) built their wood piles (Meiler) in the woods and produced charcoal which, like the products of the potash boilers - further processed inter alia for the glassmaking industry. The Black Forest
Forest
supplied raw materials and energy for the manufacture of forest glass. This is evinced today by a number of glassblowing houses e.g. in the Hoellental in Todtnau
Todtnau
and Wolfach
Wolfach
and the Forest
Forest
Glass Centre in Gersbach (Schopfheim), which is open to visitors. Precision engineering, clock and jewellery manufacture[edit]

Clockmaker's workshop in a sitting room (postcard around 1900)

Main article: Clock
Clock
production in the Black Forest In the relatively inaccessible Black Forest
Forest
valleys industrialization did not arrive until late in the day. In winter, many farmers made wooden cuckoo clocks to supplement their income. This developed in the 19th century into the precision engineering and watch industry, which boomed with the arrival of the railway in many of the Black Forest valleys. The initial disadvantage of their remote location, which led to the development of precision-engineered wooden handicrafts, became a competitive advantage because of their access to raw materials: timber from the forest and metal from the mines. As part of a structural support programme the Baden State Government founded the first clockmaking school in 1850 in Furtwangen
Furtwangen
to ensure that small artisans were given good training and thus better sales opportunities. Due to the increasing demand for mechanical devices, large companies such as Junghans
Junghans
and Kienzle became established. In the 20th century, the production of consumer electronics was developed by companies such as SABA, Dual and Becker. In the 1970s, the industry declined due to Far Eastern competition. Nevertheless, the Black Forest
Forest
remains a centre for the metalworking industry and is home to many high-tech companies. Since the start of industrialisation there have been numerous firms in Pforzheim
Pforzheim
that manufacture jewellery and work with precious metals and stones. There is also a goldsmith's school in Pforzheim. Hydropower[edit]

The Straßerhof Mill in Hornberg, a typical Black Forest
Forest
farming mill

The Hornberg
Hornberg
Basin near Herrischried, upper reservoir of the Wehr pumped storage station (emptied, May 2008).

Due to the large amounts of precipitation and elevation changes the Black Forest
Forest
has significant hydropower potential. This was used until the 19th century especially for operating numerous mills, including sawmills and hammer mills and was one of the local factors in the industrialization of some Black Forest
Forest
valleys. Since the 20th century, the Black Forest
Forest
has seen the large scale generation of electrical power using run-of-the-river power plants and pumped storage power stations. From 1914 to 1926, the Rudolf Fettweis Company was established in the Murg valley in the Northern Black Forest
Forest
with the construction of the Schwarzenbach Dam. In 1932, the Schluchsee
Schluchsee
reservoir, with its new dam, became the upper basin of a pumped storage power plant. In 2013 the association of the Southern Black Forest's Schluchseewerk
Schluchseewerk
owned five power plants with 14 storage tanks. At the Hornberg
Hornberg
Basin topographical conditions allow an average head of water of 625 m to drive the turbines before it flows into the Wehra
Wehra
Reservoir. In the 21st century, in the wake of the Renewable Energy Sources Act, numerous smaller run-of-the-river power stations were re-opened or newly constructed. Political jurisdiction[edit] Administratively, the Black Forest
Forest
belongs completely to the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
and comprises the cities of Pforzheim, Baden-Baden and Freiburg
Freiburg
as well as the following districts (Kreise). In the north: Enz, Rastatt
Rastatt
and Calw; in the middle: Freudenstadt, Ortenaukreis
Ortenaukreis
and Rottweil; in the south: Emmendingen, Schwarzwald-Baar, Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Lörrach
Lörrach
and Waldshut. Tourism
Tourism
and transport[edit] The main industry of the Black Forest
Forest
is tourism. Black Forest
Forest
Tourism (Schwarzwald Tourismus) assesses that there are around 140,000 direct full-time jobs in the tourist sector and around 34.8 million tourist overnight stays in 2009.[23] In spring, summer and autumn an extensive network of hiking trails and mountain bike routes enable different groups of people to use the natural region. In winter, of course, it is the various types of winter sport that come to the fore. There are facilities for both downhill and Nordic skiing
Nordic skiing
in many places. Tourist attractions[edit]

Hinterzarten
Hinterzarten
in the Southern Black Forest: church and Adler ski jump

The Altstadt of Altensteig
Altensteig
in the Northern Black Forest

The most heavily frequented tourist destinations and resorts in the Black Forest
Forest
are the Titisee
Titisee
and the Schluchsee. Both lakes offer opportunities for water sports like diving and windsurfing. From Freiburg
Freiburg
these lakes may be reached on the B 31 through the Höllental, via the Hirschsprung monument located at the narrowest point in the valley, and the Oswald Chapel below the Ravenna Gorge. One oft-visited town is Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
with its thermal baths and festival hall. Other thermal baths are found in the spa resorts of Badenweiler, Bad Herrenalb, Bad Wildbad, Bad Krozingen, Bad Liebenzell and Bad Bellingen. Other tourist destinations are the old imperial town of Gengenbach, the former county towns of Wolfach, Schiltach
Schiltach
and Haslach im Kinzigtal (both on the German Timber-Frame Road) and the flower and wine village of Sasbachwalden
Sasbachwalden
at the foot of the Hornisgrinde. Picturesque old towns may be visited in Altensteig, Dornstetten, Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau, Gernsbach, Villingen and Zell am Harmersbach. Baiersbronn
Baiersbronn
is a centre of gastronomic excellence, Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt
is built around the largest market place in Germany. Gersbach's floral displays have won awards as the German Golden Village of 2004 and the European Golden Village of 2007. Noted for their fine interiors are the former monastery of St. Blasien as well as the abbeys of Sankt Trudpert, St. Peter and St. Märgen. Alpirsbach Abbey
Alpirsbach Abbey
and the ruined Hirsau Abbey
Hirsau Abbey
were built of red sandstone in the Hirsau style. Another idyllic rural edifice is Wittichen
Wittichen
Abbey near Schenkenzell. The Murg valley, the Kinzig valley, the Triberg Waterfalls
Triberg Waterfalls
and the Open Air Museum at Vogtsbauernhof are also popular. Lookout mountains include the Feldberg, the Belchen, the Kandel and the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
in the Southern Black Forest; and the Hornisgrinde, the Schliffkopf, the Hohloh, the Merkur and the Teufelsmühle in the Northern Black Forest. There are well known winter sports areas around the Feldberg, near Todtnau
Todtnau
with its FIS downhill ski run of Fahler Loch and in Hinterzarten, a centre and talent forge for German ski jumpers. In the Northern Black Forest
Forest
the winter sports areas are concentrated along the Black Forest
Forest
High Road and on the ridge between the Murg and Enz rivers around Kaltenbronn. The height differences in the mountains are used in many places for hang gliding and paragliding. Hiking trails[edit] The Black Forest
Forest
has a great number of very varied trails; some of pan-regional significance. The European long-distance path
European long-distance path
E1 crosses the Black Forest
Forest
following the routes of some of the local long-distance paths. Their framework is a network of long distance paths with main routes and side branches, many of which were laid out in the early 20th century by the Black Forest
Forest
Club (Schwarzwaldverein). The best known of these is the challenging West Way (Westweg) with its many steep inclines. After 1950, circular walks were constructed to meet the changing demand, initially from the relatively dense railway network and, later, mainly from locally established hiking car parks. Currently, special, more experience-oriented themed paths are being laid out, such as the Dornstetten
Dornstetten
Barefoot Park (Barfußpark Dornstetten), the Park of All Senses (Park mit allen Sinnen) in Gutach (Black Forest
Forest
Railway), as well as those designed to bring the walker more directly in contact with nature (e.g. the Schluchtensteig). Roads and wide forest tracks are thus less often used than hitherto. There are numerous shorter paths suitable for day walks, as well as mountain biking and cross-country skiing trails. The total network of tracks amounts to around 23,000 kilometres (14,000 mi), and is maintained and overseen by volunteers of the Black Forest
Forest
Club, which has around 90,000 members (figures from Bremke, 1999, p. 9).

West Way (Westweg) Pforzheim–Basel Middle Way (Mittelweg) Pforzheim-Waldshut East Way (Ostweg) Pforzheim-Schaffhausen Rottweil-Lahr Trail
Rottweil-Lahr Trail
(Querweg Rottweil-Lahr) (4 days) Gengenbach-Alpirsbach Trail
Gengenbach-Alpirsbach Trail
(Querweg Gengenbach-Alpirsbach) (2–3 days) Hansjakob Way I
Hansjakob Way I
(Hansjakobweg I, circular walk, 3 days) Hansjakob Way II
Hansjakob Way II
(circular walk, 4 days) Murgleiter (5 days, premium trail) Gernsbach
Gernsbach
Circular Walk (Gernsbacher Runde, 2–3 days, premium trail) Schluchtensteig (long distance path, 5–6 days) Baiersbronn
Baiersbronn
Lake Trail (Baiersbronner Seensteig) (circular walk, 5 days) Freiburg-Lake Constance Trail
Freiburg-Lake Constance Trail
(Querweg Freiburg-Bodensee) (6–7 days) Kandel Ridgway (Kandelhöhenweg), Oberkirch– Freiburg
Freiburg
(5 days) Two Valleys Trail (Zweitälersteig) (5 days) Black Forest-Swabian Jura- Allgäu
Allgäu
Way (Schwarzwald-Schwäbische-Alb-Allgäu-Weg), also Main Path (Hauptwanderweg) 5, runs for over 311 kilometres into the Allgäu

Museums[edit]

The open-air museum of Vogtsbauernhof in the Gutach valley

The Black Forest
Forest
Open Air Museum at Vogtsbauernhof farm in Gutach has original Black Forest
Forest
houses that offer insights into farming life of the 16th and 17th centuries. The buildings were dismantled at their original sites, the individual pieces numbered and then re-erected to exactly the same plan in the museum. The German Clock Museum
German Clock Museum
in Furtwangen
Furtwangen
gives a comprehensive cross-section of the history of the watchmaking and clockmaking industries. From this early precision engineering a formerly important phonographic industry developed in the 20th century; the history of leisure electronics is presented in the German Phono Museum
German Phono Museum
in St. Georgen. The Schüttesäge Museum
Schüttesäge Museum
in Schiltach
Schiltach
has information and living history demonstrations covering the themes of lumbering and timber rafting in the Kinzig valley as well as tanning. The Black Forest
Forest
Costume Museum in Haslach im Kinzigtal offers an overview of the traditional costume of the whole of the Black Forest
Forest
and its peripheral regions. Also in Haslach is the Hansjakob Museum and the Hansjakob Archive with numerous works of the writer, priest, politician, historian and chronicler, Heinrich Hansjakob. The MiMa Mineralogy and Mathematics Museum
MiMa Mineralogy and Mathematics Museum
in Oberwolfach houses minerals and mining exhibits from the whole of the Black Forest and links them to mathematical explanations. Road transport[edit] Several tourist routes run through the Black Forest. Well known holiday routes are the Black Forest
Forest
High Road (B 500) and the German Clock
Clock
Road. Thanks to its winding country roads, the Black Forest
Forest
is a popular destination for motorcyclists. This arm of tourism is viewed as controversial due to the high number of accidents and the wide-ranging noise pollution[24] and has been restricted through the introduction of speed limits and by placing certain roads out of bounds. For example, since 1984, motorcyclists have been banned from using the mountain racing route on the Schauinsland
Schauinsland
during summer weekends.[25] Railway
Railway
transport[edit]

The Gutach bridge on the Höllental Railway

The whole of the Black Forest
Forest
was once linked by the railway. In the eastern part of the Northern Black Forest
Forest
by the Enz
Enz
Valley Railway from Pforzheim
Pforzheim
to Bad Wildbad, by the Nagold Valley Railway
Railway
from Pforzheim
Pforzheim
via Calw
Calw
and Nagold to Horb am Neckar, by the Württemberg Black Forest
Forest
Railway
Railway
from Stuttgart
Stuttgart
to Calw
Calw
and the Gäu Railway
Railway
from Stuttgart
Stuttgart
to Freudenstadt
Freudenstadt
or its present-day section from Eutingen to Freudenstadt. Many railway lines run from the Rhine
Rhine
Plain up the valleys into the Black Forest: the Alb Valley Railway
Railway
runs from Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
to Bad Herrenalb, the Murg Valley Railway
Railway
from Rastatt
Rastatt
to Freudenstadt, the Acher
Acher
Valley Railway
Railway
from Achern
Achern
to Ottenhöfen im Schwarzwald
Ottenhöfen im Schwarzwald
and the Rench
Rench
Valley Railway
Railway
from Appenweier
Appenweier
to Bad Griesbach. The Baden Black Forest
Forest
Railway
Railway
has linked Offenburg
Offenburg
with Konstanz
Konstanz
on Lake Constance since 1873, running via Hausach, Triberg, St. Georgen, Villingen and Donaueschingen. In Hausach
Hausach
the Kinzig Valley Railway
Railway
branches off to Freudenstadt, in Denzlingen
Denzlingen
the Elz Valley Railway
Railway
peels off towards Elzach, the Höllental Railway
Railway
runs from Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
through the Höllental valley to Donaueschingen, the Münstertal Railway
Railway
from Bad Krozingen
Bad Krozingen
to Münstertal, the Kander Valley Railway
Railway
from Haltingen near Basel
Basel
through the Kander valley to Kandern
Kandern
and the Wiesen Valley Railway
Railway
from Basel
Basel
to Zell im Wiesental. The Three Lakes Railway
Railway
branches off at the Titisee
Titisee
from the Höllental Railway
Railway
and runs to the Windgfällweiher
Windgfällweiher
and the Schluchsee. The Wutach Valley Railway
Railway
runs along the border between Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
and Switzerland, linking Waldshut-Tiengen
Waldshut-Tiengen
with Immendingen
Immendingen
on the Black Forest
Forest
Railway. Most of these routes are still busy today, whilst some are extremely popular heritage lines. Administration[edit] Since January 2006 the Black Forest
Forest
Tourist organisation, Schwarzwald Tourismus, whose head office is in Freiburg, has been responsible for the administration of tourism in the 320 municipalities of the region. Hitherto there had been four separate tourist associations. Points of interest[edit]

Winter on Schauinsland: famous "Windbuchen" Beeches bent by the wind

There are many historic towns in the Black Forest. Popular tourist destinations include Baden-Baden, Freiburg, Calw
Calw
(the birth town of Hermann Hesse), Gengenbach, Staufen, Schiltach, Haslach and Altensteig. Other popular destinations include such mountains as the Feldberg, the Belchen, the Kandel, and the Schauinsland; the Titisee and Schluchsee
Schluchsee
lakes; the All Saints Waterfalls; the Triberg Waterfalls, not the highest, but the most famous waterfalls in Germany; and the gorge of the River Wutach. The Black Forest
Forest
Open Air Museum shows the life of 16th or 17th century farmers in the region, featuring a number of reconstructed Black Forest
Forest
farms. The German Clock Museum
German Clock Museum
in Furtwangen
Furtwangen
portrays the history of the clock industry and of watchmakers. For drivers, the main route through the region is the fast A 5 (E35) motorway, but a variety of signposted scenic routes such as the Schwarzwaldhochstraße
Schwarzwaldhochstraße
(60 km (37 mi), Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
to Freudenstadt), Schwarzwald Tälerstraße (100 km (62 mi), the Murg and Kinzig valleys) or Badische Weinstraße (Baden Wine Street, 160 km (99 mi), a wine route from Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
to Weil am Rhein) offers calmer driving along high roads.[26] The last is a picturesque trip starting in the south of the Black Forest
Forest
going north and includes numerous old wineries and tiny villages. Another, more specialized route is the German Clock
Clock
Route,[27] a circular route which traces the horological history of the region.

Black Forest
Forest
track

Due to the rich mining history dating from medieval times (the Black Forest
Forest
was one of the most important mining regions of Europe circa 1100) there are many mines re-opened to the public. Such mines may be visited in the Kinzig valley, the Suggental, the Muenster valley, and around Todtmoos. The Black Forest
Forest
was visited on several occasions by Count Otto von Bismarck during his years as Prussian and later German chancellor (1862–1890). Allegedly, he especially was interested in the Triberg Waterfalls.[28] There is now a monument in Triberg
Triberg
dedicated to Bismarck, who apparently enjoyed the tranquility of the region as an escape from his day-to-day political duties in Berlin. The Black Forest
Forest
featured in the philosophical development of Martin Heidegger. Heidegger wrote and edited some of his philosophical works in a small hut in the Black Forest,[29] and would receive visitors there for walks, including his former pupil Hannah Arendt. This hut features explicitly in his essay Building, Dwelling, Thinking.[30] His walks in the Black Forest
Forest
are supposed to have inspired the title of his collection of essays Holzewege , translated as Off The Beaten Track .[31] Conservation areas[edit] The Black Forest
Forest
National Park, established in 2014, was the first national park in Baden-Württemberg. It covers an area of 10,062 hectares and lies on the main crest of the Northern Black Forest between Baiersbronn
Baiersbronn
and Baden-Baden. There are two nature parks named after the Black Forest
Forest
that cover the region: the Central/North Black Forest
Forest
Nature Park (Naturpark Schwarzwald Mitte/Nord) and the Southern Black Forest
Forest
Nature Park (Naturpark Südschwarzwald). Their aim is to preserve the countryside as a cultural landscape, to market local produce more effectively and to make the area more suitable for tourism. The 370,000 ha Southern Black Forest
Forest
Nature Park, which is the second largest in Germany, encloses the southern part of the Central Black Forest, the Southern Black Forest
Forest
and adjacent areas. The Central/North Black Forest
Forest
Nature Park covers 375,000 ha and is thus the largest in Germany. It begins in the southern part of the Central Black Forest, bordering on the Southern Black Forest
Forest
Nature Park and covers the rest of the Black Forest
Forest
to the north. In addition there are numerous nature reserves, protected areas, forest reserves and bird reserves. Fauna[edit] In addition to the expected kinds of wildlife to be found in a European forest area, the following types of animals may be observed in the Black Forest.[32]

The Black Forest
Forest
cattle belong to the rare breed of Hinterwald
Hinterwald
cattle. The giant earthworm Lumbricus badensis
Lumbricus badensis
is found only in the Black Forest
Forest
region.[33] Black Forest
Forest
Horses are a breed of horse, previously indispensable for heavy field work. In some regions of the Black Forest, the Western Capercaillie
Western Capercaillie
can be found.

Culture[edit]

Arnold Lyongrün: Spring in the Black Forest, 1912 oil painting

The Black Forest
Forest
is mainly rural and comprises many scattered villages and a few large towns. Tradition
Tradition
and custom are celebrated in many places. The forest is best known for its typical farmhouses with their sweeping half-hipped roofs, its Black Forest
Forest
gâteaus, Black Forest ham, Black Forest
Forest
gnomes,[34][35] Kirschwasser
Kirschwasser
and the cuckoo clock. Dialects[edit] The main dialects spoken in the Black Forest
Forest
area are Alemannic and Swabian. Traditional costume[edit]

Traditional costume from Gutach with the unmarried woman's red Bollenhut

Traditional costume or Trachten is still sometimes worn today, usually at festive occasions. The appearance of such costume varies from region to region, sometimes very markedly. One of the best known Black Forest
Forest
costumes is that of the villages of Kirnbach, Reichenbach and Gutach im Kinzigtal with the characteristic Bollenhut
Bollenhut
headdress. Unmarried women wear the hats with red bobbles or Bollen, married women wear black. Engaged women sometimes wear a bridal crown before and on the day of their wedding, the so-called Schäppel, whose largest examples from the town of St. Georgen weigh up to 5 kilogrammes. Art[edit] Its rural beauty as well as the sense of tradition of its inhabitants had already attracted many artists in the 19th and early 20th centuries, whose works made the Black Forest
Forest
famous the world over. Especially notable were Hans Thoma from Bernau and his fellow student, Rudolf Epp, who was sponsored by the Grand Duke of Baden, Frederick I. Both artists painted motifs from the Black Forest
Forest
throughout their lives. The artist, J. Metzler, from Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
travelled through the Black Forest
Forest
to paint his landscapes. The works of the Gutach artist colony around Wilhelm Hasemann
Wilhelm Hasemann
were widely admire, their landscape and genre motifs capturing the character of the Black Forest. Like local author, Heinrich Hansjakob, they were part of a Baden folk costume movement.[36] Crafts[edit]

A cuckoo clock

In the field of handicrafts, wood carving plays an important role, than not only produces folk art like the Longinus crosses, but also famous sculptors like Matthias Faller. Wood-carving
Wood-carving
is a traditional cottage industry in the region and carved ornaments now are produced in substantial numbers as souvenirs for tourists. Cuckoo clocks are a popular example; they have been made in the region since the mid-18th century and much of their development occurred there. In the past singing bird boxes were produced as well. It is believed in the late Middle Ages, mechanical roosters were first created in some clocks to crow the hours.[37] These clocks may have preceded the Cuckoo Clock. Interestingly, new scientific evidence suggests a mechanized planetarium, created by Archimedes in Syracuse before the birth of Christ, may have sparked production of mechanical clocks in Europe. It is believed the ancient Greek knowledge of gearing came into Europe in the 13th century.[38][39] Cuisine[edit] Black Forest
Forest
ham originated from this region, and so, by name and reputation at least, did the Black Forest
Forest
gâteau. It is also known as "Black Forest
Forest
Cherry Cake" or "Black Forest
Forest
Cake" and is made with chocolate cake, cream, sour cherries and Kirsch.[40] The Black Forest variety of Flammkuchen is a Baden specialty made with ham, cheese and cream. Pfannkuchen, a crêpe or crêpe-like (Eierkuchen or Palatschinken) pastry, is also common. The Black Forest
Forest
is also known for its long tradition in gourmet cuisine. No fewer than 17 Michelin starred restaurants are located in the region, among them two restaurants with 3 stars (Restaurants Bareiss and Schwarzwaldstube in Baiersbronn)[41] as well as the only restaurant in Germany
Germany
that has been awarded a Michelin star
Michelin star
every year since 1966. At Schwarzwald Hotel Adler in Häusern, three generations of chefs from the same family have defended the award from the first year the Michelin Guide selected restaurants in Germany
Germany
until today.[42] Fasnet[edit] The German holiday of Fastnacht, or Fasnet, as it is known in the Black Forest
Forest
region, occurs in the time leading up to Lent. On Fasnetmendig, or the Monday before Ash Wednesday, crowds of people line the streets, wearing wooden, mostly hand-carved masks. One prominent style of mask is called the Black Forest
Forest
Style, originating from the Black Forest
Forest
Region. Gallery[edit]

The Feldberg

View from the Belchen towards the Alps

Cattle near Simonswald

The Titisee, popular year-round

The Minster in Freiburg, the region's biggest city

The River Kinzig passing through the Black Forest

The Mummelsee

Ortenberg Castle near Offenburg
Offenburg
(now a youth hostel)

The Murg Valley Railway

The Black Forest
Forest
is known for its native clockmakers

Traditional farmhouse of the Black Forest

Hausach

Schiltach

Paragliding
Paragliding
above Baden-Baden

See also[edit]

Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
portal Forestry portal Trees portal

Hercynian Forest Schwarzwaldverein
Schwarzwaldverein
(Black Forest
Forest
Association) German Clock
Clock
Museum List of largest cuckoo clocks

References[edit]

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^ Chilcoat, Loretta and Rueben Acciano, Western Europe, Lonely Planet: 2005, p. 480. ^ Information Service for Agriculture, Nutrition and Regional Planning at the Ministry for Regional Planning, Nutrition and Consumer Protection in Baden-Württemberg ^ Robert Gradmann: Süddeutschland. Engelhorn, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
1931. Reprint: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft
Darmstadt, ISBN 3-534-00124-9. Vol. 2: The einzelnen Landschaften, p. 85. ^ c.f. Das Land Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
– Amtliche Beschreibung nach Kreisen und Gemeinden. Vol. 1: Allgemeiner Teil. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-17-001835-3, p. 32, or: Christoph Borcherdt (ed.): Geographische Landeskunde von Baden-Württemberg. 3rd edition, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, 1993, pp. 169 f. ^ Rudolf Metz: Zur naturräumlichen Gliederung des Schwarzwalds In: Alemannisches Institut (ed.): Alemannisches Jahrbuch 1959, Schauenburg, Lahr 1959, pp. 1–33 ^ Emil Meynen, Josef Schmithüsen: Handbuch der naturräumlichen Gliederung Deutschlands. Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde, Remagen/Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 instalments in 8 books, updated 1:1,000,000 map with major units, 1960). ^ Emil Meynen, Josef Schmithüsen (editors: Handbuch der naturräumlichen Gliederung Deutschlands. Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde, Remagen/Bad Godesberg, 1953–1962 (9 issues in 8 books, updated map, 1:1,000,000 with major units, 1960). ^ Thomas Breunig: Überarbeitung der Naturräumlichen Gliederung Baden-Württembergs auf Ebene der naturräumlichen Haupteinheiten. Archived 19 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. In: Naturschutz-Info 1998, Heft 1 ^ Major natural region units, Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
State Office for the Environment, Survey and Conservation (Landesanstalt für Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Württemberg) (pdf, 3.1 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Schwarzwald-Randplatten (150) – LUBW (pdf, 9,9 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Grindenschwarzwald und Enzhöhen (151) – LUBW (pdf, 8,9 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Nördlicher Talschwarzwald (152) – LUBW (pdf, 9,0 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Mittlerer Schwarzwald (153) – LUBW (pdf, 9,6 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Südöstlicher Schwarzwald (154) – LUBW (pdf, 6,8 MB) ^ Natural region
Natural region
fact file Hochschwarzwald (155) – LUBW (pdf, 10,1 MB) ^ Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ^ Harris, Stuart A. (1968). "Treppen concept (penck)". Geomorphology. Encyclopedia of Earth Science. ISBN 978-3-540-31060-0.  ^ Spreitzer, H. (1951). "Die Piedmonttreppen in der regionalen Geomorphologie". Erdkunde (in German). 5 (4): 294–305.  ^ Ekkehard Liehl, ed. (1984), "Der Schwarzwald. Beiträge zur Landeskunde" (in German), Veröffentlichung des Alemannischen Instituts Freiburg
Freiburg
i. Br. (Bühl: Konkordia) 47: pp. 70, ISBN 3-7826-0047-9  ^ LUBW, Deutscher Wetterdienst: Klimaatlas Baden-Württemberg, Jahresniederschläge 1971–2000: Kartenbeschreibung, Karte Archived 11 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 3 September 2013 ^ Tabula Peutingeriana; Ammianus Marcellinus
Ammianus Marcellinus
21, 8, 2; ^ These severe storms or cyclones are commonly known as hurricanes even though they are not true tropical hurricanes. ^ Including private accommodation and visitors by relatives and friends. Schwarzwald Tourismus GmbH: Tourismusentwicklung im Schwarzwald 2009 Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 12 October 2011. ^ Baden-Württemberg: Landesregierung will Motorradlärm eindämmen. In: Spiegel Online date 24 July 2012 ^ Schauinsland: Motorradfahrer ignorieren Fahrverbot – Radler in Angst. In: Badische Zeitung dated 28 June 2010 ^ "The complete guide to The Black Forest". The Independent. 2014-03-19. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Apropos Werbung, Telefon 07721-98770. "German Clock
Clock
Route Location". Deutsche Uhrenstrasse. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Ken Barnes (2007). A Rough Passage, Volume II: Memories of Empire. The Radcliffe Press. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Sharr, Adam. "Heidegger's Hut The MIT Press". Mitpress.mit.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ "Heidegger's Aesthetics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ Heidegger: Off the Beaten Track - Martin Heidegger, Julian Young, Kenneth Haynes - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. 2002-08-29. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ Enjoy nature with all the senses / Nature / Home / Inhalte – Schwarzwald Tourismus GmbH ^ Lamparski, 1985 ^ Schwarzwaldwichtel at www.trachten-winkler.com. Retrieved 23 Aug 2017. ^ Schwarzwaldwichtel at www.schwarzwald-laden.de. Retrieved 23 Aug 2017. ^ Brigitte Heck: Ein Hut macht Karriere.. In: Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
(publ.): Baden! 900 Jahre – Geschichten eines Landes. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
2012, ISBN 978-3-937345-56-7, p. 256 (Katalog zur Großen Landesausstellung) ^ Cuckoo clock ^ "In the Forest".  ^ "Ancient Computer".  ^ "Possibly Germany's most famous cake: Schwarzwalder Kirschtorte (Black Forest
Forest
Cake)". European Cuisines. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ Michelin Restaurants. Via Michelin. Retrieved 18 June 2011 ^ "The Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
and the Zumkeller Chefs". Schwarzwald Hotel Adler. Retrieved 18 June 2011

Bibliography[edit] Geography[edit]

Hartwig Haubrich, Wolfgang Hug, Herbert Lange (1991) (in German), Das große Buch vom Schwarzwald, Stuttgart: Theiss, ISBN 3-8062-0819-0  Ekkehard Liehl, Wolf Dieter Sick, ed. (1989), "Der Schwarzwald. Beiträge zur Landeskunde" (in German), Veröffentlichung des Alemannischen Instituts Freiburg
Freiburg
i. Br. (Bühl: Konkordia) 47, ISBN 3-7826-0047-9  Kurt Klein (1988), "Verborgener Schwarzwald. Unbekanntes aus Volkskunde und Geschichte" (in German), Edition Morstadt (Kehl, Strasbourg, Basel: Morstadt) Bd. 18, ISBN 3-88571-172-9  Max Scheifele (2004) (in German), Aus der Waldgeschichte des Schwarzwaldes. Die Trift von Brenn- und Kohlholz. Wenn Grenzsteine reden, Stuttgart: DRW-Verlag, ISBN 3-87181-010-X  Horst Friedrich Vorwerk (Text), Erich Spiegelhalter (Abb.) (1992) (in German), Der Schwarzwald. Eine deutsche Kulturlandschaft in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Freiburg: Herder, ISBN 3-451-22658-8 

Economy, geology and mining[edit]

Michael Bliedtner, Manfred Martin (1986) (in German), Erz- und Minerallagerstätten des Mittleren Schwarzwaldes, Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau: Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, ISBN 978-88-12-65452-9  Eberhard Gothein: Wirtschaftsgeschichte des Schwarzwaldes und der angrenzenden Landschaften. Erster Band: Städte- und Gewerbegeschichte, Verlag Karl J. Trübner, Strassburg 1892 (digitalised) Gregor Markl, Sönke Lorenz, ed. (2004) (in German), Silber, Kupfer, Kobalt. Bergbau im Schwarzwald, Filderstadt: Markstein, ISBN 3-935129-10-6  Georg Sawatzki, Horst Peter Hann (2003), "Badenweiler-Lenzkirch-Zone (Südschwarzwald): Erläuterungen mit Hinweisen für Exkursionen" (in German), Geologische Karte von Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
1:50000 ( Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau: Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Württemberg)  Wolfgang Werner, Volker Dennert (2004) (in German), Lagerstätten und Bergbau im Schwarzwald, Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau: Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Württemberg 

Art history[edit]

Richard Schmidt: Schwarzwald (Deutsche Lande – Deutsche Kunst). Munich/Berlin, 1965

Nature[edit]

Adolf Hanle: Nordschwarzwald (Meyers Naturführer). Mannheim/Vienna/Zurich, 1989 Adolf Hanle: Südschwarzwald (Meyers Naturführer). Mannheim/Vienna/Zurich, 1989 Ulrike Klugmann (Hrsg.): Südschwarzwald, Feldberg und Wutachschlucht (Naturmagazin Draußen). Hamburg, 1983 Hans-Peter Schaub: Der Schwarzwald. Naturvielfalt in einer alten Kulturlandschaft. Mannheim, 2001

Fiction[edit]

Jürgen Lodemann (ed.): Schwarzwaldgeschichten. Klöpfer & Mayer, Tübingen, 2007, ISBN 978-3-940086-04-4 Herbert Schnierle-Lutz (ed.): Schwarzwald-Lesebuch. Geschichten aus 6 Jahrhunderten mit zahlreichen Bildern, 224 pages, Hohenheim Verlag, Stuttgart, 2011, ISBN 978-3-89850-213-9

General[edit]

Bremke, N. (1999). Schwarzwald quer. Karlsruhe: Braun. ISBN 3-7650-8228-7 Lamparski, F. (1985). Der Einfluß der Regenwurmart Lumbricus badensis auf Waldböden im Südschwarzwald. Schriftenreihe des Institut für Bodenkunde und Waldernährungslehre der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
Freiburg
i. Br., 15. ISSN 0344-2691. English summary Barnes, K. J. (2007). A Rough Passage: Memories of an Empire Käflein, Achim (photographs); Huber, Alexander (German text); Freund, BethAnne (English translation) (2012), Schwarzwald: Natur und Landschaft, edition-kaeflein.de, p. 228, ISBN 978-3-940788-16-0 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black Forest.

Black Forest
Forest
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Black Forest". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). 1911.  Schwarzwald at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Important cities and tourist sites in  Germany: Greater region of Freiburg
Freiburg
(Breisgau–Black Forest–High Rhine)

Major cities

Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau Lörrach Offenburg Villingen-Schwenningen

Other tourist destinations

Alpirsbach Baiersbronn Freudenstadt Furtwangen
Furtwangen
im Schwarzwald Schluchsee Titisee-Neustadt Todtnau Waldshut-Tiengen

Landscapes

Breisgau Feldberg Hölle Valley Kaiserstuhl Schauinsland Black Forest Triberg
Triberg
Waterfalls River Wutach

Neighbouring areas

Germany

Karlsruhe Konstanz
Konstanz
(Constance) Stuttgart

France

Colmar Mulhouse Strasbourg

Switzerland

Basel

v t e

Central Uplands of Germany

Arnsberg Forest Bavarian Forest Black Forest Bohemian Forest Ebbe Egge Eifel Elbe Sandstone
Sandstone
Mountains Elster Fichtel Franconian Jura Franconian Forest Gladenbach Uplands Habichtswald Harz Hoher Meißner Hunsrück Kaiserstuhl Kellerwald Kaufungen Forest Knüll Kyffhäuser Lusatian Mountains Lenne Lippe Uplands North Palatine Uplands Odenwald Ore Mountains Palatine Forest Rhön Rothaar Saalhausen Hills Swabian Jura Siebengebirge Solling Spessart Taunus Teutoburg Forest Thuringian Highland Thuringian Forest Upper Palatine Forest Vogelsberg Weser Uplands Weser Hills Westerwald Wiehen Hills Zittau Mountains

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248969460 LCCN: sh85014558 GND: 4053807-2 BNF: cb12363183

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