The BLACK DEATH was one of the most devastating pandemics in human
history , resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million
Eurasia and peaking in
Europe in the years 1346–1353.
Although there were several competing theories as to the cause of the
Black Death, analyses of
DNA from people in northern and southern
Europe published in 2010 and 2011 indicate that the pathogen
responsible was the _
Yersinia pestis _ bacterium , resulting in
several forms of plague , including the bubonic plague .
Black Death is thought to have originated in the arid plains of
Central Asia , where it then travelled along the
Silk Road , reaching
Crimea by 1343. From there, it was most likely carried by Oriental
rat fleas living on the black rats that were regular passengers on
merchant ships . Spreading throughout the Mediterranean and Europe,
Black Death is estimated to have killed 30–60% of Europe's total
population. In total, the plague may have reduced the world
population from an estimated 450 million down to 350–375 million in
the 14th century. The world population as a whole did not recover to
pre-plague levels until the 17th century. The plague recurred
Europe until the 19th century.
The plague created a series of religious, social, and economic
upheavals, which had profound effects on the course of European
* 1 Chronology
* 1.1 Origins of the disease
* 1.2 European outbreak
* 1.3 Middle Eastern outbreak
* 2 Signs and symptoms
* 3 Causes
* 3.2 Alternative explanations
* 4 Consequences
* 4.1 Death toll
* 4.2 Persecutions
* 4.3 Recurrence
Third plague pandemic
* 5 Names
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
ORIGINS OF THE DISEASE
Black Death migration
The plague disease, caused by _
Yersinia pestis _, is enzootic
(commonly present) in populations of fleas carried by ground rodents ,
including marmots , in various areas including
Central Asia ,
Western Asia , Northern India and
Uganda . Nestorian
graves dating to 1338–1339 near Lake
Issyk Kul in
inscriptions referring to plague and are thought by many
epidemiologists to mark the outbreak of the epidemic, from which it
could easily have spread to China and India. In October 2010, medical
geneticists suggested that all three of the great waves of the plague
originated in China. In China, the 13th-century Mongol conquest
caused a decline in farming and trading. However, economic recovery
had been observed at the beginning of the 14th century. In the 1330s,
a large number of natural disasters and plagues led to widespread
famine, starting in 1331, with a deadly plague arriving soon after.
Epidemics that may have included plague killed an estimated 25 million
Chinese and other Asians during the 15 years before it reached
Constantinople in 1347.
The disease may have travelled along the
Silk Road with Mongol armies
and traders or it could have come via ship. By the end of 1346,
reports of plague had reached the seaports of Europe: "India was
Armenia were covered with
Plague was reportedly first introduced to
Europe via Genoese traders
at the port city of Kaffa in the
Crimea in 1347. After a protracted
siege, during which the Mongol army under
Jani Beg was suffering from
the disease, the army catapulted the infected corpses over the city
walls of Kaffa to infect the inhabitants. The Genoese traders fled,
taking the plague by ship into
Sicily and the south of Europe, whence
it spread north. Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate, it is
clear that several existing conditions such as war, famine, and
weather contributed to the severity of the Black Death.
The seventh year after it began, it came to England and first began
in the towns and ports joining on the seacoasts, in Dorsetshire,
where, as in other counties, it made the country quite void of
inhabitants so that there were almost none left alive.
... But at length it came to Gloucester, yea even to Oxford and to
London, and finally it spread over all England and so wasted the
people that scarce the tenth person of any sort was left alive.
Geoffrey the Baker , _Chronicon Angliae_
There appear to have been several introductions into Europe. The
Sicily in October 1347, carried by twelve Genoese
galleys, and rapidly spread all over the island. Galleys from Kaffa
reached Genoa and
Venice in January 1348, but it was the outbreak in
Pisa a few weeks later that was the entry point to northern Italy.
Towards the end of January, one of the galleys expelled from Italy
From Italy, the disease spread northwest across Europe, striking
France, Spain, Portugal and England by June 1348, then turned and
spread east through Germany and Scandinavia from 1348 to 1350. It was
introduced in Norway in 1349 when a ship landed at
Askøy , then
spread to Bjørgvin (modern
Bergen ) and
Iceland . Finally it spread
to northwestern Russia in 1351. The plague was somewhat less common in
Europe that had smaller trade relations with their
neighbours, including the Kingdom of Poland , the majority of the
Basque Country , isolated parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, and
isolated alpine villages throughout the continent.
Modern researchers do not think that the plague ever became endemic
Europe or its rat population. The disease repeatedly wiped out the
rodent carriers so that the fleas died out until a new outbreak from
Central Asia repeated the process. The outbreaks have been shown to
occur roughly 15 years after a warmer and wetter period in areas where
plague is endemic in other species such as gerbils .
MIDDLE EASTERN OUTBREAK
The plague struck various regions in the Middle East during the
pandemic , leading to serious depopulation and permanent change in
both economic and social structures. As it spread to western Europe,
the disease entered the region from southern Russia also. By autumn
1347, the plague reached
Alexandria in Egypt, probably through the
port's trade with
Constantinople , and ports on the
Black Sea . During
1347, the disease travelled eastward to Gaza , and north along the
eastern coast to cities in
Syria and Palestine , including
Ashkelon , Acre ,
Homs , and
In 1348–1349, the disease reached
Antioch . The city's residents
fled to the north, most of them dying during the journey, but the
infection had been spread to the people of
Asia Minor .
Mecca became infected in 1349. During the same year, records show the
city of Mawsil (Mosul) suffered a massive epidemic, and the city of
Baghdad experienced a second round of the disease. In 1351 Yemen
experienced an outbreak of the plague, coinciding with the return of
Sultan al-Mujahid Ali of
Yemen from imprisonment in
Cairo . His party
may have brought the disease with them from Egypt.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
_ A hand showing how acral gangrene of the fingers due to bubonic
plague causes the skin and flesh to die and turn black An
inguinal bubo on the upper thigh of a person infected with bubonic
plague. Swollen lymph glands (buboes_) often occur in the neck, armpit
and groin (_inguinal_) regions of plague victims.
Contemporary accounts of the plague are often varied or imprecise.
The most commonly noted symptom was the appearance of buboes (or
gavocciolos) in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed pus and
bled when opened.
Boccaccio 's description is graphic:
In men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of
certain tumours in the groin or armpits, some of which grew as large
as a common apple, others as an egg...From the two said parts of the
body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself
in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady
began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many
cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now
minute and numerous. As the gavocciolo had been and still was an
infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on
whomsoever they showed themselves.
The only medical detail that is questionable in Boccaccio's
description is that the gavocciolo was an 'infallible token of
approaching death', as, if the bubo discharges, recovery is possible.
This was followed by acute fever and vomiting of blood. Most victims
died two to seven days after initial infection. Freckle-like spots and
rashes, which could have been caused by flea-bites, were identified
as another potential sign of the plague.
Some accounts, like that of
Lodewijk Heyligen , whose master the
Cardinal Colonna died of the plague in 1348, noted a distinct form of
the disease that infected the lungs and led to respiratory problems
and is identified with pneumonic plague .
It is said that the plague takes three forms. In the first people
suffer an infection of the lungs, which leads to breathing
difficulties. Whoever has this corruption or contamination to any
extent cannot escape but will die within two days. Another form...in
which boils erupt under the armpits,...a third form in which people of
both sexes are attacked in the groin.
Oriental rat flea
Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis_) engorged with
blood. This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission
Yersinia pestis _, the organism responsible for bubonic plague in
most plague epidemics. Both male and female fleas feed on blood and
can transmit the infection. _
Oriental rat flea
Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla
cheopis_) infected with the _
Yersinia pestis _ bacterium which appears
as a dark mass in the gut. The foregut (_proventriculus_) of this flea
is blocked by a _Y. pestis_ biofilm ; when the flea attempts to feed
on an uninfected host _Y. pestis_ is regurgitated into the wound,
causing infection. _
Yersinia pestis _ (200x magnification).
The bacterium which causes bubonic plague.
Medical knowledge had stagnated during the
Middle Ages . The most
authoritative account at the time came from the medical faculty in
Paris in a report to the king of France that blamed the heavens, in
the form of a conjunction of three planets in 1345 that caused a
"great pestilence in the air". This report became the first and most
widely circulated of a series of plague tracts that sought to give
advice to sufferers. That the plague was caused by bad air became the
most widely accepted theory. Today, this is known as the miasma theory
. The word _plague_ had no special significance at this time, and only
the recurrence of outbreaks during the
Middle Ages gave it the name
that has become the medical term.
The importance of hygiene was recognised only in the nineteenth
century; until then it was common that the streets were filthy, with
live animals of all sorts around and human parasites abounding. A
transmissible disease will spread easily in such conditions. One
development as a result of the
Black Death was the establishment of
the idea of quarantine in
Dubrovnik in 1377 after continuing
The dominant explanation for the
Black Death is the plague theory,
which attributes the outbreak to _
Yersinia pestis _, also responsible
for an epidemic that began in southern China in 1865, eventually
spreading to India. The investigation of the pathogen that caused the
19th-century plague was begun by teams of scientists who visited Hong
Kong in 1894, among whom was the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre
Yersin , after whom the pathogen was named _Yersinia pestis_. The
mechanism by which _Y. pestis_ was usually transmitted was established
in 1898 by
Paul-Louis Simond and was found to involve the bites of
fleas whose midguts had become obstructed by replicating _Y. pestis_
several days after feeding on an infected host. This blockage results
in starvation and aggressive feeding behaviour by the fleas, which
repeatedly attempt to clear their blockage by regurgitation ,
resulting in thousands of plague bacteria being flushed into the
feeding site, infecting the host. The bubonic plague mechanism was
also dependent on two populations of rodents: one resistant to the
disease, which act as hosts, keeping the disease endemic , and a
second that lack resistance. When the second population dies, the
fleas move on to other hosts, including people, thus creating a human
Francis Aidan Gasquet wrote about the Great Pestilence
in 1893 and suggested that "it would appear to be some form of the
ordinary Eastern or bubonic plague". He was able to adopt the
epidemiology of the bubonic plague for the
Black Death for the second
edition in 1908, implicating rats and fleas in the process, and his
interpretation was widely accepted for other ancient and medieval
epidemics, such as the
Justinian plague that was prevalent in the
Eastern Roman Empire from 541 to 700 CE.
An estimate of the mortality rate for the modern bubonic plague ,
following the introduction of antibiotics, is 11% (by the US Centers
for Disease Control (CDC)), although it may be much higher in
economically or medically underdeveloped regions. Symptoms of the
disease include fever of 38–41 °C (100–106 °F), headaches,
painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of
malaise . Left untreated, of those that contract the bubonic plague,
80 per cent die within eight days.
Pneumonic plague has a mortality
rate of 90 to 95 per cent. Symptoms include fever, cough, and
blood-tinged sputum . As the disease progresses, sputum becomes
free-flowing and bright red.
Septicemic plague is the least common of
the three forms, with a mortality rate near 100%. Symptoms are high
fevers and purple skin patches (purpura due to disseminated
intravascular coagulation ). In cases of pneumonic and particularly
septicemic plague, the progress of the disease is so rapid that there
would often be no time for the development of the enlarged lymph nodes
that were noted as buboes.
A number of alternative theories – implicating other diseases in
Black Death pandemic – have also been proposed by some modern
scientists (see below – "Alternative Explanations").
_ Skeletons in a mass grave from 1720–1721 in
France, yielded molecular evidence of the orientalis_ strain of
_Yersinia pestis_, the organism responsible for bubonic plague. The
second pandemic of bubonic plague was active in
Europe from AD 1347,
the beginning of the Black Death, until 1750.
In October 2010, the open-access scientific journal _
PLoS Pathogens _
published a paper by a multinational team who undertook a new
investigation into the role of _
Yersinia pestis _ in the Black Death
following the disputed identification by Drancourt and Raoult in 1998.
They assessed the presence of DNA/RNA with polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) techniques for _Y. pestis_ from the tooth sockets in human
skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe
that were associated archaeologically with the
Black Death and
subsequent resurgences. The authors concluded that this new research,
together with prior analyses from the south of France and Germany,
"ends the debate about the cause of the Black Death, and unambiguously
demonstrates that _Y. pestis_ was the causative agent of the epidemic
plague that devastated
Europe during the Middle Ages".
The study also found that there were two previously unknown but
related clades (genetic branches) of the _Y. pestis_ genome associated
with medieval mass graves. These clades (which are thought to be
extinct) were found to be ancestral to modern isolates of the modern
_Y. pestis_ strains _Y. p. orientalis_ and _Y. p. medievalis_,
suggesting the plague may have entered
Europe in two waves. Surveys of
plague pit remains in France and England indicate the first variant
Europe through the port of
Marseille around November 1347 and
spread through France over the next two years, eventually reaching
England in the spring of 1349, where it spread through the country in
three epidemics. Surveys of plague pit remains from the Dutch town of
Bergen op Zoom showed the _Y. pestis_ genotype responsible for the
pandemic that spread through the Low Countries from 1350 differed from
that found in Britain and France, implying
Bergen op Zoom (and
possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly
infected from England or France in 1349 and suggesting a second wave
of plague, different from those in Britain and France, may have been
carried to the Low Countries from Norway, the Hanseatic cities or
The results of the Haensch study have since been confirmed and
amended. Based on genetic evidence derived from
Black Death victims in
East Smithfield burial site in England, Schuenemann et al.
concluded in 2011 "that the
Black Death in medieval
Europe was caused
by a variant of _Y. pestis_ that may no longer exist." A study
published in _Nature _ in October 2011 sequenced the genome of _Y.
pestis_ from plague victims and indicated that the strain that caused
Black Death is ancestral to most modern strains of the disease.
DNA taken from 25 skeletons from the 14th century found in London
have shown the plague is a strain of _Y. pestis_ that is almost
identical to that which hit
Madagascar in 2013.
Theories of the Black Death
The plague theory was first significantly challenged by the work of
British bacteriologist J. F. D. Shrewsbury in 1970, who noted that the
reported rates of mortality in rural areas during the 14th-century
pandemic were inconsistent with the modern bubonic plague, leading him
to conclude that contemporary accounts were exaggerations. In 1984
zoologist Graham Twigg produced the first major work to challenge the
bubonic plague theory directly, and his doubts about the identity of
Black Death have been taken up by a number of authors, including
Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. (2002 and 2013),
David Herlihy (1997), and Susan
Scott and Christopher Duncan (2001).
It is recognised that an epidemiological account of the plague is as
important as an identification of symptoms, but researchers are
hampered by the lack of reliable statistics from this period. Most
work has been done on the spread of the plague in England, and even
estimates of overall population at the start vary by over 100% as no
census was undertaken between the time of publication of the Domesday
Book and the year 1377. Estimates of plague victims are usually
extrapolated from figures from the clergy.
In addition to arguing that the rat population was insufficient to
account for a bubonic plague pandemic, sceptics of the bubonic plague
theory point out that the symptoms of the
Black Death are not unique
(and arguably in some accounts may differ from bubonic plague); that
transference via fleas in goods was likely to be of marginal
significance; and that the
DNA results may be flawed and might not
have been repeated elsewhere, despite extensive samples from other
mass graves. Other arguments include the lack of accounts of the
death of rats before outbreaks of plague between the 14th and 17th
centuries; temperatures that are too cold in northern
Europe for the
survival of fleas; that, despite primitive transport systems, the
spread of the
Black Death was much faster than that of modern bubonic
plague; that mortality rates of the
Black Death appear to be very
high; that, while modern bubonic plague is largely endemic as a rural
Black Death indiscriminately struck urban and rural
areas; and that the pattern of the Black Death, with major outbreaks
in the same areas separated by 5 to 15 years, differs from modern
bubonic plague—which often becomes endemic for decades with annual
McCormick has suggested that earlier archaeologists were simply not
interested in the "laborious" processes needed to discover rat
remains. Walløe complains that all of these authors "take it for
granted that Simond's infection model, black rat → rat flea →
human, which was developed to explain the spread of plague in India,
is the only way an epidemic of _Yersinia pestis_ infection could
spread", whilst pointing to several other possibilities. Similarly,
Green has argued that greater attention is needed to the range of
(especially non-commensal ) animals that might be involved in the
transmission of plague.
Anthrax skin lesion
A variety of alternatives to the _Y. pestis_ have been put forward.
Twigg suggested that the cause was a form of anthrax , and Norman
Cantor (2001) thought it may have been a combination of anthrax and
other pandemics. Scott and Duncan have argued that the pandemic was a
form of infectious disease that they characterise as _hemorrhagic_
plague similar to
Ebola . Archaeologist Barney Sloane has argued that
there is insufficient evidence of the extinction of a large number of
rats in the archaeological record of the medieval waterfront in London
and that the plague spread too quickly to support the thesis that the
_Y. pestis_ was spread from fleas on rats; he argues that transmission
must have been person to person. However, no single alternative
solution has achieved widespread acceptance. Many scholars arguing
for the _Y. pestis_ as the major agent of the pandemic suggest that
its extent and symptoms can be explained by a combination of bubonic
plague with other diseases, including typhus , smallpox and
respiratory infections. In addition to the bubonic infection, others
point to additional septicemic (a type of "blood poisoning") and
pneumonic (an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest
of the body) forms of the plague, which lengthen the duration of
outbreaks throughout the seasons and help account for its high
mortality rate and additional recorded symptoms. In 2014, scientists
Public Health England
Public Health England announced the results of an examination of
25 bodies exhumed from the Clerkenwell area of London, as well as of
wills registered in
London during the period, which supported the
Consequences of the Black Death
Tournai bury plague victims
There are no exact figures for the death toll ; the rate varied
widely by locality. In urban centres, the greater the population
before the outbreak, the longer the duration of the period of abnormal
mortality. It killed some 75 to 200 million people in
According to medieval historian
Philip Daileader in 2007:
The trend of recent research is pointing to a figure more like
45–50% of the European population dying during a four-year period.
There is a fair amount of geographic variation. In Mediterranean
Europe, areas such as Italy, the south of France and Spain, where
plague ran for about four years consecutively, it was probably closer
to 75–80% of the population. In Germany and England ... it was
probably closer to 20%.
A death rate as high as 60% in
Europe has been suggested by Norwegian
historian Ole Benedictow:
Detailed study of the mortality data available points to two
conspicuous features in relation to the mortality caused by the Black
Death: namely the extreme level of mortality caused by the Black
Death, and the remarkable similarity or consistency of the level of
mortality, from Spain in southern
Europe to England in north-western
Europe. The data is sufficiently widespread and numerous to make it
likely that the
Black Death swept away around 60 per cent of Europe's
population. It is generally assumed that the size of Europe's
population at the time was around 80 million. This implies that around
50 million people died in the Black Death.
The most widely accepted estimate for the Middle East, including
Iraq, Iran and Syria, during this time, is for a death rate of about a
Black Death killed about 40% of Egypt's population. Half
of Paris's population of 100,000 people died. In Italy, the population
Florence was reduced from 110,000–120,000 inhabitants in 1338
down to 50,000 in 1351. At least 60% of the population of
Bremen perished, and a similar percentage of Londoners may have died
from the disease as well. While contemporary reports account of mass
burial pits being created in response to the large numbers of dead,
recent scientific investigations of a burial pit in Central London
found well-preserved individuals to be buried in isolated, evenly
spaced graves, suggesting at least some pre-planning and Christian
burials at this time. Before 1350, there were about 170,000
settlements in Germany, and this was reduced by nearly 40,000 by 1450.
In 1348, the plague spread so rapidly that before any physicians or
government authorities had time to reflect upon its origins, about a
third of the European population had already perished. In crowded
cities, it was not uncommon for as much as 50% of the population to
die. The disease bypassed some areas, and the most isolated areas
were less vulnerable to contagion. Monks and priests were especially
hard-hit since they cared for victims of the Black Death.
Black Death Jewish persecutions _ Inspired by the
The Dance of Death _ or _Danse Macabre_, an allegory on
the universality of death, was a common painting motif in the late
Renewed religious fervour and fanaticism bloomed in the wake of the
Black Death. Some Europeans targeted "various groups such as Jews,
friars, foreigners, beggars, pilgrims", lepers, and Romani ,
thinking that they were to blame for the crisis. Lepers , and other
individuals with skin diseases such as acne or psoriasis , were
singled out and exterminated throughout Europe.
Because 14th-century healers were at a loss to explain the cause,
Europeans turned to astrological forces, earthquakes, and the
poisoning of wells by Jews as possible reasons for the plague's
emergence. The governments of
Europe had no apparent response to the
crisis because no one knew its cause or how it spread. The mechanism
of infection and transmission of diseases was little understood in the
14th century; many people believed only God's anger could produce such
There were many attacks against Jewish communities. In February
1349, the citizens of
Strasbourg murdered 2,000 Jews. In August 1349,
the Jewish communities in
Cologne were exterminated. By
1351, 60 major and 150 smaller Jewish communities had been destroyed.
Second plague pandemic The Great Plague of
London, in 1665, killed up to 100,000 people
The plague repeatedly returned to haunt
Europe and the Mediterranean
throughout the 14th to 17th centuries. According to Biraben, the
plague was present somewhere in
Europe in every year between 1346 and
1671. The Second
Pandemic was particularly widespread in the
following years: 1360–1363; 1374; 1400; 1438–1439; 1456–1457;
1464–1466; 1481–1485; 1500–1503; 1518–1531; 1544–1548;
1563–1566; 1573–1588; 1596–1599; 1602–1611; 1623–1640;
1644–1654; and 1664–1667. Subsequent outbreaks, though severe,
marked the retreat from most of
Europe (18th century) and northern
Africa (19th century). According to Geoffrey Parker, "France alone
lost almost a million people to the plague in the epidemic of
In England, in the absence of census figures, historians propose a
range of preincident population figures from as high as 7 million to
as low as 4 million in 1300, and a postincident population figure as
low as 2 million. By the end of 1350, the
Black Death subsided, but
it never really died out in England. Over the next few hundred years,
further outbreaks occurred in 1361–1362, 1369, 1379–1383,
1389–1393, and throughout the first half of the 15th century. An
outbreak in 1471 took as much as 10–15% of the population, while the
death rate of the plague of 1479–1480 could have been as high as
20%. The most general outbreaks in Tudor and Stuart England seem to
have begun in 1498, 1535, 1543, 1563, 1589, 1603, 1625, and 1636, and
ended with the Great Plague of
London in 1665.
Plague Riot in
Moscow in 1771: During the course of the city\'s plague , between
50,000 and 100,000 people died, 1⁄6 to 1⁄3 of its
In 1466, perhaps 40,000 people died of the plague in Paris. During
the 16th and 17th centuries, the plague was present in Paris around 30
per cent of the time. The
Black Death ravaged
Europe for three years
before it continued on into Russia, where the disease was present
somewhere in the country 25 times between 1350 and 1490. Plague
London in 1563, 1593, 1603, 1625, 1636, and 1665,
reducing its population by 10 to 30% during those years. Over 10% of
Amsterdam 's population died in 1623–1625, and again in 1635–1636,
1655, and 1664. Plague occurred in
Venice 22 times between 1361 and
1528. The plague of 1576–1577 killed 50,000 in Venice, almost a
third of the population. Late outbreaks in central
Italian Plague of 1629–1631 , which is associated with troop
movements during the Thirty Years\' War , and the Great Plague of
Vienna in 1679. Over 60% of Norway's population died in 1348–1350.
The last plague outbreak ravaged
Oslo in 1654.
In the first half of the 17th century, a plague claimed some 1.7
million victims in Italy, or about 14% of the population. In 1656,
the plague killed about half of
Naples ' 300,000 inhabitants. More
than 1.25 million deaths resulted from the extreme incidence of plague
in 17th-century Spain . The plague of 1649 probably reduced the
Seville by half. In 1709–1713, a plague epidemic that
followed the Great Northern War (1700–1721, Sweden v. Russia and
allies) killed about 100,000 in Sweden, and 300,000 in Prussia. The
plague killed two-thirds of the inhabitants of
Helsinki , and claimed
a third of
Stockholm 's population. Europe's last major epidemic
occurred in 1720 in
Marseille . Worldwide distribution of
plague-infected animals 1998
Black Death ravaged much of the
Islamic world . Plague was
present in at least one location in the
Islamic world virtually every
year between 1500 and 1850. Plague repeatedly struck the cities of
Algiers lost 30 to 50 thousand inhabitants to it in
1620–1621, and again in 1654–1657, 1665, 1691, and 1740–1742.
Plague remained a major event in Ottoman society until the second
quarter of the 19th century. Between 1701 and 1750, thirty-seven
larger and smaller epidemics were recorded in
Constantinople , and an
additional thirty-one between 1751 and 1800.
Baghdad has suffered
severely from visitations of the plague, and sometimes two-thirds of
its population has been wiped out.
THIRD PLAGUE PANDEMIC
Third plague pandemic
The third plague pandemic (1855–1859) started in China in the
mid-19th century, spreading to all inhabited continents and killing 10
million people in India alone. Twelve plague outbreaks in Australia
between 1900 and 1925 resulted in well over 1,000 deaths, chiefly in
Sydney. This led to the establishment of a Public Health Department
there which undertook some leading-edge research on plague
transmission from rat fleas to humans via the bacillus _Yersinia
The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague
of 1900–1904 , followed by another outbreak in 1907–1908.
From 1944 through 1993, 362 cases of human plague were reported in the
United States; approximately 90% occurred in four western states:
Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Modern treatment methods include insecticides , the use of
antibiotics , and a plague vaccine . The plague bacterium could
develop drug resistance and again become a major health threat. One
case of a drug-resistant form of the bacterium was found in Madagascar
in 1995. A further outbreak in
Madagascar was reported in November
The 12th-century French physician
Gilles de Corbeil 's _On the Signs
and Symptoms of Diseases_ (Latin : _De signis et sinthomatibus
egritudinum_) uses the phrase "black death" (_atra mors_) to refer to
a pestilential fever (_febris pestilentialis_).
Writers contemporary with the plague referred to the event as the
"GREAT MORTALITY" or the "GREAT PLAGUE".
The phrase "black death" (_mors nigra_) was used in 1350 by Simon de
Covino or Couvin, a Belgian astronomer, who wrote the poem "On the
Judgment of the Sun at a Feast of Saturn" (_De judicio Solis in
convivio Saturni_), which attributes the plague to a conjunction of
Jupiter and Saturn. In 1908, Gasquet claimed that use of the name
_atra mors_ for the 14th-century epidemic first appeared in a 1631
book on Danish history by J. I. Pontanus : "Commonly and from its
effects, they called it the black death" (_Vulgo ">
* _Black Death_ (film)
Black Death in England
CCR5 , a human gene hypothesised to be associated with the plague
* Crisis of the Late
Cronaca fiorentina _ (_Chronicle of Florence_); a literary
history of the plague, and of
Florence up to 1386, by Baldassarre
* _Doomsday Book _, a science fiction novel written by Connie Willis
Four thieves vinegar ; a popular French legend saying this recipe
provided immunity to the plague
Globalisation and disease
Last outbreak of bubonic plague in England (1906–1918)
Plague doctor costume
* Ring a Ring o\' Roses
Timeline of plague
The Seventh Seal
The Seventh Seal _, a film directed by Ingmar Bergman
* ^ _A_ _B_ ABC/Reuters (29 January 2008). "Black death
\'discriminated\' between victims (ABC News in Science)". Australian
Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Health. De-coding the Black Death". BBC. 3 October
2001. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Black Death\'s Gene Code Cracked". _Wired_. 3 October
2001. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
* ^ Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz M, Kacki
S, Vermunt M, Weston DA, Hurst D, Achtman M, Carniel E, Bramanti B
(2010). Besansky, Nora J, ed. "Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis
caused the black death" . _PLoS Pathog_. 6 (10): e1001134. PMC 2951374
_. PMID 20949072 . doi :10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134 . CS1 maint:
Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ A_ _B_ Bos KI, Schuenemann VJ, Golding GB, Burbano HA,
Waglechner N, Coombes BK, McPhee JB, DeWitte SN, Meyer M, Schmedes S,
Wood J, Earn DJ, Herring DA, Bauer P, Poinar HN, Krause J (12 October
2011). "A draft genome of
Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black
Death". _Nature_. 478 (7370): 506–10.
PMC 3690193 _. PMID 21993626 . doi :10.1038/nature10549 .
* ^ "
BBC – History – Black Death". BBC. 17 February 2011.
* ^ Austin Alchon, Suzanne (2003). A pest in the land: new world
epidemics in a global perspective_. University of New Mexico Press. p.
21. ISBN 0-8263-2871-7 .
* ^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". Census.gov.
Retrieved November 12, 2016.
* ^ Wheeler, Dr. L. Kip. "The Black Plague: The Least You Need to
Know". _Dr. Wheeler's website_. Dr. L. Kip Wheeler. Retrieved 9 August
* ^ Ziegler 1998 , p. 25.
* ^ Raoult; Drancourt (2008). "Paleomicrobiology: Past Human
Infections". Springer: 152.
Nicholas Wade (31 October 2010). "Europe’s Plagues Came From
China, Study Finds". _
The New York Times _. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
* ^ The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border
states, 907–1368, p. 585.
* ^ Kohn, George C. (2008). _Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence:
from ancient times to the present_. Infobase Publishing. p. 31. ISBN
* ^ Sussman GD (2011). "Was the black death in India and China?".
_Bulletin of the history of medicine_. 85 (3): 319–55. PMID 22080795
. doi :10.1353/bhm.2011.0054 .
* ^ "
Black Death may have originated in China". _The Daily
Telegraph_. 1 November 2010.
* ^ Hecker 1859 , p. 21 cited by Ziegler, p. 15.
* ^ "Channel 4 – History – The Black Death". Channel 4.
Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ Michael of Piazza (Platiensis) _Bibliotheca scriptorum qui res
in Sicilia gestas retulere_ Vol 1, p. 562, cited in Ziegler, 1998, p.
* ^ De Smet, Vol II, _Breve Chronicon_, p. 15.
* ^ Gunnar Karlsson (2000). _Iceland\'s 1100 years: the history of
a marginal society_. London:C. Hurst. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85065-420-9 .
* ^ Zuchora-Walske, Christine, Poland, North Mankato: ABDO
* ^ Welford, Mark; Bossak, Brian H. (2010-06-04). "Revisiting the
Black Death of 1347–1351: Spatiotemporal Dynamics
Suggestive of an Alternate Causation". _Geography Compass_. 4 (6):
561–75. ISSN 1749-8198 . doi :10.1111/j.1749-8198.2010.00335.x .
* ^ Baggaley, Kate (24 February 2015). "
Bubonic plague was a serial
visitor in European Middle Ages". Science News. Retrieved 24 February
* ^ Schmid, Boris V. (2015). "Climate-driven introduction of the
Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe". _Proc
Natl Acad Sci USA_. 112 (10): 3020–25.
PMC 4364181 _. PMID 25713390 . doi :10.1073/pnas.1412887112 .
Retrieved 24 February 2015.
* ^ A_ _B_ _C_ Byrne 2004 , pp. 21–29
* ^ Giovanni
Boccaccio (1351). "
* ^ Ziegler 1998 , pp. 18–19.
* ^ D. Herlihy, _The
Black Death and the Transformation of the
West_ (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1997), p.
* ^ Horrox, Rosemary (1994). _Black Death_. ISBN 978-0-7190-3498-5
* ^ "Plague Backgrounder". Avma.org. Archived from the original on
16 May 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ Horrox 1994 , p. 159.
* ^ Sehdev PS (2002). "The Origin of Quarantine". _Clinical
Infectious Diseases_. 35 (9): 1071–72. PMID 12398064 . doi
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Christakos, George; Olea,
Ricardo A.; Serre, Marc L.; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Lin-Lin (2005).
_Interdisciplinary Public Health Reasoning and Epidemic Modelling: the
Case of Black Death_. Springer. pp. 110–14. ISBN 3-540-25794-2 .
* ^ Gasquet 1893 .
* ^ Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (24 September 2015). "FAQ:
Plague". Retrieved 24 April 2017.
* ^ R. Totaro _Suffering in Paradise: The Bubonic Plague in English
Literature from More to Milton_ (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University
Press, 2005), p. 26
* ^ Byrne 2004 , p. 8.
* ^ Drancourt M, Aboudharam G, Signoli M, Dutour O, Raoult D
(1998). "Detection of 400-year-old
DNA in human dental
pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia" . _Proc Natl
Acad Sci U S A_. 95 (21): 12637–40.
PMC 22883 _. PMID 9770538 . doi :10.1073/pnas.95.21.12637 . see
alsoMichel Drancourt; Didier Raoult (2004). "Molecular detection of
Yersinia pestis in dental pulp". Microbiology_. 150 (2): 263–64. doi
* ^ _A_ _B_ Haensch S, Bianucci R, Signoli M, Rajerison M, Schultz
M, Kacki S, Vermunt M, Weston DA, Hurst D, Achtman M, Carniel E,
Bramanti B (2010). Besansky NJ, ed. "Distinct Clones of Yersinia
pestis Caused the Black Death" . _PLoS Pathogens_. 6 (10): e1001134.
PMC 2951374 _. PMID 20949072 . doi :10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134 .
* ^ Schuenemann VJ, Bos K, DeWitte S, Schmedes S, Jamieson J,
Mittnik A, Forrest S, Coombes BK, Wood JW, Earn DJD, White W, Krause
J, Poinar H (2011): Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding
the pPCP1 plasmid of
Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.
PNAS 2011; published ahead of print 29 August 2011, doi
* ^ A_ _B_ _C_ Thorpe, Vanessa (29 March 2014). "Black death was
not spread by rat fleas, say researchers". _theguardian.com_.
Retrieved 29 March 2014.
* ^ "
Black Death skeletons unearthed by Crossrail project". _BBC
* ^ Ziegler 1998 , p. 233.
* ^ McCormick, Michael (1 July 2003). "Rats, Communications, and
Plague: Toward an Ecological History". _Journal of Interdisciplinary
History_. 34 (1): 6. ISSN 0022-1953 . doi :10.1162/002219503322645439
* ^ Walloe, Lars (2008). Vivian Nutton, ed. _Medieval and Modern
Bubonic Plague: some clinical continuities_. Pestilential
Complexities: Understanding Medieval Plague. Wellcome Trust Centre for
the History of Medicine at UCL. p. 69.
* ^ Green, Monica (2014). "Taking "Pandemic" Seriously: Making the
Black Death Global". _The Medieval Globe_: 31ff.
* ^ M. Kennedy. "
Black Death study lets rats off the hook". _The
Guardian_. London: The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-2829-2 . .
* ^ B. Slone. _The
Black Death in London_. London: The History
Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-2829-2 . .
* ^ Olea Ricardo A.; Christakos G. (2005). "Duration assessment of
urban mortality for the 14th century
Black Death epidemic". _Human
Biology_. 77 (3): 291–303. PMID 16392633 . doi
Philip Daileader , _The Late Middle Ages_, audio/video course
The Teaching Company , (2007) ISBN 978-1-59803-345-8 .
* ^ Ole J. Benedictow, "The Black Death: The Greatest Catastrophe
Ever", _History TodayVolume 55 Issue 3 March 2005_
Cf. Benedictow, _The
Black Death 1346–1353: The Complete History_,
Boydell Press (7 Dec. 2012), pp. 380ff.
* ^ Kathryn Jean Lopez (14 September 2005). "Q&A with John Kelly on
The Great Mortality on National Review Online". Nationalreview.com.
Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 9 November
* ^ Egypt – Major Cities, _U.S. Library of Congress_
* ^ Snell, Melissa (2006). "The Great Mortality".
Historymedren.about.com. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
* ^ Dick, HC; Pringle, JK; Sloane, B; Carver, J; Wisneiwski, KD;
Haffenden, A; Porter, S; Roberts, D; Cassidy, NJ (2015). "Detection
and characterisation of
Black Death burials by multi-proxy geophysical
methods". _Journal of Archaeological Sciences_. 59: 132–41. doi
* ^ Richard Wunderli (1992). _Peasant Fires: The Drummer of
Indiana University Press . p. 52. ISBN 0-253-36725-5 .
* ^ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, _Medieval Europe: A Short
History_ (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 329.
* ^ _A_ _B_ David Nirenberg, _Communities of Violence_, 1998, ISBN
* ^ R.I. Moore _The Formation of a Persecuting Society_, Oxford,
1987 ISBN 0-631-17145-2 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ J. M. Bennett and C. W. Hollister, _Medieval Europe: A
Short History_ (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006), p. 326.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Black Death, Jewishencyclopedia.com
* ^ "Jewish History 1340–1349".
* ^ "_The Great Plague_". Stephen Porter (2009). Amberley
Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1-84868-087-2 .
* ^ J. N. Hays (1998). "_The burdens of disease: epidemics and
human response in western history._". p. 58. ISBN 0-8135-2528-4 .
* ^ "_Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history_". J.
N. Hays (2005). p. 46. ISBN 1-85109-658-2 .
* ^ Geoffrey Parker (2001). "_
Europe in crisis, 1598–1648_".
Wiley-Blackwell. p. 7. ISBN 0-631-22028-3 .
* ^ _The
Black Death in Egypt and England: A Comparative Study_,
Stuart J. Borsch, Austin: University of Texas
* ^ Secondary sources such as the _Cambridge History of Medieval
England_ often contain discussions of methodology in reaching these
figures that are necessary reading for anyone wishing to understand
this controversial episode in more detail.
* ^ "
BBC – History – Black Death". BBC. p. 131. Retrieved 3
* ^ Gottfried, Robert S. (1983). _The Black Death: Natural and
Human Disaster in Medieval Europe_. London: Hale. ISBN 0-7090-1299-3 .
* ^ "
BBC – Radio 4 Voices of the Powerless – 29 August 2002
Plague in Tudor and Stuart Britain". BBC. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ Plague Archived 7 June 2013 at the
Wayback Machine ., 1911
Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
* ^ Vanessa Harding (2002). "_The dead and the living in Paris and
London, 1500–1670._". p. 25. ISBN 0-521-81126-0 .
* ^ Byrne 2004 , p. 62.
* ^ Vanessa Harding (2002). "_The dead and the living in Paris and
London, 1500–1670._". p. 24. ISBN 0-521-81126-0 .
* ^ "Plague in London: spatial and temporal aspects of mortality",
J. A. I. Champion, _Epidemic Disease in London_, _Centre for
Metropolitan History Working Papers Series_, No. 1 (1993).
* ^ Geography, climate, population, economy, society. J.P.
* ^ "_Crisis and Change in the Venetian Economy in the Sixteenth
and Seventeenth Centuries_". Brian Pullan. (2006). p. 151. ISBN
* ^ "_Medicine and society in early modern Europe_". Mary Lindemann
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press . p. 41. ISBN 0-521-42354-6 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Harald Aastorp (1 August 2004). "Svartedauden enda
verre enn antatt". Forskning.no. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
* ^ Øivind Larsen. "DNMS.NO : Michael: 2005 : 03/2005 : Book
Black Death and hard facts". Dnms.no. Retrieved 3 November
* ^ Karl Julius Beloch, _Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens_, volume
3, pp. 359–60.
* ^ "
Naples in the 1600s". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. Archived from the
original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ The Seventeenth-Century Decline, S. G. Payne, _A History of
Spain and Portugal_
* ^ _A_ _B_ "_Armies of pestilence: the effects of pandemics on
history_". James Clarke & Co. (2004). p. 72. ISBN 0-227-17240-X
* ^ "Kathy McDonough, Empire of Poland". Depts.washington.edu.
Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 3 November
* ^ "_
Bubonic plague in early modern Russia: public health and
urban disaster_". John T. Alexander (2002). Oxford University Press US
. p. 21. ISBN 0-19-515818-0 .
* ^ "Ruttopuisto – Plague Park". Tabblo.com. Archived from the
original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
* ^ "_Stockholm: A Cultural History_". Tony Griffiths (2009).
Oxford University Press US . p. 9. ISBN 0-19-538638-8 .
* ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Black
Death)". Ucalgary.ca. Archived from the original on 21 July 2009.
Retrieved 10 December 2011.
* ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). _Encyclopedia of Pestilence,
Pandemics, and Plagues: A–M_. ABC-CLIO. p. 519. ISBN 0-313-34102-8 .
* ^ "_Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the
Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800_". Robert
Davis (2004). ISBN 1-4039-4551-9 .
* ^ Université de Strasbourg. Institut de turcologie, Université
de Strasbourg. Institut d'études turques, Association pour le
développement des études turques. (1998). _Turcica_. Éditions
Klincksieck. p. 198. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link )
* ^ "_The Fertile Crescent, 1800–1914: a documentary economic
history_". Charles Philip Issawi (1988).
Oxford University Press US .
p. 99. ISBN 0-19-504951-9 .
* ^ Infectious Diseases: Plague Through History, sciencemag.org
* ^ Bubonic Plague comes to Sydney in 1900, University of Sydney,
Sydney Medical School
* ^ Chase, Marilyn (2004). _The Barbary Plague: The
Black Death in
Victorian San Francisco_. Random House Digital. ISBN 0-375-75708-2 .
* ^ Echenberg, Myron (2007). _Plague Ports: The Global Urban Impact
of Bubonic Plague: 1894–1901_. Sacramento: New York University
Press. ISBN 0-8147-2232-6 .
* ^ Kraut, Alan M. (1995). _Silent travelers: germs, genes, and the
"immigrant menace"_. JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-5096-7 .
* ^ Markel, Howard (2005). _When Germs Travel: Six Major Epidemics
That Have Invaded America And the Fears They Have Unleashed_. Random
House Digital. ISBN 0-375-72602-0 .
* ^ Kalisch, Philip A. (Summer 1972). "The
Black Death in
Chinatown: Plague and Politics in San Francisco 1900–1904". _Arizona
and the West_. Journal of the Southwest. 14 (2): 113–36. JSTOR
* ^ Risse, Guenter B. (2012). "Bubonic Plague Visits San
Francisco's Chinatown". _Plague, Fear, and Politics in San
Francisco\'s Chinatown_. JHU Press. ISBN 1-4214-0510-5 .
* ^ Shah, Nayan (2001). _Contagious divides: Epidemics and race in
San Francisco's Chinatown_. University of California Press. ISBN
* ^ Human Plague – United States, 1993–1994, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention
* ^ Drug-resistant plague a \'major threat\', say scientists,
* ^ "Plague – Madagascar". World Health Organisation. 21 November
2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
* ^ See: Stephen d'Irsay (May 1926) "Notes to the origin of the
expression: atra mors," _Isis_, 8 (2): 328–332.
* ^ As seen in John of Fordun's _Scotichronicon_, where he writes
"there was a great pestilence and mortality of men". Horrox, Rosemary
(1994). _Black Death_. ISBN 978-0-7190-3498-5 .
* On page 22 of the manuscript in Gallica, Simon mentions the phrase
"_mors nigra_" (Black Death): "_Cum rex finisset oracula judiciorum /
Mors nigra surrexit, et gentes reddidit illi_;" (When the king ended
the oracles of judgment /
Black Death arose, and the nations
surrendered to him;).
* A more legible copy of the poem appears in: Emile Littré (1841)
"Opuscule relatif à la peste de 1348, composé par un contemporain"
(Work concerning the plague of 1348, composed by a contemporary),
_Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes_, 2 (2) : 201–243; see
especially p. 228.
* See also: Joseph Patrick Byrne, _The Black Death_ (Westport,
Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2004), p. 1.
* ^ Francis Aidan Gasquet, _The
Black Death of 1348 and 1349_, 2nd
ed. (London, England: George Bell and Sons, 1908), p. 7. Johan
Isaksson Pontanus, _Rerum Danicarum Historia_ ... (Amsterdam
(Netherlands): Johann Jansson, 1631), p. 476.
* ^ The German physician Justus Hecker (1795–1850) cited the
phrase in Icelandic (_Svarti Dauði_), Danish (_den sorte Dod_), etc.
See: J. F. C. Hecker, _Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert_
(Berlin, (Germany): Friedr. Aug. Herbig, 1832), page 3.
* ^ The name "Black Death" first appeared in English in:
* "Mrs. Markham" (pen name of Elizabeth Penrose (née Cartwright)),
_A History of England_ ... (Edinburgh, Scotland: Archibald Constable,
1823). In the 1829 edition, the relevant text appeared on pages
249–250, where, about the English king Edward III, she wrote:
"Edward's successes in France were interrupted during the next six
years by a most terrible pestilence — so terrible as to be called
the black death — which raged throughout Europe, and proved a
greater scourge to the people than even the calamities of war." (For
further information about this book and Mrs. Penrose, see: Wikisource
and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography).
* See also: J. L. Bolton, "Looking for _Yersinia pestis_:
Scientists, Historians and the Black Death" in: Linda Clark and Carole
Rawcliffe, ed.s, _The Fifteenth Century XII: Society in an Age of
Plague_ (Woodbridge, England: Boydell Press, 2013), p. 15.
The name "Black Death" was spread more widely when in 1833, Benjamin
Guy Babington published an English translation of J. F. C. Hecker's
book _Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert_ as: J. F. C. Hecker
with Benjamin Guy Babington, trans., _The
Black Death in the
Fourteenth Century_ (London, England: A. Schloss, 1833).
* Armstrong, Dorsey (2016). _"The Black Death: The World\'s Most
Devastating Plague"_. The Great Courses. ASIN B01FWOO2G6 .
* Benedictow, Ole Jørgen (2004). _
Black Death 1346–1353: The
Complete History_. ISBN 978-1-84383-214-0 .
* Byrne, J. P. (2004). _The Black Death_. London: Greenwood
Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32492-1 .
* Cantor, Norman F. (2001), _In the Wake of the Plague: The Black
Death and the World It Made_, New York, Free Press.
* Cohn, Samuel K. Jr., (2002), _The
Black Death Transformed: Disease
and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe_, London: Arnold.
* Gasquet, Francis Aidan (1893). _The Great Pestilence AD 1348 to
1349: Now Commonly Known As the Black Death_. ISBN 978-1-4179-7113-8 .
* Hecker, J.F.C. (1859). B.G. Babington(trans), ed. _Epidemics of
the Middle Ages_. London, Trübner.
* Herlihy, D., (1997), _The
Black Death and the Transformation of
the West_, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
* McNeill, William H. (1976). _Plagues and Peoples_.
Anchor/Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-11256-4 .
* Scott, S., and Duncan, C. J., (2001), _Biology of Plagues:
Evidence from Historical Populations_, Cambridge: Cambridge University
* Shrewsbury, J. F. D., (1970), _A History of Bubonic Plague in the
British Isles_, London: Cambridge University Press.
* Twigg, G., (1984), _The Black Death: A Biological Reappraisal_,
* Ziegler, Philip (1998). _The Black Death_. Penguin Books. ISBN
978-0-14-027524-7 . 1st editions 1969.
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