HOME
The Info List - Black Fly


--- Advertisement ---



Genera

Araucnephia Araucnephioides Archicnephia Austrosimulium Baisomyia Cnephia Cnesia Cnesiamima Crozetia Ectemnia Gigantodax Greniera Gydarina Gymnopais Kovalevimyia Levitinia Lutzsimulium Mayacnephia Metacnephia Paracnephia Parasimulium Paraustrosimulium Pedrowygomyia Prosimulium Simuliites Simulimima Simulium Stegopterna Sulcicnephia Titanopteryx Tlalocomyia Twinnia

Data related to Black fly
Black fly
at Wikispecies

A black fly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder. They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae. Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct.[1] They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and four species; Simuliinae
Simuliinae
contains all the rest. Over 1,800 of the species belong to the genus Simulium.[1] Most black flies gain nourishment by feeding on the blood of mammals, including humans, although the males feed mainly on nectar. They are usually small, black or gray, with short legs, and antennae. They are a common nuisance for humans, and many U.S. states have programs to suppress the black fly population. They spread several diseases, including river blindness in Africa ( Simulium
Simulium
damnosum and S. neavei) and the Americas (S. callidum and S. metallicum in Central America, S. ochraceum in Central and South America).

Contents

1 Ecology 2 Regional effects of black fly populations 3 Public health

3.1 River blindness

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Ecology[edit] Eggs are laid in running water, and the larvae attach themselves to rocks. Breeding success is highly sensitive to water pollution.[2] The larvae use tiny hooks at the ends of their abdomens to hold on to the substrate, using silk holdfasts and threads to move or hold their place. They have foldable fans surrounding their mouths. The fans expand when feeding, catching passing debris (small organic particles, algae, and bacteria). The larva scrapes the fan's catch into its mouth every few seconds. Black flies depend on lotic habitats to bring food to them. They will pupate under water and then emerge in a bubble of air as flying adults. They are often preyed upon by trout during emergence. The larva of some South African species are known to be phoretic on mayfly nymphs.

A female black fly

Adult males feed on nectar, while females exhibit anautogeny and feed on blood before laying eggs. Some species in Africa can range as far as 40 mi (64 km) from aquatic breeding sites in search of their blood meals, while other species have more limited ranges. Different species prefer different host sources for their blood meals, which is sometimes reflected in the common name for the species. They feed in the daytime, preferably when wind speeds are low. Black flies may be either univoltine or multivoltine, depending on the species. The number of generations a particular pest species has each year tends to correlate with the intensity of human efforts to control those pests. Work conducted at Portsmouth University
Portsmouth University
in 1986–1987[citation needed] indicates Simulium
Simulium
spp. create highly acidic conditions within their midguts. This basic environment provides conditions ideally suited to bacteria that metabolise cellulose. Insects cannot metabolise cellulose independently, but the presence of these bacteria allow cellulose to be metabolised into basic sugars. This provides nutrition to the black fly larvae, as well as the bacteria. This symbiotic relationship indicates a specific adaptation, as fresh-flowing streams could not provide sufficient nutrition to the growing larva in any other way.[citation needed] Regional effects of black fly populations[edit]

Black flies attack a canoe expedition in July 2015 in the Canadian Arctic, Dubawnt River, Nunavut.

In the wetter parts of the northern latitudes of North America, including parts of Canada, New England, Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, black fly populations swell from late April to July, becoming a nuisance to humans engaging in common outdoor activities, such as gardening, boating, camping, and backpacking. They can also be a significant nuisance in mountainous areas. Black flies are a scourge to livestock in Canada, causing weight loss in cattle and sometimes death.[3] Pennsylvania, in the United States, operates the largest single black fly control program in North America. The program is seen as beneficial to both the quality of life for residents and to the state's tourism industry.[4] The Blandford fly ( Simulium
Simulium
posticatum) in England was once a public health problem in the area around Blandford Forum, Dorset, due to its large numbers and the painful lesions caused by its bite. It was eventually controlled by carefully targeted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis.[5] In 2010, a summer surge of insect bites blamed on the Blandford fly required many who had been bitten to be treated in a hospital.[6] The New Zealand "sandflies" are actually black flies of the species Austrosimulium
Austrosimulium
australense and A. ungulatum.[7] In parts of Scotland, various species of black flies are a nuisance and bite humans, mainly between May and September. They are found mainly in mixed birch and juniper woodlands, and at lower levels in pine forests, moorlands, and pastures. Bites are most often found on the head, neck, and back. They also frequently land on legs and arms.

Public health[edit] Only four genera in the family Simuliidae, Simulium, Prosimulium, Austrosimulium, and Cnephia, contain species that feed on people, though other species prefer to feed on other mammals or on birds. Simulium, the type genus, is the most widespread and is a vector for several diseases, including river blindness. Mature adults can disperse tens or hundreds of kilometers from their breeding grounds in fresh flowing water, under their own power and assisted by prevailing winds, complicating control efforts. Swarming behavior can make outdoor activities unpleasant or intolerable, and can affect livestock production. During the 18th century, the "Golubatz fly" ( Simulium
Simulium
colombaschense) was a notorious pest in central Europe.[8] Even non-biting clouds of black flies, whether composed of males or of species that do not feed on humans or do not require a blood meal before egg laying, can form a nuisance by swarming into orifices. Bites are shallow and accomplished by first stretching the skin using teeth on the labrum and then abrading it with the maxillae and mandibles, cutting the skin and rupturing its fine capillaries. Feeding is facilitated by a powerful anticoagulant in the flies' saliva, which also partially numbs the site of the bite, reducing the host's awareness of being bitten and thereby extending the flies' feeding time. Biting flies feed during daylight hours only and tend to zero in on areas of thinner skin, such as the nape of the neck or ears and ankles. Itching
Itching
and localized swelling and inflammation sometimes result from a bite. Swelling can be quite pronounced depending on the species and the individual's immune response, and irritation may persist for weeks. Intense feeding can cause "black fly fever", with headache, nausea, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and aching joints; these symptoms are probably a reaction to a compound from the flies' salivary glands. Less common severe allergic reactions may require hospitalization.[9][10] Repellents provide some protection against biting flies. Products containing the active ingredient IR3535
IR3535
(ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate), DEET
DEET
(N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) or picaridin are most effective. However, given the limited effectiveness of repellents, protecting oneself against biting flies requires taking additional measures, such as avoiding areas inhabited by the flies, avoiding peak biting times, and wearing heavy-duty, light-colored clothing, including long-sleeve shirts, long pants and hats. When black flies, for example, are numerous and unavoidable, netting that covers the head, like the “bee bonnets” used by beekeepers, can provide protection.[11] River blindness[edit] Black flies are central to the transmission of the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus
Onchocerca volvulus
which causes onchocerciasis, or "river blindness". It serves as the larval host for the nematode and acts as the vector by which the disease is spread. The parasite lives on human skin and is transmitted to the black fly during feeding.[10] See also[edit]

Gnat "The Black Fly
Fly
Song", a song by Wade Hemsworth
Wade Hemsworth
inspired by his experiences with them and "Black Flies" by Bill Staines Use of DNA in forensic entomology

Notes[edit]

^ a b Adler, Peter H.; Crosskey, Roger W. (2017). World blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): a comprehensive revision of the taxonomic and geographical inventory [2017] (PDF). p. 11.  ^ Daley, Beth (2008-06-23). "Black flies surge in Maine's clean rivers". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-06-23.  ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Black Fly
Fly
Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Black Fly". Depweb.state.pa.us. Retrieved 2012-02-15.  ^ "Blandford's Most pernicious beast". Dorset Life. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ Hough, Andrew (2010-07-29). "Blandford fly: surge in 'infected' insect bites blamed on new superfly". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ "1. Sandflies: New Zealand's blackflies - Sandflies and mosquitoes - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". Teara.govt.nz. 2009-03-01. Retrieved 2012-02-15.  ^ Thompson, F. Christian (March 2001). "The Name of the Type Species of Simulium
Simulium
(Diptera: Simuliidae): an historical footnote". Entomological News. 112 (2): 125. Retrieved 2011-04-08.  ^ Mullen, Gary; Durden, Lance (2009). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4.  ^ a b Service, MW (2008). Medical Entomology for Students. Cambridge University Press. pp. 81–92. ISBN 978-0-521-70928-6.  ^ http://www.idph.state.il.us/envhealth/pcbitingflies.htm

References[edit]

Black Flies Fact Sheet from Ohio State University Extensive Simuliidae (black fly) Web pages at blackfly.org.uk Black fly
Black fly
species inventory

Bibliography[edit]

Kurtak, D. C. 1973. Observations on filter feeding by the larvae of black flies. PhD thesis. Cornell Univ., Ithaca. 157 pp. Kurtak, D. C. 1978. Efficiency of filter feeding of black fly larvae. Can. J. ZooL 56:1608-23 110.

External links[edit]

Taxonomy and systematics of Simuliidae Diptera.info Gallery Images

v t e

Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q720467 ADW: Simuliidae BugGuide: 16613 EoL: 9010 EPPO: 1SIMUF Fauna Europaea: 11646 Fossilworks: 138362 GBIF: 3522 ITIS: 126640 NCBI: 7190 WoRMS: 593214

Authority control

.