HOME
The Info List - Bjarmaland



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i)

BJARMALAND (also spelled Bjarmland and Bjarmia; in Latin
Latin
texts: Biarmia/Byarmia; Old English
Old English
: Beormaland ) was a territory mentioned in Norse sagas up to the Viking Age
Viking Age
and beyond in geographical accounts until the 16th century. The term is usually seen to have referred to the southern shores of the White Sea
White Sea
and the basin of the Northern Dvina
Northern Dvina
River (Vienanjoki in Finnish) and, presumably, some of the surrounding areas. Today, those territories comprise a part of the Arkhangelsk region of Russia
Russia
.

Bjarmians cannot be connected directly to any existing group of people living today, but it is likely that they were a separate group of Finnic speakers in the White Sea
White Sea
area. Toponyms and loan words in dialects in northern Russia
Russia
indicate that Finnic speaking populations used to live in the area. Also Russian chronicles mention groups of people in the area associated with Finno-Ugrian languages.

Accordingly, many historians assume the terms beorm and bjarm to derive from the Uralic word perm , which refers to "travelling merchants" and represents the Old Permic culture. However, some linguists consider this theory to be speculative.

The recent research on the Uralic substrate in northern Russian dialects suggests that several other Uralic groups besides the Permians, lived in Bjarmaland, assumed to have included the Viena Karelians, Sami and Kvens . According to Helimski, the language spoken in the northern Archangel region ca. 1000 AD, which he terms Lop', was closely related to but distinct from the Sami languages proper. That would fit Ottar's account perfectly.

Bjarmian trade reached southeast to Bolghar
Bolghar
, by the Volga River
Volga River
, where the Bjarmians also interacted with Scandinavians and Fennoscandians , who adventured southbound from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
area.

CONTENTS

* 1 Identification * 2 Early contacts * 3 Background * 4 Later Use * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References

IDENTIFICATION

The name Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
appears in Old Norse
Old Norse
literature, possibly referring to the area where Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
is presently situated, and where it was preceded by a Bjarmian settlement. The first appearance of the name occurs in an account of the travels of Ohthere of Hålogaland , which was written in about 890.

The name Permian is found in the oldest Rus\' , Nestor\'s Chronicle (1000–1100). The names of other Uralic tribes are also listed including Veps , Cheremis , Mordvin , and Chudes .

The place-name was also used later both by the German historian Adam of Bremen (11th century) and the Icelander Snorri Sturluson (1179–1241) in Bósa saga ok Herrauðs , reporting about its rivers flowing out to Gandvik . It's not clear if they reference the same Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
as was mentioned in the Voyage of Ohthere, however. The name of the Bjarmian god Jómali is so close to word god in most Finnic languages that Bjarmians where likely a Finnic group. In fact, languages belonging to other language group have never been suggested within serious research.

Olaus Magnus
Olaus Magnus
located Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
in the Kola Peninsula
Kola Peninsula
, while Johannes Schefferus (1621–1679) identified it with Lappland .

EARLY CONTACTS

A Norwegian map of the voyage of Ohthere

According to the Voyage of Ohthere , the Norwegian merchant Ottar (Ohthere) reported to king Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
that he had sailed for 15 days along the northern coast and then southwards, finally arriving at a great river, probably the Northern Dvina
Northern Dvina
. At the estuary of the river dwelt the Beormas, who unlike the nomadic Sami peoples were sedentary, and their land was rich and populous. Ohthere did not know their language but he said that it resembled the language of the Sami people . The Bjarmians told Ohthere about their country and other countries that bordered it.

Later several expeditions were undertaken from Norway
Norway
to Bjarmaland. In 920, Eric Bloodaxe
Eric Bloodaxe
made a Viking expedition, as well as Harald II of Norway
Norway
and Haakon Magnusson of Norway , in 1090.

The best known expedition was that of Tore Hund (Tore Dog) who together with some friends, arrived in Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
in 1026. They started to trade with the inhabitants and bought a great many pelts, whereupon they pretended to leave. Later, they made shore in secret, and plundered the burial site, where the Bjarmians had erected an idol of their god Jomali. This god had a bowl containing silver on his knees, and a valuable chain around his neck. Tore and his men managed to escape from the pursuing Bjarmians with their rich booty.

BACKGROUND

The Northern Land ( Viktor Vasnetsov , 1899).

Modern historians suppose that the wealth of the Bjarmians was due to their profitable trade along the Northern Dvina
Northern Dvina
, the Kama River and the Volga to Bolghar
Bolghar
and other trading settlements in the south. Along this route, silver coins and other merchandise were exchanged for pelts and walrus tusks brought by the Bjarmians. In fact, burial sites in modern Perm Krai are the richest source of Sasanian and Sogdian silverware from Iran
Iran
. Further north, the Bjarmians traded with the Sami.

It seems that the Scandinavians made some use of the Dvina trade route, in addition to the Volga trade route and Dnieper trade route . In 1217, two Norwegian traders arrived in Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
to buy pelts; one of the traders continued further south to pass to Russia
Russia
in order to arrive in the Holy Land
Holy Land
, where he intended to take part in the Crusades
Crusades
. The second trader who remained was, however, killed by the Bjarmians. This caused Norwegian officials to undertake a campaign of retribution into Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
which they pillaged in 1222.

The 13th century seems to have seen the decline of the Bjarmians, who became tributaries of the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
. While many Slavs fled the Mongol invasion northward, to Beloozero and Bjarmaland, the displaced Bjarmians sought refuge in Norway
Norway
, where they were given land around the Malangen fjord, by Haakon IV of Norway
Norway
, in 1240. More important for the decline was probably that, with the onset of the Crusades
Crusades
, the trade routes had found a more westerly orientation or shifted considerably to the south.

When the Novgorodians founded Velikiy Ustiug , in the beginning of the 13th century, the Bjarmians had a serious competitor for the trade. More and more Pomors arrived in the area during the 14th and 15th centuries, which led to the final subjugation and assimilation of the Bjarmians by the Slavs.

LATER USE

The collaborationist Quisling regime planned to build Norwegian colonies in Northern Russia
Russia
following Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
to be named Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
but, it never came to be.

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Germanic culture portal

* Ohthere of Hålogaland
Ohthere of Hålogaland
* Kvenland * Gardariki * Miklagard
Miklagard
* Vinland
Vinland
* Serkland * Skræling
Skræling

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E Edited by Joonas Ahola & Frog with Clive Tolley (2014). Fibula, Fabula, Fact - The Viking Age
Viking Age
in Finland. Vantaa: Studia Fennica. pp. 195–212. ISBN 978-952-222-603-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B Steinsland ">(PDF). Helsinki: Department of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures. pp. 109–127. ISBN 978-952-10-2852-6 . * ^ Ohthere\'s voyage to Bjarmaland. Original text and its English translation. * ^ The Uralic Language Family: Facts, Myths and Statistics., p21-23 ISBN 0-631-23170-6 * ^ Olaus Magnus
Olaus Magnus
Map of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
1539. See section C. * ^ "Stroganoff - collectors of antiquities in Perm". ARTinvestment.RU. 2010-11-28. * ^ Svetlana Kameneva. "Enigmatic relationship of Ancient Ural Culture And Sassanid dynasty" (PDF). Iran
Iran
Zamin. Vancouver: The Ancient Iranian Cultural & Religious Research & Development Center. 1 (3): 2–4. * ^ Norway's Nazi Collaborators Sought Russia
Russia
Colonies. The Associated Press. Oslo April 9, 2010.

REFERENCES

This article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok , a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain .

* Steinsland, G. ">

* v * t * e

Garðaríki
Garðaríki

Names in italics are settlements whose Norse names are not recorded

VOLKHOV -VOLGA TRADE ROUTE

* Lyubsha * Aldeigja * Álaborg * Duboviki * Hólmgarðr * Sarskoe * Timerevo * Balymer

DVINA -DNIEPER TRADE ROUTE

* Pallteskja * Gnezdovo * Chernigov * Kænugarðr

OTHER LOCATIONS

* Bjarmaland * Khortitsa * White Shores * Miklagarðr * Særkland

* Varangians
Varangians
* Kylfings * Chudes * Rus\' * Slavs * Merya
Merya
* Bulgars * Khazars * Romanians

* v * t * e

Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples

LANGUAGES

* Germanic parent language * Proto-Germanic language
Proto-Germanic language

* North Germanic languages
Germanic languages

* Old Norse
Old Norse

* West Germanic languages
Germanic languages

* Ingvaeonic languages
Ingvaeonic languages
* South Germanic

* Northwest Germanic * East Germanic languages
Germanic languages
* Germanic philology

PREHISTORY

* Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
* Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe
Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe
* Jastorf culture
Jastorf culture
* Nordwestblock
Nordwestblock
* Przeworsk culture
Przeworsk culture
* Wielbark culture
Wielbark culture
* Oksywie culture
Oksywie culture
* Chernyakhov culture
Chernyakhov culture

ROMAN IRON AGE IN NORTHERN EUROPE

* Magna Germania
Germania
* Germanic Wars
Germanic Wars
* Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
* Germania
Germania
* Irminones
Irminones
* Ingaevones
Ingaevones
* Istvaeones
Istvaeones
* Chatti
Chatti
* Marcomanni
Marcomanni
* Suebi
Suebi

MIGRATION PERIOD

* Germanic Iron Age
Germanic Iron Age
* Alemanni
Alemanni

* Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons

* Angles
Angles
* Jutes
Jutes
* Saxons
Saxons

* Burgundians
Burgundians
* Danes * Franks
Franks
* Frisii
Frisii
* Geats
Geats
* Gepids
Gepids

* Goths
Goths

* Visigoths
Visigoths
* Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
* Vagoth * Gothic War (376–382)
Gothic War (376–382)

* Gotlander
Gotlander
* Heruli
Heruli
* Lombards
Lombards
* Rugii
Rugii
* Scirii
Scirii
* Suebi
Suebi
* Swedes * Vandals
Vandals
* Varangians
Varangians
* Vikings
Vikings
* Christianization * Romanization

SOCIETY AND CULTURE

* Mead hall
Mead hall
* Alliterative verse
Alliterative verse
* Migration Period
Migration Period
art

* Runes
Runes

* Runic calendar
Runic calendar

* Sippe

* Ancient Germanic law

* Lawspeaker
Lawspeaker
* Thing

* Germanic calendar * Germanic kingship
Germanic kingship
* Germanic name * Numbers in Norse mythology * Romano-Germanic culture

RELIGION

* Odin
Odin
* Thor
Thor
* Nerthus
Nerthus
* Veleda
Veleda
* Tuisto
Tuisto
* Mannus * Sacred trees and groves

* Paganism

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental Germanic * Frankish * Norse

* Christianity

* Anglo-Saxon * Gothic

DRESS

* Bracteates * Fibula * Suebian knot
Suebian knot

WARFARE

* Gothic and Vandal warfare
Gothic and Vandal warfare
* Anglo-Saxon warfare
Anglo-Saxon warfare
* Viking Age
Viking Age
arms and armour * Migration Period
Migration Period
spear * Migration Period
Migration Period
sword

BURIAL PRACTICES

* Tumulus
Tumulus
* Ship burial
Ship burial
* Norse funeral * Alemannic grave fields * Sutton Hoo
Sutton Hoo
* Spong Hill
Spong Hill

* List of ancient Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
* Portal:Ancient Germanic culture

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Bjarmaland
Bjarmaland
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Latin

.

Time at 25189261.55, Busy percent: 49.681219955556

Warning: error_log(logs/periodic-service_log.txt): failed to open stream: Permission denied in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25189261.55 3logs/periodic-service_log.txt
Warning: file_get_contents(logs/periodicTasks.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /opt/lampp/htdocs/php/PeriodicService.php on line 40