The Info List - Bitter Orange

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Bitter orange, Seville
orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree ( Citrus
× aurantium) and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world.[3] Wild trees are found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida
and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain,[3] where it had been introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the Moors.[4][5] Bitter orange
Bitter orange
is marketed as a dietary supplement because of its stimulant properties.


1 Usage 2 Varieties 3 Cooking 4 Herbal stimulant

4.1 Similarities to ephedra 4.2 Drug interactions

5 Other uses 6 References 7 External links

Usage[edit] Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, and are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent. The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade. Bitter orange
Bitter orange
is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant, due to its active ingredient, synephrine.[6][7] Bitter orange
Bitter orange
supplements have been linked to a number of serious side effects and deaths,[citation needed] and consumer groups advocate that people avoid using the fruit medically.[8][9] It is still not concluded if bitter orange affects medical conditions of heart and cardiovascular organs, by itself or in formulae with other substances.[10] Standard reference materials are released concerning the properties in bitter orange by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), for ground fruit, extract and solid oral dosage form, along with those packaged together into one item.[11][12] Varieties[edit] See also: Citrus
taxonomy § Oranges

× aurantium subsp. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to southern Vietnam, but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in liqueur such as triple sec, Grand Marnier
Grand Marnier
and Curaçao. It is also cultivated for the essential oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange flower water, which are distilled from the flowers. Citrus
× aurantium var. myrtifolia is sometimes considered a separate species, Citrus
myrtifolia, the myrtle-leaved orange. A selection known as Chinotto is used for the namesake Italian soda beverage.[13] Citrus
× aurantium var. daidai, Daidai, is used in Chinese medicine and Japanese New Year
Japanese New Year
celebrations. The aromatic flowers are added to tea.[3] Citrus
bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is probably a bitter orange and limetta hybrid; it is cultivated in Italy
for the production of bergamot oil, a component of many brands of perfume and tea, especially Earl Grey tea.[14] Citrus
× aurantium subsp. currassuviencis, Laraha, grows on the Caribbean
island of Curaçao. The dried peels are used in the creation of Curaçao

Cooking[edit] Seville
orange (or bigarade) is a widely known, particularly tart orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange, and therefore giving a better set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes and for orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are collected from trees in Seville
and shipped to Britain to be used in marmalade.[15] However, the fruit is rarely consumed locally in Andalusia.[16]

The bitter orange, whole and sectioned.

English marmalade is traditionally homemade in the winter months

The Seville
orange—when preserved in sugar — is the principal ingredient in traditional British marmalade, reflecting the historic Atlantic
trading relationship with Portugal and Spain: the earliest recipe for 'marmelat of oranges' dating from 1677.[17][page needed] The peel can be used in the production of bitters. The unripe fruit, called narthangai, is commonly used in Southern Indian cuisine, especially in Tamil cuisine. It is pickled by cutting it into spirals and stuffing it with salt. The pickle is usually consumed with yoghurt rice called thayir sadam. The fresh fruit is also used frequently in pachadis. The Belgian Witbier
(white beer) is made from wheat beer spiced with the peel of the bitter orange. The Finnish and Swedish use bitter orange peel in gingerbread (pepparkakor), some Christmas bread and in mämmi. It is also used in the Nordic mulled wine glögg. In Greece and Cyprus, the nerántzi or kitrómilon, respectively, is one of the most prized fruits used for spoon sweets, and the C. aurantium tree (nerantziá or kitromiliá) is a popular ornamental tree. In Albania as well, "nerënxa" or "portokalli i hidhur" is used commonly in spoon sweets. The blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized sweet-smelling aromatic jam (" Bitter orange
Bitter orange
blossom jam" Morabba Bahar-Narendj), or added to brewing tea. In Turkey, juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing, especially in Çukurova
region. However, in Iraqi cuisine, a bitter orange or "raranj" in Iraqi is used to compliment dishes like Charred Fish "samak/simach maskouf", tomato stew "morgat tamata", "Qeema", a dish that has the same ingredients as an Iraqi tomato stew with the addition of minced meat, boiled chickpeas "lablabi", salads, as a dressing, and on essentially any dish one might desire to accompany bitter orange. Iraqis also consume it as a citrus fruit or juice it to make bitter orange juice "'aseer raranj". Throughout Iran (commonly known as narenj), the juice is popularly used as a salad dressing, souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade. In the Americas, the juice from the ripe fruit is used as a marinade for meat in Nicaraguan, Cuban, Dominican and Haitian cooking, as it is in Peruvian ceviche. In Yucatán (Mexico), it is a main ingredient of the cochinita pibil. Herbal stimulant[edit]

Bitter oranges

The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid and appetite suppressant. Bitter orange
Bitter orange
contains the tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine, octopamine and synephrine,[18] substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the α1 adrenergic receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate.[19][20] Several low-quality clinical trials have had results of p- Synephrine
(alone or in combination with caffeine or some other substances) increasing weight loss slightly.[21] Similarities to ephedra[edit] Following bans on the herbal stimulant ephedra in the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere, bitter orange has been substituted into "ephedra-free" herbal weight-loss products by dietary supplement manufacturers.[22] Like most dietary supplement ingredients, bitter orange has not undergone formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same spectrum of adverse events (harmful side-effects) as ephedra.[23] The U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
found that "there is currently little evidence that bitter orange is safer to use than ephedra."[7] Case reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes,[24][25] angina,[18] and ischemic colitis.[26] Following an incident in which a healthy young man suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack) linked to bitter orange, a case study found that dietary supplement manufacturers had replaced ephedra with its analogs from bitter orange.[27] Drug interactions[edit] Bitter orange
Bitter orange
may have serious drug interactions with drugs such as statins in a similar way to the long list of grapefruit–drug interactions.[28] Other uses[edit] This orange is used as a rootstock in groves of sweet orange.[3] The fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap.[3] The hard white or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into baseball bats in Cuba.[3] References[edit]

^ " Citrus
×aurantium". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States
United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-01-05.  ^ "The Plant
List: A Working List of All Plant
Species". Retrieved 29 September 2015.  ^ a b c d e f C. aurantium. Purdue Horticulture. ^ Morton, Julia (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami: Morton, J. 1987. Sour Orange. p. 130–133. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. pp. 130–133. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0.  ^ Trillo San Jose, Carmen (2004). Agua y Paisaje en Granada: Una Herencia de Al-Andalus. Granada, Spain: DIP. PROV. de Granada. ISBN 9788478073528.  ^ Sharpe PA, Granner ML, Conway JM, Ainsworth BE, Dobre M (December 2006). "Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 106 (12): 2045–51. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.09.014. PMID 17126636.  ^ a b "Bitter Orange". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  ^ Sources are claimed to be the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database 2007 and Consumers Union's medical and research consultants on the latter’s website. "Dietary supplements to avoid: Hazardous ingredients". Consumers Union of U.S., Inc. January 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "Dangerous Supplements: Twelve Supplements You Should Avoid". Consumer Reports Magazine. September 2010.  ^ "Bitter Orange: What Do We Know About Safety?". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "NIST Bitter Orange Reference Material Now Available". National Institute of Health. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ "Material Details: SRM 3261 - Bitter Orange Dietary Supplemental Suite". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ Roger M. Grace. "Cadbury Schweppes Reigns Supreme Over Orange Soda Market". metnews.com.  ^ " Citrus
bergamia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service
(ARS), United States
United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ Campaña de recogida de la naranja amarga.[permanent dead link] sevilla.org. ^ Apenas se aprovechará la naranja que se recoja en la capital este año. 20minutos.es. ^ Henry, Diana (2012). Salt sugar smoke : how to preserve fruit, vegetables, meat and fish. London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845336752.  ^ a b Gange CA, Madias C, Felix-Getzik EM, Weintraub AR, Estes NA (April 2006). "Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (4): 545–8. doi:10.4065/81.4.545. PMID 16610576.  ^ Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ (January 2006). " Blood pressure
Blood pressure
and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 40 (1): 53–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1G488. PMID 16317106.  ^ Hess AM, Sullivan DL (March 2005). "Potential for toxicity with use of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss". The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 39 (3): 574–5. doi:10.1345/aph.1E249. PMID 15657116.  ^ Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (August 2012). "A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus
aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine". Int J Med Sci. 9 (7): 527–538. doi:10.7150/ijms.4446. PMC 3444973 . PMID 22991491.  ^ Duenwald, Mary (2005-10-11). "Bitter Orange Under Scrutiny as New Ephedra". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  ^ Jordan S, Murty M, Pilon K (October 2004). "Products containing bitter orange or synephrine: suspected cardiovascular adverse reactions" (pdf). Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171 (8): 993–4. PMID 15497209.  ^ Bouchard NC, Howland MA, Greller HA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (April 2005). "Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra-free dietary supplement containing synephrine". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80 (4): 541–5. doi:10.4065/80.4.541. PMID 15819293.  ^ Holmes RO, Tavee J (July 2008). "Vasospasm and stroke attributable to ephedra-free xenadrine: case report". Military Medicine. 173 (7): 708–10. PMID 18700609.  ^ Sultan S, Spector J, Mitchell RM (December 2006). "Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary weight-loss supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (12): 1630–1. doi:10.4065/81.12.1630. PMID 17165643.  ^ Thomas JE, Munir JA, McIntyre PZ, Ferguson MA (2009). "STEMI in a 24-Year-Old Man after Use of a Synephrine-Containing Dietary Supplement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". Tex Heart Inst J. 36 (6): 586–90. PMC 2801940 . PMID 20069086.  ^ Mayo clinic: article on interference between grapefruit and medication

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citrus

Data related to Citrus
aurantium at Wikispecies Bitter Orange: Information from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health Bitter Orange List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases)

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True species

Australian and Papuan wild limes Byeonggyul Citron Clymenia Indian wild orange Ichang papeda Kumquat Mandarin Mangshanyegan Micrantha Pomelo

Major hybrids

Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange

True and hybrid cultivars

Alemow Amanatsu Bergamot orange Bizzaria Bitter orange Blood lime Blood orange Buddha's hand Cam sành Cara cara navel Cherry orange Citrange Citrumelo Clementine Daidai Dekopon Fairchild tangerine Florentine citron Hassaku orange Hebesu Hyuganatsu Imperial lemon Iyokan Jabara Jaffa orange Kabbad Kabosu Kaffir lime Kakadu lime Kalpi Key lime Khasi papeda Kinnow Kishumikan Kiyomi Komikan Laraha Lumia Mandelo Mandora Melanesian papeda Melogold Meyer lemon Murcott Myrtle-leaved orange tree Ōgonkan Orangelo/Chironja Oroblanco Palestinian sweet lime Persian lime Pixie mandarin Ponderosa lemon Ponkan Rangpur Reikou Rhobs el Arsa Rough lemon Sanboken Satsuma mandarin Setoka Shangjuan Shonan Gold Sudachi Sweet lemon Sweet limetta Tangelo Tangerine Tangor Ugli fruit Valencia orange Variegated pink lemon Winged lime Xã Đoài orange Yuukou mandarin Yuzu


Balady citron Corsican citron Diamante citron Fingered citron Greek citron Moroccan citron Yemenite citron

Mandarin oranges

Cleopatra mandarin Shīkwāsā Nanfengmiju


halimii or Mountain "citron" Ichang papeda


Banpeiyu Dangyuja

Australian and Papuan citrus (Microcitrus, Eromocitrus, Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)

Australian outback lime Australian round lime Brown River finger lime Desert lime Mount white lime (Microcitrus) New Guinea wild lime Russell River lime Clymenia Oxanthera

hybrids (×Citrofortunella)

Calamondin Citrangequat Limequat Orangequat Procimequat Sunquat Yuzuquat

Related genus

Poncirus/Trifoliate orange


Chūhai Curaçao Grapefruit
juice Lemonade Limeade Orange juice Yuja-hwachae Yuja tea


Calcium citrate Citric acid Lemonene Limonene Neroli Orange flower water Orange oil Orangeat Succade Zest


Black spot CTV/Tristeza Exocortis Greening Mal secco Phytophthora


Related topics

The Citrus
Industry Citrus
production Citrus
rootstock Citrus
taxonomy Cold-hardy citrus Hesperidium Japanese citrus List of citrus fruits Mother Orange Tree Orangery University of California Citrus
Experiment Station University of California, Riverside Citrus
Variety Collection

Book Category Production Commons

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q147096 APDB: 90371 EPPO: CIDAU FoC: 250084129 GBIF: 3190167 GRIN: 10684 IPNI: 59600-2 ITIS: 28884 NCBI: 43166 Plant
List: kew-2723957 PLANTS: CIAU8