BITTER ORANGE, SEVILLE ORANGE, SOUR ORANGE, BIGARADE ORANGE, or
MARMALADE ORANGE refers to a citrus tree (CITRUS × AURANTIUM) and its
fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans
to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams
in generally secluded and wooded parts of
Florida and The Bahamas
after it was introduced to the area from
Spain where it had been
introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the
It is a hybrid between
Citrus maxima (pomelo) and
(mandarin). Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their
essential oil , and are found in perfume , used as a flavoring or as a
solvent . The
Seville orange variety is used in the production of
Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and
appetite suppressant , due to its active ingredient, synephrine .
Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side
effects and deaths, and consumer groups advocate that people avoid
using the fruit medically.
* 1 Varieties
* 2 Cooking
* 3 Herbal stimulant
* 3.1 Similarities to ephedra
* 3.2 Drug interactions
* 4 Other uses
* 5 References
* 6 External links
Citrus taxonomy § Oranges
Citrus × aurantium subsp. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native
Vietnam , but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting
stock for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in liqueur such as triple
Grand Marnier and
Curaçao . It is also cultivated for the
essential oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange
flower water , which are distilled from the flowers .
Citrus × aurantium var. myrtifolia is sometimes considered a
Citrus myrtifolia , the myrtle-leaved orange. A
selection known as Chinotto is used for the namesake Italian soda
Citrus × aurantium var. daidai,
Daidai , is used in Chinese
Japanese New Year celebrations. The aromatic flowers are
added to tea.
Citrus bergamia, the
Bergamot orange , is probably a bitter orange
and limetta hybrid; it is cultivated in
Italy for the production of
bergamot oil, a component of many brands of perfume and tea ,
Earl Grey tea .
Citrus × aurantium subsp. currassuviencis,
Laraha , grows on the
Caribbean island of
Curaçao . The dried peels are used in the
Curaçao liqueur .
Seville orange (or bigarade) is a widely known, particularly tart
orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has
a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being
higher in pectin than the sweet orange , and therefore giving a better
set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes and for
orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are
collected from trees in
Seville and shipped to Britain to be used in
marmalade. However, the fruit is rarely consumed locally in Andalusia
. The bitter orange, whole and sectioned. English
marmalade is traditionally homemade in the winter months
Seville orange—when preserved in
Caribbean sugar —is the
principal ingredient in traditional British marmalade , reflecting the
Atlantic trading relationship with Portugal and Spain: the
earliest recipe for 'marmelat of oranges' dating from 1677. The peel
can be used in the production of bitters . The unripe fruit, called
narthangai, is commonly used in Southern Indian cuisine, especially in
Tamil cuisine . It is pickled by cutting it into spirals and stuffing
it with salt. The pickle is usually consumed with yoghurt rice called
thayir sadam . The fresh fruit is also used frequently in pachadis .
Witbier (white beer ) is made from wheat beer spiced with
the peel of the bitter orange. The Finnish and Swedish use bitter
orange peel in gingerbread (pepparkakor), some Christmas bread and in
mämmi . It is also used in the Nordic mulled wine glögg . In Greece
Cyprus , the nerántzi or kitrómilon, respectively, is one of the
most prized fruits used for spoon sweets , and the C. aurantium tree
(nerantziá or kitromiliá) is a popular ornamental tree . In Albania
as well, "nerënxa" or "portokalli i hidhur" is used commonly in spoon
sweets . The blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized
sweet-smelling aromatic jam ("
Bitter orange blossom jam" Morabba
Bahar-Narendj), or added to brewing tea.
In Turkey , juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing,
Çukurova region. However, in Iraqi cuisine, a bitter
orange or "raranj" in Iraqi is used to compliment dishes like Charred
Fish "samak/simach maskouf", tomato stew "morgat tamata", "Qeema", a
dish that has the same ingredients as an Iraqi tomato stew, with the
addition of minced meat, boiled chikpeas "lablabi", salads as a
dressing and pretty much on every single dish you desire to accompany
bitter orange with. Iraqis also consume it as a citrus fruit or juice
it to make bitter orange juice "'aseer raranj". Throughout Iran
(commonly known as narenj), the juice is popularly used as a salad
dressing, souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade .
In the Americas , the juice from the ripe fruit is used as a marinade
for meat in Nicaraguan , Cuban , Dominican and Haitian cooking, as it
is in Peruvian ceviche . In Yucatán (Mexico), it is a main ingredient
of the cochinita pibil .
The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been
marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid
and appetite suppressant .
Bitter orange contains the tyramine
metabolites N-methyltyramine , octopamine and synephrine , substances
similar to epinephrine , which act on the α1 adrenergic receptor to
constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate .
Several low-quality clinical trials have had results of p-Synephrine
(alone or in combination with caffeine or some other substances)
increasing weight loss slightly.
SIMILARITIES TO EPHEDRA
Following bans on the herbal stimulant ephedra in the U.S. ,
and elsewhere, bitter orange has been substituted into "ephedra-free"
herbal weight-loss products by dietary supplement manufacturers. Like
most dietary supplement ingredients, bitter orange has not undergone
formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same spectrum
of adverse events (harmful side-effects) as ephedra. The U.S.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health found that
"there is currently little evidence that bitter orange is safer to use
Case reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes ,
angina , and ischemic colitis . Following an incident in which a
healthy young man suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack)
linked to bitter orange, a case study found that dietary supplement
manufacturers had replaced ephedra with its analogs from bitter
Bitter orange may have serious drug interactions with drugs such as
statins in a similar way to the long list of grapefruit–drug
This orange is used as a rootstock in groves of sweet orange. The
fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap . The hard white
or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into baseball
* ^ "
Citrus × aurantium L.". Germplasm Resources Information
United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-12-17.
* ^ "The
Plant List: A Working List of All
Retrieved 29 September 2015.
* ^ A B C D E F C. aurantium. Purdue Horticulture.
* ^ Morton, Julia (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami: Morton,
J. 1987. Sour Orange. p. 130–133. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia
F. Morton, Miami, FL. pp. 130–133. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0 .
* ^ TRILLO SAN JOSE, CARMEN (2004). AGUA Y PAISAJE EN GRANADA: UNA
HERENCIA DE AL-ANDALUS. Granada, Spain: DIP. PROV. DE GRANADA. ISBN
* ^ "
Plant Profile for
Citrus ×aurantium L. (pro sp.),
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(December 2006). "Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of
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* ^ A B "Bitter Orange". National Center for Complementary and
Integrative Health . April 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
* ^ "Dangerous Supplements: Twelve Supplements You Should Avoid".
Consumer Reports Magazine. September 2010.
* ^ Roger M. Grace. "Cadbury Schweppes Reigns Supreme Over Orange
Soda Market". metnews.com.
* ^ "
Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.". Germplasm Resources
* ^ Campaña de recogida de la naranja amarga. sevilla.org.
* ^ Apenas se aprovechará la naranja que se recoja en la capital
este año. 20minutos.es.
* ^ Henry, Diana (2012). Salt sugar smoke : how to preserve fruit,
vegetables, meat and fish. London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN
* ^ A B Gange CA, Madias C, Felix-Getzik EM, Weintraub AR, Estes NA
(April 2006). "Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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16610576 . doi :10.4065/81.4.545 .
* ^ Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ (January 2006). "Blood pressure
and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange". The
Annals of Pharmacotherapy . 40 (1): 53–7. PMID 16317106 . doi
* ^ Hess AM, Sullivan DL (March 2005). "Potential for toxicity with
use of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss". The Annals
of pharmacotherapy. 39 (3): 574–5. PMID 15657116 . doi
* ^ Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (August 2012). "A review of the
human clinical studies involving
Citrus aurantium (bitter orange)
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* ^ Duenwald, Mary (2005-10-11). "Bitter Orange Under Scrutiny as
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* ^ Jordan S, Murty M, Pilon K (October 2004). "Products containing
bitter orange or synephrine: suspected cardiovascular adverse
Canadian Medical Association Journal
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993–4. PMID 15497209 .
* ^ Bouchard NC, Howland MA, Greller HA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS
(April 2005). "Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra-free
dietary supplement containing synephrine". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80
(4): 541–5. PMID 15819293 . doi :10.4065/80.4.541 .
* ^ Holmes RO, Tavee J (July 2008). "Vasospasm and stroke
attributable to ephedra-free xenadrine: case report". Military
Medicine . 173 (7): 708–10. PMID 18700609 .
* ^ Sultan S, Spector J, Mitchell RM (December 2006). "Ischemic
colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary
weight-loss supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (12): 1630–1.
PMID 17165643 . doi :10.4065/81.12.1630 .
* ^ Thomas JE, Munir JA, McIntyre PZ, Ferguson MA (2009). "STEMI in
a 24-Year-Old Man after Use of a Synephrine-Containing Dietary
Supplement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature" . Tex Heart
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* ^ Mayo clinic: article on interference between grapefruit and
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