Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or
marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree (
Citrus × aurantium) and its
fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans
to many parts of the world. Wild trees are found near small streams
in generally secluded and wooded parts of
Florida and The Bahamas
after it was introduced to the area from Spain, where it had been
introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the
Bitter orange is marketed as a dietary supplement because
of its stimulant properties.
4 Herbal stimulant
4.1 Similarities to ephedra
4.2 Drug interactions
5 Other uses
7 External links
Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, and
are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent. The Seville
orange variety is used in the production of marmalade.
Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and
appetite suppressant, due to its active ingredient, synephrine.
Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side
effects and deaths, and consumer groups advocate that
people avoid using the fruit medically. It is still not
concluded if bitter orange affects medical conditions of heart and
cardiovascular organs, by itself or in formulae with other
substances. Standard reference materials are released concerning
the properties in bitter orange by the National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST), for ground fruit, extract and solid oral dosage
form, along with those packaged together into one item.
Citrus taxonomy § Oranges
Citrus × aurantium subsp. amara is a spiny evergreen tree native to
southern Vietnam, but widely cultivated. It is used as grafting stock
for citrus trees, in marmalade, and in liqueur such as triple sec,
Grand Marnier and Curaçao. It is also cultivated for the essential
oil expressed from the fruit, and for neroli oil and orange flower
water, which are distilled from the flowers.
Citrus × aurantium var. myrtifolia is sometimes considered a separate
Citrus myrtifolia, the myrtle-leaved orange. A selection
known as Chinotto is used for the namesake Italian soda beverage.
Citrus × aurantium var. daidai, Daidai, is used in Chinese medicine
Japanese New Year
Japanese New Year celebrations. The aromatic flowers are added to
Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is probably a bitter orange and
limetta hybrid; it is cultivated in
Italy for the production of
bergamot oil, a component of many brands of perfume and tea,
especially Earl Grey tea.
Citrus × aurantium subsp. currassuviencis, Laraha, grows on the
Caribbean island of Curaçao. The dried peels are used in the creation
Seville orange (or bigarade) is a widely known, particularly tart
orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has
a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being
higher in pectin than the sweet orange, and therefore giving a better
set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes and for
orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are
collected from trees in
Seville and shipped to Britain to be used in
marmalade. However, the fruit is rarely consumed locally in
The bitter orange, whole and sectioned.
English marmalade is traditionally homemade in the winter months
Seville orange—when preserved in sugar — is the principal
ingredient in traditional British marmalade, reflecting the historic
Atlantic trading relationship with Portugal and Spain: the earliest
recipe for 'marmelat of oranges' dating from
1677.[page needed] The peel can be used in the production of
bitters. The unripe fruit, called narthangai, is commonly used in
Southern Indian cuisine, especially in Tamil cuisine. It is pickled by
cutting it into spirals and stuffing it with salt. The pickle is
usually consumed with yoghurt rice called thayir sadam. The fresh
fruit is also used frequently in pachadis.
Witbier (white beer) is made from wheat beer spiced with
the peel of the bitter orange. The Finnish and Swedish use bitter
orange peel in gingerbread (pepparkakor), some Christmas bread and in
mämmi. It is also used in the Nordic mulled wine glögg. In Greece
and Cyprus, the nerántzi or kitrómilon, respectively, is one of the
most prized fruits used for spoon sweets, and the C. aurantium tree
(nerantziá or kitromiliá) is a popular ornamental tree. In Albania
as well, "nerënxa" or "portokalli i hidhur" is used commonly in spoon
sweets. The blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized
sweet-smelling aromatic jam ("
Bitter orange blossom jam" Morabba
Bahar-Narendj), or added to brewing tea.
In Turkey, juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing,
Çukurova region. However, in Iraqi cuisine, a bitter
orange or "raranj" in Iraqi is used to compliment dishes like Charred
Fish "samak/simach maskouf", tomato stew "morgat tamata", "Qeema", a
dish that has the same ingredients as an Iraqi tomato stew with the
addition of minced meat, boiled chickpeas "lablabi", salads, as a
dressing, and on essentially any dish one might desire to accompany
bitter orange. Iraqis also consume it as a citrus fruit or juice it to
make bitter orange juice "'aseer raranj". Throughout Iran (commonly
known as narenj), the juice is popularly used as a salad dressing,
souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade.
In the Americas, the juice from the ripe fruit is used as a marinade
for meat in Nicaraguan, Cuban, Dominican and Haitian cooking, as it is
in Peruvian ceviche. In Yucatán (Mexico), it is a main ingredient of
the cochinita pibil.
The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been
marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid
and appetite suppressant.
Bitter orange contains the tyramine
metabolites N-methyltyramine, octopamine and synephrine,
substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the α1 adrenergic
receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and
heart rate. Several low-quality clinical trials have had
results of p-
Synephrine (alone or in combination with caffeine or some
other substances) increasing weight loss slightly.
Similarities to ephedra
Following bans on the herbal stimulant ephedra in the U.S., Canada,
and elsewhere, bitter orange has been substituted into "ephedra-free"
herbal weight-loss products by dietary supplement manufacturers.
Like most dietary supplement ingredients, bitter orange has not
undergone formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same
spectrum of adverse events (harmful side-effects) as ephedra. The
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health found
that "there is currently little evidence that bitter orange is safer
to use than ephedra."
Case reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes,
angina, and ischemic colitis. Following an incident in which a
healthy young man suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack)
linked to bitter orange, a case study found that dietary supplement
manufacturers had replaced ephedra with its analogs from bitter
Bitter orange may have serious drug interactions with drugs such as
statins in a similar way to the long list of grapefruit–drug
This orange is used as a rootstock in groves of sweet orange. The
fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap. The hard
white or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into
baseball bats in Cuba.
Citrus ×aurantium". Germplasm Resources Information Network
Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service (ARS),
United States Department
of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-01-05.
Plant List: A Working List of All
Plant Species". Retrieved 29
^ a b c d e f C. aurantium. Purdue Horticulture.
^ Morton, Julia (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami: Morton, J.
1987. Sour Orange. p. 130–133. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F.
Morton, Miami, FL. pp. 130–133. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0.
^ Trillo San Jose, Carmen (2004). Agua y Paisaje en Granada: Una
Herencia de Al-Andalus. Granada, Spain: DIP. PROV. de Granada.
^ Sharpe PA, Granner ML, Conway JM, Ainsworth BE, Dobre M (December
2006). "Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit
of retail outlets in a southeastern city". Journal of the American
Dietetic Association. 106 (12): 2045–51.
doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.09.014. PMID 17126636.
^ a b "Bitter Orange". National Center for Complementary and
Integrative Health. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
^ Sources are claimed to be the Natural Medicines Comprehensive
Database 2007 and Consumers Union's medical and research consultants
on the latter’s website. "Dietary supplements to avoid: Hazardous
ingredients". Consumers Union of U.S., Inc. January 2008. Archived
from the original on 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
^ "Dangerous Supplements: Twelve Supplements You Should Avoid".
Consumer Reports Magazine. September 2010.
^ "Bitter Orange: What Do We Know About Safety?". National Center for
Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). Retrieved
^ "NIST Bitter Orange Reference Material Now Available". National
Institute of Health. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
^ "Material Details: SRM 3261 - Bitter Orange Dietary Supplemental
Suite". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved
^ Roger M. Grace. "Cadbury Schweppes Reigns Supreme Over Orange Soda
Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service (ARS),
United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2017-12-12.
^ Campaña de recogida de la naranja amarga.[permanent dead link]
^ Apenas se aprovechará la naranja que se recoja en la capital este
^ Henry, Diana (2012). Salt sugar smoke : how to preserve fruit,
vegetables, meat and fish. London: Mitchell Beazley.
^ a b Gange CA, Madias C, Felix-Getzik EM, Weintraub AR, Estes NA
(April 2006). "Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a
dietary supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (4): 545–8.
doi:10.4065/81.4.545. PMID 16610576.
^ Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ (January 2006). "
Blood pressure and
heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange". The
Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 40 (1): 53–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1G488.
^ Hess AM, Sullivan DL (March 2005). "Potential for toxicity with use
of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss". The Annals of
pharmacotherapy. 39 (3): 574–5. doi:10.1345/aph.1E249.
^ Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (August 2012). "A review of the human
clinical studies involving
Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract
and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine". Int J Med Sci. 9 (7):
527–538. doi:10.7150/ijms.4446. PMC 3444973 .
^ Duenwald, Mary (2005-10-11). "Bitter Orange Under Scrutiny as New
Ephedra". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
^ Jordan S, Murty M, Pilon K (October 2004). "Products containing
bitter orange or synephrine: suspected cardiovascular adverse
reactions" (pdf). Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171 (8):
993–4. PMID 15497209.
^ Bouchard NC, Howland MA, Greller HA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (April
2005). "Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra-free dietary
supplement containing synephrine". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80 (4):
541–5. doi:10.4065/80.4.541. PMID 15819293.
^ Holmes RO, Tavee J (July 2008). "Vasospasm and stroke attributable
to ephedra-free xenadrine: case report". Military Medicine. 173 (7):
708–10. PMID 18700609.
^ Sultan S, Spector J, Mitchell RM (December 2006). "Ischemic colitis
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^ Thomas JE, Munir JA, McIntyre PZ, Ferguson MA (2009). "STEMI in a
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^ Mayo clinic: article on interference between grapefruit and
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Data related to
Citrus aurantium at Wikispecies
Bitter Orange: Information from the National Center for Complementary
and Integrative Health
Bitter Orange List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Databases)
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True and hybrid
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Myrtle-leaved orange tree
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Rhobs el Arsa
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Xã Đoài orange
Citrus halimii or Mountain "citron"
Australian and Papuan citrus
Australian outback lime
Australian round lime
Brown River finger lime
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New Guinea wild lime
Russell River lime
Orange flower water
List of citrus fruits
Mother Orange Tree
University of California
Citrus Experiment Station
University of California, Riverside
Citrus Variety Collection
Plant List: kew-2723957