HOME
The Info List - Bison


--- Advertisement ---



B. bison B. bonasus †B. antiquus †B. hanaizumiensis †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. palaeosinensis †B. priscus †B. schoetensacki

Bison
Bison
are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison
Bison
within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in South Asia, and was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus (steppe bison), which was the ancestor of all other Bison
Bison
species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), and North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, and B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although commonly known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada,[1] it is only distantly related to the true buffalo. The North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, and the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, which is the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park
in Canada. A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison
Bison
(B. b. pennsylvanicus) is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison.[2] References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, which was not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle (genus Bos) and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron.

Contents

1 Description 2 Evolution and genetic history 3 Behavior 4 Habitat

4.1 Restrictions

5 Diet 6 Reproduction 7 Predators 8 Infections and illness 9 Name 10 Human impact 11 Nutrition 12 Meat
Meat
industry 13 See also 14 Footnotes 15 External links

Description[edit]

Magdalenian
Magdalenian
bison on plaque, 17,000–9,000 BC, Bédeilhac
Bédeilhac
grottoe, Ariège

The American bison
American bison
and the European bison
European bison
(Wisent) are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. Bison
Bison
are good swimmers and can cross rivers over half a mile (800 meters) wide. They are nomadic grazers and travel in herds. The bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, and join a male herd, which are generally smaller than female herds. Mature bulls rarely travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes necessarily commingle.[3] American bison
American bison
are known for living in the Great Plains, but formerly had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the Wisent
Wisent
owing its survival, in part, to the Chernobyl Disaster, ironically, as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
has become a kind of wildlife preserve for Wisent
Wisent
and other rare megafauna such as the Przewalski's Horse, though poaching has become a threat in recent years.[4] The American Plains bison
Plains bison
is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison currently number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures.[5] The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada[6] and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it entirely removed from the Endangered
Endangered
Species List.[7] Although superficially similar, physical and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison
European bison
has 14. The American bison
American bison
has four lumbar vertebrae, while the European has five.[8] (The difference in this case is that what would be the first lumbar vertebra has ribs attached to it in American bison
American bison
and is thus counted as the 15th thoracic vertebra, compared to 14 thoracic vertebrae in wisent.) Adult American bison
American bison
are less slim in build and have shorter legs.[9] American bison
American bison
tend to graze more, and browse less than their European relatives. Their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference; the American bison's head hangs lower than the European's. The body of the American bison
American bison
is typically hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison. The horns of the European bison
European bison
point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting.[10] American bison are more easily tamed than their European cousins, and breed with domestic cattle more readily.[11] Evolution and genetic history[edit] The bovine tribe (Bovini) split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos ( Bubalus
Bubalus
and Syncerus) and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle.[12] Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is often depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family, even many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species. This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini:

Taurine cattle
Taurine cattle
and zebu Wisent American bison
American bison
and yak[13] and Banteng, gaur, and gayal

However, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison.[14] An earlier study using amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting showed a close association of wisent with American bison, and probably with the yak, but noted that the interbreeding of Bovini
Bovini
species made determining relationships problematic.[15] The Bison
Bison
genus diverged from the lineage that led to cattle (Bos primigenius) at the Plio- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
boundary in South Asia.[16] Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Three were North American endemics: Bison
Bison
antiquus, B. latifrons, and B. occidentalis. The fourth, B. priscus (steppe bison), ranged across steppe environments from Western Europe, through Central Asia, East Asia including Japan,[17][18] and onto North America. The fifth, B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), inhabited Eurasian forests, extending from western Europe to the south of Siberia.[19]

Bisons depicted at Cave of Altamira

The sixth, B. palaeosinensis, evolving in the Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in South Asia,[16] is presumed to have been the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus and all successive Bison
Bison
lineages.[20] The steppe bison (B. priscus) evolved from Bison
Bison
palaeosinensis in the Early Pleistocene. B. priscus is seen clearly in the fossil record around 2 million years ago.[21] The steppe bison spread across Eurasia, and all proceeding contemporary and successive species are believed to have derived from the steppe bison. Going extinct in 6,000 BCE,[22] outlasted only by B. occidentalis, B. bonasus and B. bison, the steppe bison was the predominant bison pictured in the ancient cave paintings of Spain and Southern France. The modern European bison
European bison
is likely to have arisen from the steppe bison. There is no direct fossil evidence of successive species between the steppe bison and the European bison, though there are three possible lines of ancestry pertaining to the European wisent. Past research has suggested that the European bison
European bison
is descended from bison that had migrated from Asia to North America, and then back to Europe, where they crossbred with existing steppe bison.[21] However, more recent phylogenetic research points to an origin either from the phenotypically and genetically similar Pleistocene
Pleistocene
woodland bison (B. schoetensacki)[19] or as the result of an interbreeding event between the steppe bison and the aurochs ( Bos
Bos
primigenius), the ancestor of domesticated cattle, around 120,000 years ago.[23] The possible hybrid is referred to in vernacular as the 'Higgs bison' as a hat-tip to the discovery process of the Higgs boson.[24] At one point, some steppe bison crossbred with the ancestors of the modern yak. After that crossbreeding, a population of steppe bison crossed the Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
to North America. The steppe bison spread through the northern parts of North America and lived in Eurasia until around 11,000 years ago[25] and North America until 4,000 to 8,000 years ago.[21] The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
woodland bison (B.schoetensacki) evolved in the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
from B. priscus, and tended to inhabit the dry conifer forests and woodland which lined the mammoth steppe, occupying a range from western Europe to the south of Siberia. Although their fossil records are far rarer than their antecedent, they are thought to have existed until at least 36,000 BCE.[19][16] Bison latifrons
Bison latifrons
(the "giant" or "longhorn" bison) is thought to have evolved in midcontinent North America from B. priscus, after the steppe bison crossed into North America.[26][27][28] Giant bison (B. latifrons) appeared in the fossil record about 120,000 years ago.[21] B. latifrons was one of many species of North American megafauna that became extinct during the transition from the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
to the Holocene
Holocene
epoch (an event referred to as the Quaternary extinction event). It is thought to have disappeared some 21,000–30,000 years ago, during the late Wisconsin glaciation.[29] B. latifrons co-existed with the slightly smaller B. antiquus for over 100,000 years. Their predecessor, the steppe bison appeared in the North American fossil record around 190,000 years ago.[30] B. latifrons is believed to have been a more woodland-dwelling, non-herding species, while B. antiquus was a herding grassland-dweller, very much like its descendant B. bison.[31] B. antiquus gave rise to both B. occidentalis, and later B. bison, the modern American bison, some 5,000 to 10,000 years ago.[32][33] B. antiquus was the most common megafaunal species on the North American continent during much of the Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
and is the most commonly found large animal found at the La Brea Tar Pits.[34] In 2016, DNA extracted from Bison
Bison
priscus fossil remains beneath a 130,000-year-old volcanic ashfall in the Yukon
Yukon
suggested recent arrival of the species. That genetic material indicated that all American bison
American bison
had a common ancestor 135,000 to 195,000 years ago, during which period the Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge
was exposed; this hypothesis precludes an earlier arrival. The researchers sequenced mitochondrial genomes from both that specimen and from the remains of a recently discovered, estimated 120,000-year-old giant, long-horned, B. latifrons from Snowmass, Colorado. The genetic information also indicated that a second, Pleistocene
Pleistocene
migration of bison over the land bridge occurred 21,000 to 45,000 years ago.[35][36]

Skulls of European bison
European bison
(left) and American bison
American bison
(right)

During the population bottleneck, after the great slaughter of American bison
American bison
during the 19th century, the number of bison remaining alive in North America declined to as low as 541. During that period, a handful of ranchers gathered remnants of the existing herds to save the species from extinction. These ranchers bred some of the bison with cattle in an effort to produce "cattleo"[37] (today called "beefalo") Accidental crossings were also known to occur. Generally, male domestic bulls were crossed with buffalo cows, producing offspring of which only the females were fertile. The crossbred animals did not demonstrate any form of hybrid vigor, so the practice was abandoned. Wisent- American bison
American bison
hybrids were briefly experimented with in Germany (and found to be fully fertile) and a herd of such animals is maintained in Russia. A herd of cattle-wisent crossbreeds (zubron) is maintained in Poland. First-generation crosses do not occur naturally, requiring caesarean delivery. First-generation males are infertile. The U.S. National Bison
Bison
Association has adopted a code of ethics that prohibits its members from deliberately crossbreeding bison with any other species. In the United States, many ranchers are now using DNA testing to cull the residual cattle genetics from their bison herds. The proportion of cattle DNA that has been measured in introgressed individuals and bison herds today is typically quite low, ranging from 0.56 to 1.8%.[37][38] There are also remnant purebred American bison
American bison
herds on public lands in North America. Three herds are in Yellowstone National Park, Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota, Elk Island National Park
Elk Island National Park
in Alberta, Canada
Canada
and Grasslands National Park
Grasslands National Park
in Saskatchewan, Canada. In 2015 a fourth purebred herd of 350 individuals was identified on public lands in the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
of southern Utah
Utah
via genetic testing of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.[39] This study, published in 2015, also showed the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
bison herd to be free of brucellosis, a bacterial disease that was imported with non-native domestic cattle to North America.[40] Behavior[edit]

A group of images by Eadweard Muybridge, set to motion to illustrate the movement of the bison

A bison charges an elk at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge.

Wallowing is a common behavior of bison. A bison wallow is a shallow depression in the soil, either wet or dry. Bison
Bison
roll in these depressions, covering themselves with mud or dust. Possible explanations suggested for wallowing behavior include grooming behavior associated with moulting, male-male interaction (typically rutting behavior), social behavior for group cohesion, play behavior, relief from skin irritation due to biting insects, reduction of ectoparasite load (ticks and lice), and thermoregulation.[41] In the process of wallowing, bison may become infected by the fatal disease anthrax, which may occur naturally in the soil.[42] Bison
Bison
temperament is often unpredictable. They usually appear peaceful, unconcerned, even lazy, yet they may attack anything, often without warning or apparent reason. They can move at speeds up to 35 mph (56 km/h) and cover long distances at a lumbering gallop.[43] Their most obvious weapons are the horns borne by both males and females, but their massive heads can be used as battering rams, effectively using the momentum produced by what is a typical weight of 2,000 pounds (900 kg) (can be up to 2700 lbs) moving at 30 mph (50 km/h). The hind legs can also be used to kill or maim with devastating effect. In the words of early naturalists, they were dangerous, savage animals that feared no other animal and in prime condition could best any foe[43] (except for wolves and brown bears[3][44]). The rutting, or mating, season lasts from June through September, with peak activity in July and August. At this time, the older bulls rejoin the herd, and fights often take place between bulls. The herd exhibits much restlessness during breeding season. The animals are belligerent, unpredictable, and most dangerous.[43] Habitat[edit]

"Last of the Canadian Buffaloes", 1902, photograph: Steele and Company

American bison
American bison
live in river valleys, and on prairies and plains. Typical habitat is open or semiopen grasslands, as well as sagebrush, semiarid lands, and scrublands. Some lightly wooded areas are also known historically to have supported bison. They also graze in hilly or mountainous areas where the slopes are not steep. Though not particularly known as high-altitude animals, bison in the Yellowstone Park bison herd are frequently found at elevations above 8,000 feet and the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
bison herd is found on the plains around the Henry Mountains, Utah, as well as in mountain valleys of the Henry Mountains to an altitude of 10,000 feet. European bison
European bison
tend to live in lightly wooded to fully wooded areas and areas with increased shrubs and bushes, though they can also live on grasslands and plains. Restrictions[edit] Throughout most of their historical range, landowners have sought restrictions on free-ranging bison. Herds on private land are required be fenced in.[45] In the state of Montana, free-ranging bison on public lands may be shot, due to concerns about transmission of disease to cattle and damage to public property.[46] In 2013, Montana legislative measures concerning the bison were proposed and passed the legislature, but opposed by Native American tribes as they impinged on sovereign tribal rights. Three such bills were vetoed by Steve Bullock, the governor of Montana. The bison's circumstances remain an issue of contention between Native American tribes and private landowners.[47] Diet[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)

A bison and an elk grazing together in the Yellowstone National Park.

Bison
Bison
are ruminants, which allows them to derive their energy from cell walls. Bison
Bison
were once thought to almost exclusively consume grasses and sedges, but are now known to consume a wide-variety of plants including woody plants and herbaceous eudicots.[48][49] Over the course of the year, bison shift which plants they select in their diet based on which plants have the highest protein or energy concentrations at a given time and will reliably consume the same species of plants across years.[48] Protein concentrations of the plants they eat tend to be highest in the spring and decline thereafter, reaching their lowest in the winter.[48] In Yellowstone National Park, bison browsed willows and cottonwoods, not only in the winter when few other plants are available, but also in the summer.[50] Bison
Bison
are thought to migrate to optimize their diet,[51] and will concentrate their feeding on recently burned areas due to the higher quality forage the regrows after the burn.[52] Wisent
Wisent
tend to browse on shrubs and low-hanging trees more often than do the American bison, which prefer grass to shrubbery and trees.[53] Reproduction[edit] Female bison typically do not reproduce until three years of age[54] and can reproduce to at least 19 years of age.[55] Female bison can produce calves annually as long as their nutrition is sufficient, but will not give birth to a calf after years where weight gain was too low. A mothers’ probability of reproduction the following year is depends strongly on mother mass and age.[55] Heavier female bison produce heavier calves (weighed in the fall at weaning) than light mothers, while the weight of calves is lower for older mothers (after age 8).[55] Predators[edit]

Wolves hunting bison

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)

Due to their size, bison have few predators. Four notable exceptions are humans, the grey wolf, brown bear, and coyote.[56] The grey wolf generally takes down a bison while in a pack, but cases of a single wolf killing bison have been reported.[44] Brown bear
Brown bear
also consume bison, often by driving off the pack and consuming the wolves' kill.[3] Brown bear
Brown bear
and coyotes also prey on bison calves. Historically and prehistorically, lions, tigers, Smilodon, Homotherium, cave hyenas and Homo
Homo
sp. had posed threats to bison. Infections and illness[edit] For the American bison, the main cause of illness is malignant catarrhal fever,[57] though brucellosis is a serious concern in the Yellowstone Park bison herd. Bison
Bison
in the Antelope Island bison herd are regularly inoculated against brucellosis, parasites, Clostridium infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine vibriosis.[58] The major concerns for illness in European bison
European bison
are foot-and-mouth disease and balanoposthitis, which affects the male sex organs; a number of parasitic diseases have also been cited as threats.[59] The inbreeding of the species caused by the small population plays a role in a number of genetic defects and immunity to diseases, which in turn poses greater risks to the population.[59] Name[edit] The term "buffalo" is sometimes considered to be a misnomer for this animal, as it is only distantly related to either of the two "true buffalo", the Asian water buffalo and the African buffalo. Samuel de Champlain applied the term buffalo (buffles in French) to the bison in 1616 (published 1619), after seeing skins and a drawing shown to him by members of the Nipissing First Nation, who said they travelled forty days (from east of Lake Huron) to trade with another nation who hunted the animals.[60] Though "bison" might be considered more scientifically correct, as a result of standard usage, "buffalo" is also considered correct and is listed in many dictionaries as an acceptable name for American buffalo or bison. Buffalo has a much longer history than bison, which was first recorded in 1774.[61] Human impact[edit] See also: Bison
Bison
hunting

Photo from the 1870s of a pile of American bison
American bison
skulls waiting to be ground for fertilizer.

Humans
Humans
were almost exclusively accountable for the near-extinction of the American bison
American bison
in the 1800s. At the beginning of the century, tens of millions of bison roamed North America. American settlers slaughtered an estimated 50 million bison during the 19th century.[62] Railroads were advertising "hunting by rail", where trains encountered large herds alongside or crossing the tracks. Men aboard fired from the trains roof or windows, leaving countless animals to rot where they died.[63] The overhunting of the bison reduced their population to hundreds. Attempts to revive the American bison
American bison
have been highly successful. Farming of bison has increased their population to nearly 150,000. The American bison
American bison
is, therefore, no longer considered an endangered species.[64] The extinction of four species of bison (B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis, and B. priscus) was due to natural selection (see section Evolution and genetic history). As of July 2015, an estimated 4,900 bison lived in Yellowstone National Park, the largest U.S. bison population on public land.[65] During 1983–1985 visitors experienced 33 bison-related injuries (range = 10–13/year), so the park implemented education campaigns. After years of success, five injuries associated with bison encounters occurred in 2015, because visitors did not maintain the required distance of 75 ft (23 m) from bison while hiking or taking pictures.[66] Nutrition[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2018)

Bison
Bison
is an excellent source of complete protein and a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of multiple vitamins including Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin
Vitamin
B6, and Vitamin
Vitamin
B12 and is also a rich source of minerals including iron, phosphorus, and zinc. Additionally, bison is a good source (10% or more of the Daily Value) of thiamine.

Bison, ground, grass-fed, cooked

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 179 kcal (750 kJ)

Carbohydrates

0.00 g

Sugars 0 g

Dietary fiber 0 g

Fat

8.62 g

Saturated 3.489 g

Monounsaturated 3.293g

Polyunsaturated 0.402 g

Protein

25.45 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(12%) 0.139 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(22%) 0.264 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(40%) 5.966 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(31%) 0.401 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(4%) 16 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B12

(102%) 2.44 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
D

(0%) 0 IU

Vitamin
Vitamin
E

(1%) 0.20 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
K

(1%) 1.3 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(1%) 14 mg

Iron

(25%) 3.19 mg

Magnesium

(6%) 23 mg

Phosphorus

(30%) 213 mg

Potassium

(8%) 353 mg

Sodium

(5%) 76 mg

Zinc

(56%) 5.34 mg

link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Meat
Meat
industry[edit] In America, the commercial industry for bison has been slow to develop despite individuals, such as Ted Turner, who have long marketed bison meat. In the 1990s, Turner found limited success with restaurants for high-quality cuts of meat, which include bison steaks and tenderloin.[67] Lower-quality cuts suitable for hamburger and hot dogs have been described as "almost nonexistent".[67] This created a marketing problem for commercial farming because the majority of usable meat, about 400 pounds for each bison, is suitable for these products.[67] In 2003, the United States Department of Agriculture purchased $10 million worth of frozen overstock to save the industry, which would later recover through better use of consumer marketing.[68] Restaurants have played a role in popularizing bison meat, like Ted's Montana Grill, which added bison to their menus. Ruby Tuesday first offered bison on their menus in 2005.[68] In Canada, commercial bison farming began in the mid 1980s, concerning an unknown number of animals then.[69] The first census of the bison occurred in 1996, which recorded 45,235 bison on 745 farms, and grew to 195,728 bison on 1,898 farms for the 2006 census.[69] Several pet food companies use bison as a red meat alternative in dog foods. The companies producing these formulas include Natural Balance Pet Foods, Freshpet, The Blue Buffalo Company, Solid Gold, Canidae, and Taste of the Wild. See also[edit]

Bison
Bison
hunting National Bison Day (1 November in the United States) Yellowstone Park bison herd Pile of Bones was the original name for Regina, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and referred to buffalo bones found nearby.[70]

Footnotes[edit]

^ Olson, Wes. "Bison". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "BIson americanus pennsylvanicus". ITIS. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ a b c Brink, Jack W. (2008). Imagining Head-Smashed-In: Aboriginal Buffalo Hunting on the Northern Plains (PDF). Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-897425-09-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2011.  ^ "Chernobyl's Przewalski's horses are poached for meat". BBC. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ " Bison
Bison
bison". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Species Report". Archived from the original on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-03.  ^ "Wood Bison". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service ECOS Environmental Conservation Online System. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge by Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), published by C. Knight, 1835 ^ Sapp, Rick (2006). Trophy Bowhunting: Plan the Hunt of a Lifetime and Bag One for the Record Books (illustrated ed.). Stackpole. ISBN 978-0-8117-3315-1.  ^ Lott, Dale F. (2003). American Bison: A Natural History. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24062-9.  ^ Newman, Edward, ed. (1859). "Notice of the Various Species of Bovine Animals". The Zoologist. 17: 6362. Archived from the original on 6 July 2014.  ^ "Maternal and Paternal Lineages in Cross-Breeding Bovine Species. Has Wisent
Wisent
a Hybrid Origin?". Mbe.oxfordjournals.org. 22 January 2004. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ Guo, S.; Liu, J.; Qi, D.; Yang, J.; Zhao, X. (2006). "Taxonomic placement and origin of yaks: implications from analyses of mtDNA D-loop fragment sequences". Acta Theriologica Sinica. 26 (4): 325–330. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.  ^ Verkaar, E.L.; Nijman, I.J.; Beeke, M.; Hanekamp, E.; Lenstra, J.A. (2004). "Maternal and Paternal Lineages in Cross-Breeding Bovine Species. Has Wisent
Wisent
a Hybrid Origin?". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (7): 1165–70. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh064. PMID 14739241.  ^ Buntjer, J B; Otsen, M; Nijman, I J; Kuiper, M T R; Lenstra, J A (2002). "Phylogeny of bovine species based on AFLP fingerprinting". Heredity. 88 (1): 46–51. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800007. PMID 11813106.  ^ a b c Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc (17 June 2015). "Hunting the Extinct Steppe
Steppe
Bison ( Bison
Bison
priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave". PLOS ONE. 10 (6): e0128267. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128267. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4471230 . PMID 26083419. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017.  ^ Kurosawa Y. "モノが語る牛と人間の文化 - ② 岩手の牛たち" (pdf). LIAJ News No.109. Oshu city Cattle
Cattle
Museum: 29–31. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-06.  ^ HASEGAWA Y.,OKUMURA Y., TATSUKAWA H. (2009). "First record of Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Bison
Bison
from the fissure deposits of the Kuzuu Limestone, Yamasuge,Sano-shi,Tochigi Prefecture,Japan" (pdf). Bull.Gunma Mus.Natu.Hist.(13). Gunma Museum of Natural History and Kuzuu Fossil Museum: 47–52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2016-04-06. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b c Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Guérin, Claude; Lambourdière, Josie; Maksud, Frédéric; Philippe, Michel; Plaire, Delphine; Stafford, Thomas; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude (1 January 2017). "Genome data on the extinct Bison
Bison
schoetensacki establish it as a sister species of the extant European bison
European bison
( Bison
Bison
bonasus)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17: 48. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0894-2. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 5303235 . PMID 28187706.  ^ Tong, Hao-Wen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bei. "New fossils of Bison palaeosinensis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the steppe mammoth site of Early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in Nihewan Basin, China". Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2016.07.033.  ^ a b c d McDonald, J., 1981. North American Bison, Their classification and Evolution. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. ^ Post, Eric (11 August 2013). Ecology of Climate Change: The Importance of Biotic Interactions. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400846137. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018.  ^ Soubrier, Julien; Gower, Graham; Chen, Kefei; Richards, Stephen M.; Llamas, Bastien; Mitchell, Kieren J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Kosintsev, Pavel; Lee, Michael S. Y. (18 October 2016). "Early cave art and ancient DNA record the origin of European bison". Nature Communications. 7: 13158. doi:10.1038/ncomms13158. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5071849 . PMID 27754477. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017.  ^ Cooper, Alan. "How we discovered the 'Higgs bison', hiding in plain sight in ancient cave art". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 2017-04-14.  ^ Guthrie, R. D., 1990. Frozen Fauna of the Mammoth Steppe: the Story of Blue Babe. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. ^ Bell, C.J.; Lundelius, E.L.; Barnosky, A.D.; Graham, R.W.; Lindsay, E.H.; Ruez, D.R.; Semken, H.A.; Webb, S.D.; Zakrzewski, R.J. (2004). "The Blancan, Irvingtonian, and Rancholabrean mammal ages". In Woodburne, M.O. Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
and Cenozoic Mammals of North America: Biostratigraphy and Geochronology. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. pp. 232–314. ISBN 0-231-13040-6.  ^ Scott, E.; Cox, S.M. (2008). "Late Pleistocene
Pleistocene
distribution of Bison (Mammalia; Artiodactyla) in the Mojave Desert of Southern California and Nevada". In Wang, X.; Barnes, L.G. Geology and Vertebrate Paleontology of Western and Southern North America. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. pp. 359–382.  ^ Sanders, A.E.; Weems, R.E.; Albright III, L.B. (2009). "Formalization of the mid- Pleistocene
Pleistocene
"Ten Mile Hill beds" in South Carolina with evidence for placement of the Irvingtonian–Rancholabrean boundary". In Albright III, L.B. Papers on Geology, Vertebrate Paleontology, and Biostratigraphy in Honor of Michael O. Woodburne. Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona. pp. 369–375.  ^ Kurten, B; Anderson, E (1980). "Order Artiodactyla". Pleistocene mammals of North America (1st ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 295–339. ISBN 0-231-03733-3.  ^ Jefferson, G., 2001. "Rancho La Brea Bison". In: J. Harris (ed), Rancho La Brea: Death Trap and Treasure Trove. Terra 30(2): 33. Los Angeles Natural History Museum Foundation. p. 33. ^ Hoganson, John. "Occurrence of the Giant Ice Age Bison, Bison Latifrons, in North Dakota" (PDF). North Dakota Geological Survey Newsletter. 29 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2009.  ^ Wilson, M.C.; Hills, L.V.; Shapiro, B. (2008). "Late Pleistocene northward-dispersing Bison antiquus
Bison antiquus
from the Bighill Creek Formation, Gallelli Gravel Pit, Alberta, Canada, and the fate of Bison occidentalis". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 45 (7): 827–59. doi:10.1139/E08-027.  ^ Lott, Dale F. (2002). American Bison: A Natural History. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23338-7.  ^ "Animals of the La Brea Tar Pits
La Brea Tar Pits
Timeline". La Brea Tar Pits
La Brea Tar Pits
& Museum. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ An Alaska volcano and DNA reveal the timing of bison's arrival in North America Archived 27 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Alaska Dispatch News, Yereth Rosen, 27 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017. ^ Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America Archived 19 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Duane Froese et al, 20 December 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017. ^ a b Halbert, N.; Gogan, P.; Hiebert, R.; Derr, J. (2007). "Where the buffalo roam: The role of history and genetics in the conservation of bison on U.S. federal lands". Park Science. 24 (2): 22–29. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013.  ^ Polziehn, R.; Strobeck, C.; Sheraton, J.; Beech, R. (1995). "Bovine mtDNA Discovered in North American Bison
American Bison
Populations". Conservation Biology. 9 (6): 1638–1643 (1642). doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09061638.x.  ^ Ranglack DH, Dobson LK, du Toit JT, Derr J (17 December 2015). "Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains
Henry Mountains
Bison
Bison
Herd". PLOS ONE. 10: e0144239. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144239. PMC 4682953 . PMID 26673758. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Mary Meagher, Margaret E. Meyer (September 1994). "On the Origin of Brucellosis
Brucellosis
in Bison
Bison
of Yellowstone National Park: A Review". Conservation Biology. 8: 645–653. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1994.08030645.x. JSTOR 2386505. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ McMillan, B. R.; Cottam, M. R.; Kaufman, D. W. "Wallowing Behavior of American Bison
American Bison
( Bos
Bos
Bison)". American Midland Naturalist. 144 (1): 159–167. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2000)144[0159:wboabb]2.0.co;2. JSTOR 3083019.  ^ " Anthrax
Anthrax
kills bison in southern N.W.T." CBC.CA. 8 July 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.  ^ a b c American Bison. nps.gov ^ a b Ludwig N. Carbyn; S. Oosenbrug; D. W. Anions; Canadian Circumpolar Institute (1993). Wolves, bison and the dynamics related to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in Canada's Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian Circumpolar Institute. ISBN 978-0-919058-83-5. Retrieved 10 July 2012.  ^ Robbins, Jim (1 April 2013). "On the Montana Range, Efforts to Restore Bison
Bison
Meet Resistance". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Jawort, Adrian (17 April 2013). "Shot, Left to Rot: Montana Officials Kill Bison
Bison
Bull Wandering Outside Yellowstone National Park". Indian Country Today. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.  ^ "Montana Governor Vetoes Three Anti- Bison
Bison
Bills, Lets the Hunt Stand". Indian Country Today Media Network. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-17.  ^ a b c Craine, Joseph M.; Towne, E. Gene; Miller, Mary; Fierer, Noah (2015-11-16). "Climatic warming and the future of bison as grazers". Scientific Reports. 5 (1). doi:10.1038/srep16738. ISSN 2045-2322.  ^ Leonard, Joshua L.; Perkins, Lora B.; Lammers, Duane J.; Jenks, Jonathan A. "Are Bison
Bison
Intermediate Feeders? Unveiling Summer Diet Selection at the Northern Fringe of Historical Distribution". Rangeland Ecology & Management. 70 (4): 405–410. doi:10.1016/j.rama.2017.01.005.  ^ Painter, Luke E.; Ripple, William J. "Effects of bison on willow and cottonwood in northern Yellowstone National Park". Forest
Forest
Ecology and Management. 264: 150–158. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2011.10.010.  ^ Frank, Douglas A.; McNaughton, Samuel J.; Tracy, Benjamin F. (1998-07-01). "The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing
Grazing
Ecosystems". BioScience. 48 (7): 513–521. doi:10.2307/1313313. ISSN 0006-3568.  ^ Allred, Brady W.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Engle, David M.; Elmore, R. Dwayne (2011-10-01). "Ungulate preference for burned patches reveals strength of fire–grazing interaction". Ecology and Evolution. 1 (2): 132–144. doi:10.1002/ece3.12. ISSN 2045-7758.  ^ Baskin, Leonid; Danell, Kjell. "Ecology of ungalates". books.google.com. Springer Science & Business Media. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2017.  ^ Craine; et al. (2013). "Precipitation timing and grazer performance in a tallgrass prairie". Oikos. 122: 191–198. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c Hamel, Sandra (2012). "Maternal allocation in bison: co-occurrence of senescence, cost of reproduction, and individual quality". Ecological Applications. 22: 1628–1639.  ^ Newell, Toni Lynn; Anna Bess Sorin. "ADW: Bison
Bison
bison: INFORMATION". Animal
Animal
Diversity Web at the University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  ^ Durham, Sharon (2010). "Figuring out puzzling animal diseases". Agricultural Research. 58 (4): 12–13. Archived from the original on 5 April 2010.  ^ "Island Named for Antelope, the Bison". Utah.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-30.  ^ a b "Actual, and Potential Threats". European Bison
Bison
Conservation Center. Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 2013-06-17.  ^ Champlain, Samuel, Henry P. Biggar. 1929. The Works of Samuel de Champlain, vol 3. Toronto: Champlain Society. p. 105. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. ^ "American Bison, Bison
Bison
bison". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-16.  ^ "Where the Buffalo No Longer Roamed". Smithsonian.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-18.  ^ "Are Bison
Bison
an Endangered
Endangered
Species?". Fermilab Science Education Office. Leon M. Lederman Science Education Center, Fermilab. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  ^ Geremia C, Wallen R, White PJ. Population dynamics and adaptive management of Yellowstone bison. Archived 28 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Mammoth Hot Springs, WY: Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service; 2015. ^ Cherry C, Leong K, Wallen R, Buttke D. Notes from the Field. Injuries Associated with Bison
Bison
Encounters — Yellowstone National Park, 2015. Archived 10 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:293–294. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6511a5 ^ a b c Haddad, Charles. " Bison
Bison
Meat
Meat
Slow to Catch On, But Turner Sees Promise". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. 1999. Retrieved 18 June 2013, from HighBeam Research: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ a b Bone, Eugenia. "Bison's back: bravo for buffalo. We're saving the Western icon by eating it (again).(The next frontier)." Sunset. Sunset Publishing Corp. 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2013, from HighBeam Research: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ a b Terry Kremeniuk. " Bison
Bison
Farming". Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica-Dominion. 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013, from HighBeam Research: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 

Further reading

Boyd, D (2003) "Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations." Master's dissertation, University of Calgary Cunfer, Geoff and Bill Waiser. Bison
Bison
and People on the North American Great Plains: A Deep Environmental History. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2016. Halbert, N; Derr, J (1995). "A Comprehensive Evaluation of Cattle Introgression into US Federal Bison
Bison
Herds". Journal of Heredity. 98 (1).  Nesheim, David A (2012). "Profit, Preservation, and Shifting Definitions of Bison
Bison
in American". Environmental History. 17: 547–77. doi:10.1093/envhis/ems048.  Ward, T. J.; Bielawski, J. P.; Davis, S. K.; Templeton, J. W.; Derr, J. N. (1999). "Identification of Domestic Cattle
Cattle
Hybrids in Wild Cattle
Cattle
and Bison
Bison
Species: A General Approach Using mtDNA Markers and the Parametric Bootstrap". Animal
Animal
Conservation. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.1999.tb00048.x. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bison.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bison.

History of Bison
Bison
Blend Cattle " European bison
European bison
/ Wisent
Wisent
online" from Browsk Forest
Forest
District in Białowieża National Park, Poland  Ingersoll, Ernest (1905). "Bison". New International Encyclopedia. 

v t e

Extant Artiodactyla species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Ruminantia

Antilocapridae

Antilocapra

Pronghorn
Pronghorn
(A. americana)

Giraffidae

Okapia

Okapi
Okapi
(O. johnstoni)

Giraffa

Northern giraffe
Northern giraffe
(G. camelopardalis) Southern giraffe
Southern giraffe
(G. giraffa) Reticulated giraffe
Reticulated giraffe
(G. reticulata) Masai giraffe
Masai giraffe
(G. tippelskirchi)

Moschidae

Moschus

Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer
(M. anhuiensis) Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer
(M. berezovskii) Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer
(M. chrysogaster) Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer
(M. cupreus) Black musk deer
Black musk deer
(M. fuscus) Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster) Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer
(M. moschiferus)

Tragulidae

Hyemoschus

Water chevrotain
Water chevrotain
(H. aquaticus)

Moschiola

Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain
(M. indica) Yellow-striped chevrotain
Yellow-striped chevrotain
(M. kathygre) Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
(M. meminna)

Tragulus

Java mouse-deer
Java mouse-deer
(T. javanicus) Lesser mouse-deer
Lesser mouse-deer
(T. kanchil) Greater mouse-deer
Greater mouse-deer
(T. napu) Philippine mouse-deer
Philippine mouse-deer
(T. nigricans) Vietnam mouse-deer
Vietnam mouse-deer
(T. versicolor) Williamson's mouse-deer
Williamson's mouse-deer
(T. williamsoni)

Cervidae

Large family listed below

Bovidae

Large family listed below

Family Cervidae

Cervinae

Muntiacus

Indian muntjac
Indian muntjac
(M. muntjak) Reeves's muntjac
Reeves's muntjac
(M. reevesi) Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
(M. crinifrons) Fea's muntjac
Fea's muntjac
(M. feae) Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac
(M. atherodes) Roosevelt's muntjac
Roosevelt's muntjac
(M. rooseveltorum) Gongshan muntjac
Gongshan muntjac
(M. gongshanensis) Giant muntjac
Giant muntjac
(M. vuquangensis) Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac
(M. truongsonensis) Leaf muntjac
Leaf muntjac
(M. putaoensis) Sumatran muntjac
Sumatran muntjac
(M. montanus) Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac
(M. puhoatensis)

Elaphodus

Tufted deer
Tufted deer
(E. cephalophus)

Dama

Fallow deer
Fallow deer
(D. dama) Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer
(D. mesopotamica)

Axis

Chital
Chital
(A. axis)

Rucervus

Barasingha
Barasingha
(R. duvaucelii)

Panolia

Eld's deer
Eld's deer
(P. eldii)

Elaphurus

Père David's deer
Père David's deer
(E. davidianus)

Hyelaphus

Hog deer (H. porcinus) Calamian deer
Calamian deer
(H. calamianensis) Bawean deer
Bawean deer
(H. kuhlii)

Rusa

Sambar deer
Sambar deer
(R. unicolor) Rusa deer (R. timorensis) Philippine sambar (R. mariannus) Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)

Cervus

Red deer
Red deer
(C. elaphus) Elk
Elk
(C. canadensis) Thorold's deer
Thorold's deer
(C. albirostris) Sika deer
Sika deer
(C. nippon)

Capreolinae

Alces

Moose
Moose
(A. alces)

Hydropotes

Water deer
Water deer
(H. inermis)

Capreolus

Roe deer
Roe deer
(C. capreolus) Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer
(C. pygargus)

Rangifer

Reindeer
Reindeer
(R. tarandus)

Hippocamelus

Taruca
Taruca
(H. antisensis) South Andean deer
South Andean deer
(H. bisulcus)

Mazama

Red brocket
Red brocket
(M. americana) Small red brocket
Small red brocket
(M. bororo) Merida brocket
Merida brocket
(M. bricenii) Dwarf brocket
Dwarf brocket
(M. chunyi) Gray brocket
Gray brocket
(M. gouazoubira) Pygmy brocket
Pygmy brocket
(M. nana) Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket
(M. nemorivaga) Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket
(M. pandora) Little red brocket
Little red brocket
(M. rufina) Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket
(M. temama)

Ozotoceros

Pampas deer
Pampas deer
(O. bezoarticus)

Blastocerus

Marsh deer
Marsh deer
(B. dichotomus)

Pudu

Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles) Southern pudú (P. pudu)

Odocoileus

White-tailed deer
White-tailed deer
(O. virginianus) Mule deer
Mule deer
(O. hemionus)

Family Bovidae

Cephalophinae

Cephalophus

Abbott's duiker
Abbott's duiker
(C. spadix) Aders's duiker
Aders's duiker
(C. adersi) Bay duiker
Bay duiker
(C. dorsalis) Black duiker
Black duiker
(C. niger) Black-fronted duiker
Black-fronted duiker
(C. nigrifrons) Brooke's duiker (C. brookei) Harvey's duiker
Harvey's duiker
(C. harveyi) Jentink's duiker
Jentink's duiker
(C. jentinki) Ogilby's duiker
Ogilby's duiker
(C. ogilbyi) Peters's duiker (C. callipygus) Red-flanked duiker
Red-flanked duiker
(C. rufilatus) Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker
(C. natalensis) Ruwenzori duiker
Ruwenzori duiker
(C. rubidis) Weyns's duiker
Weyns's duiker
(C. weynsi) White-bellied duiker
White-bellied duiker
(C. leucogaster) White-legged duiker
White-legged duiker
(C. crusalbum) Yellow-backed duiker
Yellow-backed duiker
(C. Sylvicultor) Zebra duiker
Zebra duiker
(C. zebra)

Philantomba

Blue duiker
Blue duiker
(P. monticola) Maxwell's duiker
Maxwell's duiker
(P. maxwellii) Walter's duiker
Walter's duiker
(P. walteri)

Sylvicapra

Common duiker
Common duiker
(S. grimmia)

Hippotraginae

Hippotragus

Roan antelope
Roan antelope
(H. equinus) Sable antelope
Sable antelope
(H. niger)

Oryx

East African oryx
East African oryx
(O. beisa) Scimitar oryx
Scimitar oryx
(O. dammah) Gemsbok
Gemsbok
(O. gazella) Arabian oryx
Arabian oryx
(O. leucoryx)

Addax

Addax
Addax
(A. nasomaculatus)

Reduncinae

Kobus

Upemba lechwe
Upemba lechwe
(K. anselli) Waterbuck
Waterbuck
(K. ellipsiprymnus) Kob
Kob
(K. kob) Lechwe
Lechwe
(K. leche) Nile lechwe
Nile lechwe
(K. megaceros) Puku
Puku
(K. vardonii)

Redunca

Southern reedbuck
Southern reedbuck
(R. arundinum) Mountain reedbuck
Mountain reedbuck
(R. fulvorufula) Bohor reedbuck
Bohor reedbuck
(R. redunca)

Aepycerotinae

Aepyceros

Impala
Impala
(A. melampus)

Peleinae

Pelea

Grey rhebok
Grey rhebok
(P. capreolus)

Alcelaphinae

Beatragus

Hirola
Hirola
(B. hunteri)

Damaliscus

Topi
Topi
(D. korrigum) Common tsessebe
Common tsessebe
(D. lunatus) Bontebok
Bontebok
(D. pygargus) Bangweulu tsessebe
Bangweulu tsessebe
(D. superstes)

Alcelaphus

Hartebeest
Hartebeest
(A. buselaphus) Red hartebeest
Red hartebeest
(A. caama) Lichtenstein's hartebeest
Lichtenstein's hartebeest
(A. lichtensteinii)

Connochaetes

Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
(C. gnou) Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
(C. taurinus)

Pantholopinae

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Caprinae

Large subfamily listed below

Bovinae

Large subfamily listed below

Antilopinae

Large subfamily listed below

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Caprinae)

Ammotragus

Barbary sheep
Barbary sheep
(A. lervia)

Budorcas

Takin
Takin
(B. taxicolor)

Capra

Wild goat
Wild goat
(C. aegagrus) Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus) West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur
(C. caucasia) East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur
(C. cylindricornis) Markhor
Markhor
(C. falconeri) Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(C. ibex) Nubian ibex
Nubian ibex
(C. nubiana) Spanish ibex
Spanish ibex
(C. pyrenaica) Siberian ibex
Siberian ibex
(C. sibirica) Walia ibex
Walia ibex
(C. walie)

Capricornis

Japanese serow
Japanese serow
(C. crispus) Taiwan serow
Taiwan serow
(C. swinhoei) Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
(C. sumatraensis) Mainland serow
Mainland serow
(C. milneedwardsii) Red serow
Red serow
(C. rubidusi) Himalayan serow
Himalayan serow
(C. thar)

Hemitragus

Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(H. hylocrius) Arabian tahr
Arabian tahr
(H. jayakari) Himalayan tahr
Himalayan tahr
(H. jemlahicus)

Naemorhedus

Red goral
Red goral
(N. baileyi) Long-tailed goral
Long-tailed goral
(N. caudatus) Himalayan goral
Himalayan goral
(N. goral) Chinese goral
Chinese goral
(N. griseus)

Oreamnos

Mountain goat
Mountain goat
(O. americanus)

Ovibos

Muskox
Muskox
(O. moschatus)

Ovis

Argali
Argali
(O. ammon) Domestic sheep (O. aries) Bighorn sheep
Bighorn sheep
(O. canadensis) Dall sheep
Dall sheep
(O. dalli) Mouflon
Mouflon
(O. musimon) Snow sheep
Snow sheep
(O. nivicola) Urial
Urial
(O. orientalis)

Pseudois

Bharal
Bharal
(P. nayaur) Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
(P. schaeferi)

Rupicapra

Pyrenean chamois
Pyrenean chamois
(R. pyrenaica) Chamois
Chamois
(R. rupicapra)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Bovinae)

Boselaphini

Tetracerus

Four-horned antelope
Four-horned antelope
(T. quadricornis)

Boselaphus

Nilgai
Nilgai
(B. tragocamelus)

Bovini

Bubalus

Water buffalo
Water buffalo
(B. bubalis) Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee) Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis) Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi) Tamaraw
Tamaraw
(B. mindorensis)

Bos

Banteng
Banteng
(B. javanicus) Gaur
Gaur
(B. gaurus) Gayal
Gayal
(B. frontalis) Domestic yak
Domestic yak
(B. grunniens) Wild yak
Wild yak
(B. mutus) Cattle
Cattle
(B. taurus) Kouprey
Kouprey
(B. sauveli)

Pseudonovibos

Kting voar (P. spiralis)

Pseudoryx

Saola
Saola
(P. nghetinhensis)

Syncerus

African buffalo
African buffalo
(S. caffer)

Bison

American bison
American bison
(B. bison) European bison
European bison
(B. bonasus)

Tragelaphini

Tragelaphus (including kudus)

Sitatunga
Sitatunga
(T. spekeii) Nyala
Nyala
(T. angasii) Kéwel
Kéwel
(T. scriptus) Cape bushbuck
Cape bushbuck
(T. sylvaticus) Mountain nyala
Mountain nyala
(T. buxtoni) Lesser kudu
Lesser kudu
(T. imberbis) Greater kudu
Greater kudu
(T. strepsiceros) Bongo (T. eurycerus)

Taurotragus

Common eland
Common eland
(T. oryx) Giant eland
Giant eland
(T. derbianus)

Family Bovidae
Bovidae
(subfamily Antilopinae)

Antilopini

Ammodorcas

Dibatag
Dibatag
(A. clarkei)

Antidorcas

Springbok
Springbok
(A. marsupialis)

Antilope

Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(A. cervicapra)

Eudorcas

Mongalla gazelle
Mongalla gazelle
(E. albonotata) Red-fronted gazelle
Red-fronted gazelle
(E. rufifrons) Thomson's gazelle
Thomson's gazelle
(E. thomsonii) Heuglin's gazelle
Heuglin's gazelle
(E. tilonura)

Gazella

Mountain gazelle
Mountain gazelle
(G. gazella) Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri) Speke's gazelle
Speke's gazelle
(G. spekei) Dorcas gazelle
Dorcas gazelle
(G. dorcas) Chinkara
Chinkara
(G. bennettii) Cuvier's gazelle
Cuvier's gazelle
(G. cuvieri) Rhim gazelle
Rhim gazelle
(G. leptoceros) Goitered gazelle
Goitered gazelle
(G. subgutturosa)

Litocranius

Gerenuk
Gerenuk
(L. walleri)

Nanger

Dama gazelle
Dama gazelle
(N. dama) Grant's gazelle
Grant's gazelle
(N. granti) Soemmerring's gazelle
Soemmerring's gazelle
(N. soemmerringii)

Procapra

Mongolian gazelle
Mongolian gazelle
(P. gutturosa) Goa (P. picticaudata) Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
(P. przewalskii)

Saigini

Pantholops

Tibetan antelope
Tibetan antelope
(P. hodgsonii)

Saiga

Saiga antelope
Saiga antelope
(S. tatarica)

Neotragini

Dorcatragus

Beira (D. megalotis)

Madoqua

Günther's dik-dik
Günther's dik-dik
(M. guentheri) Kirk's dik-dik
Kirk's dik-dik
(M. kirkii) Silver dik-dik
Silver dik-dik
(M. piacentinii) Salt's dik-dik
Salt's dik-dik
(M. saltiana)

Neotragus

Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope
(N. batesi) Suni
Suni
(N. moschatus) Royal antelope
Royal antelope
(N. pygmaeus)

Oreotragus

Klipspringer
Klipspringer
(O. oreotragus)

Ourebia

Oribi
Oribi
(O. ourebi)

Raphicerus

Steenbok
Steenbok
(R. campestris) Cape grysbok
Cape grysbok
(R. melanotis) Sharpe's grysbok
Sharpe's grysbok
(R. sharpei)

Suborder Suina

Suidae

Babyrousa

Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
(B. babyrussa) North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
(B. celebensis) Togian babirusa
Togian babirusa
(B. togeanensis)

Hylochoerus

Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog
(H. meinertzhageni)

Phacochoerus

Desert warthog
Desert warthog
(P. aethiopicus) Common warthog
Common warthog
(P. africanus)

Porcula

Pygmy hog
Pygmy hog
(P. salvania)

Potamochoerus

Bushpig
Bushpig
(P. larvatus) Red river hog
Red river hog
(P. porcus)

Sus (Pigs)

Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig
(S. ahoenobarbus) Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig
(S. barbatus) Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus) Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig
(S. cebifrons) Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
(S. celebensis) Flores warty pig (S. heureni) Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig
(S. oliveri) Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig
(S. philippensis) Wild boar
Wild boar
(S. scrofa) Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis) Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
(S. verrucosus)

Tayassuidae

Tayassu

White-lipped peccary
White-lipped peccary
(T. pecari)

Catagonus

Chacoan peccary
Chacoan peccary
(C. wagneri)

Pecari

Collared peccary
Collared peccary
(P. tajacu) Giant peccary (P. maximus)

Suborder Tylopoda

Camelidae

Lama

Llama
Llama
(L. glama) Guanaco
Guanaco
(L. guanicoe)

Vicugna

Vicuña
Vicuña
(V. vicugna) Alpaca
Alpaca
(V. pacos)

Camelus

Dromedary
Dromedary
(C. dromedarius) Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel
Bactrian camel
(C. ferus)

Whippomorpha
Whippomorpha
(unranked clade)

Hippopotamidae

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus
(H. amphibius)

Choeropsis

Pygmy hippopotamus
Pygmy hippopotamus
(C. liberiensis)

v t e

National symbols of the United States

Symbols

Flag of the United States Seal of the United States Bald eagle Uncle Sam Columbia General Grant (tree) American's Creed Pledge of Allegiance Rose Oak American bison Phrygian cap

Songs

"The Star-Spangled Banner" "Dixie" "America the Beautiful" "The Stars and Stripes Forever" "Hail to the Chief" "Hail, Columbia" "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" "God Bless America" "Lift Every Voice and Sing" "The Army Goes Rolling Along" "Anchors Aweigh" "Marines' Hymn" "Semper Fidelis" "The Air Force Song" "Semper Paratus" "National Emblem" "The Washington Post March" "Battle Hymn of the Republic" "Yankee Doodle" "You're a Grand Old Flag" "When Johnny Comes Marching Home" "This Land Is Your Land"

Mottos

In God We Trust E Pluribus Unum Novus ordo seclorum Annuit cœptis

Landmarks

Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
(Liberty Enlightening the World) Liberty Bell Mount Rushmore National Mall

West Potomac Park

v t e

Meat

Main articles Entomophagy Fish Game Livestock Meat Poultry Seafood

Poultry
Poultry
and game

Alligator Bear Chicken Crocodile Duck Goose Grouse Kangaroo Monkey Ostrich Partridge Pheasant Bat Pigeon Quail Rabbit Seal Snake Turkey Turtle Venison

Livestock
Livestock
and minilivestock

Beef Bison Black soldier fly maggots Buffalo Camel Cat Crickets Dog Elephant Frog Goat Grasshoppers Guinea pig Horse Lamb and mutton Llama Mealworm Silkworm Mopane worm Palm grub Pork Veal Yak

Fish and seafood

Abalone Anchovy Basa Bass Calamari Carp Catfish Cod Crab Crappie Crayfish Dolphin Eel Flounder Grouper Haddock Halibut Herring Kingfish Lobster Mackerel Mahi Mahi Marlin Milkfish Mussel Octopus Orange roughy Oyster Pacific saury Perch Pike Pollock Salmon Sardine Scallop Shark Shrimp/prawn Sole Swai Swordfish Tilapia Trout Tuna Sea urchin Walleye Whale

Cuts and preparation

Aged Bacon Barbecued Braised Burger Charcuterie Chop Corned Cured Cutlet Dried Dum Fillet / Supreme Fried Ground Ham Kebab Liver Luncheon meat Marinated Meatball Meatloaf Offal Pickled Poached Roasted Salt-cured Salumi Sausage Smoked Steak Stewed Tandoor Tartare

List articles

Beef
Beef
dishes Chicken dishes Countries by meat consumption Fish dishes Food and drink prohibitions Goat
Goat
dishes Lamb dishes Meatball
Meatball
dishes Pork
Pork
dishes

Ham
Ham
dishes

Sausage
Sausage
dishes Sausages Seafood
Seafood
dishes Smoked foods Steaks Veal
Veal
dishes

Related subjects

Animal
Animal
rights Bushmeat Butcher Cannibalism Carnism Christian vegetarianism Cultured meat Ethics of eating meat Factory farming Feed conversion ratio Environmental impact of meat production List of meat dishes Meat
Meat
cutter Meat
Meat
tenderness Pescetarianism Pink slime Plant-based diet Preservation Psychology of eating meat

Meat
Meat
paradox

Red meat Semi-vegetarianism Slaughter

Slaughterhouse

Veganism Vegetarianism White meat

Taxon
Taxon
identifiers

Wd: Q18099 EoL: 42293 EPPO: 1BISOG Fauna Europaea: 305220 GBIF: 2441175 ITIS: 180705 MSW: 1

.