Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus
Bison within the
Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct
species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison
palaeosinensis evolved in the Early
Pleistocene in South Asia, and was
the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus (steppe bison), which was the
ancestor of all other
Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe
bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern
Asia with B. schoetensacki (woodland bison), and North America with B.
antiquus, B. latifrons, and B. occidentalis. The last species to go
extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison.
Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only
in North America, is the more numerous. Although commonly known as a
buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly
related to the true buffalo. The North American species is composed of
two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, and the Wood bison, B.
b. athabascae, which is the namesake of
Wood Buffalo National Park
Wood Buffalo National Park in
Canada. A third subspecies, the Eastern
Bison (B. b. pennsylvanicus)
is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b.
bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern
United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b.
athabascae, which was not found in the region. The European bison, B.
bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced
after being extinct in the wild.
While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are
sometimes bred with domestic cattle (genus Bos) and produce fertile
offspring called beefalo or zubron.
2 Evolution and genetic history
8 Infections and illness
10 Human impact
13 See also
15 External links
Magdalenian bison on plaque, 17,000–9,000 BC,
American bison and the
European bison (Wisent) are the largest
surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe.
good swimmers and can cross rivers over half a mile (800 meters) wide.
They are nomadic grazers and travel in herds. The bulls leave the
herds of females at two or three years of age, and join a male herd,
which are generally smaller than female herds. Mature bulls rarely
travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive
season, the sexes necessarily commingle.
American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but formerly
had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States
and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction
during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the
Wisent owing its survival, in part, to the Chernobyl Disaster,
ironically, as the
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has become a kind of
wildlife preserve for
Wisent and other rare megafauna such as the
Przewalski's Horse, though poaching has become a threat in recent
years. The American
Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered,
but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b.
bison currently number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented
herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood
bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as
threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous
attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it entirely removed from the
Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar, physical and behavioural differences
exist between the American and European bison. The American species
has 15 ribs, while the
European bison has 14. The
American bison has
four lumbar vertebrae, while the European has five. (The difference
in this case is that what would be the first lumbar vertebra has ribs
attached to it in
American bison and is thus counted as the 15th
thoracic vertebra, compared to 14 thoracic vertebrae in wisent.) Adult
American bison are less slim in build and have shorter legs.
American bison tend to graze more, and browse less than their European
relatives. Their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference; the
American bison's head hangs lower than the European's. The body of the
American bison is typically hairier, though its tail has less hair
than that of the European bison. The horns of the
European bison point
through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting
through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic
cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American
bison are more easily tamed than their European cousins, and breed
with domestic cattle more readily.
Evolution and genetic history
The bovine tribe (Bovini) split about 5 to 10 million years ago into
the buffalos (
Bubalus and Syncerus) and a group leading to bison and
taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and
taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree"
structure as is often depicted in much evolution, because evidence of
interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and
members within this family, even many millions of years after their
ancestors separated into different species. This crossbreeding was not
sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has
resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this
group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such
relationships would otherwise not be apparent.
A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal
lineages in tribe Bovini:
Taurine cattle and zebu
American bison and yak and
Banteng, gaur, and gayal
However, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American
bison. An earlier study using amplified fragment length
polymorphism fingerprinting showed a close association of wisent with
American bison, and probably with the yak, but noted that the
Bovini species made determining relationships
Bison genus diverged from the lineage that led to cattle (Bos
primigenius) at the Plio-
Pleistocene boundary in South Asia. Two
extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct
species, five went extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Three
were North American endemics:
Bison antiquus, B. latifrons, and B.
occidentalis. The fourth, B. priscus (steppe bison), ranged across
steppe environments from Western Europe, through Central Asia, East
Asia including Japan, and onto North America. The fifth, B.
schoetensacki (woodland bison), inhabited Eurasian forests, extending
from western Europe to the south of Siberia.
Bisons depicted at Cave of Altamira
The sixth, B. palaeosinensis, evolving in the Early
South Asia, is presumed to have been the evolutionary ancestor of
B. priscus and all successive
Bison lineages. The steppe bison (B.
priscus) evolved from
Bison palaeosinensis in the Early Pleistocene.
B. priscus is seen clearly in the fossil record around 2 million years
ago. The steppe bison spread across Eurasia, and all proceeding
contemporary and successive species are believed to have derived from
the steppe bison. Going extinct in 6,000 BCE, outlasted only by B.
occidentalis, B. bonasus and B. bison, the steppe bison was the
predominant bison pictured in the ancient cave paintings of Spain and
European bison is likely to have arisen from the steppe
bison. There is no direct fossil evidence of successive species
between the steppe bison and the European bison, though there are
three possible lines of ancestry pertaining to the European wisent.
Past research has suggested that the
European bison is descended from
bison that had migrated from Asia to North America, and then back to
Europe, where they crossbred with existing steppe bison. However,
more recent phylogenetic research points to an origin either from the
phenotypically and genetically similar
Pleistocene woodland bison (B.
schoetensacki) or as the result of an interbreeding event between
the steppe bison and the aurochs (
Bos primigenius), the ancestor of
domesticated cattle, around 120,000 years ago. The possible hybrid
is referred to in vernacular as the 'Higgs bison' as a hat-tip to the
discovery process of the Higgs boson.
At one point, some steppe bison crossbred with the ancestors of the
modern yak. After that crossbreeding, a population of steppe bison
Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge to North America. The steppe bison
spread through the northern parts of North America and lived in
Eurasia until around 11,000 years ago and North America until
4,000 to 8,000 years ago.
Pleistocene woodland bison (B.schoetensacki) evolved in the Middle
Pleistocene from B. priscus, and tended to inhabit the dry conifer
forests and woodland which lined the mammoth steppe, occupying a range
from western Europe to the south of Siberia. Although their fossil
records are far rarer than their antecedent, they are thought to have
existed until at least 36,000 BCE.
Bison latifrons (the "giant" or "longhorn" bison) is thought to have
evolved in midcontinent North America from B. priscus, after the
steppe bison crossed into North America. Giant bison (B.
latifrons) appeared in the fossil record about 120,000 years ago.
B. latifrons was one of many species of North American megafauna that
became extinct during the transition from the
Pleistocene to the
Holocene epoch (an event referred to as the Quaternary extinction
event). It is thought to have disappeared some 21,000–30,000 years
ago, during the late Wisconsin glaciation.
B. latifrons co-existed with the slightly smaller B. antiquus for over
100,000 years. Their predecessor, the steppe bison appeared in the
North American fossil record around 190,000 years ago. B.
latifrons is believed to have been a more woodland-dwelling,
non-herding species, while B. antiquus was a herding
grassland-dweller, very much like its descendant B. bison. B.
antiquus gave rise to both B. occidentalis, and later B. bison, the
modern American bison, some 5,000 to 10,000 years ago. B.
antiquus was the most common megafaunal species on the North American
continent during much of the Late
Pleistocene and is the most commonly
found large animal found at the La Brea Tar Pits.
In 2016, DNA extracted from
Bison priscus fossil remains beneath a
130,000-year-old volcanic ashfall in the
Yukon suggested recent
arrival of the species. That genetic material indicated that all
American bison had a common ancestor 135,000 to 195,000 years ago,
during which period the
Bering Land Bridge
Bering Land Bridge was exposed; this
hypothesis precludes an earlier arrival. The researchers sequenced
mitochondrial genomes from both that specimen and from the remains of
a recently discovered, estimated 120,000-year-old giant, long-horned,
B. latifrons from Snowmass, Colorado. The genetic information also
indicated that a second,
Pleistocene migration of bison over the land
bridge occurred 21,000 to 45,000 years ago.
European bison (left) and
American bison (right)
During the population bottleneck, after the great slaughter of
American bison during the 19th century, the number of bison remaining
alive in North America declined to as low as 541. During that period,
a handful of ranchers gathered remnants of the existing herds to save
the species from extinction. These ranchers bred some of the bison
with cattle in an effort to produce "cattleo" (today called
"beefalo") Accidental crossings were also known to occur. Generally,
male domestic bulls were crossed with buffalo cows, producing
offspring of which only the females were fertile. The crossbred
animals did not demonstrate any form of hybrid vigor, so the practice
was abandoned. Wisent-
American bison hybrids were briefly experimented
with in Germany (and found to be fully fertile) and a herd of such
animals is maintained in Russia. A herd of cattle-wisent crossbreeds
(zubron) is maintained in Poland. First-generation crosses do not
occur naturally, requiring caesarean delivery. First-generation males
are infertile. The U.S. National
Bison Association has adopted a code
of ethics that prohibits its members from deliberately crossbreeding
bison with any other species. In the United States, many ranchers are
now using DNA testing to cull the residual cattle genetics from their
bison herds. The proportion of cattle DNA that has been measured in
introgressed individuals and bison herds today is typically quite low,
ranging from 0.56 to 1.8%.
There are also remnant purebred
American bison herds on public lands
in North America. Three herds are in Yellowstone National Park, Wind
Cave National Park in South Dakota,
Elk Island National Park
Elk Island National Park in
Grasslands National Park
Grasslands National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada.
In 2015 a fourth purebred herd of 350 individuals was identified on
public lands in the
Henry Mountains of southern
Utah via genetic
testing of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. This study, published in
2015, also showed the
Henry Mountains bison herd to be free of
brucellosis, a bacterial disease that was imported with non-native
domestic cattle to North America.
A group of images by Eadweard Muybridge, set to motion to illustrate
the movement of the bison
A bison charges an elk at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife
Wallowing is a common behavior of bison. A bison wallow is a shallow
depression in the soil, either wet or dry.
Bison roll in these
depressions, covering themselves with mud or dust. Possible
explanations suggested for wallowing behavior include grooming
behavior associated with moulting, male-male interaction (typically
rutting behavior), social behavior for group cohesion, play behavior,
relief from skin irritation due to biting insects, reduction of
ectoparasite load (ticks and lice), and thermoregulation. In the
process of wallowing, bison may become infected by the fatal disease
anthrax, which may occur naturally in the soil.
Bison temperament is often unpredictable. They usually appear
peaceful, unconcerned, even lazy, yet they may attack anything, often
without warning or apparent reason. They can move at speeds up to
35 mph (56 km/h) and cover long distances at a lumbering
Their most obvious weapons are the horns borne by both males and
females, but their massive heads can be used as battering rams,
effectively using the momentum produced by what is a typical weight of
2,000 pounds (900 kg) (can be up to 2700 lbs) moving at
30 mph (50 km/h). The hind legs can also be used to kill or
maim with devastating effect. In the words of early naturalists, they
were dangerous, savage animals that feared no other animal and in
prime condition could best any foe (except for wolves and brown
The rutting, or mating, season lasts from June through September, with
peak activity in July and August. At this time, the older bulls rejoin
the herd, and fights often take place between bulls. The herd exhibits
much restlessness during breeding season. The animals are belligerent,
unpredictable, and most dangerous.
"Last of the Canadian Buffaloes", 1902, photograph: Steele and Company
American bison live in river valleys, and on prairies and plains.
Typical habitat is open or semiopen grasslands, as well as sagebrush,
semiarid lands, and scrublands. Some lightly wooded areas are also
known historically to have supported bison. They also graze in hilly
or mountainous areas where the slopes are not steep. Though not
particularly known as high-altitude animals, bison in the Yellowstone
Park bison herd are frequently found at elevations above 8,000 feet
Henry Mountains bison herd is found on the plains around the
Henry Mountains, Utah, as well as in mountain valleys of the Henry
Mountains to an altitude of 10,000 feet.
European bison tend to live in lightly wooded to fully wooded areas
and areas with increased shrubs and bushes, though they can also live
on grasslands and plains.
Throughout most of their historical range, landowners have sought
restrictions on free-ranging bison. Herds on private land are required
be fenced in. In the state of Montana, free-ranging bison on
public lands may be shot, due to concerns about transmission of
disease to cattle and damage to public property. In 2013, Montana
legislative measures concerning the bison were proposed and passed the
legislature, but opposed by Native American tribes as they impinged on
sovereign tribal rights. Three such bills were vetoed by Steve
Bullock, the governor of Montana. The bison's circumstances remain an
issue of contention between Native American tribes and private
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)
A bison and an elk grazing together in the Yellowstone National Park.
Bison are ruminants, which allows them to derive their energy from
Bison were once thought to almost exclusively consume
grasses and sedges, but are now known to consume a wide-variety of
plants including woody plants and herbaceous eudicots. Over
the course of the year, bison shift which plants they select in their
diet based on which plants have the highest protein or energy
concentrations at a given time and will reliably consume the same
species of plants across years. Protein concentrations of the
plants they eat tend to be highest in the spring and decline
thereafter, reaching their lowest in the winter. In Yellowstone
National Park, bison browsed willows and cottonwoods, not only in the
winter when few other plants are available, but also in the
Bison are thought to migrate to optimize their diet,
and will concentrate their feeding on recently burned areas due to the
higher quality forage the regrows after the burn.
Wisent tend to
browse on shrubs and low-hanging trees more often than do the American
bison, which prefer grass to shrubbery and trees.
Female bison typically do not reproduce until three years of age
and can reproduce to at least 19 years of age. Female bison can
produce calves annually as long as their nutrition is sufficient, but
will not give birth to a calf after years where weight gain was too
low. A mothers’ probability of reproduction the following year is
depends strongly on mother mass and age. Heavier female bison
produce heavier calves (weighed in the fall at weaning) than light
mothers, while the weight of calves is lower for older mothers (after
Wolves hunting bison
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2012)
Due to their size, bison have few predators. Four notable exceptions
are humans, the grey wolf, brown bear, and coyote. The grey wolf
generally takes down a bison while in a pack, but cases of a single
wolf killing bison have been reported.
Brown bear also consume
bison, often by driving off the pack and consuming the wolves'
Brown bear and coyotes also prey on bison calves.
Historically and prehistorically, lions, tigers, Smilodon,
Homotherium, cave hyenas and
Homo sp. had posed threats to bison.
Infections and illness
For the American bison, the main cause of illness is malignant
catarrhal fever, though brucellosis is a serious concern in the
Yellowstone Park bison herd.
Bison in the Antelope Island bison herd
are regularly inoculated against brucellosis, parasites, Clostridium
infection, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine
The major concerns for illness in
European bison are foot-and-mouth
disease and balanoposthitis, which affects the male sex organs; a
number of parasitic diseases have also been cited as threats. The
inbreeding of the species caused by the small population plays a role
in a number of genetic defects and immunity to diseases, which in turn
poses greater risks to the population.
The term "buffalo" is sometimes considered to be a misnomer for this
animal, as it is only distantly related to either of the two "true
buffalo", the Asian water buffalo and the African buffalo. Samuel de
Champlain applied the term buffalo (buffles in French) to the bison in
1616 (published 1619), after seeing skins and a drawing shown to him
by members of the Nipissing First Nation, who said they travelled
forty days (from east of Lake Huron) to trade with another nation who
hunted the animals. Though "bison" might be considered more
scientifically correct, as a result of standard usage, "buffalo" is
also considered correct and is listed in many dictionaries as an
acceptable name for American buffalo or bison. Buffalo has a much
longer history than bison, which was first recorded in 1774.
Photo from the 1870s of a pile of
American bison skulls waiting to be
ground for fertilizer.
Humans were almost exclusively accountable for the near-extinction of
American bison in the 1800s. At the beginning of the century, tens
of millions of bison roamed North America. American settlers
slaughtered an estimated 50 million bison during the 19th century.
Railroads were advertising "hunting by rail", where trains encountered
large herds alongside or crossing the tracks. Men aboard fired from
the trains roof or windows, leaving countless animals to rot where
they died. The overhunting of the bison reduced their population
to hundreds. Attempts to revive the
American bison have been highly
successful. Farming of bison has increased their population to nearly
American bison is, therefore, no longer considered an
endangered species. The extinction of four species of bison (B.
antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis, and B. priscus) was due to
natural selection (see section Evolution and genetic history).
As of July 2015, an estimated 4,900 bison lived in Yellowstone
National Park, the largest U.S. bison population on public land.
During 1983–1985 visitors experienced 33 bison-related injuries
(range = 10–13/year), so the park implemented education campaigns.
After years of success, five injuries associated with bison encounters
occurred in 2015, because visitors did not maintain the required
distance of 75 ft (23 m) from bison while hiking or taking
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April
Bison is an excellent source of complete protein and a rich source
(20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of multiple vitamins including
Vitamin B6, and
Vitamin B12 and is also a rich
source of minerals including iron, phosphorus, and zinc. Additionally,
bison is a good source (10% or more of the Daily Value) of thiamine.
Bison, ground, grass-fed, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
179 kcal (750 kJ)
link to USDA Database entry
μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
In America, the commercial industry for bison has been slow to develop
despite individuals, such as Ted Turner, who have long marketed bison
meat. In the 1990s, Turner found limited success with restaurants for
high-quality cuts of meat, which include bison steaks and
tenderloin. Lower-quality cuts suitable for hamburger and hot dogs
have been described as "almost nonexistent". This created a
marketing problem for commercial farming because the majority of
usable meat, about 400 pounds for each bison, is suitable for these
products. In 2003, the United States Department of Agriculture
purchased $10 million worth of frozen overstock to save the industry,
which would later recover through better use of consumer
marketing. Restaurants have played a role in popularizing bison
meat, like Ted's Montana Grill, which added bison to their menus. Ruby
Tuesday first offered bison on their menus in 2005.
In Canada, commercial bison farming began in the mid 1980s, concerning
an unknown number of animals then. The first census of the bison
occurred in 1996, which recorded 45,235 bison on 745 farms, and grew
to 195,728 bison on 1,898 farms for the 2006 census.
Several pet food companies use bison as a red meat alternative in dog
foods. The companies producing these formulas include Natural Balance
Pet Foods, Freshpet, The Blue Buffalo Company, Solid Gold, Canidae,
and Taste of the Wild.
National Bison Day (1 November in the United States)
Yellowstone Park bison herd
Pile of Bones was the original name for Regina,
referred to buffalo bones found nearby.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bison.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Bison Blend Cattle
European bison /
Wisent online" from Browsk
Forest District in
Białowieża National Park, Poland
Ingersoll, Ernest (1905). "Bison". New International
Extant Artiodactyla species
Pronghorn (A. americana)
Okapi (O. johnstoni)
Northern giraffe (G. camelopardalis)
Southern giraffe (G. giraffa)
Reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata)
Masai giraffe (G. tippelskirchi)
Anhui musk deer
Anhui musk deer (M. anhuiensis)
Dwarf musk deer
Dwarf musk deer (M. berezovskii)
Alpine musk deer
Alpine musk deer (M. chrysogaster)
Kashmir musk deer
Kashmir musk deer (M. cupreus)
Black musk deer
Black musk deer (M. fuscus)
Himalayan musk deer (M. leucogaster)
Siberian musk deer
Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)
Water chevrotain (H. aquaticus)
Indian spotted chevrotain
Indian spotted chevrotain (M. indica)
Yellow-striped chevrotain (M. kathygre)
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain
Sri Lankan spotted chevrotain (M. meminna)
Java mouse-deer (T. javanicus)
Lesser mouse-deer (T. kanchil)
Greater mouse-deer (T. napu)
Philippine mouse-deer (T. nigricans)
Vietnam mouse-deer (T. versicolor)
Williamson's mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Indian muntjac (M. muntjak)
Reeves's muntjac (M. reevesi)
Hairy-fronted muntjac (M. crinifrons)
Fea's muntjac (M. feae)
Bornean yellow muntjac
Bornean yellow muntjac (M. atherodes)
Roosevelt's muntjac (M. rooseveltorum)
Gongshan muntjac (M. gongshanensis)
Giant muntjac (M. vuquangensis)
Truong Son muntjac
Truong Son muntjac (M. truongsonensis)
Leaf muntjac (M. putaoensis)
Sumatran muntjac (M. montanus)
Pu Hoat muntjac
Pu Hoat muntjac (M. puhoatensis)
Tufted deer (E. cephalophus)
Fallow deer (D. dama)
Persian fallow deer
Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)
Chital (A. axis)
Barasingha (R. duvaucelii)
Eld's deer (P. eldii)
Père David's deer
Père David's deer (E. davidianus)
Hog deer (H. porcinus)
Calamian deer (H. calamianensis)
Bawean deer (H. kuhlii)
Sambar deer (R. unicolor)
Rusa deer (R. timorensis)
Philippine sambar (R. mariannus)
Philippine spotted deer (R. alfredi)
Red deer (C. elaphus)
Elk (C. canadensis)
Thorold's deer (C. albirostris)
Sika deer (C. nippon)
Moose (A. alces)
Water deer (H. inermis)
Roe deer (C. capreolus)
Siberian roe deer
Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus)
Reindeer (R. tarandus)
Taruca (H. antisensis)
South Andean deer
South Andean deer (H. bisulcus)
Red brocket (M. americana)
Small red brocket
Small red brocket (M. bororo)
Merida brocket (M. bricenii)
Dwarf brocket (M. chunyi)
Gray brocket (M. gouazoubira)
Pygmy brocket (M. nana)
Amazonian brown brocket
Amazonian brown brocket (M. nemorivaga)
Yucatan brown brocket
Yucatan brown brocket (M. pandora)
Little red brocket
Little red brocket (M. rufina)
Central American red brocket
Central American red brocket (M. temama)
Pampas deer (O. bezoarticus)
Marsh deer (B. dichotomus)
Northern pudú (P. mephistophiles)
Southern pudú (P. pudu)
White-tailed deer (O. virginianus)
Mule deer (O. hemionus)
Abbott's duiker (C. spadix)
Aders's duiker (C. adersi)
Bay duiker (C. dorsalis)
Black duiker (C. niger)
Black-fronted duiker (C. nigrifrons)
Brooke's duiker (C. brookei)
Harvey's duiker (C. harveyi)
Jentink's duiker (C. jentinki)
Ogilby's duiker (C. ogilbyi)
Peters's duiker (C. callipygus)
Red-flanked duiker (C. rufilatus)
Red forest duiker
Red forest duiker (C. natalensis)
Ruwenzori duiker (C. rubidis)
Weyns's duiker (C. weynsi)
White-bellied duiker (C. leucogaster)
White-legged duiker (C. crusalbum)
Yellow-backed duiker (C. Sylvicultor)
Zebra duiker (C. zebra)
Blue duiker (P. monticola)
Maxwell's duiker (P. maxwellii)
Walter's duiker (P. walteri)
Common duiker (S. grimmia)
Roan antelope (H. equinus)
Sable antelope (H. niger)
East African oryx
East African oryx (O. beisa)
Scimitar oryx (O. dammah)
Gemsbok (O. gazella)
Arabian oryx (O. leucoryx)
Addax (A. nasomaculatus)
Upemba lechwe (K. anselli)
Waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus)
Kob (K. kob)
Lechwe (K. leche)
Nile lechwe (K. megaceros)
Puku (K. vardonii)
Southern reedbuck (R. arundinum)
Mountain reedbuck (R. fulvorufula)
Bohor reedbuck (R. redunca)
Impala (A. melampus)
Grey rhebok (P. capreolus)
Hirola (B. hunteri)
Topi (D. korrigum)
Common tsessebe (D. lunatus)
Bontebok (D. pygargus)
Bangweulu tsessebe (D. superstes)
Hartebeest (A. buselaphus)
Red hartebeest (A. caama)
Lichtenstein's hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)
Black wildebeest (C. gnou)
Blue wildebeest (C. taurinus)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Large subfamily listed below
Bovidae (subfamily Caprinae)
Barbary sheep (A. lervia)
Takin (B. taxicolor)
Wild goat (C. aegagrus)
Domestic goat (C. aegagrus hircus)
West Caucasian tur
West Caucasian tur (C. caucasia)
East Caucasian tur
East Caucasian tur (C. cylindricornis)
Markhor (C. falconeri)
Alpine ibex (C. ibex)
Nubian ibex (C. nubiana)
Spanish ibex (C. pyrenaica)
Siberian ibex (C. sibirica)
Walia ibex (C. walie)
Japanese serow (C. crispus)
Taiwan serow (C. swinhoei)
Sumatran serow (C. sumatraensis)
Mainland serow (C. milneedwardsii)
Red serow (C. rubidusi)
Himalayan serow (C. thar)
Nilgiri tahr (H. hylocrius)
Arabian tahr (H. jayakari)
Himalayan tahr (H. jemlahicus)
Red goral (N. baileyi)
Long-tailed goral (N. caudatus)
Himalayan goral (N. goral)
Chinese goral (N. griseus)
Mountain goat (O. americanus)
Muskox (O. moschatus)
Argali (O. ammon)
Domestic sheep (O. aries)
Bighorn sheep (O. canadensis)
Dall sheep (O. dalli)
Mouflon (O. musimon)
Snow sheep (O. nivicola)
Urial (O. orientalis)
Bharal (P. nayaur)
Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep (P. schaeferi)
Pyrenean chamois (R. pyrenaica)
Chamois (R. rupicapra)
Bovidae (subfamily Bovinae)
Four-horned antelope (T. quadricornis)
Nilgai (B. tragocamelus)
Water buffalo (B. bubalis)
Wild Water Buffalo (B. arnee)
Lowland anoa (B. depressicornis)
Mountain anoa (B. quarlesi)
Tamaraw (B. mindorensis)
Banteng (B. javanicus)
Gaur (B. gaurus)
Gayal (B. frontalis)
Domestic yak (B. grunniens)
Wild yak (B. mutus)
Cattle (B. taurus)
Kouprey (B. sauveli)
Kting voar (P. spiralis)
Saola (P. nghetinhensis)
African buffalo (S. caffer)
American bison (B. bison)
European bison (B. bonasus)
Sitatunga (T. spekeii)
Nyala (T. angasii)
Kéwel (T. scriptus)
Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus)
Mountain nyala (T. buxtoni)
Lesser kudu (T. imberbis)
Greater kudu (T. strepsiceros)
Bongo (T. eurycerus)
Common eland (T. oryx)
Giant eland (T. derbianus)
Bovidae (subfamily Antilopinae)
Dibatag (A. clarkei)
Springbok (A. marsupialis)
Blackbuck (A. cervicapra)
Mongalla gazelle (E. albonotata)
Red-fronted gazelle (E. rufifrons)
Thomson's gazelle (E. thomsonii)
Heuglin's gazelle (E. tilonura)
Mountain gazelle (G. gazella)
Neumann's gazelle (G. erlangeri)
Speke's gazelle (G. spekei)
Dorcas gazelle (G. dorcas)
Chinkara (G. bennettii)
Cuvier's gazelle (G. cuvieri)
Rhim gazelle (G. leptoceros)
Goitered gazelle (G. subgutturosa)
Gerenuk (L. walleri)
Dama gazelle (N. dama)
Grant's gazelle (N. granti)
Soemmerring's gazelle (N. soemmerringii)
Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa)
Goa (P. picticaudata)
Przewalski's gazelle (P. przewalskii)
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Saiga antelope (S. tatarica)
Beira (D. megalotis)
Günther's dik-dik (M. guentheri)
Kirk's dik-dik (M. kirkii)
Silver dik-dik (M. piacentinii)
Salt's dik-dik (M. saltiana)
Bates's pygmy antelope
Bates's pygmy antelope (N. batesi)
Suni (N. moschatus)
Royal antelope (N. pygmaeus)
Klipspringer (O. oreotragus)
Oribi (O. ourebi)
Steenbok (R. campestris)
Cape grysbok (R. melanotis)
Sharpe's grysbok (R. sharpei)
Buru babirusa (B. babyrussa)
North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa (B. celebensis)
Togian babirusa (B. togeanensis)
Giant forest hog
Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)
Desert warthog (P. aethiopicus)
Common warthog (P. africanus)
Pygmy hog (P. salvania)
Bushpig (P. larvatus)
Red river hog
Red river hog (P. porcus)
Palawan bearded pig
Palawan bearded pig (S. ahoenobarbus)
Bornean bearded pig
Bornean bearded pig (S. barbatus)
Indo-chinese warty pig (S. bucculentus)
Visayan warty pig
Visayan warty pig (S. cebifrons)
Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig (S. celebensis)
Flores warty pig (S. heureni)
Oliver's warty pig
Oliver's warty pig (S. oliveri)
Philippine warty pig
Philippine warty pig (S. philippensis)
Wild boar (S. scrofa)
Timor warty pig (S. timoriensis)
Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig (S. verrucosus)
White-lipped peccary (T. pecari)
Chacoan peccary (C. wagneri)
Collared peccary (P. tajacu)
Giant peccary (P. maximus)
Llama (L. glama)
Guanaco (L. guanicoe)
Vicuña (V. vicugna)
Alpaca (V. pacos)
Dromedary (C. dromedarius)
Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus)
Bactrian camel (C. ferus)
Whippomorpha (unranked clade)
Hippopotamus (H. amphibius)
Pygmy hippopotamus (C. liberiensis)
National symbols of the United States
Flag of the United States
Seal of the United States
General Grant (tree)
Pledge of Allegiance
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Fauna Europaea: 305220