A bishop (English derivation[a] from the
New Testament of the
Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer",
"guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the
Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of
authority and oversight.
Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox,
Old Catholic and
Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches and in the
Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a
direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles.
Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full
priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop. Some
Protestant churches including the
Methodist churches have
bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always
understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One who
has been ordained deacon, priest, and then bishop is understood to
hold the fullness of the (ministerial) priesthood, given
responsibility by Christ to govern, teach and sanctify the Body of
Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests, deacons and lay ministers
cooperate and assist their bishop(s) in shepherding a flock.
2.1 Apostolic Fathers
Bishops and civil government
Bishops holding political office
3.2 Episcopacy during the English Civil War
Catholic Church, Orthodox churches and Anglican churches
Ordination of Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican bishops
Methodist Episcopal Church
Methodist Episcopal Church
4.4 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
4.5 New Apostolic Church
4.6 Church of God in Christ
4.7 Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee)
4.8 Pentecostal Church of God
4.9 Seventh-day Adventists
5 Dress and insignia
6 See also
10 External links
The term epískopos (Greek: ἐπίσκοπος), meaning "overseer"
in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the
earliest times clearly distinguished from the term presbýteros
(literally: "elder" or "senior", origin of the modern English word
priest), but the term was already clearly used in the sense of the
order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the
writings attributed to
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch  (died c. 110).
The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to
most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a
council or college of ordained presbyters (Greek:
πρεσβύτεροι elders). In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a
collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the
Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts
14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia.
Often, the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer
(Greek: ἐπίσκοπος episkopos, later used exclusively to mean
bishop), as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and Peter 5:1.[b][c] The
earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the
Didache and the First
Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for
local church offices—presbyters (seen by many as an interchangeable
term with episcopos or overseer) and deacon.
A 6th-century image of Saint Augustine, bishop of Hippo Regius.
In Timothy and Titus in the
New Testament a more clearly defined
episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in
Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul
commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general
oversight, telling him to "rebuke with all authority".
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities
may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning
as leaders of the local churches. Eventually the head or
"monarchic" bishop came to rule more clearly, and all local
churches would eventually follow the example of the other churches and
structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop
in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters
Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served
individual congregations. Instead, the
Metropolitan bishop (the bishop
in a large city) appointed priests to minister each congregation,
acting as the bishop's delegate.
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Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became
clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the
episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather, already was
very important and being clearly defined. While Ignatius of Antioch
offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops (a single
bishop over all house churches in a city) he is an advocate of
monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To
the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers
strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the
bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not
describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the
presbyters or speaking of episkopoi (bishops, plural) in a city.
Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, student of John the Apostle
"Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself"
Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1.
"your godly bishop" —
Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1.
"the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters
after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons
also who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate
of Jesus Christ" —
Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1.
"Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, [being united
with Him], either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye
anything without the bishop and the presbyters." —
Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1.
"Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to
the Father [according to the flesh], and as the Apostles were to
Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of
Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2.
"In like manner let all men respect the deacons as Jesus Christ, even
as they should respect the bishop as being a type of the Father and
the presbyters as the council of God and as the college of Apostles.
Apart from these there is not even the name of a church." — Epistle
of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3:1.
"follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the
presbytery as the Apostles; and to the deacons pay respect, as to
God's commandment" —
Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8:1.
"He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God; he that doeth aught
without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil"
Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9:1.
— Lightfoot translation.
As the Church continued to expand, new churches in important cities
gained their own bishop. Churches in the regions outside an important
city were served by Chorbishop, an official rank of bishops. However,
soon, presbyters and deacons were sent from bishop of a city church.
Gradually priests replaced the chorbishops. Thus, in time, the bishop
changed from being the leader of a single church confined to an urban
area to being the leader of the churches of a given geographical area.
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria (end of the 2nd century) writes about the
ordination of a certain Zachæus as bishop by the imposition of Simon
Peter Bar-Jonah's hands. The words bishop and ordination are used in
their technical meaning by the same Clement of Alexandria. The
bishops in the 2nd century are defined also as the only clergy to whom
the ordination to priesthood (presbyterate) and diaconate is
entrusted: "a priest (presbyter) lays on hands, but does not ordain."
(cheirothetei ou cheirotonei)
At the beginning of the 3rd century,
Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome describes
another feature of the ministry of a bishop, which is that of the
"Spiritum primatus sacerdotii habere potestatem dimittere peccata":
the primate of sacrificial priesthood and the power to forgive
Bishops and civil government
See also: State church of the Roman Empire
The efficient organization of the
Roman Empire became the template for
the organisation of the church in the 4th century, particularly after
Constantine's Edict of Milan. As the church moved from the shadows of
privacy into the public forum it acquired land for churches, burials
and clergy. In 391,
Theodosius I decreed that any land that had been
confiscated from the church by Roman authorities be returned.
A bishop with other officials on an 11th-century grave in Sweden.
The most usual term for the geographic area of a bishop's authority
and ministry, the diocese, began as part of the structure of the Roman
Empire under Diocletian. As Roman authority began to fail in the
western portion of the empire, the church took over much of the civil
administration. This can be clearly seen in the ministry of two popes:
Pope Leo I in the 5th century, and
Pope Gregory I in the 6th century.
Both of these men were statesmen and public administrators in addition
to their role as Christian pastors, teachers and leaders. In the
Eastern churches, latifundia entailed to a bishop's see were much less
common, the state power did not collapse the way it did in the West,
and thus the tendency of bishops acquiring secular power was much
weaker than in the West. However, the role of Western bishops as civil
authorities, often called prince bishops, continued throughout much of
the Middle Ages.
Bishops holding political office
Johann Otto von Gemmingen,
Prince-Bishop of Augsburg
As well as being archchancellors of the Holy
Roman Empire after the
9th century, bishops generally served as chancellors to medieval
monarchs, acting as head of the justiciary and chief chaplain. The
England was almost always a bishop up until the
dismissal of Cardinal
Thomas Wolsey by Henry VIII. Similarly, the
Kanclerz in the Polish kingdom was always held by a bishop
until the 16th century. And today, the principality of
headed by two Co-Princes, one of whom is a
Bishop (and the
other, the President of France).
France before the French Revolution, representatives of the clergy
— in practice, bishops and abbots of the largest monasteries —
comprised the First Estate of the Estates-General, until their role
was abolished during the French Revolution.
In the 21st century, the more senior bishops of the Church of England
continue to sit in the
House of Lords
House of Lords of the Parliament of the United
Kingdom, as representatives of the established church, and are known
as Lords Spiritual. The
Bishop of Sodor and Man, whose diocese lies
outside the United Kingdom, is an ex officio member of the Legislative
Council of the Isle of Man. In the past, the
Bishop of Durham, known
as a prince bishop, had extensive viceregal powers within his northern
diocese — the power to mint money, collect taxes and raise an army
to defend against the Scots.
Eastern Orthodox bishops, along with all other members of the clergy,
are canonically forbidden to hold political office. Occasional
exceptions to this rule are tolerated when the alternative is
political chaos. In the Ottoman Empire, the
Constantinople, for example, had de facto administrative, fiscal,
cultural and legal jurisdiction, as well as spiritual, over all the
Christians of the empire. More recently,
Makarios III of
Cyprus, served as President of the Republic of
Cyprus from 1960 to
In 2001, Peter Hollingworth, AC, OBE – then the Anglican Archbishop
of Brisbane – was controversially appointed Governor-General of
Australia. Although Hollingworth gave up his episcopal position to
accept the appointment, it still attracted considerable opposition in
a country which maintains a formal separation between Church and
Episcopacy during the English Civil War
English Civil War
English Civil War § Episcopacy during the English
During the period of the English Civil War, the role of bishops as
wielders of political power and as upholders of the established church
became a matter of heated political controversy. Indeed,
Presbyterianism was the polity of most
Reformed Churches in Europe,
and had been favored by many in
England since the English Reformation.
Since in the primitive church the offices of presbyter and episkopos
were identical, many
Puritans held that this was the only form of
government the church should have. The Anglican divine, Richard
Hooker, objected to this claim in his famous work Of the Laws of
Ecclesiastic Polity while, at the same time, defending Presbyterian
ordination as valid (in particular Calvin's ordination of Beza). This
was the official stance of the English Church until the Commonwealth,
during which time, the views of Presbyterians and Independents
(Congregationalists) were more freely expressed and practiced.
Catholic Church, Orthodox churches and Anglican churches
Bishop (Catholic Church)
Bishop (Catholic Church) and
A mitre is used as a symbol of the bishop's ministry in Western
One form for the coat of arms of a Roman
Bishops form the leadership in the
Catholic Church, the Eastern
Orthodox Church, the
Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican
Lutheran Church, the Independent
Catholic Churches, the
Independent Anglican Churches, and certain other, smaller,
The traditional role of a bishop is as pastor of a diocese (also
called a bishopric, synod, eparchy or see), and so to serve as a
"diocesan bishop," or "eparch" as it is called in many Eastern
Christian churches. Dioceses vary considerably in size, geographically
and population-wise. Some dioceses around the
Mediterranean Sea which
were Christianised early are rather compact, whereas dioceses in areas
of rapid modern growth in Christian commitment—as in some parts of
South America and the Far East—are much larger
and more populous.
As well as traditional diocesan bishops, many churches have a
well-developed structure of church leadership that involves a number
of layers of authority and responsibility.
Patriarchs are the bishops who head certain ancient autocephalous or
sui iuris churches, which are a collection of metropolitan sees or
provinces. After the First Ecumenical Council at Nicea, the church
structure was patterned after the administrative divisions of the
Roman Empire wherein a metropolitan or bishop of a metropolis came to
be the ecclesiastical head of a civil capital of a province or a
metropolis. Whereas, the bishop of the larger administrative district,
diocese, came to be called an exarch. In a few cases, a bishop came to
preside over a number of dioceses, i.e., Rome, Antioch, and
Alexandria. At the Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon in 451,
Constantinople was given jurisdiction over three dioceses for the
reason that the city was "the residence of the emperor and senate".
Additionally, Jerusalem was recognized at the Council of Chalcedon as
one of the major sees. In 692, the Quinisext Council formally
recognized and ranked the sees of the Pentarchy in order of
preeminence, at that time Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch,
and Jerusalem. In the
Catholic Church, Patriarchs sometimes call their
leaders Catholicos; the
Patriarch of the
Orthodox Church of
Alexandria, Egypt, is called Pope, meaning 'Father'. While most
patriarchs in the
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches have jurisdiction over a
"ritual church" (a group or diocese of a particular Eastern
Latin Rite patriarchs, except for the Pope, have only
honorary titles. In 2006,
Pope Benedict XVI gave up the title of
Patriarch of the West. The first recorded use of the title by a Roman
Pope was by Theodore I in 620. However, early church documents, such
as those of the
First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea (325) had always listed the
Pope of Rome first among the Ancient Patriarchs (first four, and later
five: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and
Jerusalem—collectively referred to as the Pentarchy). Later, the
heads of various national churches became Patriarchs, but they are
ranked below the Pentarchy.
Mitre worn by an Eastern bishop with icons of Christ, the Theotokos
(Mary, Mother of God) and Forerunner (John the Baptist)
Catholicoi are the heads of some of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental
Orthodox, and Eastern Rite
Catholic sui iuris churches (notably the
Armenian), roughly similar to a
Patriarch (see above).
A primate is usually the bishop of the oldest church of a nation.
Sometimes this carries jurisdiction over metropolitan bishops, but
usually it is purely honorific. The primate of the Scottish Episcopal
Church is chosen from among the diocesan bishops, and, while retaining
diocesan responsibility, is called Primus.
Presiding Bishop or President Bishop
These titles are often used for the head of a national Anglican
church, but the title is not usually associated with a particular
episcopal see like the title of a primate.
Major archbishops are the heads of some of the Eastern Catholic
Churches. Their authority within their sui juris church is equal to
that of a patriarch, but they receive fewer ceremonial honors.
A metropolitan bishop is an archbishop in charge of an ecclesiastical
province, or group of dioceses, and in addition to having immediate
jurisdiction over his own archdiocese, also exercises some oversight
over the other dioceses within that province. Sometimes a metropolitan
may also be the head of an autocephalous, sui iuris, or autonomous
church when the number of adherents of that tradition are small. In
the Latin Rite, metropolitans are always archbishops; in many Eastern
churches, the title is "metropolitan," with some of these churches
using "archbishop" as a separate office.
Archbishop William Temple
An archbishop is the bishop of an archdiocese. This is usually a
prestigious diocese with an important place in local church history.
In the Roman
Catholic Church, the title is purely honorific and
carries no extra jurisdiction, though most archbishops are also
metropolitan bishops, as above, and are always awarded a pallium. In
most provinces of the Anglican Communion, however, an archbishop has
metropolitical and primatial power.
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a Metropolitan. In the
Catholic Church this term is applied to all non-metropolitan bishops
(that is, diocesan bishops of dioceses within a metropolitan's
province, and auxiliary bishops). In the Anglican Communion, the term
applies to a bishop who is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop:
Bishop of Warwick is suffragan to the
Bishop of Coventry
Bishop of Coventry (the
diocesan), though both live in Coventry.
Some Anglican suffragans are given the responsibility for a
geographical area within the diocese (for example, the
Stepney is an area bishop within the
Diocese of London).
A titular bishop is a bishop without a diocese. Rather, the bishop is
head of a titular see, which is usually an ancient city that used to
have a bishop, but, for some reason or other, does not have one now.
Titular bishops often serve as auxiliary bishops. In the Ecumenical
Patriarchate, bishops of modern dioceses are often given a titular see
alongside their modern one (for example, the
Archbishop of Thyateira
and Great Britain).
An auxiliary bishop is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop (the
Catholic equivalent of an Anglican suffragan bishop). An
auxiliary bishop is a titular bishop, and he is to be appointed as a
vicar general or at least as an episcopal vicar of the diocese in
which he serves.
A coadjutor bishop is an auxiliary bishop who is given almost equal
authority in a diocese with the diocesan bishop, and the automatic
right to succeed the incumbent diocesan bishop. The appointment of
coadjutors is often seen as a means of providing for continuity of
Honorary Assistant Bishop, Assisting Bishop, or
Bishop Emeritus: These
titles are usually applied to retired bishops who are given a general
licence to minister as episcopal pastors under a diocesan's oversight.
The titles, in this meaning, are not used by the Roman Catholic
a title and role in some churches, not associated with a diocese. In
Orthodox Church the episcopal ranks from highest to lowest
are metropolitan archbishops, metropolitan bishops, diocesan bishops,
bishops exarchs of the throne, suffragan bishops, auxiliary bishops,
general bishops, and finally chorbishops.
Bishops of the same category
rank according to date of consecration.
A chorbishop is an official of a diocese in some Eastern Christian
churches. Chorbishops are not generally ordained bishops – they are
not given the sacrament of
Holy Orders in that degree – but function
as assistants to the diocesan bishop with certain honorary privileges.
The Obispo Maximo, or Supreme Bishop, of the Iglesia Filipina
Independiente is elected by the General Assembly of the Church. He is
the Chief Executive Officer of the Church. He also holds an important
pastoral role being the Spiritual Head and Chief
Pastor of the Church.
He has precedence of honor and prominence of position among, and
recognized to have primacy, over other bishops.
In Roman Catholicism, a cardinal, a title dating back to the 8th
century, is a member of the clergy appointed by the pope to serve in
the College of Cardinals. This body is empowered to elect a new pope
in sede vacante, but cardinals over the age of 80 may not be electors.
Cardinals serve as advisors to the pope and hold positions of
authority within the structure of the
Catholic Church. Under modern
canon law, a man who is not a bishop who is appointed a cardinal must
accept ordination as a bishop, or seek special permission from the
pope to decline ordination. Most cardinals are already bishops at the
time of their appointment, the majority being archbishops of important
archdioceses or patriarchs, and a substantial portion of the rest
already titular archbishops serving in the Vatican. Recent popes have
appointed a few priests, most of them influential theologians, to the
College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals without requiring them to be ordained as bishops;
invariably, these men are near or over the age of 80, and consequently
not eligible to take part in a conclave.
A bishop administering Confirmation. Rogier van der Weyden, The Seven
Sacraments, 15th century.
Latin Rite of the
Catholic Church the administration of
Confirmation is normally reserved to the local bishop.
In Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and
Anglicanism, only a bishop can ordain other bishops, priests, and
In the Eastern liturgical tradition, a priest can celebrate the Divine
Liturgy only with the blessing of a bishop. In Byzantine usage, an
antimension signed by the bishop is kept on the altar partly as a
reminder of whose altar it is and under whose omophorion the priest at
a local parish is serving. In Syriac Church usage, a consecrated
wooden block called a thabilitho is kept for the same reasons.
The pope, in addition to being the
Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome and spiritual head
Catholic Church, is also the
Patriarch of the Latin Rite. Each
bishop within the
Latin Rite is answerable directly to the
not any other bishop except to metropolitans in certain oversight
instances. The pope previously used the title
Patriarch of the West,
but this title was dropped from use in 2006 a move which caused
some concern within the Orthodox Communion as, to them, it implied
wider papal jurisdiction.
In Catholic, Eastern Orthodox,
Oriental Orthodox and Anglican
cathedrals there is a special chair set aside for the exclusive use of
the bishop. This is the bishop's cathedra and is often called the
throne. In some Christian denominations, for example, the Anglican
Communion, parish churches may maintain a chair for the use of the
bishop when he visits; this is to signify the parish's union with the
The bishop is the ordinary minister of the sacrament of confirmation
Catholic Church, and in the Anglican and Old
Catholic communion only a bishop may administer this sacrament.
However, in the Byzantine and other Eastern rites, whether Eastern or
Oriental Orthodox or Eastern Catholic, chrismation is done immediately
after baptism, and thus the priest is the one who confirms, using
chrism blessed by a bishop.
Ordination of Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican bishops
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Bishops in all of these communions are ordained by other bishops
through the laying on of hands. While traditional teaching maintains
that any bishop with apostolic succession can validly perform the
ordination of another bishop, some churches require two or three
bishops participate, either to ensure sacramental validity or to
conform with church law.
Catholic doctrine holds that one bishop can
validly ordain another (priest) as a bishop. Though a minimum of three
bishops participating is desirable (there are usually several more) in
order to demonstrate collegiality, canonically only one bishop is
necessary. The practice of only one bishop ordaining was normal in
countries where the Church was persecuted under
Communist rule. The
title of archbishop or metropolitan may be granted to a senior bishop,
usually one who is in charge of a large ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
He may, or may not, have provincial oversight of suffragan bishops and
may possibly have auxiliary bishops assisting him.
Ordination of a
bishop, and thus continuation of apostolic succession, takes place
through a ritual centred on the imposition of hands and prayer. Apart
from the ordination, which is always done by other bishops, there are
different methods as to the actual selection of a candidate for
ordination as bishop. In the
Catholic Church the Congregation for
Bishops generally oversees the selection of new bishops with the
approval of the pope. The papal nuncio usually solicits names from the
bishops of a country, consults with priests and leading members of a
laity, and then selects three to be forwarded to the Holy See. In
Europe, some cathedral chapters have duties to elect bishops. The
Eastern Catholic churches generally elect their own bishops. Most
Eastern Orthodox churches allow varying amounts of formalised laity
and/or lower clergy influence on the choice of bishops. This also
applies in those Eastern churches which are in union with the pope,
though it is required that he give assent.
Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican,
Old Catholic and some
claim to be part of the continuous sequence of ordained bishops since
the days of the apostles referred to as apostolic succession. Since
Pope Leo XIII issued the bull
Apostolicae curae in 1896, the Catholic
Church has insisted that Anglican orders are invalid because of
changes in the Anglican ordination rites of the 16th century and
divergence in understanding of the theology of priesthood, episcopacy
and Eucharist. However, since the 1930s, Utrecht
Old Catholic bishops
(recognised by the
Holy See as validily ordained) have sometimes taken
part in the ordination of Anglican bishops. According to the writer
Timothy Dufort, by 1969, all Church of
England bishops had acquired
Old Catholic lines of apostolic succession recognised by the Holy
See. This development has muddied the waters somewhat as it could
be argued that the strain of apostolic succession has been
re-introduced into Anglicanism, at least within the Church of England.
Catholic Church does recognise as valid (though illicit)
ordinations done by breakaway Catholic,
Old Catholic or Oriental
bishops, and groups descended from them; it also regards as both valid
and licit those ordinations done by bishops of the Eastern
churches,[d] so long as those receiving the ordination conform to
other canonical requirements (for example, is an adult male) and an
orthodox rite of episcopal ordination, expressing the proper functions
and sacramental status of a bishop, is used; this has given rise to
the phenomenon of episcopi vagantes (for example, clergy of the
Catholic groups which claim apostolic succession, though
this claim is rejected by both Orthodoxy and Catholicism).
The Orthodox Churches would not accept the validity of any ordinations
performed by the Independent
Catholic groups, as Orthodoxy considers
to be spurious any consecration outside the Church as a whole.
Orthodoxy considers apostolic succession to exist only within the
Universal Church, and not through any authority held by individual
bishops; thus, if a bishop ordains someone to serve outside the
(Orthodox) Church, the ceremony is ineffectual, and no ordination has
taken place regardless of the ritual used or the ordaining prelate's
position within the Orthodox Churches.
The consecrated bishop is the only minister of Holy Orders. Photo of
pre-Vatican II ceremony
The position of the
Catholic Church is slightly different. Whilst it
does recognise the validity of the orders of certain groups which
separated from communion with Holy See. The
Holy See accepts as valid
the ordinations of the Old Catholics in communion with Utrecht, as
well as the Polish National
Catholic Church (which received its orders
directly from Utrecht, and was—until recently—part of that
Catholicism does not recognise the orders of any group
whose teaching is at variance with what they consider the core tenets
of Christianity; this is the case even though the clergy of the
Catholic groups may use the proper ordination ritual.
There are also other reasons why the
Holy See does not recognise the
validity of the orders of the Independent clergy:
They hold that the continuing practice among many Independent clergy
of one person receiving multiple ordinations in order to secure
apostolic succession, betrays an incorrect and mechanistic theology of
They hold that the practice within Independent groups of ordaining
women demonstrates an understanding of Priesthood that they vindicate
is totally unacceptable to the
Catholic and Orthodox churches as they
believe that the Universal Church does not possess such authority;
thus, they uphold that any ceremonies performed by these women should
be considered being sacramentally invalid.
The theology of male clergy within the Independent movement is also
suspect according to the Roman Catholics, as they presumably approve
of the ordination of females, and may have even undergone an (invalid)
ordination ceremony conducted by a woman.
Katharine Jefferts Schori, The 26th
Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal
Church (United States)
Whilst members of the Independent
Catholic movement take seriously the
issue of valid orders, it is highly significant that the relevant
Vatican Congregations tend not to respond to petitions from
Catholic bishops and clergy who seek to be received into
communion with the Holy See, hoping to continue in some sacramental
role. In those instances where the pope does grant reconciliation,
those deemed to be clerics within the Independent Old Catholic
movement are invariably admitted as laity and not priests or bishops.
There is a mutual recognition of the validity of orders amongst Roman
Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Old Catholic,
Oriental Orthodox and
Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East churches.
Some provinces of the
Anglican Communion have begun ordaining women as
bishops in recent decades for example, the United States, New Zealand,
Canada and Cuba. The first woman to be consecrated a bishop within
Anglicanism was Barbara Harris, who was ordained in the United States
in 1989. In 2006, Katharine Jefferts Schori, the Episcopal
Nevada, became the first woman to become the
Presiding Bishop of the
Mark S. Hanson, Third
Presiding Bishop of the ELCA.
Lutheran bishops wearing a cope over cassock, surplice, ruff
and pectoral cross.
In the Evangelical
Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the
Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC), the largest Lutheran
Church bodies in the United States and Canada respectively and roughly
based on the Nordic
Lutheran state churches (similar to that of the
Church of England), bishops are elected by
consisting of both lay members and clergy, for a term of 6 years,
which can be renewed, depending upon the local synod's "constitution"
(which is mirrored on either the ELCA or ELCIC's national
constitution). Since the implementation of concordats between the ELCA
Episcopal Church of the United States
Episcopal Church of the United States and the ELCIC and the
Anglican Church of Canada, all bishops, including the Presiding Bishop
(ELCA) or the National
Bishop (ELCIC), have been consecrated using the
historic succession, with at least one Anglican bishop serving as
Since going into ecumenical communion with their respective Anglican
body, bishops in the ELCA or the ELCIC not only approve the
"rostering" of all ordained pastors, diaconal ministers, and
associates in ministry, but they serve as the principal celebrant of
all pastoral ordination and installation ceremonies, diaconal
consecration ceremonies, as well as serving as the "chief pastor" of
the local synod, upholding the teachings of
Martin Luther as well as
the documentations of the Ninety-Five Theses and the Augsburg
Confession. Unlike their counterparts in the United
ELCA and ELCIC synod bishops do not appoint pastors to local
congregations (pastors, like their counterparts in the Episcopal
Church, are called by local congregations). The
Presiding Bishop of
the ELCA and the National
Bishop of the ELCIC, the national bishops of
their respective bodies, is elected for a single 6-year term and may
be elected to an additional term.
Although ELCA agreed with the Episcopal Church to limit ordination to
the bishop "ordinarily", ELCA pastor-ordinators are given permission
to perform the rites in "extraordinary" circumstance. In practice,
"extraordinary" circumstance have included disagreeing with
Episcopalian views of the episcopate, and as a result, ELCA pastors
ordained by other pastors are not permitted to be deployed to
Episcopal Churches (they can, however, serve in Presbyterian Church
Methodist Church, Reformed Church in America, and Moravian
Church congregations, as the ELCA is in full communion with these
Synod (LCMS) and the
Synod (WELS), the second and third
Lutheran bodies in the United States and the two largest
Lutheran bodies in North America, do not follow an
episcopal form of governance, settling instead on a form of
quasi-congregationalism patterned off what they believe to be the
practice of the early church. It should be noted that the second
largest of the three predecessor bodies of the ELCA, the American
Lutheran Church, was a congregationalist body, with national and synod
presidents before they were re-titled as bishops (borrowing from the
Lutheran churches in Germany) in the 1980s. It must also be noted that
with regard to ecclesial discipline and oversight, national and synod
presidents typically function similarly to bishops in episcopal
Methodist Episcopal Church
In the African
Methodist Episcopal Church, "
Bishops are the Chief
Officers of the Connectional Organization. They are elected for life
by a majority vote of the General Conference which meets every four
Methodist Episcopal Church
In the Christian
Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States,
bishops are administrative superintendents of the church; they are
elected by "delegate" votes for as many years deemed until the age of
74, then he/she must retire. Among their duties, are responsibility
for appointing clergy to serve local churches as pastor, for
performing ordinations, and for safeguarding the doctrine and
discipline of the Church. The General Conference, a meeting every four
years, has an equal number of clergy and lay delegates. In each Annual
Conference, CME bishops serve for four-year terms. CME Church bishops
may be male or female.
Methodist Episcopal Shield
In the United
Methodist Church (the largest branch of Methodism in the
world) bishops serve as administrative and pastoral superintendents of
the church. They are elected for life from among the ordained elders
(presbyters) by vote of the delegates in regional (called
jurisdictional) conferences, and are consecrated by the other bishops
present at the conference through the laying on of hands. In the
Methodist Church bishops remain members of the "Order of
Elders" while being consecrated to the "Office of the Episcopacy".
Within the United
Methodist Church only bishops are empowered to
consecrate bishops and ordain clergy. Among their most critical duties
is the ordination and appointment of clergy to serve local churches as
pastor, presiding at sessions of the Annual, Jurisdictional, and
General Conferences, providing pastoral ministry for the clergy under
their charge, and safeguarding the doctrine and discipline of the
Church. Furthermore, individual bishops, or the Council of
a whole, often serve a prophetic role, making statements on important
social issues and setting forth a vision for the denomination, though
they have no legislative authority of their own. In all of these
areas, bishops of the United
Methodist Church function very much in
the historic meaning of the term. According to the Book of Discipline
of the United
Methodist Church, a bishop's responsibilities are
Leadership.—Spiritual and Temporal—
To lead and oversee the spiritual and temporal affairs of The United
Methodist Church, which confesses Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, and
particularly to lead the Church in its mission of witness and service
in the world.
To travel through the connection at large as the Council of Bishops
(¶ 526) to implement strategy for the concern of the Church.
To provide liaison and leadership in the quest for Christian unity in
ministry, mission, and structure and in the search for strengthened
relationships with other living faith communities.
To organize such Missions as shall have been authorized by the General
To promote and support the evangelistic vision of the whole Church.
To discharge such other duties as the Discipline may direct.
Presidential Duties.—1. To preside in the General, Jurisdictional,
Central, and Annual Conferences. 2. To form the districts after
consultation with the district superintendents and after the number of
the same has been determined by vote of the Annual Conference. 3. To
appoint the district superintendents annually (¶¶ 517–518). 4. To
consecrate bishops, to ordain elders and deacons, to consecrate
diaconal ministers, to commission deaconesses and home missionaries,
and to see that the names of the persons commissioned and consecrated
are entered on the journals of the conference and that proper
credentials are funised to these persons.
Working with Ministers.—1. To make and fix the appointments in the
Annual Conferences, Provisional Annual Conferences, and Missions as
the Discipline may direct (¶¶ 529–533). 2. To divide or to unite a
circuit(s), stations(s), or mission(s) as judged necessary for
missionary strategy and then to make appropriate appointments. 3. To
read the appointments of deaconesses, diaconal ministers, lay persons
in service under the World Division of the General Board of Global
Ministries, and home missionaries. 4. To fix the Charge Conference
membership of all ordained ministers appointed to ministries other
than the local church in keeping with ¶443.3. 5. To transfer, upon
the request of the receiving bishop, ministerial member(s) of one
Annual Conference to another, provided said member(s) agrees to
transfer; and to send immediately to the secretaries of both
conferences involved, to the conference Boards of Ordained Ministry,
and to the clearing house of the General Board of Pensions written
notices of the transfer of members and of their standing in the course
of study if they are undergraduates.
In each Annual Conference, United
Methodist bishops serve for
four-year terms, and may serve up to three terms before either
retirement or appointment to a new Conference. United Methodist
bishops may be male or female, with
Marjorie Matthews being the first
woman to be consecrated a bishop in 1980.
Francis Asbury's ordination as bishop by Thomas Coke at the 1784
The collegial expression of episcopal leadership in the United
Methodist Church is known as the Council of Bishops. The Council of
Bishops speaks to the Church and through the Church into the world and
gives leadership in the quest for Christian unity and interreligious
relationships. The Conference of
Bishops includes the
Methodist Council of
Bishops plus bishops from affiliated
Methodist or United Churches.
John Wesley consecrated Thomas Coke a "General Superintendent," and
Francis Asbury also be consecrated for the United States
of America in 1784, where the
Methodist Episcopal Church first became
a separate denomination apart from the Church of England. Coke soon
returned to England, but Asbury was the primary builder of the new
church. At first he did not call himself bishop, but eventually
submitted to the usage by the denomination.
Notable bishops in United
Methodist history include Coke, Asbury,
Richard Whatcoat, Philip William Otterbein, Martin Boehm, Jacob
Albright, John Seybert, Matthew Simpson, John S. Stamm, William
Ragsdale Cannon, Marjorie Matthews, Leontine T. Kelly, William B.
Oden, Ntambo Nkulu Ntanda, Joseph Sprague, William Henry Willimon, and
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Bishop (Latter Day Saints)
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the
Bishop is the
leader of a local congregation, called a ward. As with most LDS
priesthood holders, the bishop is a part-time lay minister and earns a
living through other employment; in all cases, he is a married man. As
such, it is his duty to preside at services, call local leaders, and
judge the worthiness of members for service. The bishop does not
deliver sermons at every service (generally asking members to do so),
but is expected to be a spiritual guide for his congregation. It is
therefore believed that he has both the right and ability to receive
divine inspiration (through the Holy Spirit) for the ward under his
direction. Because it is a part-time position, all able members are
expected to assist in the management of the ward by holding delegated
lay positions (for example, women's and youth leaders, teachers)
referred to as 'callings.' Although members are asked to confess
serious sins to him, unlike the Roman
Catholic Church, he is not the
instrument of divine forgiveness, merely a guide through the
repentance process (and a judge in case transgressions warrant
excommunication or other official discipline). The bishop is also
responsible for the physical welfare of the ward, and thus collects
tithing and fast offerings and distributes financial assistance where
A bishop is the president of the Aaronic priesthood in his ward (and
is thus a form of Mormon Kohen; in fact, a literal descendant of Aaron
has "legal right" to act as a Bishop after being found worthy and
ordained by the First Presidency). In the absence of a literal
descendant of Aaron, a High priest in the
Melchizedek priesthood is
called to be a Bishop. Each bishop is selected from resident
members of the ward by the stake presidency with approval of the First
Presidency, and chooses two counselors to form a bishopric. In special
circumstances (such as a ward consisting entirely of young university
students), a bishop may be chosen from outside the ward. A bishop is
typically released after about five years and a new bishop is called
to the position. Although the former bishop is released from his
duties, he continues to hold the Aaronic priesthood office of Bishop.
Church members frequently refer to a former bishop as "Bishop" as a
sign of respect and affection.
Latter-day Saint bishops do not wear any special clothing or insignia
the way clergy in many other churches do, but are expected to dress
and groom themselves neatly and conservatively per their local
culture, especially when performing official duties.
Bishops (as well
as other members of the priesthood) can trace their line of authority
back to Joseph Smith, who, according to church doctrine, was ordained
to lead the Church in modern times by the ancient apostles Peter,
James, and John, who were ordained to lead the Church by Jesus
Presiding Bishop oversees the temporal affairs (buildings,
properties, commercial corporations, and so on) of the worldwide
Church, including the Church's massive global humanitarian aid and
social welfare programs. The
Presiding Bishop has two counselors; the
three together form the Presiding Bishopric.
New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church (NAC) knows three classes of ministries:
Deacons, Priests and Apostles. The Apostles, who are all included in
the apostolate with the
Chief Apostle as head, are the highest
Of the several kinds of priest....ministries, the bishop is the
highest. Nearly all bishops are set in line directly from the chief
apostle. They support and help their superior apostle.
Church of God in Christ
Church of God in Christ
Church of God in Christ (COGIC), the ecclesiastical structure
is composed of large dioceses that are called "jurisdictions" within
COGIC, each under the authority of a Bishop, sometimes called "State
Bishops". They can either be made up of large geographical regions of
churches or churches that are grouped and organized together as their
own separate jurisdictions because of similar affiliations, regardless
of geographical location or dispersion. Each state in the U.S. has at
least one jurisdiction while others may have several more, and each
jurisdiction is usually composed of between 30 and 100 churches. Each
jurisdiction is then broken down into several districts, which are
smaller groups of churches (either grouped by geographical situation
or by similar affiliations) which are each under the authority of
District Superintendents who answer to the authority of their
Jurisdictional/State Bishop. There are currently over 170
jurisdictions in the United States, and over 30 jurisdictions in other
Bishops of each jurisdiction, according to the COGIC
Manual, are considered to be the modern day equivalent in the church
of the early apostles and overseers of the
New Testament church, and
as the highest ranking clergymen in the COGIC, they are tasked with
the responsibilities of being the head overseers of all religious,
civil, and economic ministries and protocol for the church
denomination. They also have the authority to appoint and ordain
local pastors, elders, ministers, and reverends within the
Bishops of the COGIC denomination are all
collectively called "The Board of Bishops." From the Board of
Bishops, and the General Assembly of the COGIC, the body of the church
composed of clergy and lay delegates that are responsible for making
and enforcing the bylaws of the denomination, every four years, twelve
Bishops from the COGIC are elected as "The General Board" of the
church, who work alongside the delegates of the General Assembly and
Bishops to provide administration over the denomination as
the church's head executive leaders. One of twelve bishops of the
General Board is also elected the "Presiding Bishop" of the church,
and two others are appointed by the
Presiding Bishop himself, as his
First and Second Assistant Presiding Bishops.
Bishops in the
Church of God in Christ
Church of God in Christ usually wear black clergy suits
which consist of a black suit blazer, black pants, a purple or scarlet
clergy shirt and a white clerical collar, which is usually referred to
as "Class B Civic attire."
Bishops in COGIC also typically wear the
Choir Dress style vestments of a long purple or scarlet
chimere, cuffs, and tippet worn over a long white rochet, and a gold
pectoral cross worn around the neck with the tippet. This is usually
referred to as "Class A Ceremonial attire." The
Bishops of COGIC
alternate between Class A Ceremonial attire and Class B Civic attire
depending on the protocol of the religious services and other events
they have to attend.
Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee)
In the polity of the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), the
international leader is the Presiding Bishop, and the members of the
Executive Committee are Executive Bishops. Collectively, they
supervise and appoint national and state leaders across the world.
Leaders of individual states and regions are Administrative Bishops,
who have jurisdiction over local churches in their respective states
and are vested with appointment authority for local pastorates. All
ministers are credentialed at one of three levels of licensure, the
most senior of which is the rank of Ordained Bishop. To be eligible to
serve in state, national, or international positions of authority, a
minister must hold the rank of Ordained Bishop.
Pentecostal Church of God
In 2002, the general convention of the
Pentecostal Church of God
Pentecostal Church of God came
to a consensus to change the title of their overseer from General
Superintendent to Bishop. The change was brought on because
internationally, the term
Bishop is more commonly related to religious
leaders than the previous title.
Bishop is used for both the General (International leader)
and the district (state) leaders. The title is sometimes used in
conjunction with the previous thus becoming General (District)
According to the Seventh-day Adventist understanding of the Doctrine
of the Church:
"The "elders" (Greek, presbuteros) or "bishops" (episkopos) were the
most important officers of the church. The term elder means older one,
implying dignity and respect. His position was similar to that of the
one who had supervision of the synagogue. The term bishop means
"overseer." Paul used these terms interchangeably, equating elders
with overseers or bishops (Acts 20:17,28; Titus 1:5, 7).
"Those who held this position supervised the newly formed churches.
Elder referred to the status or rank of the office, while bishop
denoted the duty or responsibility of the office—"overseer." Since
the apostles also called themselves elders (1 Peter 5:1; 2 John 1; 3
John 1), it is apparent that there were both local elders and
itinerant elders, or elders at large. But both kinds of elder
functioned as shepherds of the congregations."
The above understanding is part of the basis of Adventist
organizational structure. The world wide Seventh-day Adventist church
is organized into local districts, conferences or missions, union
conferences or union missions, divisions, and finally at the top is
the general conference. At each level (with exception to the local
districts), there is an elder who is elected president and a group of
elders who serve on the executive committee with the elected
president. Those who have been elected president would in effect be
the "bishop" while never actually carrying the title or ordained as
such because the term is usually associated with the episcopal style
of church governance most often found in Catholic, Anglican, Methodist
and some Pentecostal/Charismatic circles.
Some Baptists also have begun taking on the title of Bishop. In
Protestant denominations and independent churches, the
term bishop is used in the same way as pastor, to refer to the leader
of the local congregation, and may be male or female. This usage is
especially common in African-American churches in the USA.
In the Church of Scotland, which has a Presbyterian church structure,
the word "bishop" refers to an ordained person, usually a normal
parish minister, who has temporary oversight of a trainee minister. In
the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the term bishop is an expressive
name for a Minister of Word and Sacrament who serves a congregation
and exercises "the oversight of the flock of Christ." The term is
traceable to the 1789 Form of Government of the PC (U.S.A.) and the
Presbyterian understanding of the pastoral office.
While not considered orthodox Christian, the Ecclesia Gnostica
Catholica uses roles and titles derived from Christianity for its
clerical hierarchy, including bishops who have much the same authority
and responsibilities as in Roman Catholicism.
The Salvation Army does not have bishops but has appointed leaders of
geographical areas, known as Divisional Commanders. Larger
geographical areas, called Territories, are led by a Territorial
Commander, who is the highest-ranking officer in that Territory.
Jehovah’s Witnesses do not use the title ‘Bishop’ within their
organizational structure, but appoint elders to be overseers (to
fulfill the role of oversight) within their congregations.  
Dress and insignia
Main article: Pontifical vestments
Traditionally, a number of items are associated with the office of a
bishop, most notably the mitre, crosier, and ecclesiastical ring.
Other vestments and insignia vary between Eastern and Western
Latin Rite of the
Catholic Church, the choir dress of a bishop
includes the purple cassock with amaranth trim, rochet, purple
zucchetto (skull cap), purple biretta, and pectoral cross. The cappa
magna may be worn, but only within the bishop's own diocese and on
especially solemn occasions. The mitre, zuchetto, and stole are
generally worn by bishops when presiding over liturgical functions.
For liturgical functions other than the Mass the bishop typically
wears the cope. Within his own diocese and when celebrating solemnly
elsewhere with the consent of the local ordinary, he also uses the
crosier. When celebrating Mass, a bishop, like a priest, wears the
Caeremoniale Episcoporum recommends, but does not
impose, that in solemn celebrations a bishop should also wear a
dalmatic, which can always be white, beneath the chasuble, especially
when administering the sacrament of holy orders, blessing an abbot or
abbess, and dedicating a church or an altar. The Caeremoniale
Episcoporum no longer makes mention of episcopal gloves, episcopal
sandals, liturgical stockings (also known as buskins), or the
accoutrements that it once prescribed for the bishop's horse. The coat
of arms of a
Catholic bishop usually displays a galero with
a cross and crosier behind the escutcheon; the specifics differ by
location and ecclesiastical rank (see Ecclesiastical heraldry).
Anglican bishops generally make use of the mitre, crosier,
ecclesiastical ring, purple cassock, purple zucchetto, and pectoral
cross. However, the traditional choir dress of Anglican bishops
retains its late mediaeval form, and looks quite different from that
Catholic counterparts; it consists of a long rochet which is
worn with a chimere.
Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Rite Catholic) a
bishop will wear the mandyas, panagia (and perhaps an enkolpion),
sakkos, omophorion and an Eastern-style mitre. Eastern bishops do not
normally wear an episcopal ring; the faithful kiss (or, alternatively,
touch their forehead to) the bishop's hand. To seal official
documents, he will usually use an inked stamp. An Eastern bishop's
coat of arms will normally display an Eastern-style mitre, cross,
eastern style crosier and a red and white (or red and gold) mantle.
The arms of
Oriental Orthodox bishops will display the episcopal
insignia (mitre or turban) specific to their own liturgical
traditions. Variations occur based upon jurisdiction and national
Catholic bishops celebrating
Divine Liturgy in their
proper pontifical vestments
Bishop with a crosier, wearing a rochet under a red
chimere and cuffs, a black tippet, and a pectoral cross
Bishop immediately before presiding at the Great Vigil of
Easter in the narthex of St. Michael's Episcopal
Cathedral in Boise,
Bishop dressed for the Sacrifice of the Mass. No
Appointment of Church of
Bishop in Europe
Bishop in the
Bishop of Alexandria, or Pope
Bishops in the Church of Scotland
Ecclesiastical polity (church governance)
Hierarchy of the
Catholic bishops of the United States
List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow
List of types of spiritual teachers
Bishops and Archbishops
Lists of patriarchs, archbishops, and bishops
Order of precedence in the
Shepherd in religion
Spokesperson bishops in the Church of England
Bishop in Europe
^ Etymology from en.wiktionary.org:
Bishop. From Proto-Germanic *biskopas, *biskupaz ("bishop"), from
Vulgar Latiin *biscopus, from Latin episcopus ("overseer,
supervisor"), from Ancient Greek ἐπίσκοπος (episkopos,
"overseer"), from ἐπί (epi, "over") + σκοπέω (skopeō, "I
^ "It seems that at first the terms 'episcopos' and 'presbyter' were
used interchangeably ..."
^ "The general consensus among scholars has been that, at the turn of
the first and second centuries, local congregations were led by
bishops and presbyters whose offices were overlapping or
^ Section 16 of the Second Vatican Council's Decree on Ecumenism,
Unitatis Redintegratio states: "To remove, then, all shadow of doubt,
this holy Council solemnly declares that the Churches of the East,
while remembering the necessary unity of the whole Church, have the
power to govern themselves according to the disciplines proper to
them, since these are better suited to the character of their
faithful, and more for the good of their souls."
^ ἐπίσκοπος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A
Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
^ episcopus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary
on Perseus Project.
^ Harper, Douglas. "bishop". Online Etymology Dictionary.
^ "Early Christian Fathers". Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
^ Hill 2007.
^ Cross & Livingstone 2005, p. 211.
^ Mitchell, Young & Scott Bowie 2006, p. 417.
^ "Bona, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved
^ 1Tim 1:3
^ Titus 1:5
^ Titus 2:15
^ a b O'Grady 1997, p. 140.
^ Handl, András (2016-01-01). "Viktor I. (189 ?-199 ?) von
Rom und die Entstehung des "monarchischen" Episkopats in Rom". Sacris
Erudiri. 55: 7–56. doi:10.1484/J.SE.5.112597.
^ a b Van Hove 1907.
^ Clement, "Hom.", III, lxxii; cfr. Stromata, VI, xiii, cvi; cf.
"Const. Apost.", II, viii, 36
^ "Didascalia Syr.", IV; III, 10, 11, 20; Cornelius, "Ad Fabianum" in
Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, VI, xliii.
^ Fr. Pierre-Marie, O.P. (January 2006). "Why the New Rite of
Consecration is Valid". The Angelus. Archived from the
original on 2006-11-15. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
^ "Canon 406". Code of Canon Law. The Holy See. 1983. Retrieved
Catholic News Service 2 March 2006
^ CNS 13 June 2006
^ Catechism of the
Catholic Church, 1313 Archived 27 September 2011 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Timothy Dufort, The Tablet, 29 May 1982, pp. 536–538.
Lutheran Proposal for a Revision of the Concordat of Agreement".
19 August 1999. Archived from the original on 2011-05-14.
^ Wright,, J. Robert (Spring 1999). "The Historic Episcopate: An
Lutheran Partners. Archived from the original
^ "The Function of
Bishops in the Ancient Church".
Bishops of the Church". African
Methodist Episcopal Church. 2014.
Retrieved 19 August 2015.
^ a b Anon 1980.
^ Doctrine and Covenants 107:76
^ a b Doctrine and Covenants 68:20
^ Smith, Joseph (2007). Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Joseph
Smith. p. 101.
^ McMullin, Keith B. "The Presiding Bishopric". Ensign. Retrieved 27
^ a b COGIC Manual. Memphis, Tennessee: Church of God in Christ
Publishing House. 1973. pp. 133–141.
^ a b "Board of Bishops". Church Of God In Christ. Retrieved
^ "The General Board". Church Of God In Christ. Retrieved
^ Ministerial Association, General Conference of Seventh-day
Adventists (1988). Seventh-day Adventists Believe. Hagarstown,
Maryland: Review and Herald Publishing Association. pp. 146,
^ Lisa Wangsness (19 July 2010). "More Baptist pastors adopt bishop
title". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2014-09-07.
^ Book of Order (2009–2011) (pdf). Louisville: Presbyterian Church
(U.S.A.) Office of the General Assembly. p. G-6.0202.
^ "The Successor To Peter", a discussion paper from the 2000
Presbyterian and Roman
^ Refs: Acts 20:28, Phil 1:1, 1Tim 3:1–7, Titus 1:7, 1Peter 5:1–2
^ "JW.org/FAQ: How Are Congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses
Organised?". Retrieved 4 August 2015.
^ a b c Stehle 1914.
Hill, Jonathan (2007). The History of Christianity. Lion.
Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch (1899). "Epistles of to the Ephesians, Magnesians,
Trallesians, and Smyrnans". In J. B. Lightfoot. The Apostolic Fathers.
Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4209-2948-5.
Mathews, James Kenneth (1985). Set Apart to Serve: The Meaning and
Role of Episcopacy in the Wesleyan Tradition. Abingdon Press.
Moede, Gerald F. (1964). The Office of
Bishop in Methodism: Its
History and Development. Gotthelf-Verlag.
Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2005). The Oxford
Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press.
Mitchell, Margaret M.; Young, Frances M.; Scott Bowie, K. (2006).
Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 1, Origins to Constantine.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81239-9.
Van Hove, A. (1907). "Bishop". The
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York:
Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
O'Grady, John F. (1997). The Roman
Catholic Church: Its Origins and
Nature. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-3740-4.
Stehle, Aurelius (1914). Manual of Episcopal Ceremonies: Based on the
Caeremoniale Episcoporum, Decrees of the Sacred Congregation of Rites,
Etc., and Approved Authors. St. Vincent Seminary.
Anon (1980). The book of discipline of the United
Methodist Pub. House. ISBN 978-0-687-03705-6.
Handl, András (2016). "Viktor I. (189?-199?) von Rom und die
Entstehung des "monarchischen" Episkopats in Rom". Sacris Erudiri.
Journal of Late Antique and Medieval Christianity. 55: 7–56.
Look up bishop, episcopal, or episcopus in Wiktionary, the free
Methodist/Anglican Thoughts On Apostolic Succession by Gregory Neal
Methodist Episcopacy: In Search of
Holy Orders by Gregory Neal
Old Catholic Church,
Province of the United States
Catholic Communion* The United
Council of Bishops
Vatican Website with Canon Law of Roman
Order of the Divine Service in Lutheranism
Entrance hymn and
Trinitarian formula (known as the Invocation)
Penitential Rite including the Confiteor and
Declaration of Grace (or
Asperges on Easter)
The Service of the Word
Old Testament reading
gradual (or Responsorial Psalm)
Alleluia (tract during Lent)
Hymn of the day
Nicene Creed (
Athanasian Creed on
Prayers of the Faithful
The Service of the Eucharist
Sursum corda /
Sanctus / Hosanna)
Epiclesis / Words of Institution / Memorial
Sign of peace / pax (elevation)
Ite, missa est
Pastor (or Priest)
Parts of the Sanctuary
sacramental bread (wafer)
Liturgical books and hymnals
Christian Worship (Supplement)
Lutheran Book of Worship
Lutheran Hymnal with Supplement
Lutheran Service Book
Service Book and Hymnal
Continuing Anglican movement
History of Christianity
History of Christianity in Britain
Augustine of Canterbury
Dissolution of Monasteries
Church of England
Church of Ireland
King James Version
Affirmation of St. Louis
Liturgy and worship
Book of Common Prayer
Morning / Evening Prayer
Books of Homilies
High / Low / Broad church
Converts to Anglicanism
Anglican prayer beads
Anglicanism of the Americas