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William Jefferson Clinton (né Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the Governor of Arkansas
Arkansas
from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas
Arkansas
and attended Georgetown University, the University of Oxford, and Yale Law School. He met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating from Yale, Clinton returned to Arkansas
Arkansas
and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979. As Governor of Arkansas, Clinton overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992, defeating incumbent Republican opponent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he became the third-youngest president and the first from the Baby Boomer
Baby Boomer
generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history and signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement, but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
to be elected to a second full term. Clinton passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice, relating to a sex scandal involving White House
White House
employee Monica Lewinsky. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate in 1999 and proceeded to complete his term in office. Clinton is only the second U.S. president to ever be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office
reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act
Iraq Liberation Act
in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit
2000 Camp David Summit
to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U.S. president since World War II, and he has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U.S. presidents, consistently placing in the top third. Since leaving office, Clinton has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation
to address international causes, such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. He has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including his wife's presidential campaigns and Barack Obama's presidential campaigns. In 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, Clinton was named the United Nations Special
Special
Envoy to Haiti
Haiti
and after the 2010 Haiti
Haiti
earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush
George W. Bush
to form the Clinton Bush Haiti
Haiti
Fund. In addition, he managed to successfully secure the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang
Pyongyang
and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il.

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Contents

1 Early life and career 2 College and law school years

2.1 Georgetown University 2.2 Oxford 2.3 Vietnam War
Vietnam War
opposition and draft controversy 2.4 Law school

3 Early political career

3.1 Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992) 3.2 1988 Democratic presidential primaries

4 Presidency (1993–2001)

4.1 1992 presidential campaign 4.2 First term (1993–1997) 4.3 1996 presidential election 4.4 Second term (1997–2001)

4.4.1 Impeachment and acquittal 4.4.2 Pardons and commutations

4.5 Military and foreign events 4.6 Judicial appointments

5 Public opinion 6 Public image 7 Sexual misconduct allegations 8 Post-presidency (2001–present)

8.1 Activities until 2008 campaign 8.2 2008 presidential election 8.3 After the 2008 election 8.4 2016 presidential election 8.5 After the 2016 election 8.6 Post-presidential health concerns 8.7 Wealth

9 Honors and recognition 10 Electoral history 11 Authored books 12 Recordings 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading

15.1 Primary sources 15.2 Popular books 15.3 Scholarly studies

16 External links

Early life and career

It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Early life and career of Bill Clinton. (Discuss) (March 2018)

Clinton's childhood home in Hope, Arkansas

Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas.[1][2] He was the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr.
William Jefferson Blythe Jr.
(1918–1946), a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy (later Virginia Kelley: 1923–1994).[3] His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union later proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife.[4] Soon after Bill was born, Virginia traveled to New Orleans
New Orleans
to study nursing. She left her son in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store.[2] At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races.[2] In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr., who owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.[2] The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950.[5] Although he immediately assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15[6] that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather.[2] Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who regularly abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr., to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them.[2][7]

Clinton with his saxophone at the White House
White House
in 1996. He began playing the saxophone in elementary school. At one point, Clinton considered pursuing a career in music.

In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician.[2] Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section. He briefly considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Sometime in my sixteenth year, I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I could be very good, but I knew I would never be John Coltrane
John Coltrane
or Stan Getz. I was interested in medicine and thought I could be a fine doctor, but I knew I would never be Michael DeBakey. But I knew I could be great in public service.[2] Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline
Catiline
in a mock trial in his Latin class.[8] After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law".[9] Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to the White House to meet President John F. Kennedy.[2][7] The other was watching Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1963 I Have a Dream
I Have a Dream
speech on TV, which impressed him enough that he later memorized it.[10] College and law school years Georgetown University

Clinton ran for president of the Student Council while attending the School of Foreign Service
School of Foreign Service
at Georgetown University.

With the aid of scholarships, Clinton attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Georgetown University
in Washington, D.C., receiving a Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
in Foreign Service degree in 1968. In 1964 and 1965, Clinton won elections for class president.[11] From 1964 to 1967, he was an intern and then a clerk in the office of Arkansas
Arkansas
Senator J. William Fulbright.[2] While in college, he became a brother of co-ed service fraternity Alpha Phi Omega[12] and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Clinton was also a member of the Order of DeMolay,[13] a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a Freemason. He is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi
Kappa Kappa Psi
honorary band fraternity.[14] Oxford Upon graduating from Georgetown in 1968, Clinton won a Rhodes Scholarship to University College in Oxford, England, where he initially read for a B.Phil. in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics but transferred to a B.Litt. in politics and, ultimately, a B.Phil. in politics.[15] Clinton did not expect the second year because of the draft and he switched programs; this type of activity was common among other Rhodes Scholars from his cohort. He had received an offer to study at Yale Law School, Yale University, but he left early to return to the United States and did not receive a degree from Oxford.[7][16][17] During his time at Oxford, Clinton befriended fellow American Rhodes Scholar Frank Aller. In 1969, Aller received a draft letter that mandated deployment to the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. Aller's 1971 suicide had an influential impact on Clinton.[15][18] British writer and feminist Sara Maitland said of Clinton, "I remember Bill and Frank Aller taking me to a pub in Walton Street in the summer term of 1969 and talking to me about the Vietnam
Vietnam
War. I knew nothing about it, and when Frank began to describe the napalming of civilians I began to cry. Bill said that feeling bad wasn't good enough. That was the first time I encountered the idea that liberal sensitivities weren't enough and you had to do something about such things".[15] He also developed an interest in rugby union, which he played at Oxford.[19] While Clinton was president in 1994, he received an honorary degree and a fellowship from the University of Oxford, specifically for being "a doughty and tireless champion of the cause of world peace", having "a powerful collaborator in his wife," and for winning "general applause for his achievement of resolving the gridlock that prevented an agreed budget".[16][20] Vietnam War
Vietnam War
opposition and draft controversy While at Oxford, Clinton also participated in Vietnam War
Vietnam War
protests and organized an October 1969 Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam event.[2] During the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, Clinton received educational draft deferments while he was in England in 1968 and 1969.[21] He was planning to attend law school in the U.S. and was aware that he might lose his draft deferment. Clinton tried unsuccessfully to obtain positions in the National Guard or Air Force, and he then made arrangements to join the Reserve Officers' Training Corps
Reserve Officers' Training Corps
(ROTC) program at the University of Arkansas.[22] He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer in charge of the program that he opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to avoid serving in Vietnam. He further stated that because he opposed the war, he would not volunteer to serve in uniform, but would subject himself to the draft, and would serve if selected only as a way "to maintain my political viability within the system".[23] Clinton registered for the draft and received a high number (311), meaning that those whose birthdays had been drawn as numbers 1 to 310 would have to be drafted before him, making it unlikely that he would be drafted. (In fact, the highest number drafted was 195.)[24] Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had been involved with Clinton's ROTC
ROTC
application, suspected that Clinton attempted to manipulate the situation to avoid the draft and avoid serving in uniform. He issued a notarized statement during the 1992 presidential campaign: I was informed by the draft board that it was of interest to Senator Fulbright's office that Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar, should be admitted to the ROTC
ROTC
program ... I believe that he purposely deceived me, using the possibility of joining the ROTC
ROTC
as a ploy to work with the draft board to delay his induction and get a new draft classification.[25] During the 1992 campaign, it was revealed that Clinton's uncle had attempted to secure him a position in the Navy Reserve, which would have prevented him from being deployed to Vietnam. This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton said in 1992 that he had been unaware of it until then.[26] Although legal, Clinton's actions with respect to the draft and deciding whether to serve in the military were criticized during his first presidential campaign by conservatives and some Vietnam
Vietnam
veterans, some of whom charged that he had used Fulbright's influence to avoid military service.[27][28] Clinton's 1992 campaign manager, James Carville, successfully argued that Clinton's letter in which he declined to join the ROTC
ROTC
should be made public, insisting that voters, many of whom had also opposed the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, would understand and appreciate his position.[29] Law school After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School
Yale Law School
and earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1973.[2][7] In 1971, he met fellow law student Hillary Rodham in the Yale Law Library; she was a class year ahead of him.[2][30] They began dating and were soon inseparable. After only about a month, Clinton postponed his plans to be a coordinator for the George McGovern
George McGovern
campaign for the 1972 United States presidential election in order to move in with her in California.[31] Clinton eventually moved to Texas
Texas
with Rodham in 1972 to take a job leading McGovern's effort there. He spent considerable time in Dallas, at the campaign's local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas
Dallas
Ron Kirk,[32] future governor of Texas
Texas
Ann Richards,[33] and then unknown television director (and future filmmaker) Steven Spielberg.[34] Bill married Hillary on October 11, 1975, and their only child, Chelsea, was born on February 27, 1980.[30] Early political career Further information: Electoral history of Bill Clinton Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992) Further information: Arkansas
Arkansas
gubernatorial election, 1978; Arkansas gubernatorial election, 1980; Arkansas
Arkansas
gubernatorial election, 1982; Arkansas
Arkansas
gubernatorial election, 1986; and Arkansas
Arkansas
gubernatorial election, 1990 After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton returned to Arkansas and became a law professor at the University of Arkansas. In 1974, he ran for the House of Representatives. Running in a conservative district against incumbent Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt, Clinton's campaign was bolstered by the anti-Republican and anti-incumbent mood resulting from the Watergate scandal. Hammerschmidt, who had received 77 percent of the vote in 1972, defeated Clinton by only a 52 percent to 48 percent margin. In 1976, Clinton ran for Arkansas
Arkansas
Attorney General. With only minor opposition in the primary and no opposition at all in the general election,[35] Clinton was elected.[7]

Newly elected Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
meets with President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
in 1978, fifteen years before assuming the nation's highest office.

Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
in 1978, having defeated the Republican candidate Lynn Lowe, a farmer from Texarkana. At age 32, he became the youngest governor in the country. Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was often called the "Boy Governor".[36][37][38] He worked on educational reform and directed the maintenance of Arkansas's roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. However, his term included an unpopular motor vehicle tax and citizens' anger over the escape of Cuban refugees (from the Mariel boatlift) detained in Fort Chaffee
Fort Chaffee
in 1980. Monroe Schwarzlose of Kingsland in Cleveland County, polled 31 percent of the vote against Clinton in the Democratic gubernatorial primary of 1980. Some suggested Schwarzlose's unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton's defeat by Republican challenger Frank D. White
Frank D. White
in the general election that year. As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history.[7] Clinton joined friend Bruce Lindsey's Little Rock law firm of Wright, Lindsey and Jennings.[39] In 1982, he was elected governor a second time and kept the office for ten years. Effective with the 1986 election, Arkansas
Arkansas
had changed its gubernatorial term of office from two to four years. During his term, he helped transform Arkansas's economy and improved the state's educational system.[40] For senior citizens, he removed the sales tax from medications and increased the home property-tax exemption.[41] He became a leading figure among the New Democrats, a group of Democrats who advocated welfare reform, smaller government, and other policies not supported by liberals. Formally organized as the Democratic Leadership Council
Democratic Leadership Council
(DLC), the New Democrats argued that in light of President Ronald Reagan's landslide victory in 1984, the Democratic Party needed to adopt a more centrist political stance in order to succeed at the national level.[41][42] Clinton delivered the Democratic response to Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address and served as chair of the National Governors Association from 1986 to 1987, bringing him to an audience beyond Arkansas.[7] In the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas
Arkansas
education system a top priority of his gubernatorial administration. The Arkansas
Arkansas
Education Standards Committee was chaired by Clinton's wife Hillary Rodham Clinton, who was also an attorney as well as the chair of the Legal Services Corporation. The committee transformed Arkansas's education system. Proposed reforms included more spending for schools (supported by a sales-tax increase), better opportunities for gifted children, vocational education, higher teachers' salaries, more course variety, and compulsory teacher competency exams. The reforms passed in September 1983 after Clinton called a special legislative session—the longest in Arkansas
Arkansas
history.[40] Many have considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship.[7][41] He defeated four Republican candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), Jonesboro businessmen Woody Freeman (1984), and Sheffield Nelson
Sheffield Nelson
of Little Rock (1990).[35]

Governor and Mrs. Clinton attend the Dinner Honoring the Nation's Governors in the White House
White House
with President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and first lady Nancy Reagan, 1987.

Also in the 1980s, The Clintons' personal and business affairs included transactions that became the basis of the Whitewater controversy investigation, which later dogged his presidential administration.[43] After extensive investigation over several years, no indictments were made against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas.[7][44] According to some sources, Clinton was a death penalty opponent in his early years, but he eventually switched positions.[45][46] During Clinton's term, Arkansas
Arkansas
performed its first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had been re-enacted on March 23, 1973).[47] As Governor, he oversaw four executions: one by electric chair and three by lethal injection. Later, as president, Clinton was the first president to pardon a death-row inmate since the federal death penalty was reinstated in 1988.[48] 1988 Democratic presidential primaries In 1987, the media speculated that Clinton would enter the Presidential race after incumbent New York Governor Mario Cuomo declined to run and Democratic front-runner Gary Hart
Gary Hart
withdrew owing to revelations of marital infidelity. Clinton decided to remain as Arkansas
Arkansas
governor (following consideration for the potential candidacy of Hillary Rodham Clinton for governor, initially favored—but ultimately vetoed—by the First Lady).[49] For the nomination, Clinton endorsed Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. He gave the nationally televised opening night address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, but his speech, which was 33 minutes long and twice as long as it was expected to be, was criticized for being too long[50] and poorly delivered.[51] Clinton presented himself as both a moderate and a member of the New Democrat wing of the Democratic Party, and he headed the moderate Democratic Leadership Council
Democratic Leadership Council
in 1990 and 1991.[41][52] Presidency (1993–2001) Main article: Presidency of Bill Clinton

Countries visited by President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
during his terms in office

During his presidency, Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs, most of which were enacted into law or implemented by the executive branch. His policies, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement
and welfare reform, have been attributed to a centrist Third Way
Third Way
philosophy of governance.[53][54] His policy of fiscal conservatism helped to reduce deficits on budgetary matters.[55][56] Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.[57][58][59] The Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office
reported budget surpluses of $69 billion in 1998, $126 billion in 1999, and $236 billion in 2000,[60] during the last three years of Clinton's presidency.[61] Over the years of the recorded surplus, the gross national debt rose each year. At the end of the fiscal year (September 30) for each of the years a surplus was recorded, The U.S. treasury reported a gross debt of $5.413 trillion in 1997, $5.526 trillion in 1998, $5.656 trillion in 1999, and $5.674 trillion in 2000.[62][63] Over the same period, the Office of Management and Budget reported an end of year (December 31) gross debt of $5.369 trillion in 1997, $5.478 trillion in 1998, $5.606 in 1999, and $5.629 trillion in 2000.[64] At the end of his presidency, the Clintons moved to Chappaqua, New York
Chappaqua, New York
in order to satisy a residency requirement for his wife to win election as a U.S. Senator from New York. 1992 presidential campaign Further information: Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1992; United States presidential election, 1992; and Bill Clinton presidential campaign, 1992 In the first primary contest, the Iowa Caucus, Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa Senator Tom Harkin. During the campaign for the New Hampshire primary, reports surfaced that Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Clinton fell far behind former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas
Paul Tsongas
in the New Hampshire polls.[7] Following Super Bowl XXVI, Clinton and his wife Hillary went on 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
to rebuff the charges. Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained several delegates. He finished second to Tsongas in the New Hampshire primary, but after trailing badly in the polls and coming within single digits of winning, the media viewed it as a victory. News outlets labeled him "The Comeback Kid" for earning a firm second-place finish.[65] Winning the big prizes of Florida and Texas
Texas
and many of the Southern primaries on Super Tuesday
Super Tuesday
gave Clinton a sizable delegate lead. However, former California Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
was scoring victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South.[7][52] With no major Southern state remaining, Clinton targeted New York, which had many delegates. He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate.[52] Having been transformed into the consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in Jerry Brown's home state of California.[7]

The Clintons in a White House
White House
Christmas portrait, 1993

During the campaign, questions of conflict of interest regarding state business and the politically powerful Rose Law Firm, at which Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner, arose. Clinton argued the questions were moot because all transactions with the state had been deducted before determining Hillary's firm pay.[2][66] Further concern arose when Bill Clinton announced that, with Hillary, voters would be getting two presidents "for the price of one".[67] Clinton was still the Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
while campaigning for U.S. president, and he returned to his home state to see that Ricky Ray Rector would be executed. After killing a police officer and a civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers said was a state where he could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. According to both Arkansas
Arkansas
state law and Federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate cannot be executed. The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Clinton's return to Arkansas
Arkansas
for the execution was framed in a New York Times
New York Times
article as a possible political move to counter "soft on crime" accusations.[45][68] Bush's approval ratings were around 80 percent during the Gulf War, and he was described as unbeatable. When Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower Federal deficits, he reneged on his promise not to raise taxes, which hurt his approval rating. Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep.[52] By election time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40 percent.[52][69] Finally, conservatives were previously united by anti-communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. When Pat Buchanan
Pat Buchanan
and Pat Robertson addressed Christian themes at the Republican National Convention—with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from their platform—many moderates were alienated.[70] Clinton then pointed to his moderate, "New Democrat" record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious.[71] Many Democrats who had supported Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Bush in previous elections switched their support to Clinton.[72] Clinton and his running mate, Al Gore, toured the country during the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a "new beginning".[72]

1992 electoral vote results

Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (370 electoral votes) against Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(168 electoral votes) and billionaire populist Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(0 electoral votes), who ran as an independent on a platform that focused on domestic issues. Bush's steep decline in public approval was a significant part of Clinton's success.[72] Clinton's victory in the election ended twelve years of Republican rule of the White House
White House
and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. The election gave Democrats full control of the United States Congress,[3] the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the 96th United States Congress
United States Congress
during the presidency of Jimmy Carter.[73][74] First term (1993–1997)

First inauguration of Bill Clinton
First inauguration of Bill Clinton
(January 20, 1993)

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Video of the First inauguration of Bill Clinton

First inauguration of Bill Clinton
First inauguration of Bill Clinton
(January 20, 1993)

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"Our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. There is nothing wrong with America that cannot be cured by what is right with America."

Inaugural address, January 20, 1993.[75]

Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States
President of the United States
on January 20, 1993. Less than a month after taking office, he signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. This action had bipartisan support,[76] and was popular with the public.[77] Two days after taking office, on January 22, 1993—the 20th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade—Clinton reversed restrictions on domestic and international family planning programs that had been imposed by Reagan and Bush.[78] Clinton said that abortion should be kept "safe, legal, and rare"—a slogan that had been suggested by University of California, San Diego political scientist Samuel L. Popkin and first used by Clinton in December 1991, while campaigning.[79] During the eight years of the Clinton administration, the U.S. abortion rate declined by about 18.4 percent.[80] On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, announcing his plan to raise taxes to close a budget deficit.[81] Two days later, in a nationally televised address to a joint session of Congress, Clinton unveiled his economic plan. The plan focused on reducing the deficit rather than on cutting taxes for the middle class, which had been high on his campaign agenda.[82] Clinton's advisers pressured him to raise taxes, based on the theory that a smaller federal budget deficit would reduce bond interest rates.[83] On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office, causing the White House travel office controversy
White House travel office controversy
even though the travel office staff served at the pleasure of the president and could be dismissed without cause. The White House
White House
responded to the controversy by claiming that the firings were done in response to financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation.[84] Critics contended that the firings had been done to allow friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and the involvement of the FBI
FBI
was unwarranted.[85]

Clinton and Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore
on the South Lawn, August 10, 1993

In August, Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for 15 million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses,[86] and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2 percent of taxpayers. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints.[87] On September 22, 1993, Clinton made a major speech to Congress regarding a health care reform plan; the program aimed at achieving universal coverage through a national health care plan. This was one of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda and resulted from a task force headed by Hillary Clinton. The plan was well received in political circles, but it was eventually doomed by well-organized lobby opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry. However, Clinton biographer John F. Harris stated that the program failed because of a lack of coordination within the White House.[44] Despite the Democratic majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately died when compromise legislation by George J. Mitchell
George J. Mitchell
failed to gain a majority of support in August 1994. The failure of the bill was the first major legislative defeat of the Clinton administration.[41][44] In November 1993, David Hale—the source of criminal allegations against Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in the Whitewater controversy—alleged that while he was governor of Arkansas, Clinton pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the Clintons' partner in the Whitewater land deal.[88] A U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in convictions against the McDougals for their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton maintains his and his wife's innocence in the affair. On November 30, 1993, Clinton signed into law the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks on people who purchase firearms in the United States. The law also imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. He also expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit, a subsidy for low-income workers.[44] In December of the same year, allegations by Arkansas
Arkansas
state troopers Larry Patterson
Larry Patterson
and Roger Perry were first reported by David Brock in The American Spectator. In the affair later known as "Troopergate", the officers alleged that they arranged sexual liaisons for Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. The story mentioned a woman named Paula, a reference to Paula Jones. Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism", and that "the troopers were greedy and had slimy motives".[89]

Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
and Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
during the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
on September 13, 1993

Clinton, Jordan's King Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
sign the Israel–Jordan peace treaty
Israel–Jordan peace treaty
on July 25, 1994.

Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993)

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Clinton's December 8, 1993 remarks on the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement

Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993)

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That month, Clinton implemented a Department of Defense directive known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", which allowed gay men and women to serve in the armed services provided they kept their sexual preferences a secret. The Act forbade the military from inquiring about an individual's sexual orientation.[90] The policy was developed as a compromise after Clinton's proposal to allow gays to serve openly in the military met staunch opposition from prominent Congressional Republicans and Democrats, including Senators John McCain
John McCain
(R-AZ) and Sam Nunn
Sam Nunn
(D-GA). According to David Mixner, Clinton's support for the compromise led to a heated dispute with Vice President Al Gore, who felt that "the President should lift the ban ... even though [his executive order] was sure to be overridden by the Congress".[91] Some gay-rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions.[92] Their position was that Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
used executive order to racially desegregate the armed forces. Clinton's defenders argued that an executive order might have prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future.[41] Later in his presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was implemented, saying he did not think any serious person could say it was not "out of whack".[93] The policy remained controversial, and was finally repealed in 2011, removing open sexual orientation as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces.[94] On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement into law.[95] Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate. Clinton and most of his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade measures; there remained, however, strong disagreement within the party. Opposition came chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot. The bill passed the house with 234 votes against 200 opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats voting in favor; 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and 1 independent against). The treaty was then ratified by the Senate and signed into law by the president.[95] The Omnibus Crime Bill, which Clinton signed into law in September 1994,[96] made many changes to U.S. crime and law enforcement legislation including the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, such as running a large-scale drug enterprise. During Clinton's re-election campaign he said, "My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, murderers of federal law enforcement officers, and nearly 60 additional categories of violent felons."[97] It also included a subsection of assault weapons ban for a ten-year period. The Clinton administration also launched the first official White House website, whitehouse.gov, on October 21, 1994.[98][99] It was followed by three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in 2000.[100][101] The White House
White House
website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued Executive Order 13011 – Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology fully to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public."[102] After two years of Democratic Party control, the Democrats lost control of Congress in the mid-term elections in 1994, for the first time in forty years.[103]

Clinton's coat of arms, granted by the Chief Herald of Ireland
Chief Herald of Ireland
in 1995

Clinton and Russian President
Russian President
Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
in October 1995

The White House
White House
FBI
FBI
files controversy of June 1996 arose concerning improper access by the White House
White House
to FBI
FBI
security-clearance documents. Craig Livingstone, head of the White House
White House
Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and received from the FBI, background report files without asking permission of the subject individuals; many of these were employees of former Republican administrations.[104] In March 2000, Independent Counsel Robert Ray determined that there was no credible evidence of any crime. Ray's report further stated, "there was no substantial and credible evidence that any senior White House
White House
official was involved" in seeking the files.[105] On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed into law the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defines marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman, allowing individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages performed in other states.[106] Paul Yandura, speaking for the White House
White House
gay and lesbian liaison office, said that Clinton's signing of DOMA "was a political decision that they made at the time of a re-election". In defense of his actions, Clinton has said that DOMA was an attempt to "head off an attempt to send a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage to the states", a possibility he described as highly likely in the context of a "very reactionary Congress".[107] Administration spokesman Richard Socarides said, "the alternatives we knew were going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected."[108] Clinton himself stated that DOMA was something "which the Republicans put on the ballot to try to get the base vote for Bush up, I think it's obvious that something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from presenting that".[109] Others were more critical. The veteran gay rights and gay marriage activist Evan Wolfson
Evan Wolfson
has called these claims "historic revisionism".[108] In a July 2, 2011, editorial The New York Times
New York Times
opined, "The Defense of Marriage Act
Defense of Marriage Act
was enacted in 1996 as an election-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one of his worst policy moments."[110] Ultimately, in United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down DOMA in June 2013.[111] Despite DOMA, Clinton was the first president to select openly gay persons for administrative positions,[112] and he is generally credited as being the first president to publicly champion gay rights.[113] During his presidency, Clinton issued two substantially controversial executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security clearances for LGBT
LGBT
federal employees[114] and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal civilian workforce.[115] Under Clinton's leadership, federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment more than doubled.[116] Clinton also pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gays and for the private sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a single vote in 1996.[117] Advocacy for these issues, paired with the politically unpopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton's election and reelection by the Human Rights Campaign.[113] Clinton came out for gay marriage in July 2009[118] and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013.[119] He was later honored by GLAAD
GLAAD
for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA.[120]

"When I took office, only high energy physicists had ever heard of what is called the Worldwide Web ... Now even my cat has its own page."

Bill Clinton's announcement of Next Generation Internet initiative, October 1996.[121]

The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy
1996 United States campaign finance controversy
was an alleged effort by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself. The Chinese government denied all accusations.[122] As part of a 1996 initiative to curb illegal immigration, Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Appointed by Clinton,[123] the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000.[124][125] Ken Gormley, author of The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, reveals in his book that Clinton narrowly escaped possible assassination in the Philippines in November 1996. During his visit to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) forum in Manila, while he was on his way to meet with a senior member of the Philippine government, Clinton was saved from danger minutes before his motorcade was scheduled to drive over a bridge charged with a timed improvised explosive device (IED).[126] According to officials, the IED was large enough to "blow up the entire presidential motorcade".[127] Details of the plot were revealed to Gormley by Lewis C. Merletti, former member of the presidential protection detail and Director of the Secret Service. Intelligence officers intercepted a radio transmission indicating that there was a wedding cake under a bridge.[126] This alerted Merletti and others as Clinton's motorcade was scheduled to drive over a major bridge in downtown Manila.[127] Once more, the word "wedding" was the code name used by a terrorist group for a past assassination attempt.[127] Merletti wanted to reroute the motorcade, but the alternate route would add forty-five minutes to the drive time. Clinton was very angry, as he was already late for the meeting, but following the advice of the secret service possibly saved his life. Two other bombs had been discovered in Manila earlier in the week so the threat level that day was high.[128] Security personnel at the Manila International Airport uncovered several grenades and a timing device in a travel bag.[129] Officials also discovered a bomb near a major U.S. naval base.[129] The president was scheduled to visit both of these locations later in the week. An intense investigation took place into the events in Manila and it was discovered that the group behind the bridge bomb was a Saudi terrorist group in Afghanistan known as al-Qaeda and the plot was masterminded by Osama bin Laden.[127] Until recently, this thwarted assassination attempt was never made public and remained top secret. Only top members of the U.S. intelligence community were aware of these events.[127] 1996 presidential election

1996 electoral vote results

President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(center), first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton (right) and their daughter Chelsea (left) wave to watchers at a parade down Pennsylvania Avenue on Inauguration Day, January 20, 1997.

In the 1996 presidential election, Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2 percent of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7 percent of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4 percent of the popular vote), becoming the first Democratic incumbent since Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
to be elected to a second term and the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
to be elected president more than once.[130] The Republicans lost three seats in the House and gained two in the Senate, but retained control of both houses of the 105th United States Congress. Clinton received 379, or over 70 percent of the Electoral College votes, with Dole receiving 159 electoral votes. Second term (1997–2001)

Al Gore
Al Gore
and Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
applaud as Clinton waves during the State of the Union address in 1997.

In the January 1997 State of the Union
State of the Union
address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide health coverage to up to five million children. Senators Ted Kennedy—a Democrat—and Orrin Hatch—a Republican—teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing legislation forming the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
shepherded through Congress the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the Foster Care Independence Act. He negotiated the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997
Balanced Budget Act of 1997
by the Republican Congress. In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth.[131] In 1999 Clinton signed into law the Financial Services Modernization Act also known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the part of the Glass–Steagall Act
Glass–Steagall Act
that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment, commercial banking, and insurance services since its enactment in 1933.[132] Impeachment and acquittal Main article: Impeachment of Bill Clinton

Clinton's impeachment trial in 1999

After the 1998 elections, the House impeached Clinton, alleging perjury and obstruction of justice related to the Lewinsky scandal.[44] Clinton was only the second U.S. president to be impeached, after Andrew Johnson. Impeachment proceedings were based on allegations that Clinton had illegally lied about and covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House
White House
(and later Department of Defense) employee Monica Lewinsky.[133] After the Starr Report
Starr Report
was submitted to the House providing what it termed "substantial and credible information that President Clinton Committed Acts that May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment",[134] the House began impeachment hearings against Clinton before the mid-term elections. To hold impeachment proceedings, the Republican leadership called a lame-duck session in December 1998.

Clinton shaking hands with future president Donald Trump
Donald Trump
at Trump Tower, June 2000

While the House Judiciary Committee
House Judiciary Committee
hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. The two charges passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) were for perjury and obstruction of justice. The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony before a grand jury that had been convened to investigate perjury he may have committed in his sworn deposition during Jones v. Clinton, Paula Jones's sexual harassment lawsuit.[135] The obstruction charge was based on his actions to conceal his relationship with Lewinsky before and after that deposition. The Senate later acquitted Clinton on both charges.[136] The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the next Congress. Clinton was represented by Washington law firm Williams & Connolly.[137] The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 Not Guilty/45 Guilty on the perjury charge[136] and 50 Not Guilty/50 Guilty on the obstruction of justice charge.[138] Both votes fell short of the Constitutional two-thirds majority requirement to convict and remove an officeholder. The final vote was generally along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty.[136] On January 19, 2001, Clinton's law license was suspended for five years after he acknowledged to an Arkansas
Arkansas
circuit court that he had engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice in the Jones case.[139][140] Pardons and commutations Clinton controversially issued 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001.[44][141] Most of the controversy surrounded Marc Rich
Marc Rich
and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, Hugh Rodham, accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons.[142] Federal prosecutor Mary Jo White
Mary Jo White
was appointed to investigate the pardon of Rich. She was later replaced by then-Republican James Comey, who found no wrongdoing on Clinton's part. Some of Clinton's pardons remain a point of controversy.[143] Military and foreign events Further information: Foreign policy of the Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
administration

Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair
Tony Blair
in Florence, Italy on November 20, 1999

Clinton speaks with Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF, before boarding Air Force One, November 4, 1999.

Many military events occurred during Clinton's presidency. The Battle of Mogadishu occurred in Somalia
Somalia
in 1993. During the operation, two U.S. helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. There were many more Somali casualties. Some of the American bodies were dragged through the streets—a spectacle broadcast on television news programs. In response, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia
Somalia
and later conflicts were approached with fewer soldiers on the ground. In 1995, U.S. and NATO
NATO
aircraft attacked Bosnian Serb targets to halt attacks on U.N. safe zones and to pressure them into a peace accord. Clinton deployed U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent Dayton Agreement.

General John P. Jumper, U.S. Air Forces in Europe commander, escorts Clinton upon his arrival to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, May 5, 1999. The president visited several European air bases to thank the troops for their support of NATO
NATO
Operations Allied Force and Shining Hope.

In 1992, before his presidency, Clinton proposed sending a peace envoy to Northern Ireland, but this was dropped to avoid tensions with the UK government. In 1994 Clinton angered London by granting a visa to Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, the IRA's political arm. In November 1995, Clinton became the first U.S. President to visit Northern Ireland, seeing both the divided communities of Belfast
Belfast
and later famously handshaking Adams, 14 months into an IRA ceasefire during the Troubles.[144] Despite unionist criticism, Clinton used this as a way to negotiate an end to the violent conflict with London, Dublin, the paramilitaries and the other groups. Clinton went on to play a key role in the peace talks, which eventually led to the Good Friday Agreement in 1998.[145] In February 1996, the Clinton administration agreed to pay Iran US$131.8 million in settlement to discontinue a case brought by Iran in 1989 against the U.S. in the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655
Iran Air Flight 655
by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser.[146] Capturing Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
had been an objective of the U.S. government during the presidency of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(and continued to be until bin Laden's death in 2011).[147] Despite claims by Mansoor Ijaz
Mansoor Ijaz
and Sudanese officials that the Sudanese government had offered to arrest and extradite bin Laden and that U.S. authorities rejected each offer[148] the 9/11 Commission Report
9/11 Commission Report
stated that "we have not found any reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim".[149] In response to a 1996 State Department warning about bin Laden and the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda (which killed 224 people, including 12 Americans), Clinton ordered several military missions to capture or kill bin Laden, both of which were unsuccessful.[150] In August 1998, Clinton ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory
Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory
in Sudan, which was suspected of assisting bin Laden in making chemical weapons, and bin Laden's terrorist training camps in Afghanistan.[151]

Clinton greets Air Force personnel at Spangdahlem Air Base, May 5, 1999.

To stop the ethnic cleansing and genocide[152][153] of Albanians by anti-guerilla military units in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's province of Kosovo, Clinton authorized the use of U.S. Armed Forces in a NATO
NATO
bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999, named Operation Allied Force. General Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO
NATO
and oversaw the mission. With United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. The resolution placed Kosovo
Kosovo
under UN administration and authorized a peacekeeping force to be deployed to the region.[154] NATO
NATO
announced its soldiers all survived combat,[155] though two died in an Apache helicopter crash.[156] Opinions in the popular press criticized pre-war genocide statements by the Clinton administration as greatly exaggerated.[157][158] In 2001, the U.N.-supervised Supreme Court of Kosovo
Kosovo
ruled that genocide did not take place, but recognized "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments".[159] The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also displacement, though critics charge there is no difference.[160] Slobodan Milošević, the president of Yugoslavia at the time of the atrocities, was eventually brought to trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
in the Hague on charges of crimes against humanity, genocide, and war crimes.[161] Milošević died in 2006, before the completion of the trial.[161][162] In Clinton's 1998 State of the Union
State of the Union
Address, he warned Congress that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
was building an arsenal of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons:

Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
has spent the better part of this decade, and much of his nation's wealth, not on providing for the Iraqi people, but on developing nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the missiles to deliver them. The United Nations weapons inspectors have done a truly remarkable job, finding and destroying more of Iraq's arsenal than was destroyed during the entire gulf war. Now, Saddam Hussein wants to stop them from completing their mission. I know I speak for everyone in this chamber, Republicans and Democrats, when I say to Saddam Hussein, "You cannot defy the will of the world", and when I say to him, "You have used weapons of mass destruction before; we are determined to deny you the capacity to use them again.[163]

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President Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
at Camp David, July 2000

Seeking to weaken Hussein's grip on power, Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 into law on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of "regime change" against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces.[164][165] The administration then launched a four-day bombing campaign named Operation Desert Fox, lasting from December 16 to 19, 1998. At the end of this operation Clinton announced that "So long as Saddam remains in power, he will remain a threat to his people, his region, and the world. With our allies, we must pursue a strategy to contain him and to constrain his weapons of mass destruction program, while working toward the day Iraq has a government willing to live at peace with its people and with its neighbors."[166] American and British aircraft in the Iraq no-fly zones attacked hostile Iraqi air defenses 166 times in 1999 and 78 times in 2000.[167][168] Clinton's November 2000 visit to Vietnam
Vietnam
was the first by a U.S. president since the end of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War.[169] On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed into law the U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000, which granted permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) trade status to People's Republic of China.[170] The president asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform.[171] Clinton also oversaw a boom of the U.S. economy. Under Clinton, the United States had a projected federal budget surplus for the first time since 1969.[172] After initial successes such as the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
of the early 1990s, which also led to the Israel–Jordan peace treaty
Israel–Jordan peace treaty
in 1994 and the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998, Clinton attempted an effort to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. He brought Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
together at Camp David
Camp David
for the Camp David
Camp David
Summit in July 2000, which lasted 14 days.[44] Following the failures of the peace talks, Clinton stated Arafat "missed the opportunity" to facilitate a "just and lasting peace". In his autobiography, Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit.[2][173] Following another attempt in December 2000 at Bolling Air Force Base, in which the president offered the Clinton Parameters, the situation broke down completely after the end of the Taba Summit
Taba Summit
and with the start of the Second Intifada.[44] Judicial appointments Main articles: Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates
Bill Clinton Supreme Court candidates
and List of federal judges appointed by Bill Clinton

Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
accepting her nomination to the Supreme Court from President Clinton

Clinton appointed two justices to the Supreme Court: Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1993[174] and Stephen Breyer
Stephen Breyer
in 1994.[175] Along with his two Supreme Court appointments, Clinton appointed 66 judges to the United States courts of appeals
United States courts of appeals
and 305 judges to the United States district courts. His 373 judicial appointments are the second most in American history behind those of Ronald Reagan. Clinton also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 69 nominees to federal judgeships did not receive a vote in the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee. In all, 84 percent of his nominees were confirmed.[176] Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
was one of the judges who Clinton appointed to the Court of Appeals. She was nominated by Clinton in 1997 to the Second Circuit. Sotomayor was confirmed in 1998, following a delay of more than a year that was caused by Republican opposition.[177][178] Clinton was the first president in history to appoint more women and minority judges than white male judges to the federal courts.[179] In his eight years in office, 11.6% of Clinton's court of appeals nominees and 17.4% of his district court nominees were black; 32.8% of his court of appeals nominees and 28.5% of his district court nominees were women.[180] Clinton appointed the first African American judges to the Fourth Circuit (Roger Gregory) and the Seventh Circuit (Ann Claire Williams).[180] Clinton also appointed the nation's first openly gay or lesbian federal judge when he named Deborah Batts to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Batts was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote in 1994.[181] Public opinion

Clinton's approval ratings throughout his presidential career

Throughout Clinton's first term, his job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s. In his second term, his rating consistently ranged from the high-50s to the high-60s.[182] After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton's rating reached its highest point.[183] According to a CBS News/ New York Times
New York Times
poll, Clinton left office with an approval rating of 68 percent, which matched those of Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.[184] Clinton's average Gallup poll approval rating for his last quarter in office was 61%, the highest final quarter rating any president has received for fifty years.[185] Forty-seven percent of the respondents identified themselves as being Clinton supporters.[185] As he was leaving office, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll revealed that 45 percent of Americans said they would miss him; 55 percent thought he "would have something worthwhile to contribute and should remain active in public life"; 68 percent thought he would be remembered more for his "involvement in personal scandal" than for "his accomplishments"; and 58 percent answered "No" to the question "Do you generally think Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
is honest and trustworthy?"[185] The same percentage said he would be remembered as either "outstanding" or "above average" as a president, while 22 percent said he would be remembered as "below average" or "poor".[185] ABC News
ABC News
characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics – and he's done a heck of a good job."[186] In May 2006, a CNN poll comparing Clinton's job performance with that of his successor, George W. Bush, found that a strong majority of respondents said Clinton outperformed Bush in six different areas questioned.[187] Gallup polls in 2007 and 2011 showed that Clinton was regarded by 13 percent of Americans as the greatest president in U.S. history.[188][189] In 2014, 18 percent of respondents in a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll of American voters regarded Clinton as the best president since World War II, making him the third most popular among postwar presidents, behind John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Ronald Reagan.[190] The same poll showed that just 3% of American voters regarded Clinton as the worst president since World War II.[190] A 2015 poll by The Washington Post
The Washington Post
asked 162 scholars of the American Political Science Association to rank all the U.S. presidents in order of greatness. According to their findings, Clinton ranked eighth overall, with a rating of 70 percent.[191] Public image Main article: Public image of Bill Clinton

Clinton addressing the British parliament on November 29, 1995

As the first baby boomer president, Clinton was the first chief executive since Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
who was not alive during World War II.[192] Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward stated that Clinton's innovative use of sound bite-ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning were a major factor in his high public approval ratings.[193][194] When Clinton played the saxophone on The Arsenio Hall Show, he was described by some religious conservatives as "the MTV president".[195] Opponents sometimes referred to him as "Slick Willie", a nickname which was first applied to him in 1980 by Pine Bluff Commercial journalist Paul Greenberg;[196] Greenberg believed that Clinton was abandoning the progressive policies of previous Arkansas
Arkansas
Governors such as Winthrop Rockefeller, Dale Bumpers
Dale Bumpers
and David Pryor.[196] The claim "Slick Willie" would last throughout his presidency.[197] Standing at a height of 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m), Clinton is tied with five others as the fourth-tallest president in the nation's history.[198][199] His folksy manner led him to be nicknamed Bubba, especially in the South.[200] Since 2000, he has frequently been referred to as "The Big Dog" or "Big Dog".[201][202] His prominent role in campaigning for President Obama during the 2012 presidential election and his widely publicized speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention, where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee Mitt Romney and Republican policies in detail, earned him the nickname "Explainer-in-Chief".[203][204] Clinton drew strong support from the African American community and insisted that the improvement of race relations would be a major theme of his presidency.[205] In 1998, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
called Clinton "the first Black president", saying, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas".[206] Morrison noted that Clinton's sex life was scrutinized more than his career accomplishments, and she compared this to the stereotyping and double standards that blacks typically endure.[206] Many viewed this comparison as unfair and disparaging to both Clinton and the African-American community at large.[207] Clinton, a Baptist,[208] has been open about his faith.[209] Shortly after Clinton took office, Richard Mellon Scaife, a conservative newspaper owner, organized a fundraising campaign to smear Clinton's image in the media.[210] Leading the Arkansas
Arkansas
Project, Scaife and other associates sought to find sources in Clinton's home state of Arkansas
Arkansas
who would be willing to dish out negative allegations against the president.[210]

Clinton at a Democratic "Get out the vote" rally in Los Angeles, California, on November 2, 2000

Sexual misconduct allegations Main article: Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
sexual misconduct allegations In 1994, Paula Jones initiated a sexual harassment lawsuit against Clinton, claiming that he made unwanted advances towards her in 1991; Clinton denied the allegations. In April 1998, the case was initially dismissed by Judge Susan Webber Wright on the grounds that it lacked legal merit.[211] Jones appealed Webber Wright's ruling, and her suit gained traction following Clinton's admission to having an affair with Monica Lewinsky
Monica Lewinsky
in August 1998.[212] In 1998, lawyers for Paula Jones released court documents that alleged a pattern of sexual harassment by Clinton when he was Governor of Arkansas. Robert S. Bennett, Clinton's main lawyer for the case, called the filing "a pack of lies" and "an organized campaign to smear the President of the United States" funded by Clinton's political enemies.[213] Clinton later agreed to an out-of-court settlement and paid Jones $850,000.[214] Bennett said that the president made the settlement only so he could end the lawsuit for good and move on with his life.[215] During the deposition for the Jones lawsuit, which was held at the White House,[216] Clinton denied having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky – a denial that became the basis for an impeachment charge of perjury.[217] In 1992, Gennifer Flowers stated that she had a relationship with Clinton that began in 1980.[218] Flowers at first denied that she had an affair with Clinton, but later changed her story.[219][220] After Clinton at first denied having a relationship with Flowers on 60 Minutes, he later admitted that he had a sexual encounter with Flowers.[221]

Clinton speaking at the 2016 Democratic National Convention

In 1998, Kathleen Willey alleged that Clinton groped her in a hallway in 1993. An independent counsel determined Willey gave "false information" to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation.[222] On March 19, 1998, Julie Hiatt Steele, a friend of Willey, released an affidavit, accusing the former White House aide of asking her to lie to corroborate Ms. Willey's account of being sexually groped by Clinton in the Oval Office.[223] An attempt by Kenneth Starr
Kenneth Starr
to prosecute Steele for making false statements and obstructing justice ended in a mistrial and Starr declined to seek a retrial after Steele sought an investigation against the former Independent Counsel for prosecutorial misconduct.[224] Linda Tripp's grand jury testimony also differed from Willey's claims regarding inappropriate sexual advances.[225] Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged that Clinton had raped her in the spring of 1978, although she stated she did not remember the exact date.[226] In another 1998 event, Elizabeth Gracen
Elizabeth Gracen
recanted a six-year-old denial and stated she had a one-night stand with Clinton in 1982.[227] Gracen later apologized to Hillary Clinton.[228] Throughout the year, however, Gracen eluded a subpoena from Kenneth Starr to testify her claim in court.[229] Post-presidency (2001–present) Main article: Post-presidency of Bill Clinton

Clinton greets a Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
evacuee, September 5, 2005. In the background, second from the right, is then-Senator Barack Obama.

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
continues to be active in public life, giving speeches, fundraising, and founding charitable organizations.[230] Clinton has spoken in prime time at every Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention
since 1988.[231] Robert Reich
Robert Reich
has suggested that Clinton is in a state of "permanent election", due to the impeachment proceedings during his presidency and his continuing support in the campaigns of his wife Hillary Clinton.[232] Activities until 2008 campaign In 2002, Clinton warned that pre-emptive military action against Iraq would have unwelcome consequences,[233][234] and later claimed to have opposed the Iraq War
Iraq War
from the start (though some dispute this).[235] In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for its handling of emissions control, while speaking at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Montreal.[236] The William J. Clinton Presidential Center
Clinton Presidential Center
and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas
Arkansas
was dedicated in 2004.[237] Clinton released a best-selling autobiography, My Life, in 2004.[238] In 2007, he released Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World, which also became a New York Times Best Seller and garnered positive reviews.[239]

Former president George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
and Clinton in the White House Library, January 2005

In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian tsunami, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
appointed Clinton to head a relief effort.[240] After Hurricane Katrina, Clinton joined with fellow former president George H. W. Bush to establish the Bush-Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year.[241] As part of the tsunami effort, these two ex-presidents appeared in a Super Bowl XXXIX
Super Bowl XXXIX
pre-game show,[242] and traveled to the affected areas.[243] They also spoke together at the funeral of Boris Yeltsin in April 2007.[244]

The dedication of the Clinton Presidential Center, 2004

Based on his philanthropic worldview,[245] Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation
to address issues of global importance. This foundation includes the Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation
HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), which strives to combat that disease, and has worked with the Australian government toward that end. The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation
Clinton Foundation
in 2005, attempts to address world problems such as global public health, poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict.[246] In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugared drinks in schools.[247] Clinton's foundation joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group in 2006 to improve cooperation among those cities, and he met with foreign leaders to promote this initiative.[248] The foundation has received donations from a number of governments all over the world, including Asia and the Middle East.[249] In 2008, Foundation director Inder Singh announced deals to reduce the price of anti-malaria drugs by 30 percent in developing nations.[250] Clinton also spoke in favor of California Proposition 87 on alternative energy, which was voted down.[251] 2008 presidential election

Clinton speaking at the 2008 Democratic National Convention

During the 2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign, Clinton vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, Hillary Clinton. Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was able to raise $10 million toward her campaign.[252] Some worried that as an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and abroad.[253] Many were especially critical of him following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, which Obama won. Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting between Bill and Hillary's staffs, especially in Pennsylvania.[254] Considering Bill's remarks, many thought that he could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary.[255] Such remarks lead to apprehension that the party would be split to the detriment of Obama's election. Fears were allayed August 27, 2008, when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, saying that all his experience as president assures him that Obama is "ready to lead".[256] After Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign was over, Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
continued to raise funds to help pay off her campaign debt.[257][258] After the 2008 election

Clinton with incumbent President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Senior Advisor Valerie Jarrett
Valerie Jarrett
in July 2010

In 2009, Clinton travelled to North Korea
North Korea
on behalf of two American journalists imprisoned there. Euna Lee and Laura Ling had been imprisoned for illegally entering the country from China.[259] Jimmy Carter had made a similar visit in 1994.[259] After Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, Kim issued a pardon.[260][261] Since then, Clinton has been assigned a number of other diplomatic missions. He was named United Nations Special
Special
Envoy to Haiti
Haiti
in 2009.[262] In response to the 2010 Haiti
Haiti
earthquake, U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced that Clinton and George W. Bush
George W. Bush
would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery.[263] Clinton continues to visit Haiti
Haiti
to witness the inauguration of refugee villages, and to raise funds for victims of the earthquake.[264] In 2010, Clinton announced support of, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of NTR, Ireland's first environmental foundation.[265][266] At the 2012 Democratic National Convention, Clinton gave a widely praised speech nominating Barack Obama.[267] 2016 presidential election

Clinton campaigning at an election rally for his wife who was running to become the President of the United States, 2016

During the 2016 Presidential Election, Clinton again encouraged voters to support Hillary Clinton, including a campaign stop in Wilmington, NC.[268] In a series of tweets, then-President-Elect Donald Trump criticized his ability to get people out to vote.[269] After the 2016 election On September 7, 2017, Clinton partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
to work with One America Appeal
One America Appeal
to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey
Hurricane Harvey
and Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
in the Gulf Coast and Texas
Texas
communities.[270] Post-presidential health concerns In September 2004, Clinton underwent quadruple bypass surgery.[271] In March 2005, he again underwent surgery, this time for a partially collapsed lung.[272] On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital
NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital
in Manhattan after complaining of chest pains, and he had two coronary stents implanted in his heart.[271][273] After this procedure, Clinton adopted the plant-based whole foods (vegan) diet, which had been recommended by doctors Dean Ornish and Caldwell Esselstyn.[274] Wealth

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
speaks at Central High School in Phoenix, Arizona, 2016.

The Clintons accrued several million dollars in legal fees during his presidency; the bills were paid off four years after he left office.[275] Bill and Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
have both received millions of dollars in book authorship fees.[276] In 2016, Forbes
Forbes
reported Bill and Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
made about $240 million in the 15 years from January 2001 to December 2015 (mostly from paid speeches, business consulting and book-writing).[277] Also in 2016, CNN reported the Clintons combined to receive more than $153 million in paid speeches from 2001 until spring 2015.[278] In May 2015, The Hill reported that Bill and Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
have made more than $25 million in speaking fees since the start of 2014, and that Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
also made $5 million or more from her book, Hard Choices, during the same time period.[279] In July 2014, The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
reported that at the end of 2012, the Clintons were worth between $5 million and $25.5 million, and that in 2012 (the last year they were required to disclose the information) the Clintons made between $16 and $17 million, mostly from speaking fees earned by the former president.[280] Clinton earned more than $104 million from paid speeches between 2001 and 2012.[281] In June 2014, ABC News
ABC News
and The Washington Post reported that Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
has made more than $100 million giving paid speeches since leaving public office, and in 2008, the New York Times
New York Times
reported that the Clintons' income tax returns[282] show they have made $109 million in the 8 years from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, including almost $92 million from his speaking and book-writing.[276][283][284][285] Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
has given dozens of paid speeches each year since leaving office in 2001, mostly to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe; he often earned $100,000 to $300,000 per speech.[278][286][287][288] Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
said that she and Bill came out of the White House
White House
financially "broke" and in debt, especially due to large legal fees incurred during their years in the White House. "We had no money when we got there, and we struggled to, you know, piece together the resources for mortgages, for houses, for Chelsea's education." She added, "Bill has worked really hard ... we had to pay off all our debts ... he had to make double the money because of, obviously, taxes; and then pay off the debts, and get us houses, and take care of family members."[284] Honors and recognition Main article: List of honors and awards received by Bill Clinton

Secretary of Defense Cohen presents President Clinton the DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service.

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
statue in Pristina, the capital of Kosovo

Various colleges and universities have awarded Clinton honorary degrees, including Doctorate of Law degrees[289][290] and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees.[291] He is an Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford, which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar, although he did not complete his studies there.[292][293] Schools have been named for Clinton,[294][295][296] and statues have been built to pay him homage.[297][298] U.S. states where he has been honored include Missouri,[299] Arkansas,[300] Kentucky,[301] and New York.[302] He was presented with the Medal for Distinguished Public Service
Medal for Distinguished Public Service
by Secretary of Defense William Cohen
William Cohen
in 2001.[303] The Clinton Presidential Center was opened in Little Rock, Arkansas
Arkansas
in his honor on December 5, 2001.[304] He has been honored in various other ways, in countries that include the Czech Republic,[305] Papua New Guinea,[306] Germany,[307] and Kosovo.[297] The Republic of Kosovo, in gratitude for his help during the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, renamed a major street in the capital city of Pristina as Bill Clinton Boulevard
Bill Clinton Boulevard
and added a monumental Clinton statue.[308][309][310] Clinton was selected as Time's "Man of the Year" in 1992,[311] and again in 1998, along with Ken Starr.[312] From a poll conducted of the American people in December 1999, Clinton was among eighteen included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century.[313] He was honored with a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album
Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album
for Children, a J. William Fulbright
J. William Fulbright
Prize for International Understanding,[314] a TED Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design),[315] and was named as an Honorary GLAAD
GLAAD
Media Award recipient for his work as an advocate for the LGBT
LGBT
community.[316] In 2011, President Michel Martelly
Michel Martelly
of Haiti
Haiti
awarded Clinton with the National Order of Honour and Merit
National Order of Honour and Merit
to the rank of Grand Cross "for his various initiatives in Haiti
Haiti
and especially his high contribution to the reconstruction of the country after the earthquake of January 12, 2010". Clinton declared at the ceremony that "in the United States of America, I really don't believe former American presidents need awards anymore, but I am very honored by this one, I love Haiti, and I believe in its promise".[317] U.S. President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
awarded Clinton the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 20, 2013.[318] Electoral history

Year Office District Democratic Republican Other

1974 Arkansas
Arkansas
3rd congressional district Arkansas Bill Clinton 48.17% John Paul Hammerschmidt 51.83%

1976 Arkansas
Arkansas
Attorney General Arkansas Bill Clinton

Unopposed

1978 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Lynn Lowe 37%

1980 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 48% Frank White 52%

1982 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 55% Frank White 45%

1984 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Woody Freeman 37%

1986 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 64% Frank White 36%

1990 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 57% Sheffield Nelson 42%

1992 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 43% George H. W. Bush 37% Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(I) 19%

1996 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 49% Bob Dole 41% Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(Reform) 8%

Authored books

Between Hope and History. New York: Times Books. 1996. ISBN 978-0-8129-2913-3.  My Life (1st ed.). New York: Vintage Books. 2004. ISBN 978-1-4000-3003-3.  Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. 2007. ISBN 0-307-26674-5.  Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy. Knopf. 2011. ISBN 978-0-307-95975-1.  The President Is Missing. Knopf. 2018. 

Recordings Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
is one of the narrators on a 2003 recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf, on Pentatone, together with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren. See also

Arkansas
Arkansas
portal Government of the United States portal Politics portal

Clinton family Clinton School of Public Service Gun control policy of the Clinton Administration Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States List of Governors of Arkansas List of Presidents of the United States List of Presidents of the United States
List of Presidents of the United States
by previous experience

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Further reading Main article: Bibliography of Bill Clinton Primary sources

Clinton, Bill. (with Al Gore). Science in the National Interest. Washington, D.C.: The White House, August 1994. --- (with Al Gore). The Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, D.C.: The White House, October 1993. Taylor Branch
Taylor Branch
The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President. (2009) Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4333-6 Official Congressional Record Impeachment Set: ... Containing the Procedures for Implementing the Articles of Impeachment and the Proceedings of the Impeachment Trial of President William Jefferson Clinton. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1999. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1994–2002. S. Daniel Abraham Peace Is Possible, foreword by Bill Clinton

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Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story (1999) ISBN 0-609-60393-0 Mark Katz Clinton and Me: A Real-Life Political Comedy (2004) ISBN 978-0-7868-6949-7 David Maraniss The Clinton Enigma: A Four and a Half Minute Speech Reveals This President's Entire Life (1998) ISBN 0-684-86296-4 Dick Morris
Dick Morris
with Eileen McGann Because He Could (2004) ISBN 0-06-078415-6 Richard A. Posner An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton (1999) ISBN 0-674-00080-3 Mark J. Rozell The Clinton Scandal and the Future of American Government (2000) ISBN 0-87840-777-4 Timperlake, Edward, and William C. Triplett II Year of the Rat: How Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
Compromised U.S. Security for Chinese Cash. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-89526-333-5 Michael Waldman POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words That Defined the Clinton Presidency (2000) ISBN 0-7432-0020-9 Ivory Tower Publishing Company. Achievements of the Clinton Administration: the Complete Legislative and Executive. (1995) ISBN 0-88032-748-0

Scholarly studies

Campbell, Colin, and Bert A. Rockman, eds. The Clinton Legacy (Chatham House Pub, 2000) Cohen; Jeffrey E. "The Polls: Change and Stability in Public Assessments of Personal Traits, Bill Clinton, 1993–99" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2001 Cronin, Thomas E. and Michael A. Genovese; "President Clinton and Character Questions" Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 28, 1998 Davis; John. "The Evolution of American Grand Strategy and the War on Terrorism: Clinton and Bush Perspectives" White House
White House
Studies, Vol. 3, 2003 Dumbrell, John. "Was there a Clinton doctrine? President Clinton's foreign policy reconsidered". Diplomacy and Statecraft 13.2 (2002): 43–56. Edwards; George C. " Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and His Crisis of Governance" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998 Fisher; Patrick. "Clinton's Greatest Legislative Achievement? the Success of the 1993 Budget Reconciliation Bill" White House
White House
Studies, Vol. 1, 2001 Glad; Betty. "Evaluating Presidential Character" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998 Harris, John F. The Survivor: Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
in the White House
White House
(2006). Head, Simon. The Clinton System (January 30, 2016), The New York Review of Books Hyland, William G. . Clinton's World: Remaking American Foreign Policy (1999) ISBN 0-275-96396-9 Jewett, Aubrey W. and Marc D. Turetzky; "Stability and Change in President Clinton's Foreign Policy Beliefs, 1993–96" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998 Kim, Claire Jean (2002), "Managing the Racial Breach: Clinton, Black-White Polarization, and the Race Initiative", Political Science Quarterly, 117: 55–79, doi:10.2307/798094, JSTOR 798094  Laham, Nicholas, A Lost Cause: Bill Clinton's Campaign for National Health Insurance (1996) Lanoue, David J. and Craig F. Emmert; "Voting in the Glare of the Spotlight: Representatives' Votes on the Impeachment of President Clinton" Polity, Vol. 32, 1999 Levy, Peter B. Encyclopedia of the Clinton presidency (Greenwood, 2002) Maurer; Paul J. "Media Feeding Frenzies: Press Behavior during Two Clinton Scandals" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999 Nie; Martin A. "'It's the Environment, Stupid!': Clinton and the Environment" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997 in JSTOR O'Connor; Brendon. "Policies, Principles, and Polls: Bill Clinton's Third Way
Third Way
Welfare Politics 1992–1996" The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 48, 2002 Poveda; Tony G. "Clinton, Crime, and the Justice Department" Social Justice, Vol. 21, 1994 Renshon; Stanley A. The Clinton Presidency: Campaigning, Governing, and the Psychology of Leadership Westview Press, 1995 Romano, Flavio. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way (Routledge, 2007) Renshon; Stanley A. "The Polls: The Public's Response to the Clinton Scandals, Part 1: Inconsistent Theories, Contradictory Evidence" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, 2002 Rushefsky, Mark E. and Kant Patel. Politics, Power & Policy Making: The Case of Health Care Reform in the 1990s (1998) ISBN 1-56324-956-1 Schantz, Harvey L. Politics in an Era of Divided Government: Elections and Governance in the Second Clinton Administration (2001) ISBN 0-8153-3583-0 Troy, Gill. The Age of Clinton: America in the 1990s (2015) Warshaw, Shirley Anne. The Clinton Years (Infobase Publishing, 2009) Wattenberg; Martin P. "The Democrats' Decline in the House during the Clinton Presidency: An Analysis of Partisan Swings" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999 Wattier; Mark J. "The Clinton Factor: The Effects of Clinton's Personal Image in 2000 Presidential Primaries and in the General Election" White House
White House
Studies, Vol. 4, 2004

External links

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biography

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Interviews, speeches, and statements

Appearances on C-SPAN Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
at TED Full audio of a number of Clinton speeches Miller Center of Public Affairs Oral History Interview with Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
from Oral Histories of the American South, June 1974 "The Wanderer", a profile from The New Yorker, September 2006

Media coverage

" Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  " Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
collected news and commentary". The New York Times. 

Other

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Extensive essays on Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs "Life Portrait of Bill Clinton", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, December 20, 1999 Clinton an American Experience
American Experience
documentary Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
on IMDb
IMDb

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Bill Clinton

42nd President of the United States
President of the United States
(1993–2001) 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)

Presidency

1st inauguration 2nd inauguration Economic policy AmeriCorps Health care plan North American Free Trade Agreement Balanced Budget Foreign policy International trips Clinton Doctrine Dayton Agreement Oslo I Accord Israel–Jordan peace treaty Operation Infinite Reach Bombing of Yugoslavia One America Initiative Nannygate Clinton–Lewinsky scandal Lincoln Bedroom for contributors controversy Starr Report Impeachment hearing White House
White House
Millennium Council Pardons

list

State of the Union
State of the Union
addresses

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Supreme Court controversies

Life and legacy

Childhood home Presidential Library Post-presidency Clinton Foundation Clinton School of Public Service Clinton Boulevard Clinton Bush Haiti
Haiti
Fund Chairman, National Constitution Center Honors and awards Public image Troopergate Sexual misconduct allegations Whitewater controversy

Books

Between Hope and History (1996) My Life (2004) Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World (2007) Back to Work
Back to Work
(2011) The President Is Missing (2018)

Popular culture

The War Room
The War Room
(1993 documentary) Primary Colors (1998 film) The Final Days (2000 short film) Clinton (2012 film) Saturday Night Live parodies of Bill Clinton

Elections

United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
elections, 1974 Arkansas
Arkansas
gubernatorial election, 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1990 Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
presidential campaign, 1992 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1992 1996 Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention
1992 1996 United States presidential election, 1992

theme song

1996

Family

Hillary Rodham Clinton (wife) Chelsea Clinton
Chelsea Clinton
(daughter) William Jefferson Blythe Jr.
William Jefferson Blythe Jr.
(father) Virginia Clinton Kelley
Virginia Clinton Kelley
(mother) Roger Clinton Sr.
Roger Clinton Sr.
(first stepfather) Jeff Dwire
Jeff Dwire
(second stepfather) Roger Clinton Jr.
Roger Clinton Jr.
(half-brother) Socks (cat) Buddy (dog) Whitehaven (house)

← George H. W. Bush George W. Bush
George W. Bush

Bill Clinton Category

Offices and distinctions

Legal offices

Preceded by Jim Guy Tucker Attorney General of Arkansas 1977–1979 Succeeded by Steve Clark

Party political offices

Preceded by David Pryor Democratic nominee for Governor of Arkansas 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 1990 Succeeded by Jim Guy Tucker

Preceded by Max Baucus, Joe Biden, David L. Boren, Barbara Boxer, Robert Byrd, Dante Fascell, Bill Gray, Tom Harkin, Dee Huddleston, Carl Levin, Tip O'Neill, Claiborne Pell Response to the State of the Union
State of the Union
address 1985 Served alongside: Bob Graham, Tip O'Neill Succeeded by Tom Daschle, Bill Gray, George Mitchell, Chuck Robb, Harriet Woods

Preceded by Michael Dukakis Chair of the Democratic Governors Association 1987–1988 Succeeded by James Blanchard

Preceded by Sam Nunn Chair of the Democratic Leadership Council 1990–1991 Succeeded by John Breaux

Preceded by Michael Dukakis Democratic nominee for President of the United States 1992, 1996 Succeeded by Al Gore

Political offices

Preceded by Joe Purcell Acting Governor of Arkansas 1979–1981 Succeeded by Frank D. White

Preceded by Frank D. White Governor of Arkansas 1983–1992 Succeeded by Jim Guy Tucker

Preceded by Lamar Alexander Chair of the National Governors Association 1986–1987 Succeeded by John H. Sununu

Preceded by George H. W. Bush 42nd President of the United States 1993–2001 Succeeded by George W. Bush

Diplomatic posts

New office Chair of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 1993 Succeeded by Suharto

Preceded by Jacques Chirac Chair of the Group of Eight 1997 Succeeded by Tony Blair

Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)

Preceded by George H. W. Bush as Former President Order of Precedence of the United States as Former President Succeeded by George W. Bush as Former President

Articles related to Bill Clinton

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Presidents of the United States (list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
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James Madison
(1809–1817) James Monroe
James Monroe
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John Quincy Adams
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Andrew Jackson
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Martin Van Buren
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William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841–1845) James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
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Rutherford B. Hayes
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James A. Garfield
(1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
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Grover Cleveland
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Benjamin Harrison
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Grover Cleveland
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William McKinley
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Theodore Roosevelt
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Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

Presidency timelines

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Book Category

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United States Democratic Party

Chairpersons of the DNC

Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez

Presidential tickets

Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine

State/ Territorial Parties

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Conventions

(List)

1832 (Baltimore) 1835 (Baltimore) 1840 (Baltimore) 1844 (Baltimore) 1848 (Baltimore) 1852 (Baltimore) 1856 (Cincinnati) 1860 (Baltimore) 1864 (Chicago) 1868 (New York) 1872 (Baltimore) 1876 (Saint Louis) 1880 (Cincinnati) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Saint Louis) 1892 (Chicago) 1896 (Chicago) 1900 (Kansas City) 1904 (Saint Louis) 1908 (Denver) 1912 (Baltimore) 1916 (Saint Louis) 1920 (San Francisco) 1924 (New York) 1928 (Houston) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Philadelphia) 1940 (Chicago) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (Chicago) 1960 (Los Angeles) 1964 (Atlantic City) 1968 (Chicago) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (New York) 1980 (New York) 1984 (San Francisco) 1988 (Atlanta) 1992 (New York) 1996 (Chicago) 2000 (Los Angeles) 2004 (Boston) 2008 (Denver) 2012 (Charlotte) 2016 (Philadelphia)

Affiliated groups

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History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election

Liberalism portal

v t e

Governors of Arkansas

Territory (1819–1836)

J. Miller Izard Crittenden Pope Fulton

State (since 1836)

J. Conway Yell Adams Drew Byrd Roane E. Conway Rector Fletcher Flanagin Murphy Clayton Hadley Baxter Brooks* Baxter Garland W. Miller Churchill Berry Hughes Eagle Fishback Clarke Jones Davis Little Moore Pindall Martin Donaghey Robinson Oldham Futrell Hays Brough McRae Terral Martineau Parnell Futrell Bailey Adkins Laney McMath Cherry Faubus Rockefeller Bumpers Riley Pryor Purcell Clinton White Clinton Tucker Huckabee Beebe Hutchinson

Italics indicates acting governor * Disputed; see Brooks-Baxter War

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Order of precedence in the United States of America*

The President

The Vice President The Governor (of the state in which the event is held) The Speaker of the House The Chief Justice Former President Carter Former President GHW Bush Former President Clinton Former President GW Bush Former President Obama Ambassadors of the United States The Secretary of State The Associate Justices Retired Justice Stevens Retired Justice O'Connor Retired Justice Souter The President's Cabinet The President Pro Tempore of the Senate The Senate The Governors of the States (by order of statehood) Former Vice President Mondale Former Vice President Quayle Former Vice President Gore Former Vice President Cheney Former Vice President Biden The House of Representatives

*not including acting officeholders, visiting dignitaries, auxiliary executive and military personnel and most diplomats

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Chairs of the National Governors Association

Willson McGovern Walsh Spry Capper Harrington Allen Sproul Cox Trinkle Brewster McMullen Dern Case Pollard Rolph McNutt Peery Cochran Stark Vanderbilt Stassen O'Conor Saltonstall Maw Martin Caldwell Hildreth Hunt Lane Carlson Lausche Peterson Shivers Thornton Kennon Langlie Stanley Stratton Collins Boggs McNichols Powell Rosellini Anderson Sawyer Reed Guy Volpe Ellington Love Hearnes Moore Mandel Evans Rampton Ray Andrus Askew Milliken Carroll Bowen Busbee Snelling Matheson J. Thompson Carlin Alexander Clinton Sununu Baliles Branstad Gardner Ashcroft Romer Campbell Dean T. Thompson Miller Voinovich Carper Leavitt Glendening Engler Patton Kempthorne Warner Huckabee Napolitano Pawlenty Rendell Douglas Manchin Gregoire Heineman Markell Fallin Hickenlooper Herbert McAuliffe Sandoval

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Hillary Clinton

67th United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
(2009–2013) U.S. Senator from New York (2001–2009) First Lady of the United States
First Lady of the United States
(1993–2001)

Secretary of State

Tenure as Secretary Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review Foreign policy of the Obama administration Hillary Doctrine Email controversy UN Security Council Resolution 1888

UN Special
Special
Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict

U.S. Senator

Senate career Family Entertainment Protection Act Flag Protection Act of 2005

First Lady

1993 health care reform Hillaryland Travel office controversy FBI
FBI
files controversy "Vast right-wing conspiracy" Vital Voices Save America's Treasures State Children's Health Insurance Program Adoption and Safe Families Act Foster Care Independence Act White House
White House
Millennium Council

National Millennium Trail

Arkansas

Arkansas
Arkansas
Advocates for Children and Families Rose Law Firm Legal Services Corporation Whitewater controversy Cattle futures controversy

Philanthropic

Clinton Foundation

State Department controversy

Onward Together

Speeches and policies

Political positions "Women's Rights Are Human Rights" (1995) "Basket of deplorables" (2016)

Writings

Bibliography Senior thesis (1969) It Takes a Village (1996) Dear Socks, Dear Buddy
Dear Socks, Dear Buddy
(1998) An Invitation to the White House
White House
(2000) Living History (2003) Hard Choices
Hard Choices
(2014) Stronger Together (2016) What Happened (2017)

Electoral history

New York senatorial election, 2000 2006 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008

campaign endorsements debates convention

United States presidential election, 2016

campaign endorsements

political non-political

Democratic primaries

debates convention

General election debates Hillary Victory Fund

Legacy

Awards and honors Books about Cultural and political image Saturday Night Live parodies

Family

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(husband presidency) Chelsea Clinton
Chelsea Clinton
(daughter) Hugh E. Rodham (father) Dorothy Howell Rodham
Dorothy Howell Rodham
(mother) Hugh Rodham (brother) Tony Rodham (brother) Socks (cat) Buddy (dog) Whitehaven (house)

Book

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(1988 ←) United States presidential election, 1992
United States presidential election, 1992
(→ 1996)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(campaign) VP nominee Al Gore

Candidates Larry Agran Jerry Brown Tom Harkin Bob Kerrey Lyndon LaRouche Tom Laughlin Eugene McCarthy Paul Tsongas Douglas Wilder Charles Woods

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee George H. W. Bush VP nominee Dan Quayle

Candidates Pat Buchanan David Duke Jack Fellure Isabell Masters Pat Paulsen Tennie Rogers Harold Stassen

Independent

Candidate Ross Perot
Ross Perot
(campaign) VP candidate James Stockdale

Other independent and third party candidates

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Andre Marrou

VP nominee Nancy Lord

Natural Law Party

Nominee John Hagelin

VP nominee Mike Tompkins

New Alliance Party

Nominee Lenora Fulani

VP nominee Maria Elizabeth Muñoz

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

VP nominee George Ormsby

Socialist Party USA

Nominee J. Quinn Brisben

VP nominee Barbara Garson

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Warren

VP nominee Willie Mae Reid

U.S. Taxpayers Party

Convention

Nominee Howard Phillips

VP nominee Albion W. Knight, Jr.

Workers World Party

Nominee Gloria La Riva

VP nominee Larry Holmes

Independents and other candidates

Ronald Daniels (Running mate: Asiba Tupahache) Bo Gritz Isabell Masters

Other 1992 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

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(1992 ←) United States presidential election, 1996
United States presidential election, 1996
(→ 2000)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Bill Clinton VP nominee Al Gore

Candidates James D. Griffin Lyndon LaRouche
Lyndon LaRouche
campaign Pat Paulsen

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee Bob Dole VP nominee Jack Kemp

Candidates Lamar Alexander Pat Buchanan Charles E. Collins Bob Dornan Jack Fellure Arthur Fletcher Steve Forbes Phil Gramm Alan Keyes Richard Lugar Isabell Masters Jimmy McMillan Tennie Rogers Arlen Specter Morry Taylor Pete Wilson

Reform Party

Nominee Ross Perot VP nominee Pat Choate

Candidates Richard Lamm

Other Third party and independent candidates

Green Party

Convention

Nominee Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign)

VP nominee Winona LaDuke

Libertarian Party

Convention

Nominee Harry Browne

VP nominee Jo Jorgensen

Candidates Irwin Schiff

Natural Law Party

Nominee John Hagelin

VP nominee Mike Tompkins

Prohibition Party

Nominee Earl Dodge

VP nominee Rachel Bubar Kelly

Socialist Party

Nominee Mary Cal Hollis

VP nominee Eric Chester

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Harris

U.S. Taxpayers Party

Nominee Howard Phillips

VP nominee Herb Titus

Workers World Party

Nominee Monica Moorehead

VP nominee Gloria La Riva

Independents and other candidates

Joan Jett Blakk Marsha Feinland Isabell Masters Steve Michael Dennis Peron Diane Beall Templin

Other 1996 elections House Senate Gubernatorial

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Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

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Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
/ Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Cabinet of President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Warren M. Christopher (1993–97) Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright
(1997–2001)

Secretary of the Treasury

Lloyd Bentsen
Lloyd Bentsen
(1993–94) Robert Rubin
Robert Rubin
(1995–99) Larry Summers (1999–2001)

Secretary of Defense

Les Aspin
Les Aspin
(1993–94) William J. Perry (1994–97) William S. Cohen (1997–2001)

Attorney General

Janet Reno
Janet Reno
(1993–2001)

Secretary of the Interior

Bruce Babbitt
Bruce Babbitt
(1993–2001)

Secretary of Agriculture

Mike Espy
Mike Espy
(1993–94) Dan Glickman
Dan Glickman
(1995–2001)

Secretary of Commerce

Ron Brown (1993–96) Mickey Kantor
Mickey Kantor
(1996–97) William M. Daley
William M. Daley
(1997–2000) Norman Mineta
Norman Mineta
(2000–01)

Secretary of Labor

Robert Reich
Robert Reich
(1993–97) Alexis M. Herman (1997–2001)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Donna Shalala
Donna Shalala
(1993–2001)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Henry G. Cisneros (1993–97) Andrew M. Cuomo (1997–2001)

Secretary of Transportation

Federico Peña
Federico Peña
(1993–97) Rodney Slater (1997–2001)

Secretary of Energy

Hazel O'Leary (1993–97) Federico Peña
Federico Peña
(1997–98) Bill Richardson
Bill Richardson
(1998–2001)

Secretary of Education

Richard W. Riley (1993–2001)

Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Jesse Brown
Jesse Brown
(1993–97) Togo West (1998–2000)

* Acting secretary

Cabinet-level

Vice President

Al Gore
Al Gore
(1993–2001)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

Mack McLarty
Mack McLarty
(1993–94) Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
(1994–97) Erskine Bowles
Erskine Bowles
(1997–98) John Podesta
John Podesta
(1998–2001)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Carol M. Browner (1993–2001)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright
(1993–97) Bill Richardson
Bill Richardson
(1997–98) Richard C. Holbrooke (1999–2001)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
(1993–94) Alice Rivlin
Alice Rivlin
(1994–96) Franklin D. Raines (1996–98) Jack Lew
Jack Lew
(1998–2001)

Director of National Drug Control Policy

Lee P. Brown
Lee P. Brown
(1993–95) Barry McCaffrey
Barry McCaffrey
(1996–2001)

Trade Representative

Mickey Kantor
Mickey Kantor
(1993–97) Charlene Barshefsky
Charlene Barshefsky
(1997–2001)

Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency

James L. Witt (1993–2001)*

Director of Central Intelligence

R. James Woolsey Jr.
R. James Woolsey Jr.
(1993–95) John M. Deutch
John M. Deutch
(1995–96) George Tenet
George Tenet
(1997–2001)

Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers

Laura Tyson
Laura Tyson
(1993–95) Joseph Stiglitz
Joseph Stiglitz
(1995–97) Janet Yellen
Janet Yellen
(1997–99) Martin Neil Baily
Martin Neil Baily
(1999–2001)

Administrator of the Small Business Administration

Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1994–97) Aída M. Álverez (1997–2001)

* took office in 1993, raised to cabinet-rank in 1996

v t e

Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
- As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam
Vietnam
(1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 102338519 LCCN: n82029644 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 7620 GND: 119063395 SELIBR: 173992 SUDOC: 031695582 BNF: cb12375168h (data) MusicBrainz: a11bd200-7f0b-43a6-b7fe-4ea04929a42b NLA: 36058788 NDL: 00464673 NKC: jn20000700315 ICCU: ITICCUMILV94368 BNE: XX1085

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