The Info List - Bilbao

--- Advertisement ---

(/bɪlˈbaʊ, -ˈbɑːoʊ/;[3] Spanish: [bilˈβao]; Basque: Bilbo [bilβo]) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay
and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is also the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao
is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015.[4] The Bilbao metropolitan area
Bilbao metropolitan area
has roughly 1 million inhabitants,[5][6][7] making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain; with a population of 875,552[8] the comarca of Greater Bilbao is the fifth-largest urban area in Spain. Bilbao
is also the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao
is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres (10 mi) south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao
is formed. Its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres (1,300 ft).[9] After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao
was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain. This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao
experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona.[10][11] At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao
is a vigorous service city that is experiencing an ongoing social, economic, and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum,[10][12][13][14] and continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Alhóndiga, and the currently under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre
renewal projects.[15] Bilbao
is also home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism
Basque nationalism
due to its promotion of Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao
was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.[16] Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s.[17][18] On 8 November 2017, Bilbao
was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism
Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism.[19]


1 Etymology 2 Symbology 3 History 4 Geography

4.1 Geography 4.2 Hydrology 4.3 Climate

5 Demographics 6 Government

6.1 Districts

7 Economy

7.1 Port of Bilbao 7.2 Mining and ironworks 7.3 Tourism 7.4 Stock exchange

8 Cityscape

8.1 Urban planning 8.2 Architecture 8.3 Parks

9 Education

9.1 Higher education

10 Transportation

10.1 Public transportation statistics

11 Culture

11.1 Museums 11.2 Festivals in Bilbao

12 Sport 13 Notable people from Bilbao 14 Twin towns 15 See also 16 References

16.1 Notes 16.2 Bibliography

17 External links

Etymology[edit] The official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque, Bilbao
and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao
is the official name.[20] Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords presumably made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.[21][22][23][24] There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Generally accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were also known as Senores de Bilbao
la Vieja. The symbols of their patrimony are the tower and church used in the shield of Bilbao
to this day.[25] One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca. He said that it was a Basque custom to name a place after its location. For Bilbao
this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao.[26] The historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing.[27] On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself. The first, where the present Casco Viejo
Casco Viejo
is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao
La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam. From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao,[26] which was also written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter.[28] An -ao ending is also present in nearby Sestao
and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth". Symbology[edit] The titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents.


holds the historic category of borough (villa), with the titles of «Very noble and very loyal and unbeaten» («Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta»). It was the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
who awarded the title «Noble borough» («Noble Villa») on 20 September 1475. Philip III of Spain, via a letter in 1603 awarded the borough the titles of «Very noble and very loyal».[29] After the Siege of Bilbao
(1836), during the First Carlist
War, on 25 December 1836, the title of «Unbeaten» was added.[30] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Bilbao Remains of an ancient settlement were found on the top of Mount Malmasín, dating from around the 3rd or 2nd century BC.[31][32] Burial sites were also found on Mounts Avril and Artxanda, dated 6,000 years old. Some authors identify the old settlement of Bilbao
as Amanun Portus, cited by Pliny the Elder, or with Flaviobriga, by Ptolemy.[32] Ancient walls, which date from around the 11th century, have been discovered below the Church of San Antón.[32] Bilbao
was one of the first towns founded in the fourteenth century, during a period in which approximately 70% of the Biscayan municipalities were developed, among them Portugalete
in 1323, Ondarroa
in 1327, Lekeitio
in 1335, and Mungia
and Larrabetzu
in 1376.[33] The then lord of Biscay, Diego López V of Haro, founded Bilbao
through a municipal charter dated in Valladolid
on 15 June 1300 and confirmed by King Fernando IV of Castile in Burgos, on 4 January 1301. Diego López established the new town on the right bank of the Nervión
river, on the grounds of the elizate of Begoña
and granted it the fuero of Logroño, a compilation of rights and privileges that would prove fundamental to its later development.[34]

First engraving of the city, made by Franz Hohenberg in 1554 and first published in 1574. Many notable buildings can be seen, like the Santiago Cathedral, and the church of San Antón.

On 21 June 1511, Queen Joanna of Castile
Joanna of Castile
ordered the creation of the Consulate of Bilbao. This would become the most influential institution of the borough for centuries, and would claim jurisdiction over the estuary, improving its infrastructure. Under the Consulate's control, the port of Bilbao
became one of the most important of Spain.[35] The first printing-press was brought to the town in 1577. Here in 1596, the first book in Basque was edited, entitled Doctrina Christiana en Romance y Bascuence by Dr. Betolaza.[36]

Typical Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architecture of Bilbao

In 1602 Bilbao
was made the capital of Biscay, a title previously held by Bermeo.[37] The following centuries saw a constant increase in the town's wealth, especially after the discovery of extensive iron deposits in the surrounding mountains. At the end of the 17th century, Bilbao
overcame the economic crises that affected Spain, thanks to the iron ore and its commerce with England and the Netherlands. During the 18th century, it continued to grow and almost exhausted its small space.

The Battle of Luchana.

The Basque Country was one of the main sites of battles of the Carlist Wars, and the Carlists very much wanted to conquer the city, a liberal and economic bastion.[38] Bilbao
was besieged three times between 1835 and 1874, but all proved unsuccessful. One of the main battles of this time was the Battle of Luchana
Battle of Luchana
in 1836, when Liberal general Baldomero Espartero defeated the Carlists, freeing the borough.[39] Despite the warfare, Bilbao
prospered during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when it rose as the economic centre of the Basque Country. During this time, the first railway was built (in 1857), the Bank of Bilbao
was founded (later to become the BBVA), and the Bilbao Stock Exchange was created. Many industries flourished, such as Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, founded in 1902. The borough grew in area with the Abando
ensanche and was modernized with new avenues and walkways, as well as with new modern buildings such as the City Hall, the Basurto Hospital and the Arriaga Theatre.[40] The population increased dramatically, from 11,000 in 1880 to 80,000 in 1900. Social movements also arose, notably Basque nationalism
Basque nationalism
under Sabino Arana.[41] The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
started in Bilbao
with a number of small uprisings suppressed by the Republican forces. On 31 August 1936, the city suffered the first bombing. The next month, further bombing by German planes occurred, in coordination with Franco's forces.[42] In May 1937, the Nationalist army besieged the town. The battle lasted until 19 June of that year, when Lieutenant Colonel Putz was ordered to destroy all bridges over the estuary, and the troops of the 5th Brigade took the borough from the mountains Malmasin, Pagasarri, and Arnotegi.[43] With the war over, Bilbao
returned to its industrial development, accompanied by a steady population growth. In the 1940s, the city was rebuilt, starting with the bridges. In 1948, the first commercial flight took off from the local airport.[44] Over the next decade, there was a revival of the iron industry. The demand for housing outstripped supply, and workers built slums on the hillsides.[45] In this chaotic environment, on 31 July 1959, the terrorist organization ETA was born in Bilbao, as a faction of the PNV.[45] After the fall of Francoist Spain
and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, in a process known in Spain
as the transition, Bilbao
was able to hold democratic elections again. This time Basque nationalists rose to power.[46] With the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country
Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country
in 1979, Vitoria-Gasteiz
was elected the seat of the government and therefore the de facto capital of the Basque Autonomous Community, although Bilbao
was larger and more powerful economically. In the 1980s, several factors such as terrorism, labor demands and the arrival of cheap labor from abroad led to a devastating industrial crisis.[45] Since the mid-1990s, Bilbao
has been in a process of deindustrialization and transition to a service economy, supported by investment in infrastructure and urban renewal, starting with the opening of the Bilbao Guggenheim Museum
Bilbao Guggenheim Museum
(the so-called Guggenheim effect),[14] and continuing with the Euskalduna Conference Centre and Concert Hall, Santiago Calatrava's Zubizuri, the metro network by Norman Foster, the tram, the Iberdrola Tower
Iberdrola Tower
and the Zorrozaurre development plan, among others. Many officially supported associations such as Bilbao
Metrópoli-30 and Bilbao
Ría 2000 were created to monitor these projects.[47][48] Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Bilbao.

The municipality of Bilbao
is located near the northern edge of the Iberian Peninsula, about 16 kilometres (10 mi) from the Bay of Biscay.[49] It covers an area of 40.65 square kilometres (15.70 sq mi), of which 17.35 square kilometres (6.70 sq mi) are urban and the remaining 23.30 square kilometres (9.00 sq mi) consist of the surrounding mountains.[50] The official average altitude is 19 metres (62 ft), although there are measurements between 6 metres (20 ft) and 32 metres (105 ft).[51] It is also the core of the comarca of Greater Bilbao. It is surrounded by the municipalities of Derio, Etxebarri, Galdakao, Loiu, Sondika, and Zamudio
to the north; Arrigorriaga
and Basauri
to the west; Alonsotegi
to the south; and Barakaldo
and Erandio
to the east. Geography[edit]


is located on the Basque threshold, the range between the larger Cantabrian Mountains
Cantabrian Mountains
and the Pyrenees.[52] The soil is predominantly composed of mesozoic materials (limestone, sandstone, and marl) sedimented over a primitive paleozoic base.[52] The relief of the province is dominated by NW-SE and WNW-ESE oriented folds. The main fold is the anticline of Bilbao
which runs from the municipality of Elorrio
to Galdames.[52] Inside Bilbao
there are two secondary folds, one in the northeast, composed of Mounts Artxanda, Avril, Banderas, Pikota, San Bernabé, and Cabras; and other in the south, composed of Mounts Kobetas, Restaleku, Pagasarri and Arraiz. The highest point in the municipality is Mount Ganeta, of 689 metres (2,260 ft), followed by Mount Pagasarri, of 673 metres (2,208 ft), both on the border with Alonsotegi.[53] Hydrology[edit] Main article: Estuary
of Bilbao

The estuary of Bilbao
crossing the borough.

The main river system of Bilbao
is also the hydrological artery of Biscay. The rivers Nervión
and Ibaizabal
converge in Basauri
and form an estuary named variously "estuary of Bilbao", "of the Nervión", "of the Ibaizabal", or "of the Nervión-Ibaizabal".[54] The estuary runs for 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) and with a low flow (with an average of 25 m3 (883 cu ft) per second).[55] Its main tributary is the river Cadagua, which rises in the Mena valley and has a basin of 642 square kilometres (248 sq mi), mostly lying in the neighboring province of Burgos.[56] This river is also the natural border between Bilbao
and Barakaldo. The river has frequently suffered from human intervention, as seen in the dredging of its bottom, the building of docks on both banks and especially in the Deusto
canal, an artificial waterway dug between 1950 and 1968 in the district of Deusto
as a lateral canal, with the aim of facilitating navigation, sparing ships from the natural curves of the estuary.[57] The project was stopped with 400 metres (1,300 ft) left to complete, and it was decided to leave it as a dock.[58] However, in 2007, a plan was approved to continue the canal and form the island of Zorrozaurre.[59] This human intervention has also brought negative results in the quality of the water, after decades of toxic waste dumping causing a situation of anoxia (lack of oxygen), which almost eliminated the entire fauna and flora.[55] However, in recent years this situation is being reversed, thanks to a dumping ban and natural regeneration.[60] now it is possible to observe algae, tonguefishes, crabs, and seabirds,[61] as well as occasional bathers in the summer months.[62] The estuary is also a natural border for several neighbourhoods and districts within the borough. Entering the municipality from the west it separates the districts of Begoña
and Ibaiondo, then Abando
and Uribarri
and lastly Deusto
and Basurto-Zorroza. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Bilbao

The Biscayan government

Its proximity to the Bay of Biscay
gives Bilbao
an oceanic climate (Cfb), with precipitation occurring throughout the year and without a well-defined dry summer. Precipitation
is abundant, and given the latitude and atmospheric dynamics, rainy days represent 45% and cloudy days 40% of the annual total.[63] The rainiest season is between October and April, November being the wettest. Snow is not frequent in Bilbao, although it is possible to see snow on the top of the surrounding mountains. Sleet is more frequent, about 10 days per year, mainly in the winter months.[64] Bilbao
is nearest to the subtropical boundary of all the Atlantic coastal cities in the country with an August daily mean of 20.9 °C (69.6 °F).[65] There is also a drying trend in summer with only around 50 millimetres (2.0 in) of rainfall in July [65] - but not dry enough to be considered Mediterranean. The proximity of the ocean also means that the two best defined seasons (summer and winter) remain mild, with low intensity thermal oscillations. Average maximum temperatures vary between 25 and 26 °C (77.0 and 78.8 °F) in the summer months, while the average minimum in winter is between 6 and 7 °C (42.8 and 44.6 °F). Extreme record observations in Bilbao
are 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) maximum (on 13 August 2003) and −8.6 °C (16.5 °F) minimum (on 3 February 1963). The maximum precipitation in a day was 225.6 mm (9 in) on 26 August 1983 when severe flooding was caused by the Nervión

Climate data for Bilbao
airport: 1981-2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 14.3 (57.7) 16.5 (61.7) 17.6 (63.7) 20.8 (69.4) 23.4 (74.1) 25.4 (77.7) 26.0 (78.8) 24.6 (76.3) 21.4 (70.5) 16.6 (61.9) 13.9 (57) 19.5 (67.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 9.7 (49.5) 11.5 (52.7) 12.6 (54.7) 15.7 (60.3) 18.4 (65.1) 20.4 (68.7) 20.9 (69.6) 19.2 (66.6) 16.4 (61.5) 12.4 (54.3) 9.9 (49.8) 14.7 (58.5)

Average low °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 5.1 (41.2) 6.4 (43.5) 7.6 (45.7) 10.6 (51.1) 13.4 (56.1) 15.4 (59.7) 15.7 (60.3) 13.8 (56.8) 11.4 (52.5) 8.2 (46.8) 5.9 (42.6) 9.9 (49.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 120 (4.72) 86 (3.39) 90 (3.54) 107 (4.21) 78 (3.07) 60 (2.36) 51 (2.01) 77 (3.03) 73 (2.87) 111 (4.37) 147 (5.79) 122 (4.8) 1,134 (44.65)

Average precipitation days 13 11 11 13 11 7 7 8 8 11 13 12 124

Mean monthly sunshine hours 85 97 132 138 169 181 186 179 160 127 88 78 1,610

Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología,[67] Aena[68]


Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1900 83,306 —    

1910 93,536 +12.3%

1920 112,819 +20.6%

1930 161,987 +43.6%

1940 195,186 +20.5%

1950 229,334 +17.5%

1960 297,272 +29.6%

1970 410,490 +38.1%

1980 433,030 +5.5%

1990 372,054 −14.1%

2000 354,271 −4.8%

2010 353,187 −0.3%

2013 349,356 −1.1%

demographic evolution (1900–2005).

The local Register office shows a total resident population for Bilbao of 349,356 in 2013[update]. The first credible data on the population of Bilbao
are post-1550.[69] It is known that in 1530 Biscay
had approximately 65,000 inhabitants, a number that could have been reduced by plagues that struck the city in 1517, 1530, 1564–68, and 1597–1601, the last being especially devastating.[69] This trend for periodic reverses in population growth was maintained until the nineteenth century. Since then, Bilbao
has experienced an exponential growth in population thanks to industrialisation. After a peak of 433,115 inhabitants in 1982, the municipalities of the Txorierri
valley were removed from Bilbao, with the corresponding loss of their population.[70] Of the 355,731 people residing in Bilbao
in 2009, only 114,220 (32.1%) were born inside the municipality. Of the remainder, 114,908 were born in other Biscayan towns, while 9,545 were born in the other two Basque provinces; 85,789 came from the rest of Spain
(mainly Castile-León and Galicia), and 33,537 were foreigners.[71] There are 127 different nationalities registered in Bilbao, although 60 of them represent fewer than 10 people each.[72] The largest foreign communities are Bolivians and Colombians, with 4,879 and 3,730 respectively. Other nationalities with more than 1,000 inhabitants are Romanians (2,248), Moroccans (2,058), Ecuadorians (1,832), Chinese (1,390), Brazilians (1,273) and Paraguayans, with 1,204.[71]

Largest groups of foreign residents in Bilbao[73]

Nationality Population (2012)

 Bolivia 4,500

 Colombia 3,060

 Morocco 2,572

 Romania 2,434

 China 1,863

 Paraguay 1,586

 Ecuador 1,291

 Brazil 1,184

 Algeria 862

 Nigeria 714

Government[edit] Bilbao
is a municipality with a Mayor-Council form of government. The mayor and councillors are elected for four-year terms. There is a division between the executive, made up of the mayor and a board of governors and the plenum, consisting of 29 councillors.[74] The councillors of the plenum represent political parties and are distributed as follows: Basque Nationalist Party: 15 seats plus the mayor; People's Party, 6 seats; Bildu, 4 seats; and Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, 4 seats.[75] In 2008 and 2010, Bilbao
won the Municipal Transparency Prize, awarded by the Spanish division of Transparency International. In 2009 it came second, after Sant Cugat del Vallés.[76] Its former mayor, recently deceased, Mr. Iñaki Azkuna
Iñaki Azkuna
Urreta (PNV-EAJ) was awarded as the Best World Mayor 2012.[77][78] Districts[edit] The borough of Bilbao
consists of eight different districts. Each district is further subdivided into neighbourhoods, totalling 35:

Number District Neighbourhoods Area (km²) Population (2009)[79] Location

1 Deusto Arangoiti, Ibarrekolanda, San Ignacio-Elorrieta, and San Pedro de Deusto-La Rivera. 4.95 51,656

Deusto Uribarri Otxarkoaga- Txurdinaga Begoña Ibaiondo Abando Errekalde Basurto- Zorroza

2 Uribarri Castaños, Matiko-Ciudad Jardín, Uribarri, and Zurbaran-Arabella. 4.19 38,335

3 Otxarkoaga-Txurdinaga Otxarkoaga and Txurdinaga. 3.90 28,518

4 Begoña Begoña, Bolueta, and Santutxu. 1.77 43,030

5 Ibaiondo Atxuri, Bilbao
La Vieja, Casco Viejo, Iturralde, La Peña, Miribilla, San Adrián, San Francisco, Solokoetxe, and Zabala. 9.65 61,029

6 Abando Abando
and Indautxu. 2.14 51,718

7 Errekalde Amezola, Iralabarri, Iturrigorri-Peñascal, Errekaldeberri-Larraskitu, and Uretamendi. 6.96 47,787

8 Basurto-Zorroza Altamira, Basurto, Olabeaga, Masustegi-Monte Caramelo, and Zorrotza. 7.09 33,658


Headquarters of BBVA, formerly headquarters of the Bank of Biscay.

Headquarters of Iberdrola.

has been the economic center of the Basque Country since the times of the Consulate, mainly because of commerce in Castilian products on the town's port, but it was not until the 19th century when it experimented with big development, mainly based on the exploitation of the iron mines and siderurgy, which promoted the maritimal traffic, the portuary activity and the construction of ships.[80] During those years Banco de Bilbao
(Bank of Bilbao), founded in Bilbao
in 1857 and Banco de Vizcaya (Bank of Biscay), which was established in 1901, also in Bilbao, made their appearance. Both entities merged in 1988 creating the BBV corporation (Banco Bilbao Vizcaya, Bank of Bilbao-Biscay). BBV merged with Argentaria in 1999, creating the current corporation, BBVA. The savings banks that were established locally, Caja de Ahorros Municipal de Bilbao
(Municipal Savings Bank of Bilbao) in 1907, and Caja de Ahorros Provincial de Vizcaya (Provincial Savings Bank of Biscay) in 1921, would merge in 1990 and form Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa
Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa
(BBK).[81] There is also the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigation of Bilbao
and the Stock Exchange Market of Bilbao, founded in 1890.[82] After the dramatic industrial crisis of the 1980s, Bilbao
was forced to rethink its very economic foundations. That is how it transformed into a successful service town.[83] Bilbao
is home to numerous companies of national and international relevance, including two among the 150 world's biggest, according to Forbes
magazine: BBVA
at #40 and Iberdrola
at #122.[84] The city's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is of €26,225 in 2005, considerably above the country average of €22,152. According to the official economic yearbook, the strongest sectors are construction, commerce, and tourism.[85][86] The unemployment rate reached 14.4% in 2009, well below the national rate, of 18,01%.[87] Nevertheless, it is the highest rate in the last ten years.[88] Port of Bilbao[edit] Main article: Port of Bilbao

Panoramic view of the superport, as seen from mount Serantes.

The historical port was located in what today is an area called the Arenal, a few steps from the Casco Viejo, until the late 20th century. In 1902, an exterior port was built at the mouth of the estuary, in the coastal municipality of Santurtzi. Further extensions led to a superport, that in the 1970s replaced the docks inside Bilbao,[89] with the exception of those located in the neighbourhood of Zorrotza, still in activity.[90] The port of Bilbao
is a first-class commercial port and is among the top five of Spain.[91] Over 200 regular maritime services link Bilbao with 500 ports worldwide. At the close of 2009 cargo movements amounted to 31.6 million tonnes, Russia, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries being the main markets.[92] In the first semester of 2008, it received over 67,000 passengers and 2,770 ships.[93] This activity reported 419 million euros to the basque GDP
and generates almost 10,000 jobs.[94] Mining and ironworks[edit] Iron is the main and most abundant raw material found in Biscay, and its extraction is legally protected since 1526. Mining was the main primary activity in Bilbao
and the minerals, of great quality, were exported to all over Europe.[95] It was not until the second half of the nineteenth century when an ironworks industry was developed, benefited by the resources and the well connected borough. In the 20th century, both Spanish and European capitals imported around 90% of the Biscayan iron.[95] Although World War I made Bilbao
one of the main ironworks powers, later crisis prompted a decline in the activity. Tourism[edit]

and the Guggenheim Museum

The first notion of Bilbao
as a tourist destination came with the inauguration of the railway between Bilbao
and the coastal neighbourhood of Las Arenas, in the municipality of Getxo
in 1872. The connection made Bilbao
a minor beach destination.[96] The real tourist surge though would come much later with the inauguration of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
in 1997. Thereafter tourist arrivals registered a continued upward trend, reaching over 615,000 visitors in 2009. The trend was exponential considering that in 1995, Bilbao
only counted 25,000 tourists.[97] Bilbao
also hosts 31% of the total Basque Country visitors, being the top destination of this autonomous community, outranking San Sebastián.[97] The majority of tourists are domestic visitors, coming from Madrid
and Catalonia. International travellers are predominantly French, crossing the border just to the east. The others arrive from the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy.[97] Tourism generates about 300 million euros yearly for the Biscayan GDP.[97] Bilbao
also draws business tourism, having been equipped with facilities like the Euskalduna Conference Centre and Concert Hall, and the Bilbao
Exhibition Centre, in nearby Barakaldo.[98] Stock exchange[edit] Plans to create a stock exchange market in Bilbao
began in the early 19th century, even though it would not be realized until 21 July 1890.[82] Bilbao's institution is one of the country's four regional stock exchanges, joining Barcelona, Madrid, and Valencia
as Spain's commercial centers. It is owned by Bolsas y Mercados Españoles. The Bilbao
Stock Exchange is considered a secondary market. Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Bilbao
from Mount Artxanda

Urban planning[edit]

18th century picture showing the original seven parallel streets of the old town.

In its beginnings, Bilbao
only had three streets (Somera, Artecalle, and Tendería) surrounded by walls located where Ronda street now stands. Inside this enclosure, there was a small hermitage dedicated to the Apostle Saint James (the current St. James' Cathedral), which pilgrims visited on their way to Santiago de Compostela. In the fifteenth century, four more streets were built, forming the original Zazpikaleak or "Seven Streets".[99] In 1571, after several floods and a major fire in 1569, the walls were demolished in order to allow the expansion of the town.[100]

Casco Viejo

In 1861, engineer Amado Lázaro projected an ensanche inside the then-municipality of Abando
with wide avenues and regular buildings, that included the hygienists ideas of the time. The project was mostly based on Barcelona's Eixample, designed by Ildefons Cerdà.[101] However, the project was dropped by the City Council after considering it "utopian and excessive" because of its high cost, though of great quality. Furthermore, Lázaro had calculated the demographic growth of the town was based on the previous three centuries, a provision that eventually would not conform to reality.[101][102] The next large urban change in Bilbao
would come in 1876, when the capital annexed (in several stages) the neighbouring municipality of Abando. The new ensanche project was planned by a team made of architect Severino de Achúcarro and engineers Pablo de Alzola (elected Mayor that same year), and Ernesto de Hoffmeyer. Unlike Lázaro's, this project was significantly smaller, compassing 1.58 km2 (0.61 sq mi) against the original 2.54 km2 (0.98 sq mi).[101] It also featured a not so strict grid pattern, a park to separate the industrial and residential areas and the Gran Vía de Don Diego López de Haro, the main thoroughfare, where many relevant buildings were located, such as Biscay
County Hall or the BBVA
Tower. By the end of the 1890s, this widening was half completed and already filled, so a new extension was planned by Federico Ugalde.[101] By 1925, the municipalities of Deusto
and Begoña, as well as part of Erandio
were annexed, and in 1940, the remaining part of Erandio became part of Bilbao. The last annexation took place in 1966, with the municipalities of Loiu, Sondika, Derio, and Zamudio. This made Bilbao
larger than ever, with 107 km2 (41 sq mi). However, all these municipalities, with the exception of Deusto
and Begoña
regained their independence on 1 January 1983.[103] On 18 May 2010, the government of Singapore
awarded Bilbao
the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, at the World Cities Summit
World Cities Summit
2010.[104] It is considered the Pritzker of urbanism.[105] Architecture[edit] Main category: Buildings and structures in Bilbao

Typical late-19th century architecture of Bilbao

The Guggenheim Museum, symbol of modern Bilbao.

The gothic St. James' Cathedral

Bilbao's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from gothic, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Neo-Gothic
and contemporary architecture. The Old Town features many of the oldest buildings in the city, as the St. James' Cathedral or the Church of San Antón, included in the borough's coat of arms. Most of the Old Town is a pedestrian zone during the day. Nearby is one of the most important religious temples of Biscay, the Basilica of Begoña, dedicated to the patron saint of the province, Our Lady of Begoña. Seventeen bridges span the banks of the estuary inside the town's boundaries. Among the most interesting ones are the Zubizuri
(Basque for "white bridge"), a pedestrian footbridge designed by Santiago Calatrava opened in 1997, and the Princes of Spain
Bridge, also known as "La Salve", a suspension bridge opened in 1972 and redesigned by French conceptual artist Daniel Buren
Daniel Buren
in 2007.[106] The Deusto
Bridge is a bascule bridge opened in 1936 and modelled after the Michigan Avenue Bridge, in Chicago.[107] Between 1890 and 1893 the first transporter bridge ("Puente Colgante") in the world on the Nervion river, between Portugalete
and Getxo, was built by Alberto Palacio (architect and engineer) together with his brother Silvestre. Since the deindustrialization process started in the 1990s, many of the former industrial areas are being transformed into modern public and private spaces designed by several of the world's most renowned architects and artists. The main example is the Guggenheim Museum, located in what was an old dock and wood warehouse. The building, designed by Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry
and inaugurated in October 1997, is considered among architecture experts as one of the most important structures of the last 30 years,[108] and a masterpiece by itself.[109] The museum houses part of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation
Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation
modern art collection. Another example is the Alhóndiga, a wine warehouse built in 1909 and completely redesigned in 2010 by French designer Philippe Starck into a multi-purpose venue that consists of a cinema multiplex, a fitness centre, a library, and a restaurant, among other spaces.[110][111] The Abandoibarra area is also being renovated, and it features not only the Guggenheim Museum, but also Arata Isozaki's tower complex, the Euskalduna Conference Centre and Concert Hall
Euskalduna Conference Centre and Concert Hall
and the Iberdrola
Tower, designed by Argentine
architect César Pelli which is, since its completion in 2011, the Basque Country's tallest skyscraper, 165 metres (541 ft) high.[112] Zorrozaurre
is the next area to be redeveloped, following a 2007 master plan designed by Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid.

Torre Isozaki and Zubizuri

This current peninsula will be transformed into a 500,000 m2 (5,400,000 sq ft) island and will feature residential and commercial buildings, as well as the new BBK seat.[113] Parks[edit]

The Etxeberria park, with its distinctive chimney.

As of 2010[update], Bilbao
has 18 public parks inside its limits, totalling 200 ha (490 acres) of green spaces. Besides, its green belt has a total area of 1,025 ha (2,530 acres), of which 119 ha (290 acres) are urbanized.[114] The largest parks are Mount Cobetas, of 18.5 ha (46 acres), and Larreagaburu, of 12 ha (30 acres), both located on the outskirts.[115] The Doña Casilda Iturrizar park
Doña Casilda Iturrizar park
is located in the district of Abando, near the town centre and covers an area of 8.5 ha (21 acres). It is named after a local benefactress who donated the grounds to the borough. It is an English-style garden designed by Ricardo Bastida
Ricardo Bastida
and opened to the public in 1907. It features a dancing water fountain surrounded by a pergola, and a pond with many species of ducks, geese and swans, which gives the park the alternate name of "Ducks' Park", as known locally. In recent years, it was expanded to be connected with the Abandoibarra area.[116] In Ibaiondo, the Etxeberria Park was built in the 1980s in the place where a steel mill previously stood. The original chimney was maintained as a homage of its industrial past. It covers an area of 18.9 ha (47 acres), on a sloped terrain that overlooks the Old Town.[117] Other relevant public spaces inside the city include the Europa Park, the Miribilla Park, or the Memorial Walkway, a 3 km (1.9 mi) long walkway, with 12 m (39 ft) high lamps, located in the left bank of the estuary and that connects the main sights.[118] Mount Artxanda
is easily accessible from the town centre by a funicular. There is a recreational area at the summit, with restaurants, a sports complex and a balcony with panoramic views. In the south, Mount Pagasarri receives hundreds of hikers every weekend since the 1870s, who seek its natural wonders. Its environment is officially protected since 2007.[119] Education[edit]

The main building of the University of Deusto.

The Basque Country has a bilingual education system, with students able to choose between four linguistic models: A, B, D, and X, which differ in the prevalence of Basque or Spanish as the spoken and written language used in classes.[120] In Bilbao, there is a prevalence of model D (where Basque is the vehicle language and Spanish is taught as a subject) in Primary School, while Compulsory Secondary Education students favour model B (where some subjects are in Basque and other in Spanish). Finally, 67% of Baccalaureate students choose model A (in which Spanish is the vehicle language and Basque is a subject).[121] English is the most widespread foreign language taught, being the option for 97% of pre-university students.[120] Higher education[edit] Two universities are seated in Bilbao. The older is the University of Deusto, founded by the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
in 1886. It took its name from the then independent municipality of Deusto, annexed to Bilbao
in 1925. It was the only higher education institute in the borough until the establishment in 1968 of the University of Bilbao, later to become the University of the Basque Country
University of the Basque Country
in 1980. This public university, which has a presence in the three provinces of the autonomous community, has its main Biscayan campus in the municipality of Leioa, although the Technical and Business faculties are based in Bilbao.[122] Since 2014, Mondragon University
Mondragon University
has also a presence in the city through the innovation and entrepreneurial centre Bilbao Innovation Factory.[123] In 2015, the offer of higher education in the city was expanded with the foundation of Dantzerti, the Higher School of Dramatic Arts and Dance of the Basque Country.[124] Transportation[edit]

Inside the airport terminal.

Bagatza station fosterito.

Bilbao Airport
Bilbao Airport
serves the city and it is the busiest terminal in the Basque Country and in the entire Northern coast, with 3.9 million passengers in 2010.[125][126] It is located 12 km (7.46 mi) north of the borough, between the municipalities of Loiu
and Sondika.[127] 15 airlines operate in the terminal, including Iberia, Lufthansa, and TAP Portugal. Top destinations include London, Frankfurt, Munich, Madrid, Paris, Malaga, and Amsterdam.[126] It opened to the public in September 1948, with a regular flight to Madrid. On 19 November 2000, a new terminal building was opened, designed by Valencian architect Santiago Calatrava. In February 2009, a project was approved to expand the current building to double its capacity. Although expected to be completed by 2014, the current financial crisis and the decrease of passenger traffic delayed it to at least 2019.[128] The borough has 13 bridges connecting opposite sides of the river. It is connected to the European road network by the AP-8 toll motorway and to the north of Spain
by the A-8 motorway and to the rest of Spain by the AP-68 toll motorway. The underground network (Metro Bilbao), opened on 11 November 1995, is used by more than 85 million passengers every year. It has 3 lines that connect both banks of the Bilbao
Metropolitan Area. There is a project under way to build a fourth line. The city has 43 Bilbobus
bus lines, 28 for normal buses, seven "micro-buses" for zones of the city that a normal bus cannot access, and eight night lines. The inner-town bus network has recently won a prize for its efficiency and quality of service. In addition, there are more than 100 BizkaiBus
bus lines, connecting Bilbao
with almost every point in Biscay
and part of Alava. The borough's main bus station is called Termibus
and is located near the San Mamés stadium. There are 7 commuter rail lines operated by three different companies: Renfe
(Spanish railway network) operates 3 Cercanías lines in metropolitan Bilbao:

C1, Bilbao-Abando–Santurtzi C2, Abando-Muskiz C3, Abando-Orduña

(Spanish Narrow Gauge Railways) operates one line:


(Basque railway network), operates three lines:

Bilbao–Lezama Atxuri–Ermua Atxuri-Bermeo.

In 2002, the new tram, EuskoTran, was inaugurated. It has one line connecting Atxuri
with Basurto. Plans are afoot to greatly expand the network over the coming decade. A Brittany Ferries
Brittany Ferries
ferry service links Santurtzi, near Bilbao, to Portsmouth
(UK). MV Cap Finistère
MV Cap Finistère
ferry departs from the port of Bilbao, 15 km (9 mi) north west of the town centre. A service operated by Acciona Trasmediterranea
served the same route from 16 May 2006 until April 2007. P&O Ferries operated this route until its withdrawal on 28 September 2010 with a ship called the Pride of Bilbao. Public transportation statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bilbao, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 35 min. 3% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 7 min, while 4% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 6.9 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[129] Culture[edit] Bilbao
has several theatres and concert halls (Teatro Arriaga, Palacio Euskalduna), cinemas, and a regular opera season offered by ABAO ( Bilbao
Association of Opera Lovers) . The Bilbao
Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1922, its current conductor Günter Neuhold being appointed in 2008. Choral music is very popular in the Basque Country and concerts are offered regularly. The Bilbao
Choral Society (Sociedad Coral de Bilbao) was founded in 1886. Like in other Spanish town, night life is long and vibrant, with clubs that offer live music (Kafe Antzokia, Bilborock). Bilbao
was briefly featured at the start of the 1999 James Bond
James Bond
film The World Is Not Enough. The Bilbao
Live Festival, first held in 2006, is an increasingly popular live music event.[130] Museums[edit] Bilbao
has more than a dozen museums covering a range of fields including art, science, and sport, which have played a central role in Bilbao
being named one of the creative cities in the world.[131] Museums include the famous Guggenheim Museum Bilbao[132] of contemporary art, designed by Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry
and opened on 19 October 1997. Another important museum is the Bilbao
Fine Arts Museum,[133] established in 1908 and housing a notable collection of Spanish and other European work. Bilbao
is also home to the Basque Museum, which showcases Basque archaeology, ethnography, and history.[134] Festivals in Bilbao[edit] Main article: Aste Nagusia

Marijaia, the symbol of the Aste Nagusia
Aste Nagusia
saluting from the Arriaga Theatre.

Semana Grande (Spanish for Big Week, Aste Nagusia
Aste Nagusia
in Basque) is Bilbao's main festival attracting over 100,000 people. It begins on the Saturday of the 3rd week of August each year, lasting 9 days and has been celebrated since 1978. People from around Spain, and increasingly from abroad, attend the celebrations. The celebrations include the strongman games, free music performances, street entertainment, bullfighting and nightly firework displays. The best views of the display are from the town's bridges. Each year, there is something different occurring, thus a festival programme (these are available all over the city) is strongly recommended. Bilbao
is also the home city of the SAIL IN Festival, a unique event in the world of sailing, attracting the very best skippers from around the world featuring movie premiers, lectures, debates, masterclasses and exhibitions in some of the most iconic venues of the city. The SAIL IN Festival takes place in march and is an event open to the public / Promo 2016 Sport[edit]

The San Mamés stadium.

The Bilbao
Arena, home venue of Bilbao

As in the rest of Spain, football is the most popular competitive sport, followed by basketball. The main football club is Athletic Club, commonly known as Athletic Bilbao
in English. It plays at the new San Mamés stadium, which opened in 2013 and seats 53,332 spectators.[135] Athletic Bilbao
Athletic Bilbao
was one of the founding members of the Spanish football league, La Liga, and has played in the Primera División (First Division)[136] ever since - winning it on eight occasions. Its red and white striped flag can be seen throughout the city. Athletic are noted for its Basque policy, with only players born in or having clear connection to the Basque Country or Navarre
being allowed to represent the club. The main basketball team is Bilbao
Basket, which plays in the Liga ACB. Their home venue is the Bilbao
Arena. In addition, Bilbao
offers many outdoor activities owing to its location by the sea among hilly countryside. Hiking
and rock climbing in the nearby mountains are very popular. Watersports, especially surfing, are practised on the beaches of nearby Sopelana
and Mundaka. Notable people from Bilbao[edit]

Joaquín Achúcarro (1932), pianist José Antonio Aguirre (1904-1960), football player,[137] nationalist politician and first lehendakari of Basque Government Joaquín Almunia
Joaquín Almunia
(1948), parliamentarian and minister of Spain
and commissioner of the European Union Sabino Arana
Sabino Arana
(1865-1903), politician and writer, Fundator of PNV Gabriel Aresti (1933-1975), promoter of poetry in euskera Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga
Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga
(1806-1826), composer, violinist and orchestra conductor Pedro Arrupe
Pedro Arrupe
(1907-1991), Jesuit priest, Superior General of the Jesuits between 1965 and 1983 Mariví Bilbao
Mariví Bilbao
(1930-2013), actress Fito Cabrales
Fito Cabrales
(1966), singer, guitarist and composer Diego de Gardoqui (1735-1798), politician and diplomat, first Spanish ambassador to the United States Álex de la Iglesia
Álex de la Iglesia
(1965), film director and scriptwriter Antonio Fernandez Saenz (1947), lawyer and human rights defender Jon Kortajarena
Jon Kortajarena
(1985), actor and international model Iñigo Lekue
Iñigo Lekue
(born 1993), professional footballer Juan Martínez de Recalde
Juan Martínez de Recalde
(c.1526-1588), admiral Rafael (Pichichi) Moreno (1892-1922), football player Anabel Ochoa (1955-2008), psychiatrist, communicologist, writer and actress of Los monólogos de la vagina Pedro Olea (1938), director, producer and film scriptwriter José Luis de Oriol (1877-1972), businessman, architect and Carlist politician Txus di Fellatio, Jesús María Hernández Gil (1970), lyricist, poet and Mägo de Oz
Mägo de Oz
folk metal drummer Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno
(1864-1936), writer and philosopher Iñaki Williams
Iñaki Williams
(born 1994), professional footballer Secundino Zuazo
Secundino Zuazo
(1887-1970), architect and urbanist Ander Herrera
Ander Herrera
(born 1989), professional footballer

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

is twinned with:

Monterrey, Mexico Buenos Aires, Argentina Rosario, Argentina[138] Medellín, Colombia Bordeaux, France[139][140] Qingdao, People's Republic of China Tbilisi, Georgia[141] Pittsburgh, United States Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain

See also[edit]

Basque portal

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas".  ^ "Tabla158". Ine.es. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 2014-06-26.  ^ "Define Bilbao". reference.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ "List of place names". National Statistics Institute. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ "Urban zones in Spain. World Gazetteer". Population-statistics.com. Retrieved 2014-06-26.  ^ "Functional area. Bilbao
Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-26.  ^ Proyecto Audes Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population by province and sex". Basque Statistics Office. 31 December 2008. Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ Quiroga 2001: 17 ^ a b De La Puerta Rueda 1998: 73 ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 169 ^ "Mission Statement". Bilbao
Guggenheim Museum. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ Iglesias, Lucía (September 1998). "Bilbao: The Guggenheim effect" (PDF). The UNESCO
Courier. UNESCO: 41. ISSN 0041-5278.  ^ a b "Europe needs to multiply 'Guggenheim effect' to stay attractive, Hübner tells World Investment Conference in La Baule". europa.eu. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2010.  ^ "Proyectos de Bilbao". elcorreo.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ "Bilbao, un ejemplo urbanístico para el mundo". Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Azkuna: "El premio no es para mí, sino para los bilbaínos"". Retrieved 7 January 2013.  ^ Tann vom Hove (8 January 2013). "Iñaki Azkuna, Mayor of Bilbao, Spain
awarded the 2012 World Mayor Prize". World Mayor. The 2012 Project. Retrieved 13 January 2013.  ^ "Bilbao, elegida Mejor Ciudad Europea 2018". Eitb. Retrieved 8 November 2017.  ^ "Euskal Onomastikaren Datutegia" (in Basque). Euskaltzaindia. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ Dueñas Beraiz, Germán (2001). "La producción de armas blancas en Bilbao
durante el Siglo XVI". Gladius XXI. Retrieved 19 July 2008.  ^ Shakespeare's military language. Books.google.co.uk. 2004. ISBN 9780826477774. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ Beascoechea 1999: 138 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bilbo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 931.  ^ Historia de Vizcaya a través de la prensa, Volume 2 ^ a b Quiroga 2001: 41 ^ Tusell 2004: 22. ^ Adeliño Ortega, Charo. "Carta Puebla" (PDF). Bilbao
700. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.  ^ GUIARD LARRAURI, Teófilo y RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO, Ángel: Historia de la Noble Villa de Bilbao. Editorial La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca, 1971. pag. 8 ^ AZPIAZU CANIVELL; Mª Dolores. euskonews.com, ed. "La Sociedad El Sitio. Más de 130 años de liberalismo bilbaíno". Archived from the original on 17 June 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2008.  ^ Asociación de Periodistas de Vizcaya. "Crónica de siete siglos" (PDF). Bilbao
700. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.  ^ a b c Sánchez-Beascoetxea 2006: 28 ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 96 ^ Tussel Gómez 2004: 19 ^ Tussel Gómez 2004: 26 ^ Beascoechea 1999: 104 ^ "Un día perfecto en Bermeo
y Gernika". Bilbaoport.es. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.  ^ Quiroga 2001: 68 ^ Sánchez-Beaskoetxea 2006: 42 ^ Sánchez-Beaskoetxea 2006: 44 ^ Montero, Manuel. "Crónica de siete siglos" (PDF). Bilbao
700. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.  ^ Quiroga 2001: 84 ^ Sánchez-Beaskoetxea 2006: 48 ^ Tussel 2004: 187 ^ a b c Quiroga 2001: 96 ^ Tussel 2004: 194 ^ "Agentes del proceso de revitalización". BM30. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ "BILBAO Ría 2000 – ¿Qué es?". Bilbao
Ría 2000. Retrieved 15 October 2008.  ^ Montero 1998: 37. ^ "Superficie, población y densidad por distritos. 2007" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2008.  ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 35 ^ a b c Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 38 ^ "Plano callejero de Bilbao" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ Orive, Emma & Rallo, Ana (October 2002). "Ríos de Bizkaia". Diputación Foral de Bizkaia: Instituto de Estudios Territoriales de Bizkaia. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2008.  ^ a b Saiz Salinas; José I. "Bioindicadores de recuperación en la Ría de Bilbao". euskonews.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 77 ^ Uriarte, Iñaki (March 2006). "La ría y el canal de Deustu" (PDF). Periódico Bilbao. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  ^ Santos Sabrás 1998: 60 ^ "Las obras de urbanización de Zorrozaurre, en Bilbao, que tendrán un coste de 291 millones de euros, comenzarán en 2010". Deia. 5 October 2007. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2007.  ^ "Vuelve la vida a la Ría de Bilbao". bajoelagua.com. 7 February 2006. Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  ^ "La regeneración natural de la ría de Bilbao
evita acometer su limpieza". El País. 22 January 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2008.  ^ "La ría recupera los bañistas". El Correo. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 65 ^ Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 70 ^ a b "Standard climate values for Bilbao". Aemet.es. Retrieved 23 July 2015.  ^ "City Council climate information". Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". AEMET. Archived from the original on 18 November 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ "Monthly Weather Averages for Bilbao
Airport". Aena. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ a b Gómez Piñeiro 1979: 96 ^ "Evolución de la Población de Bilbao
1900 – 2007" (PDF). Bilbao City Council. 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2008.  ^ a b "Población según lugar de nacimiento, sexo y edad" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ "Inmigración extranjera en Bilbao" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. 1 January 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2010.  ^ 2012 " Bilbao
Datasheet 2012" Check url= value (help).  ^ "Nature, Attributions and Organisation". Ayuntamiento de Bilbao. Retrieved 10 October 2010. [dead link] ^ "2011 Election Results". elpais.com. Retrieved 4 April 2012.  ^ "Reconocimientos y premios 2000–2010". Ayuntamiento de Bilbao. Retrieved 10 October 2010. [dead link] ^ Galarraga, Naiara (19 January 2003). "Una legislatura de gobierno nacionalista en minoría". El País
El País
(in Spanish). Edicíones El País. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  ^ Surio, Alberto (17 June 2007). "Tensión del PNV con EA por dejarle sin las alcaldías de Azpeitia y Zumaia". El Diario Vasco (in Spanish). Sociedad Vascongada de Publicaciones, S.A. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  ^ "Territorio y climatología" (PDF). Ayuntamiento de Bilbao. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ http://www.bilbao.net/nuevobilbao/jsp/bilbao/pwegb010.jsp?idioma=C&color=rojo&padre=%7CHT&tema=FBS&subtema=10&padresub=*M4&textarea=*M4[permanent dead link] ^ "bbk 100 años". Portal.bbk.es. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ a b " Bilbao
700 – Capítulo VI" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ "Historia de Bilbao". Ayuntamiento de Bilbao. Retrieved 16 October 2008. [dead link] ^ Del Moral, José (22 August 2008). "BBVA, Iberdrola
y Gamesa son las mayores empresas vascas, según Forbes". cybereuskadi.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ "Anuario Socioeconómico de Bilbao
2006" (PDF). Lan Ekintza. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ "El PIB de Bilbao
supuso en 2006 la mitad del valor total de Euskadi". Deia. 18 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ "4.2 Tasas de paro por sexo y grupo de edad". INE. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2010.  ^ "Empleo" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ Corres Abásolo; José Ángel. "El Puerto: Desde San Antón al Abra" (PDF). Bilbao
700. p. 212. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ "El Puerto abandonó ayer el Canal de Deusto
tras 38 años de actividad comercial". Deia. 8 February 2006. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2007.  ^ "Preguntas frecuentes". Puerto de Bilbao. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ " Port of Bilbao throughput stood at 31.6 million tonnes in 2009". Puerto de Bilbao. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "Estadísticas generales". Puerto de Bilbao. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ "Economical impact". Puerto de Bilbao. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ a b Diez Alday; José Antonio. "Bessemer cambió la historia" (PDF). Bilbao
700. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ Montero, Manuel (2005). p. 97. ^ a b c d El Correo, ed. (1 October 2010). " Bilbao
ya no es sólo una ciudad de paso". Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.  ^ Etxebarria, Elvira. "En posición privilegiada" (PDF). Bilbao
700. p. 236. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2008.  ^ Tusell 2004: 19 ^ Arizaga Balumburu, Beatriz & Martínez Martínez, Sergio. "El espacio público de la villa de Bilbao" (PDF). euskomedia.org. Retrieved 17 September 2008.  ^ a b c d " Bilbao
(Urbanismo, siglos XIX y XX)". euskomedia.org. Retrieved 8 October 2010.  ^ Montero 2000: 45 ^ "BOE del País Vasco". Basque Government. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.  ^ " Bilbao City Hall
Bilbao City Hall
tops 78 nominations to clinch the inaugural Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize". Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
World City Prize. Retrieved 9 December 2010.  ^ "Medalla de oro, certificado y 176.000 euros de premio". El Correo. Retrieved 9 December 2010.  ^ "Red Arches". Guggenheim Bilbao. 20 October 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "El puente de Deusto
afronta su primera reforma integral tras 70 años de servicio". Deia. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ Tyrnauer, Matt (30 June 2010). "Architecture in the Age of Gehry". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ Parr, Linda (2007). "Perfect Space" (PDF). Artists & Illustrators. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "The Alhóndiga, Culture". Alhóndiga Bilbao. Retrieved 20 October 2010. [dead link] ^ "La nueva Alhóndiga". El Correo. Archived from the original on 23 September 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2010.  ^ "Presentation". Torre Iberdrola. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "Seguirá quedando claro el estilo de Zaha Hadid". El Correo. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "Ibilbide Luzea – Gran Recorrido" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 11 November 2010.  ^ "Parques urbanos". Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 11 November 2010. [dead link] ^ "Doña Casilda Park". Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ " Etxebarria
Park". Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ "Memorial Walkway". Bilbao
City Council. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ "Pagasarri: Our closest mountain" (PDF). Bilbao
City Council. 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2010.  ^ a b Cenoz, Jasone; Jessner, Ulrike (2000). English in Europe: the acquisition of a third language. Multilingual Matters. pp. 180–181. ISBN 9781853594793.  ^ "Hezkuntza" (PDF). Bilbao
City Hall. 2009. Retrieved 5 December 2010.  ^ "Centros". UPV-EHU. Retrieved 5 December 2010.  ^ "Mondragon Unibertsitatea opens a branch in Bilbao". University of Mondragón. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.  ^ "http://www.deia.com/2015/09/24/ocio-y-cultura/cultura/dantzerti-inicia-su-andadura-oficial-buscando-retener-el-talento-en-euskadi". Deia. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  External link in title= (help) ^ "Tráfico de pasajeros, operaciones y carga en los aeropuertos españoles" (PDF). Aena. 2009. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^ a b "El tráfico de pasajeros del aeropuerto de Loiu
creció un 6,4% en 2010". deia.com. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^ Aena
(ed.). "Cómo llegar". Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.  ^ "La ampliación del aeropuerto de Bilbao
se retrasa al menos 5 años". El Correo. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^ " Bilbao
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ " Bilbao
Turismo". .bilbao.net. Retrieved 7 July 2009. [dead link] ^ "Bilbao, one of the 9 most creative cities of 2016". Retrieved 6 November 2016.  ^ "Guggenheim Museum Bilbao". Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ " Bilbao
Fine Arts Museum". Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ "Basque Museum". Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ Gunther Lades. "Football stadiums of the world – Stadiums in Spain". Fussballtempel.net. Retrieved 10 April 2011.  ^ "Spanish Primera División Table - ESPN Soccernet". Soccernet.espn.go.com. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ José Antonio Agirre Lekube at Athletic Bilbao ^ "Town Twinning Agreements". Municipalidad de Rosario - Buenos Aires 711. Retrieved 2014-10-14.  ^ " Bordeaux
- Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ " Tbilisi
Sister Cities". Tbilisi
City Hall. Tbilisi
Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Bilbao

Beascoechea Madina, José María (1999). Bilbao
en el espejo. La Bilbao
más antigua 1300/1700. Bilbao. p. 194. ISBN 84-605-7844-5.  Gómez Piñeiro, Francisco Javier; et al. (1979). Geografía de Euskal Herria: Vizcaya. San Sebastián. p. 291. ISBN 84-7407-068-6.  Montero, Manuel (2000). Construcción histórica de la villa de Bilbao. San Sebastián. p. 142. ISBN 84-7148-384-X.  Olaizola Elordi, Juanjo (2002). Bilboko tranbiak-Los tranvías de Bilbao
(PDF). Bilbao. p. 177. ISBN 84-920629-8-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2008.  Pérez Pérez, José Antonio (2001). Bilbao
y sus barrios: una mirada desde la historia. Bilbao. ISBN 978-84-88714-94-7.  Quiroga, Ramón; Marrodán, Miguel Ángel (2001). Bilbao: 700 años de historia. Abanto y Ciérvana. p. 115. ISBN 84-931494-3-8.  Sánchez-Beaskoetxea, Javier (2006). La vuelta a Bilbao
a través de sus montes y de su historia. Bilbao. p. 94. ISBN 978-84-88714-93-0.  Tusell Gómez, Javier (2004). Bilbao
a través de su Historia. Bilbao. p. 212. ISBN 84-95163-91-8.  V.A. (October–December 1998). La Ría, una razón de ser. Bilbao. p. 147.  V.A. (2000). El karst de Pagasarri. ISBN 84-7752-319-3.  García de la Torre; Francisco Javier (2009). Bilbao : arquitectura. ISBN 9788461328703. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bilbao.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bilbao.

Official website (in Basque) (in Spanish) (in English)

v t e

Municipalities in Biscay


Bilbao Barakaldo


Getxo Portugalete


Amorebieta-Etxano Arrigorriaga Basauri Bermeo Durango Erandio Ermua Galdakao Gernika-Lumo Leioa Mungia Santurtzi Sestao Sopela Valle de Trápaga-Trapagaran


Abanto y Ciérbana-Abanto Zierbena Abadiño Balmaseda Berango Elorrio Etxebarri Gorliz Güeñes Lekeitio Muskiz Ondarroa Ortuella Zalla

under 5,000

Ajangiz Alonsotegi Amoroto Arakaldo Arantzazu Artzentales Areatza Arrankudiaga Arratzu Arrieta Artea Atxondo Aulesti Bakio Barrika Bedia Berriatua Berriz Busturia Derio Dima Ea Elantxobe Ereño Errigoiti Etxebarria Forua Fruiz Galdames Gamiz-Fika Garai Gatika Gautegiz Arteaga Gizaburuaga Gordexola Ibarrangelu Igorre Ispaster Iurreta Izurtza Karrantza Kortezubi Lanestosa Larrabetzu Laukiz Lemoa Lemoiz Lezama Loiu Mallabia Mañaria Markina-Xemein Maruri-Jatabe Mendata Mendexa Meñaka Morga Mundaka Munitibar-Arbatzegi-Gerrikaitz Murueta Muxika Nabarniz Orduña-Urduña Orozko Otxandio Plentzia Sondika Sopuerta Sukarrieta Trucios-Turtzioz Ubide Ugao-Miraballes Urduliz Zaldibar Zamudio Zaratamo Zeanuri Zeberio Zierbena Ziortza-Bolibar

v t e

Capitals of provinces of Spain

A Coruña Albacete Alicante Almería Ávila Badajoz Barcelona Bilbao Burgos Cáceres Cádiz Castellón de la Plana Ciudad Real Córdoba Cuenca Donostia-San Sebastián Girona Granada Guadalajara Huelva Huesca Jaén Logroño Las Palmas León Lleida Lugo Madrid Málaga Murcia Ourense Oviedo Palencia Palma Pamplona Pontevedra Salamanca Santander Santa Cruz Segovia Seville Soria Tarragona Teruel Toledo Valencia Valladolid Vitoria-Gasteiz Zamora Zaragoza

Authority control

WorldCat Identities LCCN: n79006528 GND: 4080409-4 BNF: