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The Bikol languages
Bikol languages
are a group of Central Philippine languages
Philippine languages
spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes
Catanduanes
and the island of Burias of Masbate. There is a dialect continuum between the Visayan languages
Visayan languages
and the Bikol languages; the two together are called the Bisakol
Bisakol
languages.

Contents

1 Internal classification

1.1 Ethnologue 1.2 McFarland (1974) 1.3 Lobel (2000)

2 References

2.1 Notes 2.2 General references

3 External links

Internal classification[edit]

A bilingual magazine called Bicolandia in both Bikol and English.

Bicol Mail, the only regional newspaper in the Bicol Region.

Ethnologue[edit]

An essay written in a Bikol dialect.

The languages of Bikol grouped according to Ethnologue are:

Coastal Bikol
Coastal Bikol
(Northern)

Isarog Agta language Mount Iraya Agta language Central Bikol language

Canaman
Canaman
dialect (standard) Naga City dialect Partido dialect Tabaco-Legazpi- Sorsogon
Sorsogon
(TLS) dialect Daet dialect Virac dialect

Southern Catanduanes
Catanduanes
Bikol language

Inland Bikol
Inland Bikol
(Southern)

Mount Iriga
Iriga
Agta language Albay Bikol languages

Buhinon language Libon language West Miraya language East Miraya language

Rinconada Bikol
Rinconada Bikol
language

Highland / Sinabukid dialect

Agta variant Iriga
Iriga
variant (standard)

Lowland / Sinaranəw dialect

Baao variant Bato variant Bula-Pili variant Nabua-Balatan variant

Northern Catanduanes
Catanduanes
Bikol (Pandan Bikol)

McFarland (1974)[edit] Curtis McFarland gives the following classification for the Bikol languages.[2]

Bikol 

Bikol Proper 

 North Catanduanes 

Pandan (North Catanduanes)

 Inland Bikol 

Iriga
Iriga
(Riŋkonāda)

 Albay 

Buhi (Buhi'non)

Libon

Oas (West Miraya)

Daraga (East Miraya)

 Coastal Bikol 

Naga (Standard Bikol), Legazpi, and Partido

Virac (South Catanduanes)

San Pascual (Northern Burias Island)

Bisakol 

Northern Sorsogon

Southern Sorsogon

Masbateño

Romblomanon

Lobel (2000)[edit] While McFarland (1974) splits Bikol into 11 dialects, Lobel (2000) splits Bikol into 12 different dialects (including Partido Bikol, which McFarland does not differentiate) and 4 main branches.[3]

Northern Coastal Bikol

Central Standard – Spoken primarily in Naga City. Also recognized (and sometimes understood) in Daet, Camarines Norte
Daet, Camarines Norte
and many other areas of Camarines Sur; San Pascual, Masbate
Masbate
on Burias Island; Legazpi City and other cities along the eastern coast of Albay, southwestern coast of Catanduanes, and northeastern Sorsogon.

Daet area variant Naga City area variant Eastern Standard Bikol – Spoken in and around Legazpi City, Catanduanes
Catanduanes
southern and northern town of San Andres and Caramoran and North Sorsogon

Partido – Spoken in the Camarines Sur municipalities of Ocampo, Goa, Tigaon, Lagonoy, Sagñay, and San Jose. This dialect has a mellow intonation and is heavily influenced by Riŋkonāda. South Catanduanes
Catanduanes
– Spoken in the southern half of Catanduanes.

Virac area variant Bato area variant Baras area variant San Miguel variant (transitional to North Catanduanes)

Southern Coastal and Inland Bikol

Riŋkonāda – Spoken primarily in Iriga
Iriga
City, Baao; Bula; Balatan; Baao; and Nabua, Camarines Sur. Also in Ocampo, Buhi and Pili in Camarines Sur and in parts of Polangui, Albay.

Lowland Riŋkonāda dialect (lacks /ə/ vowel) Highland Riŋkonāda dialect (with /ə/ vowel)

Buhinon – Spoken in Buhi, Camarines Sur. Contains features from both Bikol of Polangui and Bikol of Iriga. Libon – Spoken in Libon, Albay. West Miraya – Spoken in Ligao City, Polangui, Oas, and Pio Duran, Albay. East Miraya – Spoken in Guinobatan; Camalig; Daraga; Jovellar, Albay; Donsol and Pilar, Sorsogon.

Central (Guinobatan) Far East (Camalig, Daraga) Southeast (Jovellar, Albay, Donsol, Pilar)

Northern Catanduanes

Pandan Bikol – Spoken by about 80,000 people or the northern half of Catanduanes.

Bagamanoc area variant Caramoran area variant (transitional to South Catanduanes) Gigmoto area variant (transitional to South Catanduanes) Pandan area variant Panganiban area variant Viga area variant

Bisakol

Central Sorsogon
Sorsogon
– Spoken in Sorsogon
Sorsogon
City; Castilla; Casiguran; and Juban, Sorsogon.

Castilla Sorsogon
Sorsogon
(mixed with Legazpi Bikol) Casiguran-Juban variant

Southern Sorsogon
Sorsogon
also known as Gubat language – Spoken in Gubat; Barcelona; Bulusan; Santa Magdalena; Matnog; Irosin; and Bulan, Sorsogon. Masbateño – Spoken in Masbate
Masbate
City; Mobo; Uson; Dimasalang; Palanas; Masbate; Aroroy on the island of Masbate, all of Ticao Island, and Claveria on the southern half of Burias Island.

Standard Masbateño Ticao Island
Ticao Island
variant

Some dialects of Southern Bikol have the close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/ as a reflex of Proto-Austronesian *e. However, Proto-Austronesian *e is realized as /o/ in Libon. Two Bikol dialects have unique additional consonants, namely Southern Catanduanes, which has an interdental lateral consonant /l̟/ (also transcribed as l̪͆ ),[4][5] and Buhi-non, which has the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/.[6] References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Bikol". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ McFarland, Curtis D. The Dialects of the Bikol Area. Ph.D. dissertation. New Haven: Dept. of Linguistics, Yale University, 1974. ^ Lobel, Jason William, Tria, Wilmer Joseph S., and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary. ^ http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/1772/olson.html ^ https://vagabonddrifter.wordpress.com/2012/03/17/interdental-lateral/ ^ Lobel, Jason. 2009. "Bikol". In Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, 158-161. Oxford: Elsevier.

General references[edit]

Lobel, Jason William; Tria, Wilmer Joseph S. and Carpio, Jose Maria Z. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A Study of the Bikol Language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Bikol.

Translate Bikol, an online English-Bikol and Bisakol
Bisakol
languages translator. A Bikol language database is available through the Kaipuleohone archive.

v t e

Bikol languages

Northern Coastal

Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Partido Bikol South Catanduanes
Catanduanes
Bikol

Southern Coastal-Inland

Albay Bikol Buhinon Libon Rinconada Mount Iriga
Iriga
Agta East Miraya West Miraya

Northern Catanduanes

Pandan Bikol

Bisakol

Masbatenyo Southern Sorsogon
Sorsogon
(Gubat) Central Sorsogon
Sorsogon
(Masbate)

v t e

Philippine languages

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Arta † Dicamay Agta †

Cagayan Valley

Ibanag Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang

South-Central Cordilleran

Pangasinan Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalic

Tagalog Kasiguranin

Bikol

Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Albay Bikol Mount Iriga
Iriga
Agta Rinconada Pandan Bikol

Visayan

Cebuano

Boholano

Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Karay-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Baybayanon Kabalian Bantayanon Porohanon Romblomanon Caluyanon Onhan Cuyunon Ratagnon Surigaonon Butuanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño Sorsoganon

Unclassified

Sulod Magahat Karolanos Ata †

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Subanon

Danao

Maguindanao Maranao Iranun

Manobo

Agusan Ata Manobo Matigsalug Obo Ilianen Western Bukidnon Binukid Higaonon Kagayanen Kamigin Cotabato Manobo Sarangani Tagabawa

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

† indicates extinct status ? indicates classification dispute

v t e

Languages of the Philippines

Official languages

Filipino English

Regional languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)

Luzon

Ilocos

Bolinao

Cordillera

Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

Cagayan Valley

Arta Atta Central Cagayan Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad

Central Luzon

Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Calabarzon

Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Metro Manila

Hokaglish Taglish

Mimaropa

Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan

Bicol

Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes
Catanduanes
Bikol

Visayas

Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian

Mindanao

Zamboanga Peninsula

Subanon

Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon

Caraga

Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa

Davao

Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa

Soccsksargen

B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish

History

Vietnamese

Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine

.