Bihar and Orissa
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Bihar and Orissa was a province of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
, which included the present-day Indian states of
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Bihar
,
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a in . The state shares its border with the states of to the north, to the northwest, to the west, to the south and to the east. It has an area of . It is the , and the . is the official la ...

Jharkhand
, and
Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-mos ...

Odisha
. The territories were conquered by the British in the 18th and 19th centuries, and were governed by the then
Indian Civil Service The Indian Civil Service (ICS), officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947. Its members ruled over more tha ...
of the
Bengal Presidency The Bengal Presidency, officially the Presidency of Fort William and later Bengal Province, was a subdivision of the British India, British Empire in India. At the height of its territorial jurisdiction, it covered large parts of what is now So ...
, the largest
administrative subdivision Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...
in British India. On 22 March 1912, both Bihar and Orissa divisions were separated from the Bengal Presidency as Bihar and Orissa Province. On 1 April 1936, the province was partitioned into
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...
and the
Orissa Province Orissa Province was a province of British India created in April 1936 by the Partition (politics), partitioning of the Bihar and Orissa Province. Its territory corresponds with the modern-day Odisha, State of Odisha. On 22 March 1912, both Biha ...
s.


History

In 1756 Bihar was part of
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
Subah of Mughal Empire while
Orissa Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an States and union territories of India, Indian state located in East India, Eastern India. It is the List of states and union territories of India by area, 8th largest state by area, and the Lis ...
was a different Subah. The
Treaty of Allahabad A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...
was signed on 16 August 1765, between the Mughal Emperor
Shah Alam II Shah Alam II, born as Ali Gohar or Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806) , was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II. Shah Alam II became the emperor of a crumbling Mughal empire. Shah Alam faced many invasions, ma ...

Shah Alam II
, son of the late Emperor
Alamgir II Alamgir II (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The re ...
, and Robert, Lord Clive, of the East India Company, as a result of the
Battle of Buxar The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22/23 October 1764, between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, led by Hector Munro, 8th of Novar, Hector Munro, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1764; the ...
of 22 October 1764. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India. Based on the terms of the agreement, Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa. Bihar and Orissa was separated from
Bengal Bengal (; Bengali language, Bengali: ', ) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, predominantly covering present-day Bang ...

Bengal
on 22 March 1912, with
Patna Patna ( ), historically known as ''Pataliputra'', is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Patna had a population of 2.35&n ...

Patna
as capital. A number of
princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a with the and after 1858 with the . Though the history of the pri ...
s, including the
Orissa Tributary States The Orissa Tributary States, also known as the Garhjats and as the Orissa Feudatory States, were a group of princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), ...
, were under the authority of the provincial governor.


Dyarchy (1921–1937)

The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms enacted through the
Government of India Act 1919 The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body ...
expanded the Bihar & Orissa Legislative Council from 43 to 103 members. The Legislative Council now consisted of 2 ex-officio Executive Councillors, 25 nominated members (12 official, 13 non-official) and 76 elected members (48 Non-Muslim, 18 Muslim, 1 European, 3 Commerce & Industry, 5 Landholders and 1 University constituencies). The reforms also introduced the principle of
dyarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
, whereby certain responsibilities such as agriculture, health, education, and local government, were transferred to elected ministers.


Division

On 1 April 1936, the province was divided into Bihar Province (which included present-day
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Bihar
and
Jharkhand Jharkhand (; ; meaning 'the land of forests') is a in . The state shares its border with the states of to the north, to the northwest, to the west, to the south and to the east. It has an area of . It is the , and the . is the official la ...

Jharkhand
states) and
Orissa Province Orissa Province was a province of British India created in April 1936 by the Partition (politics), partitioning of the Bihar and Orissa Province. Its territory corresponds with the modern-day Odisha, State of Odisha. On 22 March 1912, both Biha ...
, and the Odia language, Odia speaking princely states placed under the authority of the Eastern States Agency.


Governors of Bihar and Orissa

From 1912 to 1920, the province had a lieutenant governor heading the provincial government. This post was upgraded to governor in 1920, when Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha was appointed to fill it.


Lieutenant governors

* 1 April 1912 – 19 November 1915 Sir Charles Stuart Bayley (b. 1854 – d. 1935) *19 Nov 1915 – 5 April 1918 Edward Albert Gait, Sir Edward Albert Gait (1st term) (b. 1863 – d. 1950) * 5 April 1918 – 12 July 1918 Edward Vere Levinge, Sir Edward Vere Levinge (acting) (b. 1867 – d. 1954) *12 Jul 1918 – 29 December 1920 Sir Edward Albert Gait (2nd term) (s.a.)


Governors

*29 Dec 1920 – 29 November 1921 Satyendra Prasanna Sinha, 1st Baron Sinha (b. 1864 – d. 1928) *29 Nov 1921 – 12 April 1922 Havilland Le Mesurier (acting) (b. 1866 – d. 1931) *12 Apr 1922 – 7 April 1927 Henry Wheeler (governor), Sir Henry Wheeler (b. 1870 – d. 1950) * 7 April 1927 – 7 April 1932 Sir Hugh Lansdowne Stephenson (b. 1871 – d. 1950) * 7 April 1932 – 1 April 1936 Sir James David Sifton (b. 1878 – d. 1952)


See also

*Eastern States Agency


References


External links

* {{coord, 21.00, N, 86.30, E, region:IN_type:landmark_source:kolossus-svwiki, display=title History of Bihar Provinces of British India History of Odisha History of Jharkhand Bengal Presidency 1912 establishments in India