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BIBLICAL STUDIES is the academic application of a set of diverse disciplines to the study of the Hebrew and Christian scriptures , the Bible
Bible
. For its theory and methods, the field draws on disciplines ranging from archaeology , ancient history , cultural backgrounds, textual criticism , literary criticism , historical backgrounds, philology , and social science .

Many secular as well as religious universities and colleges offer courses in biblical studies, usually in departments of religious studies , theology , Judaic studies , history, or comparative literature . Biblical scholars do not necessarily have a faith commitment to the texts they study, but many do.

CONTENTS

* 1 Definition * 2 Academic societies * 3 Biblical criticism * 4 Textual criticism
Textual criticism
* 5 History
History
of the Bible
Bible
* 6 Original languages * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

DEFINITION

The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies defines the field as a set of various, and in some cases independent disciplines for the study of the collection of ancient texts generally known as the Bible. These disciplines include but are not limited to archaeology , Egyptology
Egyptology
, textual criticism , linguistics , history , sociology and theology .

ACADEMIC SOCIETIES

Several academic associations and societies promote research in the field. The largest is the Society of Biblical Literature (SBL) with around 8,500 members in more than 80 countries. It publishes many books and journals in the biblical studies, including its flagship, the Journal of Biblical Literature . SBL hosts one academic conference in North America and another international conference each year, as well as smaller regional meetings.

BIBLICAL CRITICISM

Main article: Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism is the scholarly "study and investigation of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings". Viewing biblical texts as being ordinary pieces of literature, rather than set apart from other literature, as in the traditional view, it asks when and where a particular text originated; how, why, by whom, for whom, and in what circumstances it was produced; what influences were at work in its production; what sources were used in its composition; and what message it was intended to convey. It will vary slightly depending on whether the focus is on the Hebrew Bible
Bible
, the Old Testament
Old Testament
, the letters of New Testament
New Testament
or the canonical gospels . It also plays an important role in the quest for a historical Jesus .

It also addresses the physical text, including the meaning of the words and the way in which they are used, its preservation, history and integrity. Biblical criticism draws upon a wide range of scholarly disciplines including archaeology , anthropology , folklore , linguistics, Oral Tradition studies, and historical and religious studies.

TEXTUAL CRITICISM

Main article: Textual criticism
Textual criticism

Textual criticism
Textual criticism
is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification and removal of transcription errors in texts, both manuscripts and printed books. Ancient scribes made errors or alterations when copying manuscripts by hand.Given a manuscript copy, several or many copies, but not the original document, the textual critic seeks to reconstruct the original text (the archetype or autograph) as closely as possible. The same processes can be used to attempt to reconstruct intermediate editions, or recensions, of a document's transcription history. The ultimate objective of the textual critic's work is the production of a "critical edition" containing a text most closely approximating the original.

There are three fundamental approaches to textual criticism: eclecticism, stemmatics, and copy-text editing. Techniques from the biological discipline of cladistics are currently also being used to determine the relationships between manuscripts.

The phrase "lower criticism" is used to describe the contrast between textual criticism and "higher criticism ", which is the endeavor to establish the authorship, date, and place of composition of the original text.

HISTORY OF THE BIBLE

Historical research has often dominated modern biblical studies. Biblical scholars usually try to interpret a particular text within its original historical context and use whatever information is available to reconstruct that setting. Historical criticism aims to determine the provenance , authorship, and process by which ancient texts were composed. Famous theories of historical criticism include the documentary hypothesis , which suggests that the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
was compiled from four different written sources, and different reconstructions of "the historical Jesus", which are based primarily on the differences between the canonical Gospels.

ORIGINAL LANGUAGES

Most of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh , which is the basis of the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
, was written in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, though a few chapters were written in Biblical Aramaic . The New Testament
New Testament
was written in Koine Greek , with possible Aramaic undertones , as was the first translation of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
known as the Septuagint or Greek Old Testament. Therefore, Hebrew, Greek and sometimes Aramaic continue to be taught in most universities, colleges and seminaries with strong programs in biblical studies.

SEE ALSO

* The Bible
Bible
and history * Biblical hermeneutics * Chronology of the Bible
Bible

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies by J. W. Rogerson and Judith M. Lieu (May 18, 2006) ISBN 0199254257 page xvii * ^ Introduction to Biblical Studies, Second Edition by Steve Moyise (Oct 27, 2004) ISBN 0567083977 pages 11–12 * ^ Harper\'s Bible
Bible
Dictionary , 1985

FURTHER READING

* The Cambridge History
History
of the Bible, 3 vols., eds. P. R. Ackroyd, C. F. Evans, S. L. Greenslade and G. W. H. Lampe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963, 1969, 1970. * Frei, Hans. The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative: A Study in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Hermeneutics. New Haven: Yale, 1974. * Greenspahn, Frederick E. "Biblical Scholars, Medieval and Modern," in J. Neusner et al. (eds.), Judaic Perspectives on Ancient Israel (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987), pp. 245–258. * Harrison, Peter. The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2001. * Harrisville, Roy A. & Walter Sundberg. The Bible
Bible
in Modern Culture: Baruch Spinoza to Brevard Childs. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001. * Knight, Douglas A. and Gene M. Tucker, eds. The Hebrew Bible
Bible
and Its Modern Interpreters. Philadelphia: Fortress/Chico: Scholars Press, 1985. * Nicholson, Ernest W. The Pentateuch
Pentateuch
in the Twentieth Century: The Legacy of Julius Wellhausen. Oxford: Clarendon, 1998. * Noll, Mark A. Between Faith
Faith
and Criticism: Evangelicals, Scholarship, and the Bible
Bible
in America. Harper ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

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Christian theology

SYSTEMATIC

SCRIPTURE

* Inspiration * Preservation * Canonics * Biblical studies * Exegesis
Exegesis
* Law and Gospel * Hermeneutics

GOD

* Attributes * Patriology * Christology * Pneumatology * Theocentricism * Theology proper * Immutability * Impassibility

TRINITY

* Father * Son ( Hypostatic union * Incarnation * Jesus * Logos * Christocentric ) * Holy Spirit

COSMOLOGY

* Creation * Angels * Angelic hierarchy * Humanity * Fallen angels * Satan * Theodicy
Theodicy

SOTERIOLOGY

* Absolution
Absolution
* Adoption * Assurance * Atonement * Baptism
Baptism
* Calling * Conversion * Election * Eternal life * Faith
Faith
* Forgiveness * Glorification * Grace * Irresistible grace * Imputation * Justification * Lapsarianism * Means of grace
Means of grace
* Monergism
Monergism
* Mortification * Ordo salutis * Perseverance * Predestination * Recapitulation * Reconciliation * Redemption * Regeneration * Repentance * Resurrection * Salvation * Sanctification * Synergism * Theosis * Union with Christ

HAMARTIOLOGY

* Adam * Anthropology
Anthropology
* The Fall * Incurvatus in se * Original sin * Sin * Theodicy
Theodicy
* Total depravity

ECCLESIOLOGY

* Sacrament
Sacrament

* Eucharist

* Missiology * Polity (Congregational * Episcopal * Presbyterian ) * Synod * Conciliarity

ESCHATOLOGY

* Summary of differences * Historicism * Idealism * Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
* Futurism * Preterism * Millenarianism (Pre- / Post- / A-millennialism ) * Adventism * Antichrist
Antichrist
* Apocalypse
Apocalypse
* Apocalypticism * Covenant / New Covenant theology * End times * Heaven
Heaven
* Hell * Last Judgment * Millennialism * New Jerusalem
New Jerusalem
* Rapture
Rapture
* Second Coming * Soul sleep * Tribulation * War in Heaven
Heaven

HISTORICAL

* History
History
of Christian theology * Calvinist–Arminian debate * Apostolic Age * Canon * Patristics * Caesaropapism
Caesaropapism
* Semipelagianism * Iconoclasm * Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* Thomism
Thomism
* Conciliarism
Conciliarism
* Renaissance * Reformation
Reformation
* Counter- Reformation
Reformation
* Pietism
Pietism
* Great Awakenings

PRACTICAL

* Apologetics * Biblical law * Education * Ethics * Homiletics * Liturgics * Missiology * Moral * Pastoral * Polemics * Political

BY TRADITION

EASTERN ORTHODOX

* Apophatic theology
Apophatic theology
* Cataphatic theology * Economy * Essence–energies * Filioque
Filioque
* Gnomic will * Metousiosis
Metousiosis
* Phronema
Phronema
* Phyletism * Proskynesis * Sobornost * Symphonia * Tabor Light
Tabor Light
* Theoria
Theoria
* Theosis * Theotokos
Theotokos

ROMAN CATHOLIC

* Absolution
Absolution
* Apostolic succession * Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
* Traditionalism * Ecumenical Councils * Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
* Indulgences * Infant baptism * Josephology * Liturgy * Mariology * Mass * Modernism * Natural law
Natural law
* Papal infallibility * Priesthood * Purgatory * Quartodecimanism * Real presence * Sacerdotalism * Sacrament
Sacrament
* Sainthood * Thomism
Thomism
* Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
* Ultramontanism * Veneration

PROTESTANT

GENERAL

* Adiaphora * Assurance * Believer\'s baptism * Protestant ecclesiology ( Branch theory ) * Priesthood of all believers

ANGLICAN

* Anglo-Catholicism * Evangelical Catholic
Evangelical Catholic
* High church
High church
* Latitudinarian * Low church

ARMINIAN / WESLEYAN

* Christian perfection
Christian perfection
* Conditional preservation of the saints * Imparted righteousness * Lordship salvation * Prevenient grace

LUTHERAN

* Two kingdoms * Loci Theologici * Theology of the Cross * Confessional Lutheranism * Haugean * Lutheran orthodoxy * Lutheran scholasticism * Neo-Lutheranism
Neo-Lutheranism

REFORMED (CALVINIST)

* Christian Reconstructionism * Covenant theology * Free Grace * Monergism
Monergism
* Predestination * Five solae
Five solae
( Sola fide
Sola fide
* Sola gratia * Sola scriptura * Soli Deo gloria * Solus Christus ) * Supersessionism * Total depravity * TULIP
TULIP

PENTECOSTALIST

* Baptism
Baptism
with the Holy Spirit * Faith
Faith
healing * Fivefold ministry * Glossolalia
Glossolalia

OTHER

* Adventism * Anabaptism * Dispensationalism
Dispensationalism
* Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
* Fundamentalism * Messianic Judaism * Pietism
Pietism
* Prosperity theology * Restorationism
Restorationism

* Outline of Christian theology * CHRISTIANITY PORTAL

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The Bible
Bible
and history

GENERAL STUDIES

* Biblical criticism * Biblical studies * History
History
of ancient Israel and Judah * Quest for the historical Jesus * Jesus in comparative mythology

HISTORICITY

* Biblical archaeology * Historicity of Jesus * Historicity of the Bible
Bible
* Historical reliability of the Gospels
Historical reliability of the Gospels
* List of artifacts in biblical archaeology * List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources * List of burial places of biblical figures * List of Hebrew Bible
Bible
manuscripts * List of New Testament
New Testament
papyri * List of New Testament
New Testament
uncials * Historical Jesus

CRITICISM

* Criticism of the Bible
Bible
* Christ myth theory

BIBLE PORTAL

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