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The Bible Belt
Bible Belt
is an informal region in the southeastern and south-central United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a strong role in society and politics, and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. During the colonial period (1607–1776), the South was a stronghold of the Anglican church. Its transition to a stronghold of non-Anglican Protestantism occurred gradually over the next century as a series of religious revival movements, many associated with the Baptist denomination, gained great popularity in the region.[1] The region is usually contrasted with the religiously diverse Midwest and Great Lakes, the Mormon Corridor
Mormon Corridor
in Utah and southern Idaho, and the relatively secular Western and Northeastern United States. Whereas the state with the highest percentage of residents identifying as non-religious is the New England
New England
state of Vermont
Vermont
at 37%, in the Bible Belt state of Alabama
Alabama
it is just 12%.[2] Tennessee
Tennessee
has the highest proportion of Evangelical Protestants, at 52%.[3] The earliest known usage of the term "Bible Belt" was by American journalist and social commentator H. L. Mencken, who in 1924 wrote in the Chicago Daily Tribune: "The old game, I suspect, is beginning to play out in the Bible Belt."[4] Mencken claimed the term as his invention in 1927.[5]

Contents

1 Geography 2 Buckle 3 Political and cultural context 4 Outside the United States

4.1 Australia 4.2 Canada 4.3 Sweden 4.4 Finland 4.5 Germany 4.6 Norway 4.7 Netherlands 4.8 New Zealand 4.9 Slovakia 4.10 Soviet Union 4.11 Ireland

5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading

Geography[edit] The name "Bible Belt" has been applied historically to the South and parts of the Midwest, but is more commonly identified with the South. In a 1961 study, Wilbur Zelinsky delineated the region as the area in which Protestant denominations, especially Southern Baptist, Methodist, and evangelical, are the predominant religious affiliation. The region thus defined included most of the Southern United States, including most of Texas
Texas
and Oklahoma, and in the states south of the Ohio
Ohio
River, and extending east to include central West Virginia and Virginia, from the Rappahannock River
Rappahannock River
southward. In addition, the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
covers most of Missouri
Missouri
and Kentucky
Kentucky
and southern parts of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. On the other hand, areas in the South which are not considered part of the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
include heavily Catholic Southern Louisiana, central and southern Florida, which have been settled mainly by immigrants and Americans from elsewhere in the country, and overwhelmingly Hispanic South Texas. A 1978 study by Charles Heatwole identified the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
as the region dominated by 24 fundamentalist Protestant denominations, corresponding to essentially the same area mapped by Zelinsky.[6] According to Stephen W. Tweedie, an Associate Professor Emeritus in the Department of Geography at Oklahoma
Oklahoma
State University, the Bible Belt is now viewed in terms of numerical concentration of the audience for religious television.[7] He finds two belts: one more eastern that stretches from Florida, (excluding Miami, Tampa
Tampa
and South Florida), through Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, North and South Carolina, and into Southern Virginia ; and another that concentrated in Texas
Texas
(excluding El Paso, and South Texas), Arkansas, Louisiana, (excluding New Orleans
New Orleans
and Acadiana), Oklahoma, Missouri (excluding St. Louis), Kansas, and Mississippi.[8] "[H]is research also broke the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
into two core regions, a western region and an eastern region. Tweedie's western Bible Belt
Bible Belt
was focused on a core that extended from Little Rock, Arkansas
Arkansas
to Tulsa, Oklahoma. His eastern Bible Belt
Bible Belt
was focused on a core that included the major population centers of Virginia and North Carolina.[9]

Bible-minded cities map

A study was commissioned by the American Bible Society
American Bible Society
to survey the importance of the Bible in the metropolitan areas of the United States. The report was based on 42,855 interviews conducted between 2005 and 2012. It determined the 10 most "Bible-minded" cities were Knoxville, Tennessee; Shreveport, Louisiana; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Birmingham, Alabama; Jackson, Mississippi; Springfield, Missouri; Charlotte, North Carolina;, Lynchburg, Virginia; Huntsville-Decatur, Alabama; and Charleston, West Virginia.[10] In addition to the South, there is a smaller Bible Belt
Bible Belt
in West Michigan, centered around the heavily Dutch-influenced cities of Holland and Grand Rapids. Christian colleges in that region include Calvin College, Hope College, Cornerstone University, Grace Bible College, and Kuyper College. West Michigan
West Michigan
is generally fiscally and socially conservative. Buckle[edit]

A billboard near the center of Alabama

Several locations are occasionally referred to as "the Buckle of the Bible Belt":

Abilene, Texas
Texas
a city of 117,000, is home to three Christian universities: the Baptist affiliated Hardin-Simmons University, the Church of Christ's Abilene Christian University, and Methodist founded McMurry University.[11] Nashville, Tennessee, sometimes referred to as "the Protestant Vatican",[12] has over 700 churches,[13] several seminaries, and a number of Christian schools, colleges and universities, including Belmont University, Trevecca Nazarene University, Lipscomb University, Free Will Baptist Bible College
Free Will Baptist Bible College
and American Baptist College. Nashville is the seat of the National Baptist Convention, USA, the National Association of Free Will Baptists, the Gideons International, the Gospel Music Association, and Thomas Nelson, the world's largest producer of Bibles.[14]

Political and cultural context[edit] There has been research that links evangelical Protestantism with social conservatism.[15] In 1950, President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
told Catholic leaders he wanted to send an ambassador to the Vatican. Truman said the leading Democrats in Congress approved, but they warned him, "it would defeat Democratic Senators and Congressmen in the Bible Belt."[16] In presidential elections, the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
states of Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas
Texas
have voted for the Republican candidate in all elections since 1980; Oklahoma
Oklahoma
has supported the Republican presidential candidate in every election since 1968. Other Bible Belt
Bible Belt
states have voted for the Republican presidential candidate in the majority of elections since 1980, but have gone to the Democratic candidate either once or twice since then. However, with the exception of Mississippi, historical geographer Barry Vann shows that counties in the upland areas of the Appalachians and the Ozarks have a more conservative voting pattern than the counties located in the coastal plains.[17] Outside the United States[edit] Australia[edit] In Australia, the term "Bible Belt" has been used to refer to areas within individual cities, which have a high concentration of Christians, usually centralised around a megachurch, for example:[18]

the north-western suburbs of Sydney
Sydney
focusing on The Hills District, where Hillsong Church
Hillsong Church
is located the north-eastern suburbs of Adelaide
Adelaide
focusing on Paradise, Modbury and Golden Grove, where Influencers Church is located the south-eastern region of Queensland
Queensland
comprising the towns of Laidley, Gatton and Toowoomba. the Brisbane southern suburbs of Mansfield, Springwood, Carindale and Mount Gravatt. Garden City Assembly of God church, Citipointe church, Clark Taylor's Worship Centre, and Brisbane Hillsong are notable mega-churches in this area.

Toowoomba
Toowoomba
city in Queensland
Queensland
has long been regarded as fertile ground for Christian fundamentalist
Christian fundamentalist
religio-political right-wing movements [19] that adhere to biblical literalism, particularly those within the Pentecostal and charismatic stream of Christianity. This was exemplified by the highly publicised rise and subsequent fall of Howard Carter[20] and the Logos Foundation in the 1980s. The Logos Foundation and other similar movements that have followed it, operate in a controlling, authoritarian and almost cultish manner, contributing to their notoriety.[19] Other similarly conservative Pentecostal churches within the city have, since that time, banded together into a loose federation known as the Toowoomba
Toowoomba
Christian Leaders' Network.[21] (note - most traditional church denominations have their own, separate ecumenical group) This network, views itself as having a divine mission to 'take the city for the Lord' and as such, endorses elements of religious right-wing political advocacy,[22] such as the Australian Christian Lobby(ACL). ACL's current managing director who was raised in the Logos Foundation and is a former Toowoomba
Toowoomba
City councilor, is Lyle Shelton. These church groups are strongly associated with North American trends such as the New Apostolic Reformation, Dominion theology, Five-fold ministry thinking, Kingdom Now theology and revivalism. They support the achievement of a type of theocratic society where conservative and literal interpretations of the bible are the dominant drivers of government, education, the Arts, the media and entertainment. Churches involved in this group currently include the successor organization to the Logos Foundation, the Toowoomba
Toowoomba
City Church, along with the Range Christian Fellowship, Spring Street Assembly of God, Christian Outreach Centre, Hume Ridge Church of Christ, Revival Ministries of Australia
Australia
Shiloh Centre, the Edge Christian Centre and many others. Canada[edit] The province of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
has been referred to as Canada's Bible Belt with a significant Anabaptist
Anabaptist
population and other Protestants.[23] Sweden[edit] The area normally called the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
of Sweden is centered on Jönköping
Jönköping
in southern Sweden and contains numerous free churches. There are also numerous conservative Lutheran
Lutheran
Laestadians in the Torne valley area in the far north of the country. Finland[edit] Conservative Laestadianism, a Finnish Lutheran
Lutheran
revival, is widespread in northern ( Northern Ostrobothnia
Northern Ostrobothnia
and Lapland (Finland)) and central parts (Northern Savonia) of Finland.[24] Germany[edit] Rural portions of Bavaria, approximately stretching from Franconia into Württemberg, constitute Germany's Bible Belt
Bible Belt
with numerous Lutherans
Lutherans
and Reformed
Reformed
Protestants. An area in Erzgebirge
Erzgebirge
in Saxony
Saxony
has been described also as the "Saxon Bible Belt" with a notable evangelical Protestant/Christian fundamentalist/free church community, as well as some conservative Lutheran
Lutheran
parishes that are opposed to homosexual marriage. Nevertheless, the Evangelical- Lutheran
Lutheran
Church of Saxony
Saxony
approved church resolutions regarding the issue regardless of opinions within those parishes.[25][26][27][28][29] Norway[edit] The Bible Belt
Bible Belt
of Norway is located mainly in the western part of the country and contains numerous devout Lutherans. Netherlands[edit] The Bible Belt
Bible Belt
of the Netherlands stretches from Zeeland, through the West- Betuwe
Betuwe
and Veluwe, to the northern parts of the province Overijssel. In this region, orthodox Calvinists prevail. New Zealand[edit] In New Zealand, Mount Roskill, Auckland, contains the highest number of churches per capita in the country, and is the home of several Christian political candidates.[30] The electorate was one of the last in the country to go "wet", in 1999, having formerly been a dry area where the selling of alcohol was prohibited.[31] At the 2013 New Zealand
New Zealand
census, the Mangere–Otahuhu local board area of Auckland had the highest concentration of Christians in New Zealand, with 67.7 percent of the local board's 71,000 residents identifying as so.[32] Slovakia[edit] In the eastern and northern parts of Slovakia, Christians comprise a majority, in some towns and villages almost 100%.[33] Soviet Union[edit] Before its independence, Soviet Ukraine was known as the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
of the Soviet Union with a significant proportion of Baptists.[34] Ireland[edit] In Northern Ireland, the area in County Antrim
County Antrim
stretching from roughly Ballymoney
Ballymoney
to Larne
Larne
and centred in the area of Ballymena
Ballymena
is often referred to as a Bible Belt. This is because the area is heavily Protestant with a large evangelical community. From 1970 to 2010, the MP for North Antrim was Ian Paisley, a Free Presbyterian minister well known for his theological fundamentalism. The town of Ballymena, the largest town in the constituency, is often referred to as the "buckle" of the Bible Belt. In the Republic of Ireland, County Wicklow
County Wicklow
and western parts of County Cork
County Cork
have the highest population of Protestants.[35] See also[edit]

United States portal Christianity portal

Born again (Christianity) Christian right Great Awakening List of belt regions of the United States List of U.S. states by religiosity Southern Baptist Convention Quran Belt Jesusland map

References[edit]

^ Murray, William H. Jeynes ; foreword by William J. (2009). A call for character education and prayer in the schools. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger. pp. 122–123. ISBN 031335104X. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "The Unaffiliated". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. May 11, 2015.  ^ "Adults in Tennessee". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. May 11, 2015.  ^ Fred R. Shapiro (ed.). Yale Book
Book
of Quotations. Yale University Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2. ^ H. L. Mencken
H. L. Mencken
letter to Charles Green Shaw, 1927 Dec. 2 . Charles Green Shaw papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. See also, http://www.lettersofnote.com/2011/06/human-race-is-incurably-idiotic.html ^ Barry Vann (2008), In search of Ulster-Scots land: the birth and geotheological imagings of a transatlantic people, 1603-1703, Univ of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press, ISBN 1-57003-708-6, ISBN 978-1-57003-708-5. Pages 138-140. ^ Carney, edited by George O. (1995). Fast food, stock cars and rock'n' roll : place and space in American pop culture. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 131. ISBN 9780847680801. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Tweedie, S.W. (1978) Viewing the Bible Belt. Journal of Popular Culture 11; 865-76 ^ Rosenberg, Matt. "The Bible Belt
Bible Belt
Extends Throughout the American South (And Perhaps Beyond?)". About.com. About Education. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "America's Most and Least Bible-Minded Cities" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2018.  ^ "Encyclopedia of the Great Plains
Great Plains
- ABILENE, TEXAS". unl.edu. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ Guier, Cindy Stooksbury; Finch, Jackie Sheckler (2007). Insiders' Guide to Nashville (6th ed.). pp. 13, 35, 396.  ^ "Nashville Area Churches". NashCity.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30.  ^ Miller, Rachel L (2008-04-14). "Nashville: Sophisticated Southern City with a Country Edge". RoadandTravel.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30.  ^ http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/8/0/6/p68068_index.html ^ Amanda Smith, Hostage of Fortune (2001) p. 604 ^ Barry Vann, In Search of Ulster Scots Land; Barry Vann, "Natural Liberty in the Bible Belt," Nomocracy in Politics (February, 2014), http://nomocracyinpolitics.com/2014/02/03/natural-liberty-in-the-bible-belt-an-explanation-of-conservative-voting-patterns-in-southern-appalachia-by-barry-a-vann/ ^ " Bible Belt
Bible Belt
wants to tighten a grip on power". The Age. Melbourne. 15 September 2004.  ^ a b https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:8027/HARRISON_eprint_.pdf ^ http://www.lifemessenger.org/html/AboutUs/TheMessenger/TheStory.php[permanent dead link] ^ http://www.onechurch.org.au/ ^ https://www.facebook.com/Christian-Leaders-Network-Toowoomba-199607780060750/ ^ Wells, Kristopher. "Progressive Albertans are challenging province's Bible Belt
Bible Belt
stereotypes". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 August 2017.  ^ "FENNIA 2002". www.helsinki.fi. Retrieved 3 February 2018.  ^ Erklärung 144 sächsischer Kirchgemeinden zum familiären Zusammenleben im Pfarrhaus ^ Evangelikale in Sachsen – Ein Bericht. Der sächsische Biblebelt. In: Website von Weiterdenken – Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Sachsen ^ Jennifer Stange: Evangelikale in Sachsen, Dresden 2014 ^ Evlks.de:„Segnung von Paaren in Eingetragener Lebenspartnerschaft“ in Sachsen möglich – Beschluss der Kirchenleitung vom 27. Oktober 2016 Archived 2016-10-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Evangelisch.de: Sächsische Kirche ermöglicht Segnung homosexueller Paare im Gottesdienst ^ "New Zealand". emigratenz.org. Retrieved 27 March 2015.  ^ "Tawa ditches prohibition a century after banning alcohol - 150 years of news". Stuff. Retrieved 3 February 2018.  ^ "Table 33: Religious affiliation (total responses) by territorial authority area, Auckland local board area, and sex – 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity". Statistics New Zealand. 15 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2015.  ^ Statisticky urad SR (2001). "Religious statistics in Slovakia" (PDF). None. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-22.  ^ Wanne, Catherine (2006). "EVANGELICALISM AND THE RESURGENCE OF RELIGION IN UKRAINE" (PDF). The National Council for Eurasian and East European Research.  ^ Gonzo, Belfast (29 July 2005). "More news from the Bible Belt…". 

Further reading[edit]

Balmer, Randall H. (2002). Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Westminster John Knox Press. Christine Leigh H, (1997), Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt. Knopf. Denman, Stan. (2004). Political Playing for the Soul of the American South: Theater and the Maintenance of Cultural Hegemony in the American Bible Belt. Southern Quarterly, 42(3), 64-72. Hayes, Turner Elizabeth. (1997). Women, Culture and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston 1880-1920, Oxford University Press. Heatwole, Charles A. (1978). The Bible Belt; a problem of regional definition. Journal of Geography, 77, 50-55. Hill, Samuel S., Lippy, Charles H. & Wilson, Charles R. (2005). Encyclopedia Of Religion In The South. Mercer University Press. Lippy, Charles, H. (1993). Religion in South Carolina. University of South Carolina. Marsden, George M. (1982). Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925. Oxford University Press. Moran, Jeffrey P. (2004). The Scopes Trial and Southern Fundamentalism in Black and White: Race, Region, and Religion. Journal of Southern History, 70(1), 95. Park, Chris C. (1994). Sacred Worlds: An Introduction to Geography and Religion. Routledge. Pettersson, Thorleif & Hamberg, Eva M. (1997). Denominational Pluralism and Church Membership in Contemporary Sweden. Journal of Empirical Theology, 10(2), 61-78. Sparks, Randy J. (2001). Religion in Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi
Mississippi
for the Mississippi
Mississippi
Historical Society. Stacey, Williams A. & Shupe, Anson. (1984). Religious Values and Religiosity in the Textbook Adoption Controversy in Texas, 1981. Review of Religious Research. 25(4), 321-333. Tweedie, Stephen W. (1978). Viewing the Bible Belt. THE Journal of Popular Culture, 11(4), 865-876.

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Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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"Belt" regions of the United States

Banana Bible Bison Black

Alabama

Borscht Corn Cotton Frost Fruit Jell-O Lead Pine Rice Rust Salt Snow Str

.