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The Bible
Bible
has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic
Aramaic
and Greek. As of October 2017[update] the full Bible
Bible
has been translated into 670 languages, the New Testament
New Testament
alone into 1521 languages and Bible portions or stories into 1121 other languages. Thus at least some portion of the Bible
Bible
has been translated into 3,312 languages.[1] The Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
was dominant in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
through the Middle Ages. Since then, the Bible
Bible
has been translated into many more languages. English Bible
Bible
translations also have a rich and varied history of more than a millennium.

Contents

1 Original text

1.1 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible 1.2 New Testament

2 History of Bible
Bible
translations

2.1 Ancient translations of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

2.1.1 Aramaic
Aramaic
Targums 2.1.2 Greek Septuagint

2.2 Early translations in Late Antiquity 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Reformation
Reformation
and Early Modern period

3 Modern translation efforts 4 Differences in Bible
Bible
translations

4.1 Dynamic or formal translation policy 4.2 Doctrinal differences and translation policy

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Original text[edit] Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] The Tanakh
Tanakh
was mainly written in Biblical Hebrew, with some portions (notably in Daniel and Ezra) in Biblical Aramaic. From the 6th century to the 10th century, Jewish scholars, today known as Masoretes, compared the text of all known biblical manuscripts in an effort to create a unified, standardized text. A series of highly similar texts eventually emerged, and any of these texts are known as Masoretic Texts (MT). The Masoretes also added vowel points (called niqqud) to the text, since the original text only contained consonant letters. This sometimes required the selection of an interpretation, since some words differ only in their vowels—their meaning can vary in accordance with the vowels chosen. In antiquity, variant Hebrew readings existed, some of which have survived in the Samaritan Pentateuch
Pentateuch
and other ancient fragments, as well as being attested in ancient versions in other languages.[2] New Testament[edit] The New Testament
New Testament
was written in Koine Greek.[3] The discovery of older manuscripts, which belong to the Alexandrian text-type, including the 4th century Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
and Codex Sinaiticus, led scholars to revise their view about the original Greek text. Attempts to reconstruct the original text are called critical editions. Karl Lachmann
Karl Lachmann
based his critical edition of 1831 on manuscripts dating from the 4th century and earlier, to argue that the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus
must be corrected according to these earlier texts. The autographs, the Greek manuscripts written by the original authors, have not survived. Scholars surmise the original Greek text from the versions that do survive. The three main textual traditions of the Greek New Testament
New Testament
are sometimes called the Alexandrian text-type (generally minimalist), the Byzantine text-type
Byzantine text-type
(generally maximalist), and the Western text-type (occasionally wild[clarification needed]). Together they comprise most of the ancient manuscripts. Most variants among the manuscripts are minor, such as alternative spelling, alternative word order, the presence or absence of an optional definite article ("the"), and so on. Occasionally, a major variant happens when a portion of a text was missing. Examples of major variants are the endings of Mark, the Pericope Adulteræ, the Comma Johanneum, and the Western version of Acts. Early manuscripts of the letters of Paul and other New Testament writings show no punctuation whatsoever.[4][5] The punctuation was added later by other editors, according to their own understanding of the text. History of Bible
Bible
translations[edit] Ancient translations of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] Aramaic
Aramaic
Targums[edit] Main article: Targums Some of the first translations of the Jewish Torah began during the first exile in Babylonia, when Aramaic
Aramaic
became the lingua franca of the Jews. With most people speaking only Aramaic
Aramaic
and not understanding Hebrew, the Targums
Targums
were created to allow the common person to understand the Torah as it was read in ancient synagogues. Greek Septuagint[edit] Main article: Septuagint By the 3rd century BC, Alexandria
Alexandria
had become the center of Hellenistic Judaism, and during the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC translators compiled in Egypt a Koine Greek
Koine Greek
version of the Hebrew
Hebrew
scriptures in several stages (completing the task by 132 BC). The Talmud
Talmud
ascribes the translation effort to Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
(r. 285–246 BC), who allegedly hired 72 Jewish scholars for the purpose, for which reason the translation is commonly known as the Septuagint
Septuagint
(from the Latin septuaginta, "seventy"), a name which it gained in "the time of Augustine of Hippo" (354–430 AD).[6][7] The Septuagint
Septuagint
(LXX), the very first translation of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
into Greek, later became the accepted text of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in the Christian
Christian
church and the basis of its canon. Jerome
Jerome
based his Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
translation on the Hebrew
Hebrew
for those books of the Bible
Bible
preserved in the Jewish canon (as reflected in the Masoretic text), and on the Greek text for the deuterocanonical books. The translation now known as the Septuagint
Septuagint
was widely used by Greek-speaking Jews, and later by Christians.[8] It differs somewhat from the later standardized Hebrew
Hebrew
(Masoretic Text). This translation was promoted[by whom?] by way of a legend (primarily recorded as the Letter of Aristeas) that seventy (or in some sources, seventy-two) separate translators all produced identical texts; supposedly proving its accuracy.[9] Versions of the Septuagint
Septuagint
contain several passages and whole books not included in the Masoretic texts of the Tanakh. In some cases these additions were originally composed in Greek, while in other cases they are translations of Hebrew
Hebrew
books or of Hebrew
Hebrew
variants not present in the Masoretic texts. Recent discoveries have shown that more of the Septuagint
Septuagint
additions have a Hebrew
Hebrew
origin than previously thought. While there are no complete surviving manuscripts of the Hebrew
Hebrew
texts on which the Septuagint
Septuagint
was based, many[quantify] scholars believe that they represent a different textual tradition ("Vorlage") from the one that became the basis for the Masoretic texts.[2] Early translations in Late Antiquity[edit] Origen's Hexapla
Hexapla
placed side by side six versions of the Old Testament, including the 2nd century Greek translations of Aquila of Sinope and Symmachus the Ebionite. His eclectic recension of the Septuagint
Septuagint
had a significant influence on the Old Testament
Old Testament
text in several important manuscripts. The canonical Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
was formally established by Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem
Cyril of Jerusalem
in 350 (although it had been generally accepted by the church previously), confirmed by the Council of Laodicea in 363 (both lacked the book of Revelation), and later established by Athanasius
Athanasius
of Alexandria
Alexandria
in 367 (with Revelation
Revelation
added), and Jerome's Vulgate
Vulgate
Latin
Latin
translation dates to between AD 382 and 420. Latin
Latin
translations predating Jerome
Jerome
are collectively known as Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
texts. Christian
Christian
translations also tend to be based upon the Hebrew, though some denominations prefer the Septuagint
Septuagint
(or may cite variant readings from both). Bible
Bible
translations incorporating modern textual criticism usually begin with the masoretic text, but also take into account possible variants from all available ancient versions. The received text of the Christian
Christian
New Testament
New Testament
is in Koine Greek,[a] and nearly all translations are based upon the Greek text.[citation needed] Jerome
Jerome
began by revising the earlier Latin
Latin
translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew
Hebrew
wherever he could instead of the Septuagint. The Bible
Bible
was translated into Gothic in the 4th century by Ulfilas. In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob
Saint Mesrob
translated the Bible
Bible
using the Armenian alphabet invented by him. Also dating from the same period are the Syriac, Coptic, Old Nubian, Ethiopic and Georgian translations.[citation needed] There are also several ancient translations, most important of which are in the Syriac dialect of Aramaic
Aramaic
(including the Peshitta
Peshitta
and the Diatessaron
Diatessaron
gospel harmony), in the Ethiopian language of Ge'ez, and in Latin
Latin
(both the Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
and the Vulgate). In 331, the Emperor Constantine commissioned Eusebius
Eusebius
to deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius
Athanasius
(Apol. Const. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus
Codex Vaticanus
Graecus 1209, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus
Codex Alexandrinus
are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta, these are the earliest extant Christian
Christian
Bibles.[10] Middle Ages[edit] Main article: Bible
Bible
translations in the Middle Ages

The Codex Gigas
Codex Gigas
from the 13th century, held at the Royal Library in Sweden.

When ancient scribes copied earlier books, they wrote notes on the margins of the page (marginal glosses) to correct their text—especially if a scribe accidentally omitted a word or line—and to comment about the text. When later scribes were copying the copy, they were sometimes uncertain if a note was intended to be included as part of the text. See textual criticism. Over time, different regions evolved different versions, each with its own assemblage of omissions, additions, and variants (mostly in orthography). The earliest surviving complete manuscript of the entire Bible
Bible
in Latin
Latin
is the Codex Amiatinus, a Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
edition produced in 8th century England at the double monastery of Wearmouth-Jarrow. During the Middle Ages, translation, particularly of the Old Testament was discouraged. Nevertheless, there are some fragmentary Old English Bible
Bible
translations, notably a lost translation of the Gospel
Gospel
of John into Old English by the Venerable Bede, which he is said to have prepared shortly before his death around the year 735. An Old High German version of the gospel of Matthew dates to 748. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in ca. 800 charged Alcuin
Alcuin
with a revision of the Latin
Latin
Vulgate. The translation into Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
was started in 863 by Cyril and Methodius. Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
had a number of passages of the Bible
Bible
circulated in the vernacular in around 900. These included passages from the Ten Commandments and the Pentateuch, which he prefixed to a code of laws he promulgated around this time. In approximately 990, a full and freestanding version of the four Gospels in idiomatic Old English appeared, in the West Saxon dialect; these are called the Wessex Gospels. Around the same time, a compilation now called the Old English Hexateuch appeared with the first six (or, in one version, seven) books of the Old Testament. Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
in 1199 banned unauthorized versions of the Bible
Bible
as a reaction to the Cathar
Cathar
and Waldensian
Waldensian
heresies. The synods of Toulouse and Tarragona (1234) outlawed possession of such renderings. There is evidence of some vernacular translations being permitted while others were being scrutinized. The complete Bible
Bible
was translated into Old French in the late 13th century. Parts of this translation were included in editions of the popular Bible
Bible
historiale, and there is no evidence of this translation being suppressed by the Church.[11] The entire Bible
Bible
was translated into Czech around 1360. The most notable Middle English Bible
Bible
translation, Wycliffe's Bible (1383), based on the Vulgate, was banned by the Oxford Synod in 1408. A Hungarian Hussite
Hussite
Bible
Bible
appeared in the mid 15th century, and in 1478, a Catalan translation in the dialect of Valencia. Many parts of the Bible
Bible
were printed by William Caxton
William Caxton
in his translation of the Golden Legend, and in Speculum Vitae Christi (The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus
Jesus
Christ). Reformation
Reformation
and Early Modern period[edit] See also: Early Modern English Bible
Bible
translations

Czech Protestant
Protestant
Bible
Bible
of Kralice (1593)

The earliest printed edition of the Greek New Testament
New Testament
appeared in 1516 from the Froben press, by Desiderius Erasmus, who reconstructed its Greek text from several recent manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. He occasionally added a Greek translation of the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
for parts that did not exist in the Greek manuscripts. He produced four later editions of this text. Erasmus
Erasmus
was Roman Catholic, but his preference for the Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
manuscripts rather than the Latin
Latin
Vulgate
Vulgate
led some church authorities to view him with suspicion. During 1517 and 1519 Francysk Skaryna
Francysk Skaryna
printed a translation of the Bible
Bible
in Old Belarusian language
Old Belarusian language
in twenty-two books.[12] In 1521, Martin Luther
Martin Luther
was placed under the Ban of the Empire, and he retired to the Wartburg Castle. During his time there, he translated the New Testament
New Testament
from Greek into German. It was printed in September 1522. The first complete Dutch Bible, partly based on the existing portions of Luther's translation, was printed in Antwerp
Antwerp
in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.[13] The first printed edition with critical apparatus (noting variant readings among the manuscripts) was produced by the printer Robert Estienne of Paris in 1550. The Greek text of this edition and of those of Erasmus
Erasmus
became known as the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus
( Latin
Latin
for "received text"), a name given to it in the Elzevier edition of 1633, which termed it as the text nunc ab omnibus receptum ("now received by all").

The use of numbered chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and later. The system used in English was developed by Stephanus ( Robert Estienne
Robert Estienne
of Paris) (see Chapters and verses of the Bible)

Later critical editions incorporate ongoing scholarly research, including discoveries of Greek papyrus fragments from near Alexandria, Egypt, that date in some cases within a few decades of the original New Testament
New Testament
writings.[14] Today, most critical editions of the Greek New Testament, such as UBS4 and NA27, consider the Alexandrian text-type corrected by papyri, to be the Greek text that is closest to the original autographs. Their apparatus includes the result of votes among scholars, ranging from certain A to doubtful E , on which variants best preserve the original Greek text of the New Testament. Critical editions that rely primarily on the Alexandrian text-type inform nearly all modern translations (and revisions of older translations). For reasons of tradition, however, some translators prefer to use the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus
for the Greek text, or use the Majority Text
Majority Text
which is similar to it but is a critical edition that relies on earlier manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type. Among these, some argue that the Byzantine tradition contains scribal additions, but these later interpolations preserve the orthodox interpretations of the biblical text—as part of the ongoing Christian experience—and in this sense are authoritative. Distrust of the textual basis of modern translations has contributed to the King-James-Only Movement. The churches of the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
translated the Greek of the Textus Receptus
Textus Receptus
to produce vernacular Bibles, such as the German Luther Bible
Bible
(1522), the Polish Brest Bible
Bible
(1563), the Spanish "Biblia del Oso" (in English: Bible
Bible
of the Bear, 1569) which later became the Reina-Valera
Reina-Valera
Bible
Bible
upon its first revision in 1602, the Czech Melantrich Bible
Bible
(1549) and Bible
Bible
of Kralice (1579-1593) and numerous English translations of the Bible. Tyndale's New Testament translation (1526, revised in 1534, 1535 and 1536) and his translation of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
(1530, 1534) and the Book of Jonah
Book of Jonah
were met with heavy sanctions given the widespread belief that Tyndale changed the Bible
Bible
as he attempted to translate it. Tyndale's unfinished work, cut short by his execution, was supplemented by Myles Coverdale
Myles Coverdale
and published under a pseudonym to create the Matthew Bible, the first complete English translation of the Bible. Attempts at an "authoritative" English Bible
Bible
for the Church of England
Church of England
would include the Great Bible
Bible
of 1538 (also relying on Coverdale's work), the Bishops' Bible
Bible
of 1568, and the Authorized Version (the King James Version) of 1611, the last of which would become a standard for English speaking Christians for several centuries. The first complete French Bible
Bible
was a translation by Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, published in 1530 in Antwerp.[15] The Froschauer Bible
Bible
of 1531 and the Luther Bible
Bible
of 1534 (both appearing in portions throughout the 1520s) were an important part of the Reformation. The first English translations of Psalms
Psalms
(1530), Isaiah
Isaiah
(1531), Proverbs (1533), Ecclesiastes
Ecclesiastes
(1533), Jeremiah
Jeremiah
(1534) and Lamentations (1534), were executed by the Protestant
Protestant
Bible
Bible
translator George Joye in Antwerp. In 1535 Myles Coverdale
Myles Coverdale
published the first complete English Bible
Bible
also in Antwerp.[16] By 1578 both Old and New Testaments were translated to Slovene by the Protestant
Protestant
writer and theologian Jurij Dalmatin. The work was not printed until 1583. The Slovenes
Slovenes
thus became the 12th nation in the world with a complete Bible
Bible
in their language. The translation of the New Testament
New Testament
was based on the work by Dalmatin's mentor, the Protestant
Protestant
Primož Trubar, who published the translation of the Gospel of Matthew already in 1555 and the entire testament by parts until 1577. Following the distribution of a Welsh New Testament
New Testament
and Prayer Book
Book
to every parish Church in Wales in 1567, translated by William Salesbury, Welsh became the 13th language into which the whole Bible
Bible
had been translated in 1588, through a translation by William Morgan, the bishop of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant [17] Samuel Bogusław Chyliński (1631–1668) translated and published the first Bible
Bible
translation into Lithuanian.[18] Modern translation efforts[edit] See also: International Bible
Bible
Society, Wycliffe Bible
Bible
Translators, and Institute for Bible
Bible
Translation The Bible
Bible
is the most translated book in the world. The United Bible Societies announced that as of 31 December 2007[19] the complete Bible was available in 438 languages, 123 of which included the deuterocanonical material as well as the Tanakh
Tanakh
and New Testament. Either the Tanakh
Tanakh
or the New Testament
New Testament
was available in an additional 1,168 languages, in some kind of translations, like the interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme translation (e.g. some Parallel Bible, with interlinear morphemic glossing). In 1999, Wycliffe Bible
Bible
Translators announced Vision 2025—a project that intends to commence Bible
Bible
translation in every remaining language community by 2025. As of 1 October 2015 they estimate that around 165 - 180 million people, speak those 1,800 languages where translation work still needs to begin. Wycliffe also stated that parts of the Bible
Bible
are available in approximately 2,900 out of the 6,877 known languages, and that there are currently 554 languages with a complete Bible
Bible
translation. The New Testament
New Testament
is available in 1,333 languages and many more have at least one book of the Bible
Bible
available.[20] Differences in Bible
Bible
translations[edit]

This Gutenberg Bible
Bible
is displayed by the United States Library of Congress

Further information: Dynamic and formal equivalence
Dynamic and formal equivalence
and Bible
Bible
version debate Dynamic or formal translation policy[edit] A variety of linguistic, philological and ideological approaches to translation have been used. Inside the Bible-translation community, these are commonly categorized as:

Dynamic equivalence
Dynamic equivalence
translation Formal equivalence
Formal equivalence
translation (similar to literal translation) Idiomatic, or Paraphrastic translation, as used by the late Kenneth N. Taylor

though modern linguists such as Bible
Bible
scholar Dr. Joel Hoffman disagrees with this classification.[21] As Hebrew
Hebrew
and Greek, the original languages of the Bible, like all languages, have some idioms and concepts not easily translated, there is in some cases an ongoing critical tension about whether it is better to give a word for word translation or to give a translation that gives a parallel idiom in the target language. For instance, in the New American Bible, which is the English language Catholic translation, as well as Protestant
Protestant
translations like the King James Version, the Darby Bible, the New Revised Standard Version, the Modern Literal Version, and the New American Standard Bible
Bible
are seen as more literal translations (or "word for word"), whereas translations like the New International Version
New International Version
and New Living Translation
Translation
sometimes attempt to give relevant parallel idioms. The Living Bible
Bible
and The Message are two paraphrases of the Bible
Bible
that try to convey the original meaning in contemporary language. The further away one gets from word for word translation, the easier the text becomes to read while relying more on the theological, linguistic or cultural understanding of the translator, which one would not normally expect a lay reader to require. On the other hand, as one gets closer to a word for word translation, the text becomes more literal but still relies on similar problems of meaningful translation at the word level and makes it difficult for lay readers to interpret due to their unfamiliarity with ancient idioms and other historical and cultural contexts. Doctrinal differences and translation policy[edit] Further information: Tetragrammaton in the New Testament In addition to linguistic concerns, theological issues also drive Bible
Bible
translations. Some translations of the Bible, produced by single churches or groups of churches, may be seen as subject to a point of view by the translation committee. For example, the New World Translation, produced by Jehovah's Witnesses, provides different renderings where verses in other Bible translations support the deity of Christ.[22] The NWT also translates kurios as "Jehovah" rather than "Lord" when quoting Hebrew
Hebrew
passages that used YHWH. The authors believe that Jesus
Jesus
would have used God's name and not the customary kurios. On this basis, the anonymous New World Bible
Bible
Translation
Translation
Committee inserted Jehovah
Jehovah
into the New World Translation
Translation
of the Christian
Christian
Greek Scriptures (New Testament) a total of 237 times while the New World Translation
Translation
of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures (Old Testament) uses Jehovah
Jehovah
a total of 6,979 times to a grand total of 7,216 in the entire 2013 Revision New World Translation
Translation
of the Holy Scriptures while previous revisions such as the 1984 revision were a total of 7,210 times while the 1961 revision were a total of 7,199 times.[23] A number of Sacred Name Bibles
Sacred Name Bibles
have been published that are even more rigorous in transliterating the tetragrammaton, using Semitic forms to translate it in the Old Testament
Old Testament
and also using the same Semitic forms to translate the Greek word Theos (God) in the New Testament, e.g. usually Yahweh and/or Elohim or some other variation, e.g. The Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition. Other translations are distinguished by smaller, but distinctive, doctrinal differences. For example, the Purified Translation
Translation
of the Bible, by translation and explanatory footnotes, promoting the position that Christians should not drink alcohol, that New Testament references to "wine" are translated as "grape juice". See also[edit]

Bible
Bible
portal

Ancient and classical translations:

Coptic versions of the Bible Septuagint
Septuagint
(Greek) Syriac versions of the Bible Targum
Targum
and Peshitta
Peshitta
(Aramaic) Vetus Latina
Vetus Latina
and Vulgate
Vulgate
(Latin)

English Translations:

Early Modern English Bible
Bible
translations English translations of the Bible Jewish English Bible
Bible
translations Old English Bible
Bible
translations Middle English Bible
Bible
translations Modern English Bible
Bible
translations

Other languages:

Bible
Bible
translations by language Bible
Bible
translations into Ladakhi Bible
Bible
translations into the languages of Africa Bible
Bible
translations into the languages of India Bible
Bible
translations into the languages of Indonesia

Difficulties:

Gender in Bible
Bible
translation Texas sharpshooter fallacy# Translation
Translation
and interpretation Translation#Fidelity and transparency

Others:

Bibledit Bible
Bible
version debate Byzantine text-type Exegesis Hermeneutics Institute for Bible
Bible
Translation List of languages by year of first Bible
Bible
translation Textus Receptus Translation

Notes[edit]

^ Some scholars hypothesize that certain books (whether completely or partially) may have been written in Aramaic
Aramaic
before being translated for widespread dissemination. One very famous example of this is the opening to the Gospel
Gospel
of John, which some scholars argue to be a Greek translation of an Aramaic
Aramaic
hymn.[citation needed]

References[edit]

^ http://www.wycliffe.net/statistics ^ a b Menachem Cohen, The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of Textual Criticism in HaMikrah V'anachnu, ed. Uriel Simon, HaMachon L'Yahadut U'Machshava Bat-Z'mananu and Dvir, Tel-Aviv, 1979. ^ Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar. Revised by Gordon M. Messing. ISBN 9780674362505. Harvard University Press, 1956. Introduction F, N-2, p. 4A ^ http://greek-language.com/grklinguist/?p=657. ^ http://www.stpaulsirvine.org/images/papyruslg.gif%7C shows an example of the text without punctuation ^ Sundberg, Albert C., Jr. (2002). "The Septuagint: The Bible
Bible
of Hellenistic Judaism". In McDonald, Lee Martin; Sanders, James A. The Canon Debate. Hendrickson Publishers. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-56563-517-3.  ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, chapter by Sundberg, page 72, adds further detail: "However, it was not until the time of Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(354-430 CE) that the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures came to be called by the Latin
Latin
term septuaginta. [70 rather than 72] Jerome
Jerome
began by revising the earlier Latin translations, but ended by going back to the original Greek, bypassing all translations, and going back to the original Hebrew
Hebrew
wherever he could instead of the Septuagint. The New Testament
New Testament
and at least some of the Old Testament
Old Testament
was translated into Gothic in the 4th century by Ulfilas. In the 5th century, Saint Mesrob
Saint Mesrob
translated the Bible
Bible
into Armenian. Also dating from the same period are the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic and Georgian translations. In his City of God 18.42, while repeating the story of Aristeas with typical embellishments, Augustine adds the remark, "It is their translation that it has now become traditional to call the Septuagint" ...[ Latin
Latin
omitted]... Augustine thus indicates that this name for the Greek translation of the scriptures was a recent development. But he offers no clue as to which of the possible antecedents led to this development: Exod 24:1-8, Josephus
Josephus
[Antiquities 12.57, 12.86], or an elision. ...this name Septuagint
Septuagint
appears to have been a fourth- to fifth-century development." ^ Karen Jobes and Moises Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint, ISBN 1-84227-061-3 (Paternoster Press, 2001). - The as of 2001[update] standard introductory work on the Septuagint. ^ Jennifer M. Dines, The Septuagint, Michael A. Knibb, Ed., London: T&T Clark, 2004. ^ The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pp. 414-415, for the entire paragraph. ^ Sneddon, Clive R. 1993. "A neglected mediaeval Bible
Bible
translation." Romance Languages Annual 5(1): 11-16 [1]. ^ Полная биография Георгия (Доктора медицинских и свободных наук Франциска) Скорины, Михаил Уляхин, Полоцк, 1994 ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, p. 120. ^ Metzger, Bruce R. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Paleography (Oxford University Press, 1981) cf. Papyrus 52. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, pp. 134-135. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, pp. 143-145. ^ J. Davies, "Hanes Cymru". 1990, p. 236 ^ S. L. Greenslade, The Cambridge History of the Bible: The West, from the Reformation
Reformation
to the Present Day. 1995, p. 134 ^ United Bible
Bible
Society (2008). "Statistical Summary of languages with the Scriptures". Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-22.  ^ "2015 Scripture Access Statistics" (PDF). Wycliffe Global Alliance. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "Formal Equivalence and Dynamic Equivalence: A False Dichotomy" ^ http://www.jw.org/en/jehovahs-witnesses/faq/new-world-translation-accurate/#?insight[search_id]=ab273185-8135-4ee9-a212-210cef439f3e&insight[search_result_index]=0 ^ New World Translation
Translation
appendix, pp. 1564-1566. When discussing “Restoring the Divine Name,” the New World Bible
Bible
Translation Committee states: “To know where the divine name was replaced by the Greek words Κύριος and Θεός, we have determined where the inspired Christian
Christian
writers have quoted verses, passages and expressions from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures and then we have referred back to the Hebrew
Hebrew
text to ascertain whether the divine name appears there. In this way we determined the identity to give Kyʹri·os and The·osʹ and the personality with which to clothe them.” Explaining further, the Committee said: “To avoid overstepping the bounds of a translator into the field of exegesis, we have been most cautious about rendering the divine name in the Christian
Christian
Greek Scriptures, always carefully considering the Hebrew
Hebrew
Scriptures as a background. We have looked for agreement from the Hebrew
Hebrew
versions to confirm our rendering.” Such agreement from Hebrew
Hebrew
versions exists in all the 237 places that the New World Bible
Bible
Translation
Translation
Committee has rendered the divine name in the body of its translation.—NW appendix, pp. 1564-1566

Further reading[edit]

Wills, Garry, "A Wild and Indecent Book" (review of David Bentley Hart, The New Testament: A Translation, Yale University Press, 577 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 2 (8 February 2018), pp. 34-35. Discusses some pitfalls in interpreting and translating the New Testament.

External links[edit]

Bible
Bible
Translations Bible
Bible
translations at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Repackaging the Bible
Bible
by Eric Marrapodi, CNN, December 24, 2008 Bible
Bible
Versions and Translations on BibleStudyTools.com Huge selection of Bibles in Foreign Languages - bibleinmylanguage.com BibleGateway.com (has many translations to select)

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