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The Info List - Bibionidae


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The Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(March flies and lovebugs) are a family of flies (Diptera). About 650-700 species are known worldwide.

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 Fossil record 4 Economic importance 5 References 6 Further reading

6.1 Identification 6.2 Species lists

7 Images 8 External links

Description[edit] For terms, see Morphology of Diptera. Bibionidae
Bibionidae
are medium-sized flies with a body length from 4.0 to 10.0 mm. The body is black, brown, or rusty, and thickset, with thick legs. The antennae are moniliform. The front tibiae bear large strong spurs or a circlet of spines. The tarsi are five-segmented and bear tarsal claws, pulvilli, and a well developed empodium. The wings have two basal cells (posterior basal wing cell and basal wing cell), but are without a discoidal wing cell. R4+5 is simple or branched; at most, only three branches of R developed. The leading edge wing veins are stronger than the weak veins of the trailing edge.

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
wing veins

Bibio pomonae: Note the stout body, short, thick antennae, the powerful femora and spined tibiae of the dichopotic female. The male is holoptic.

Biology[edit] Bibionid larvae grow up in grassy areas and are herbivores and scavengers feeding on dead vegetation or living plant roots. Some species are found in compost.[9] Larvae are sometimes found in pockets in which sometimes up to 200 specimens have been counted. Adults of most Plecia
Plecia
and some species of Bibio do not eat, but subsist solely on the food taken in during the larval stage and drop steadily when in flight until they are a few inches above the ground, hovering slowly. Adult-stage bibionids are quite short-lived, and some species of Plecia
Plecia
(lovebugs) spend much of their adult lives copulating. The male and female (lovebugs) attach themselves at the rear of the abdomen and remain that way at all times, even in flight. Adults swarm after synchronous emergence, sometimes in enormous numbers.[10]

Fossil record[edit] Bibionids have the most extensive fossil record of any dipteran family. Fossil bibionids are known questionably from the Jurassic, while some forms from the early part of the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
look quite similar to modern species. Bibionid flies are very abundant among insect fossils from the Tertiary period, and a large number of species have been described, although often based on highly fragmentary material. Most fossil species are easily identified with extant genera. In particular, the genera Plecia
Plecia
and Bibio are abundant among Tertiary fossils. Fossils
Fossils
from Europe include a large number of specimens of the mainly tropical genus Plecia
Plecia
which is today entirely absent from Europe, demonstrating a warmer climate during the Tertiary. Economic importance[edit] Adults feed on the nectar of flowers of fruit trees and especially on flowers of umbelliferous plants; often swarming in mass flights in spring. Adults are important pollinators. Larvae play an important role in formation and accumulation of humus in soil. Some larvae are serious plant pests, especially of pasture land and other agronomic crops including cereal crops, vegetables, forage crops, and seedlings of many other plants.[9][11][10][12][13][14][15] References[edit]

^ Coquillett, Daniel W. (1904). "New North American Diptera". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 6: 166–192. Retrieved 13 August 2017.  ^ Edwards, Frederick W (1935). "New Neotropical Bibionnae (Diptera)". Stylops. 4: 19–24.  ^ Hong, Y.; Wang, W.-I. (1987). "Miocene Emboptera [Embioptera] and Coleoptera (Insecta) of Shanwang, Shandong Province, China". Prof. Pap. Stratigr. Palaeontol. 17: 257–262.  ^ Meigen, J. W. (1803). "Versuch einer neuen Gattungs-Eintheilung der europaischen zweiflugligen Insekten". Mag. Insektenkd. 2: 259–281.  ^ Hardy, D. Elmo (1961). "Notes and descriptions of exotic Bibionidae". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 63: 81–99. Retrieved 12 August 2017.  ^ Hong, Y. C. (2002). Amber insects of China. [iv]. Beijing: Beijing Science and Technology Press. pp. 653 pp., 48 pls.  ^ Carpenter, Frank M. (1986). "Substitute names for some extinct genera of fossil insects" (PDF). Psyche. 92: 575–582. doi:10.1155/1985/62623. Retrieved 24 August 2017.  ^ Rohdendorf, B. B. (1946). "The evolution of the wing and the phylogeny of Oligoneura (Diptera, Nematocera)". Trudy Paleontol. Inst. 13 (2): 1–108, 16 pls.  ^ a b Hardy, D.E. McAlpine, J.F., ed. Bibionidae. in: Manual of Nearctic Diptera (PDF). Ottawa: Agriculture Canada. pp. 217–222. ISBN 0-660-10731-7. Retrieved 13 August 2017.  ^ a b Freeman, Paul; Lane, Richard P. (1985). "Bibionid and Scatopsid flies, Diptera: Bibionidae
Bibionidae
& Scatopsidae" (Print). Handbooks for the identification of British insects. 9 (7). London: Royal Entomological Society of London: 74.  ^ Darvas, B., Skuhravá, M., Andersen, A., 2000, Agricultural dipteran pests of the Palaearctic
Palaearctic
Region. In: Papp, L., Darvas, B. (Eds.). Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic
Palaearctic
Diptera with Special Reference to Flies of Economic Importance. Science Herald, Budapest, 565-649. ^ Bollow, H. 1954. Die Landwirtschaftlich wichtigen Haarmticken. Z. PflBau PflSchutz 5 (49): 197-232. ^ Maier-Bode, [-]. 1936. Die Gartenhaarmticke (Bibio hortulanus) als Roggen-schiidling. NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst., Berl. l6: 10. ^ Spitzer, K. 1966. An example of severe damage to planted potatoes by the garden March fly (Bibio hortulanus L.) [in Czeckoslovakian]. Ochr. Rost. 2(39):81-82. ^ Strickland, E. H. (1916). "The March fly (Bibio abbreviatus) in grain fields and as a pest of celery". Agric. Gaz. Can. 3: 600–603. 

Further reading[edit] Identification[edit]

Duda. 1930. Bibionidae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 2, 1, 4, 1-75. Keys to Palaearctic
Palaearctic
species but now needs revision (in German). Hardy, D.E. et al., 1958. Guide of the insects of Connecticut PartVI. The Diptera or true flies of Connecticut Sixth Fascicle: March flies and gall midges. Bibionidae, Itonididae (Cecidomiidae). Conn. Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 87, 218 pp., 15 pl., 29 figs. Hardy, D.E. (1967). "The Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(Diptera) of Nepal, results of the Austrian and the B.P. Bishop Museum.Expeditions, 1961 and 1965". Pacific Insects. 9 (3): 519–536.  Hardy, D.E.; Delfinado, M.D (1969). "The Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(Diptera) of the Philippines". Pacific Insects. 11 (1): 117–154.  Krivosheina, N. P. Family Bibionidae
Bibionidae
in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition. Keys to Palaearctic
Palaearctic
species but now needs revision. Séguy, E. (1940) Diptères: Nématocères. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 36 BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique

Species lists[edit]

West Palaearctic
Palaearctic
including Russia Nearctic Australasian/Oceanian Japan

Images[edit]

Diptera.info BugGuide

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bibionidae.

multiple images including photomicrographs at Encyclopaedia of Life Plecia
Plecia
nearctica, lovebug on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1431774 ADW: Bibionidae BugGuide: 3834 EoL: 500 EPPO: 1BIBIF Fauna Europaea: 11660 Fossilworks: 70528 GBIF: 7281 ITIS: 121316 NCBI: 5

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