HOME
The Info List - Bhrikuti


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i)

The Licchavi PRINCESS BHRIKUTI DEVI, known to Tibetans as BAL-MO-BZA\' KHRI-BTSUN, BHELSA TRITSUN ('Nepali consort') or, simply, KHRI BTSUN ("Royal Lady"), is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsän Gampo (605? - 650 CE), and an incarnation of Tara . She was also known as "Besa", and was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal
Nepal
. Songtsän Gampo (centre) Princess Wencheng
Princess Wencheng
(right) and Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
Devi of Nepal
Nepal
(left)

Part of a series on

TIBETAN BUDDHISM

Schools

* Nyingma
Nyingma
* Kagyu
Kagyu

* Sakya
Sakya
* Gelug
Gelug
* Jonang
Jonang

* Rimé * Kadam

Glossary

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Skandha
Skandha
* Cosmology * Saṃsāra

* Rebirth * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Dharma
Dharma

* Dependent origination * Karma

Key figures

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha

* Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
* Je Tsongkhapa
Je Tsongkhapa

* Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
* Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama

* Lama
Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche

* Geshe
Geshe
* Tertön
Tertön
* Tulku
Tulku

Practices and attainment

* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Avalokiteśvara

* Four stages of enlightenment
Four stages of enlightenment

* Tantric yoga * Pāramitās

* Meditation * Laity

Major monasteries

* Tradruk * Drepung * Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Ganden * Jokhang
Jokhang
* Kumbum

* Labrang * Mindrolling * Namgyal

* Narthang * Nechung
Nechung
* Pabonka

* Palcho * Ralung * Ramoche
Ramoche
* Rato

* Sakya
Sakya
* Sanga * Sera * Shalu

* Tashilhunpo * Tsurphu * Yerpa
Yerpa

Festivals

* Chotrul Duchen * Dajyur * Galdan Namchot * Losar
Losar
* Monlam * Sho Dun

Texts

* Kangyur
Kangyur
* Tengyur
Tengyur

* Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon

* Mahāyāna sūtras * Nyingma
Nyingma
Gyubum

Art

* Sand mandala
Sand mandala
* Thangka * Wall paintings * Ashtamangala
Ashtamangala
* Tree of physiology
Tree of physiology
* Festival thangka

History and overview

* History * Timeline

* Outline * Culture

* Index of articles

* Tibetan Buddhism portal

* v * t * e

Even though the historicity of Bhrikuti Devi is not certain, and no reference to her has been found among the documents discovered at Dunhuang
Dunhuang
, "there are increasing indications supporting this hypothesis." There were certainly very close relationships between Tibet and Nepal
Nepal
at this period and, "Such a mythological interpretation discredits in no way the historical likelihood of such a marriage...."

Many Tibetan accounts make Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
the daughter of Amshuvarma (605-621 CE), co-ruler and successor of Śivadeva I. If this is correct, the marriage to Songtsän Gampo must have taken place sometime before 624 CE. Acharya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang Tenzin, however, states that Songstän Gampo married Bhrkuti Devi, the daughter of king "Angsu Varma" or Amshuvarma (Tib: Waser Gocha) of Nepal
Nepal
in 632.

According to some Tibetan legends, however, a Nepali king named Go Cha (identified by Sylvain Lévi as "Udayavarman", from the literal meaning of the Tibetan name) was said to have a daughter called Bri-btumn or Bhṛkuti.

"Udayavarman" was most likely the same king we know as Udayadeva, the son of Śivadeva I and later, the adopted son and heir to Aṃshuvarmā. He was also thought to be the father of Narendradeva (Tib: Miwang-Lha). If this is accepted, it means that Narendradeva and Bhrikuti Devi were brother and sister.

We do have some fairly detailed historical accounts of Narendradeva. The (Jiu) Tangshu, or Old Book of Tang
Old Book of Tang
, records that when the king of 泥婆羅 Nipoluo Nepal
Nepal
, the father of Licchavi king Naling Deva (or Narendradeva), died, an uncle (Yu.sna kug.ti = Vishnagupta) usurped the throne. "The Tibetans gave him refuge and reestablished him on his throne ; that is how he became subject to Tibet."

It is not known exactly when Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
married Songtsän Gampo, but it was presumably about the time that Narendradeva fled to Tibet (c. 621 CE), following Dhruvadeva's take-over of the throne (who, according to an inscription dated in 623, was ruling jointly with Jiṣṇugupta.)

BHRIKUTI IN TIBET

This is considered to be the oldest copy of the famous traditional history, the dBa\' bzhed , states: "Then during the reign of bTsan po Khri Srong btsan, after his marriage with Khri btsun, the daughter of the king of Nepal, the temple (gtsug lag khang) of Ra sa Pe har gling was built. Furthermore, the construction of the forty-two temples of the Ru bzhi was requested and the Brag lha was built. 'Thon mi gSam po ra was sent by royal order in order to get the Indian doctrine and the model of the alphabet (yi ge'i dpe). . . ." Wen Cheng's and co-wife Bhrikuti's legacy— Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple in Tibet—founded to house statues of the Buddha which each bride brought with her dowry .

According to Tibetan traditions, Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
was a devout Buddhist and brought many sacred images and expert Newari craftsmen with her as part of her dowry. The Red Palace (Mar-po-ri Pho-drang) on Marpo Ri (Red Mountain) in Lhasa, which was later rebuilt into the thirteen storey Potala
Potala
by the Fifth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
, was constructed by Nepali craftsmen according to her wishes. She also had constructed the Tub-wang and other statues in Samye and the famous Nepali artist Thro-wo carved the revered statue of Chenresig , Thungji Chen-po rang-jung nga-ldan. It is also called statue of Mikyo Dorje (Manuvajra) - the Ramoche
Ramoche
Jowo or Jowo Chungpa which was housed in the Ramoche Temple in Lhasa. It seems unlikely that the statue there now is the original one brought by the Nepali princess as the temple has been sacked at least two times - first during the Mongol
Mongol
invasions and later it was gutted in the 1960s. It is said that the lower half of the statue was found in a Lhasa rubbish dump and the upper part found in Beijing. They have been since joined together and the statue is surrounded by the Eight Bodhisattvas .

Songtsän Gampo and Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
built a great temple, the Tsulag Khang (or 'House of Wisdom') to house the images, which is now known as the Jokhang
Jokhang
('House of the Lord') in the heart of Lhasa, and is considered to be the most sacred temple in Tibet. They also built the white palace of dMar-po-ri which shifted the ancient seat of government in the Yarlung Valley to the site of modern Lhasa.

Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
is usually represented as Green Tara
Green Tara
in Tibetan iconography . Songtsän Gampo also married the Chinese Princess Wencheng
Princess Wencheng
, who is considered to be another incarnation of Tara ( White Tara
White Tara
), in 641 CE, and Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
and Wencheng are said to have worked together to establish temples and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet. From left to right: Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
Devi, Songtsän Gampo and Wen Cheng , Gyantse
Gyantse

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Tenzin, Ahcarya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, p. 84. * ^ Josayma, C.B. \'\'Gsaya Belsa\'\': An Introduction , The Tibet Journal, Vol. XVIII, No. 1. Spring 1993, p. 27. * ^ Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project, p. 202 (1986). Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3 . * ^ Dowman, Keith. (1988) The Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 16. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0 . * ^ Pasang Wandu and Hildegard Diemberger. dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative concerning the bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet, p. 26, n. 15. (2000). Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wein. ISBN 3-7001-2956-4 . * ^ Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, pp. 416-417. * ^ Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project, p. 225 (1986). Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3 . * ^ Tenzin, Ahcarya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, p. 85. * ^ Shaha, Rishikesh . Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 18. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8 . * ^ Shaha, Rishikesh . Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 17. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8 . * ^ Pelliot, Paul. Histoire Ancienne du Tibet. Paris. Libraire d'amérique et d'orient. 1961, p. 12. * ^ Vitali, Roberto. 1990. Early Temples of Central Tibet. Serindia Publications, London, p. 71. ISBN 0-906026-25-3 * ^ Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, p. 372. * ^ Chavannes, Édouard. Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. 1900. Paris, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969, p. 186. * ^ Bushell, S. W. "The Early History of Tibet. From Chinese Sources." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XII, 1880, pp. 529, n. 31. * ^ Shaha, Rishikesh . Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 16. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8 . * ^ Pasang Wandu and Hildegard Diemberger. (2000) dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative concerning the bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet, pp. 25-26, n. 15. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wein. ISBN 3-7001-2956-4 . * ^ Tenzin, Acharya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, pp. 85-86. * ^ Josayma, C.B. "Gsaya Belsa: An Introduction". The Tibet Journal. Volume XVIII. No. 1 Spring 1993, pp. 27-28. * ^ Dowman, Keith. (1988) The Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 59. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0 . * ^ Norbu, Thubten Jigme and Turnbull, Colin. Tibet: Its History Religion and People, p. 143. (1968). Chatto ">

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
* Nirvana * Middle Way
Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata * Birthday * Four sights
Four sights
* Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography
Iconography
in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances
Five hindrances
* Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream
Mind Stream
* Parinirvana
Parinirvana
* Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
* Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Taṇhā (Craving) * Tathātā * Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Impermanence
Impermanence
* Dukkha
Dukkha
* Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine
Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms
Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana
Bhavana
* Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā
Mettā
* Karuṇā
Karuṇā
* Mudita * Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths * Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna
Kammaṭṭhāna
* Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati * Samatha
Samatha
* Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan
Kōan
* Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra * Tertön
Tertön
* Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana
Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā
Pāramitā
* Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya
Dhamma vicaya
* Pīti * Passaddhi
Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya
Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions
Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment
Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
* Sakadagami
Sakadagami
* Anāgāmi * Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika
Anagarika
* Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master
Zen master
* Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe
Geshe
* Tulku
Tulku
* Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji
Assaji
* Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha
Anuruddha
* Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti
Subhuti
* Punna * Upali
Upali
* Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema
Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa
Yasa
* Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala
Angulimala
* Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
* Nagarjuna * Asanga
Asanga
* Vasubandhu * Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
* Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
* Panchen Lama
Panchen Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa
Shamarpa
* Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
* Madhyamakālaṃkāra * Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
* Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
* Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka * Yogachara
Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India * Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal
Nepal
* Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Nepal
* Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
* Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
* 969 Movement
969 Movement
* Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma * Atomism * Buddhology
Buddhology
* Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses
Eight Consciousnesses
* Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
* Korean Buddhist temples
Korean Buddhist temples
* Thai temple art and architecture
Thai temple art and architecture
* Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha * Magha Puja
Magha Puja
* Asalha Puja
Asalha Puja
* Vassa
Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar
Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
* Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada
Dhammapada
* Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana
Hinayana
* Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi
Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi
Siddhi
* Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 37741660 * GND :

.