HOME
The Info List - Bhrikuti


--- Advertisement ---



The Licchavi Princess Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun ('Nepali consort')[1][2] or, simply, Khri bTsun ("Royal Lady"), is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
(605? - 650 CE), and an incarnation of Tara.[3] She was also known as "Besa",[4] and was a princess of the Licchavi kingdom of Nepal.

Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
(centre) Princess Wencheng
Princess Wencheng
(right) and Bhrikuti Devi
Bhrikuti Devi
of Nepal
Nepal
(left)

Part of a series on

Tibetan Buddhism

Schools

Nyingma

Kadam Kagyu

Jonang

Sakya

Gelug

New Kadampa Tradition

Rimé

Key personalities

First dissemination

Padmasambhava Śāntarakṣita Kamalaśīla

Second dissemination

Atiśa Tilopa Naropa Milarepa

Nyingma

Longchenpa Patrul Rinpoche Mipham

Kagyu

Rangjung Dorje

Jonang

Dolpopa

Sakya

Sakya
Sakya
Pandita Gorampa

Gelugpa

Je Tsongkhapa 5th Dalai Lama 13th Dalai Lama 14th Dalai Lama

Teachings

General Buddhist

Three marks of existence

Skandha Cosmology Saṃsāra

Rebirth Bodhisattva Dharma

Dependent origination Karma

Tibetan

Four Tenets system Rangtong-Shentong Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction

Nyingma

Dzogchen Pointing-out instruction

Practices and attainment

Lamrim Pāramitās

Bodhicitta Avalokiteśvara

Meditation Laity

Vajrayana Tantra
Tantra
techniques Deity yoga

Buddhahood

Major monasteries

Tradruk Drepung Dzogchen

Ganden Jokhang Kumbum

Labrang Mindrolling Namgyal

Narthang Nechung Pabonka

Palcho Ralung Ramoche Rato

Sakya Sanga Sera Shalu

Tashi Lhunpo Tsurphu Yerpa

Institutional roles

Dalai Lama Panchen Lama

Lama Karmapa Rinpoche

Geshe Tertön Tulku

Festivals

Chotrul Duchen Dajyur Galdan Namchot Losar Dosmoche Monlam Sho Dun

Texts

Kangyur Tengyur

Tibetan Buddhist canon

Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Nyingma
Nyingma
Gyubum

Art

Sand mandala Thangka Wall paintings Ashtamangala Tree of physiology Festival thangka

History and overview

History Timeline

Outline Culture

Index of articles

Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
portal

v t e

Even though the historicity of Bhrikuti Devi
Bhrikuti Devi
is not certain, and no reference to her has been found among the documents discovered at Dunhuang, "there are increasing indications supporting this hypothesis."[5] There were certainly very close relationships between Tibet and Nepal
Nepal
at this period and, "Such a mythological interpretation discredits in no way the historical likelihood of such a marriage...." [6] Many Tibetan accounts make Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
the daughter of Amshuvarma (605-621 CE), co-ruler and successor of Śivadeva I. If this is correct, the marriage to Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
must have taken place sometime before 624 CE.[7] Acharya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang Tenzin, however, states that Songstän Gampo married Bhrkuti Devi, the daughter of king "Angsu Varma" or Amshuvarma
Amshuvarma
(Tib: Waser Gocha) of Nepal
Nepal
in 632.[8] According to some Tibetan legends, however, a Nepali king named Go Cha (identified by Sylvain Lévi as "Udayavarman", from the literal meaning of the Tibetan name) was said to have a daughter called Bri-btumn or Bhṛkuti.[9] "Udayavarman" was most likely the same king we know as Udayadeva, the son of Śivadeva I and later, the adopted son and heir to Aṃshuvarmā. He was also thought to be the father of Narendradeva (Tib: Miwang-Lha).[10] If this is accepted, it means that Narendradeva and Bhrikuti Devi
Bhrikuti Devi
were brother and sister. We do have some fairly detailed historical accounts of Narendradeva. The (Jiu) Tangshu, or Old Book of Tang, records that when the king of 泥婆羅 Nipoluo Nepal,[11] the father of Licchavi king Naling Deva (or Narendradeva), died, an uncle (Yu.sna kug.ti = Vishnagupta) usurped the throne.[12] "The Tibetans gave him [Narendradeva] refuge and reestablished him on his throne [in 641]; that is how he became subject to Tibet."[13][14][15] It is not known exactly when Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
married Songtsen Gampo, but it was presumably about the time that Narendradeva fled to Tibet (c. 621 CE), following Dhruvadeva's take-over of the throne (who, according to an inscription dated in 623, was ruling jointly with Jiṣṇugupta.)[16] Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
in Tibet[edit] This is considered to be the oldest copy of the famous traditional history, the dBa' bzhed, states:

"Then during the reign of bTsan po Khri Srong btsan, after his marriage with Khri btsun, the daughter of the king of Nepal, the temple (gtsug lag khang) of Ra sa [Lhasa] Pe har gling was built. Furthermore, the construction of the forty-two temples of the Ru bzhi was requested and the Brag lha [temple] was built. 'Thon mi gSam po ra was sent by royal order [to India] in order to get the Indian doctrine and the model of the alphabet (yi ge'i dpe). . . ."[17]

Wen Cheng's and co-wife Bhrikuti's legacy— Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple in Tibet—founded to house statues of the Buddha which each bride brought with her dowry.

According to Tibetan traditions, Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
was a devout Buddhist and brought many sacred images and expert Newari craftsmen with her as part of her dowry. The Red Palace (Mar-po-ri Pho-drang) on Marpo Ri (Red Mountain) in Lhasa, which was later rebuilt into the thirteen storey Potala
Potala
by the Fifth Dalai Lama, was constructed by Nepali craftsmen according to her wishes. She also had constructed the Tub-wang and other statues in Samye
Samye
and the famous Nepali artist Thro-wo carved the revered statue of Chenresig, Thungji Chen-po rang-jung nga-ldan.[18][19] It is also called statue of Mikyo Dorje (Manuvajra) - the Ramoche
Ramoche
Jowo or Jowo Chungpa which was housed in the Ramoche Temple
Ramoche Temple
in Lhasa. It seems unlikely that the statue there now is the original one brought by the Nepali princess as the temple has been sacked at least two times - first during the Mongol
Mongol
invasions and later it was gutted in the 1960s. It is said that the lower half of the statue was found in a Lhasa rubbish dump and the upper part found in Beijing. They have been since joined together and the statue is surrounded by the Eight Bodhisattvas.[20] Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
and Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
built a great temple, the Tsulag Khang (or 'House of Wisdom') to house the images, which is now known as the Jokhang
Jokhang
('House of the Lord') in the heart of Lhasa,[21] and is considered to be the most sacred temple in Tibet. They also built the white palace of dMar-po-ri which shifted the ancient seat of government in the Yarlung Valley to the site of modern Lhasa.[22] Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
is usually represented as Green Tara
Green Tara
in Tibetan iconography. Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
also married the Chinese Princess Wencheng, who is considered to be another incarnation of Tara (White Tara), in 641 CE, and Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
and Wencheng are said to have worked together to establish temples and Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tibet.

From left to right: Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
Devi, Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
and Wen Cheng, Gyantse

Footnotes[edit]

^ Tenzin, Ahcarya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, p. 84. ^ Josayma, C.B. ''Gsaya Belsa'': An Introduction, The Tibet Journal, Vol. XVIII, No. 1. Spring 1993, p. 27. ^ Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project, p. 202 (1986). Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3. ^ Dowman, Keith. (1988) The Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 16. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. ^ Pasang Wandu and Hildegard Diemberger. dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative concerning the bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet, p. 26, n. 15. (2000). Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wein. ISBN 3-7001-2956-4. ^ Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, pp. 416-417. ^ Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project, p. 225 (1986). Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3. ^ Tenzin, Ahcarya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, p. 85. ^ Shaha, Rishikesh. Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 18. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8. ^ Shaha, Rishikesh. Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 17. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8. ^ Pelliot, Paul. Histoire Ancienne du Tibet. Paris. Libraire d'amérique et d'orient. 1961, p. 12. ^ Vitali, Roberto. 1990. Early Temples of Central Tibet. Serindia Publications, London, p. 71. ISBN 0-906026-25-3 ^ Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, p. 372. ^ Chavannes, Édouard. Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. 1900. Paris, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969, p. 186. ^ Bushell, S. W. "The Early History of Tibet. From Chinese Sources." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XII, 1880, pp. 529, n. 31. ^ Shaha, Rishikesh. Ancient and Medieval Nepal. (1992), p. 16. Manohar Publications, New Delhi. ISBN 81-85425-69-8. ^ Pasang Wandu and Hildegard Diemberger. (2000) dBa' bzhed: The Royal Narrative concerning the bringing of the Buddha's Doctrine to Tibet, pp. 25-26, n. 15. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wein. ISBN 3-7001-2956-4. ^ Tenzin, Acharya Kirti Tulku
Tulku
Lobsang. "Early Relations between Tibbet and Nepal
Nepal
(7th to 8th Centuries)." Translated by K. Dhondup. The Tibet Journal, Vol. VII, Nos. 1 &2. Spring/Summer 1982, pp. 85-86. ^ Josayma, C.B. "Gsaya Belsa: An Introduction". The Tibet Journal. Volume XVIII. No. 1 Spring 1993, pp. 27-28. ^ Dowman, Keith. (1988) The Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 59. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. ^ Norbu, Thubten Jigme and Turnbull, Colin. Tibet: Its History Religion and People, p. 143. (1968). Chatto & Windus. Reprint: (1987) Penguin Books, England. ^ Ancient Tibet: Research materials from the Yeshe De Project, p. 204 (1986). Dharma
Dharma
Publishing, Berkeley, California. ISBN 0-89800-146-3.

References and Further Reading[edit]

Richardson, Hugh E. (1997). "Mun Sheng Kong Co and Kim Sheng Kong Co: Two Chinese Princesses in Tibet." The Tibet Journal. Vol. XXII, No. 1. Spring 1997, pp. 3–11. Richardson, Hugh E. (1965). "How Old was Srong Brtsan Sgampo" Bulletin of Tibetology 2.1. pp 5–8.

v t e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

Glossary Index Outline

Foundations

Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

Tathāgata Birthday Four sights Physical characteristics Footprint Relics Iconography
Iconography
in Laos and Thailand Films Miracles Family

Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta
Devadatta
(cousin)

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine

Cosmology

Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence

Practices

Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness

Satipatthana

Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya

Sacca

Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi

Śīla

Five Precepts Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā

Vīrya

Four Right Exertions

Nirvana

Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat

Monasticism

Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi

Texts

Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon

Branches

Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

Countries

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

Kalmykia Buryatia

Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East

Iran

Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela

History

Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism

Philosophy

Abhidharma Atomism Buddhology Creator Economics Eight Consciousnesses Engaged Buddhism Eschatology Ethics Evolution Humanism Logic Reality Secular Buddhism Socialism The unanswered questions

Culture

Architecture

Temple Vihara Wat Stupa Pagoda Candi Dzong architecture Japanese Buddhist architecture Korean Buddhist temples Thai temple art and architecture Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Art

Greco-Buddhist

Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree Budai Buddharupa Calendar Cuisine Funeral Holidays

Vesak Uposatha Magha Puja Asalha Puja Vassa

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi Kasaya Mahabodhi Temple Mantra

Om mani padme hum

Mudra Music Pilgrimage

Lumbini Maya Devi Temple Bodh Gaya Sarnath Kushinagar

Poetry Prayer beads Prayer wheel Symbolism

Dharmachakra Flag Bhavacakra Swastika Thangka

Temple of the Tooth Vegetarianism

Miscellaneous

Abhijñā Amitābha Avalokiteśvara

Guanyin

Brahmā Dhammapada Dharma
Dharma
talk Hinayana Kalpa Koliya Lineage Maitreya Māra Ṛddhi Sacred languages

Pali Sanskrit

Siddhi Sutra Vinaya

Comparison

Bahá'í Faith Christianity

Influences Comparison

East Asian religions Gnosticism Hinduism Jainism Judaism Psychology Science Theosophy Violence Western philosophy

Lists

Bodhisattvas Books Buddhas

named

Buddhists Suttas Temples

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37741

.