BHOJA (reigned c. 1010-1055 CE) was an Indian king from the Paramara
dynasty . His kingdom was centered around the
Malwa region in central
India, where his capital Dhara was located.
Bhoja fought wars with
nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with
varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from
Chittor in the north to upper
Konkan in the south, and from the
Sabarmati River in the west to
Vidisha in the east.
Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts, literature, and sciences.
The establishment of the
Bhoj Shala , a centre for
is attributed to him. He was a polymath , and several books covering a
wide range of topics are attributed to him. He is also said to have
constructed a large number of
Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar
Temple in Bhojpur (a city founded by him) is the only surviving temple
that can be ascribed to him with certainty.
Because of his patronage to scholars,
Bhoja became one of the most
celebrated kings in the Indian history. After his death, he came to be
featured in several legends as a righteous scholar-king. The body of
legends clustered around him is comparable to that of the fabled
* 1 Early life
* 1.1 Legend of persecution by Munja
* 2 Anointment
* 2.1 Period of reign
* 2.2 Names and titles
* 3 Military career
* 4 Death
* 5 Cultural contributions
* 5.1 Literary works
* 6 Religion
* 7 Personal life
* 8 Legends
* 9 References
* 10 Sources
Bhoja's father and predecessor was
Sindhuraja . According to
_Bhoja-Prabandha_, his mother's name was Savitri. Bhoja's reputation
as a scholar-king suggests that he was well-educated as a child. The
_Bhoja-Prabandha_ states that he was educated by his guardians as well
as other learned scholars.
According to _Bhoja-Prabandha_, early in his life,
from intense headaches. Two
Brahmin surgeons from
Ujjain made him
unconscious using an anaesthetic powder called _moha-churna_, opened
his cranial bone , removed a tumor, and then made him regain his
consciousness by administering another powder called _sanjivani_.
LEGEND OF PERSECUTION BY MUNJA
According to _Tilaka-Manjari_, composed by Bhoja's contemporary
Dhanapala, Bhoja's feet had auspicious birthmarks indicating that he
was fit to be a king. His uncle Munja (and his father's predecessor)
loved him greatly, and appointed him as the king.
However, several later legendary accounts state that Munja was
initially jealous of Bhoja, and tried to prevent him from becoming a
king. For example, the 14th century _Prabandha-Chintamani_ states that
during the reign of Munja, an astrologer prophesized Bhoja's long
reign. Munja, who wanted his own son to become the king, ordered
Bhoja was appointed as the king by the royal
ministers after Munja's death. According to a Gujarati legend
documented in Rasmala , Munja ordered Bhoja's murder, but later
appointed him as the crown prince.
_Bhoja-Prabandha_ states that Munja ordered one Vatsaraja to kill
Bhoja at the Mahamaya temple in Bhuvaneshvari forest. On hearing
Bhoja's cultured manner of talking, Vatsaraja and his men abandoned
the murder plan. They faked Bhoja's death, and presented to Munja a
fake head and a verse from Bhoja. The verse described how great kings
Yudhishthira died leaving behind all their
property; it then sarcastically added that Munja would be the only one
whom the earthly possessions would follow. The verse moved Munja to
tears, and made him realize his mistake. When he learned that Bhoja
was still alive, he invited
Bhoja to back to his court. To repent for
his sin, he also went on a pilgrimage to Dharmaranya, where he
established a town called Munjapuram. The sarcastic verse,
purportedly written by
Bhoja to Munja, also appears as an anyonymous
extract in _Sarngadhara-Paddhati_ (1363 CE).
These stories of Bhoja's persecution by Munja are essentially
mythical. This legend is not found in the works composed by the
contemporaries of Munja,
Sindhuraja and Bhoja. For example, the
_Nava-Sahasanka-Charita_ makes no mention of this story. The legend
appears to be the poetic imagination of later composers.
Ain-i-Akbari _ also contains a variation of this account, but
completely distorts the legend, naming Munja as the one who was
persecuted by Bhoja. This account is also completely unreliable from a
historical point of view.
Some literary works suggest that
Bhoja succeeded his uncle Munja as
the Paramara king. These works include _Tilaka-Manjari_,
_Prabandha-Chintamani_, and _Rasmala_. However, several other works as
well as epigraphic evidence indicate that
Bhoja succeeded his father
Sindhuraja . Padmagupta, the court poet of
Sindhuraja and Bhoja, also
supports this fact. According to _Bhoja-Prabandha_, Munja left the
Paramara administration in hands of
Sindhuraja before departing on a
military expedition. Munja unexpectedly died in this campaign, and as
Sindhuraja succeeded him as the king. Sindhuraja's court
poet Padmagupta, in his _Nava-Sahasanka-Charita_, states that Munja
"placed the world in Sindhuraja's hands" before leaving for Ambika's
town. This indicates that he left the administration in Sindhuraja's
hands before leaving for his fatal expedition against
Tailapa II .
_Udaipur Prashasti_ inscription seems to confirm this.
PERIOD OF REIGN
The Modasa copper plates (1010-11 CE) are the earliest historical
record of Bhoja's reign. The _Chintamani-Sarnika_ (1055 CE) was
composed by Bhoja's court poet Dasabala. An inscription of Bhoja's
successor Jayasimha I is also dated 1055 CE. Thus, 1055 CE can be
taken as the last year of Bhoja's reign. Based on these evidences,
scholars such as Pratipal Bhatia assign Bhoja's reign to 1010-1055 CE.
However, some scholars assign the beginning of Bhoja's reign
variously between 1000 CE and 1010 CE, based on their interpretations
of inscriptions and legendary texts. For example, Merutunga's
_Prabandha-Chintamani_ states that
Bhoja ruled for 55 years, 7 months
and 3 days Based on this, scholars such as D. C. Ganguly and K. C.
Jain assign Bhoja's reign to 1000-1055 CE. However, as K. M. Munshi
states, dates are "the weakest point in Merutunga's narratives".
NAMES AND TITLES
In the Paramara inscriptions,
Bhoja is mentioned as _Bhoja-deva _. In
some modern north Indian languages such as
Hindi , he is also known as
"Bhoj" (because of schwa deletion ). Bhoja's inscriptions mention his
titles as _Parama-bhattaraka_, _
Maharajadhiraja _ and _Parameshvara_.
_Ganaratna Mahodadhi_ (1140 CE), a work on grammar by Vardhamana,
suggests that "Tribhuvan Narayana" or "Triloka Narayana" ("Lord of the
three worlds ") was also a title of Bhoja. This is corroborated by
epigraphic evidence: the
Shiva temple ascribed to
Bhoja in the Chittor
fort has an idol which was named "Bhojasvamindeva" as well as
Military career of Bhoja Banswara Betma
Dhar Kalwan Mahaudi Kokapur
Ujjain Bhoja\'s inscriptions have been found in
Madhya Pradesh ,
Maharashtra and Rajasthan
states of India
Bhoja became famous as a benevolent king and a patron of arts
and culture, he was also renowned as a warrior. He inherited a
kingdom centered around the
Malwa region, and made several attempts to
expand it with varying results. The _Udaipur
Prashasti _ inscription
of Bhoja's descendant claims that
Bhoja ruled the land from the
Himalayas in the North to Malabar in the south, which is an obvious
exaggeration. Historical evidence indicates that Bhoja's kingdom
extended from Chittor in the north to upper
Konkan in the south, and
Sabarmati River in the west to
Vidisha in the east.
Several legends mention conflicts between the ruler of
Malwa and the
Chaulukyas , during the reign of the Chaulukya kings Vallabha-raja and
Durlabha-raja . Vallabha is said to have died of smallpox during an
expedition against the Paramaras. This incident may have happened
during the early part of Bhoja's reign, or during the reign of his
Sindhuraja . Vallabha's successor Durlabha is said to have
repulsed an attack by a confederacy that included the ruler of Malwa,
but modern historians doubt the authenticity of this legend.
Bhoja's first military aggression appears to be his invasion of the
Lata region (in present-day
Gujarat ), around 1018 CE. Bhoja
Chalukyas of Lata , whose ruler Kirtiraja may have
served as his feudatory for a brief period. Bhoja's invasion of Lata
brought him close to the
Shilahara kingdom of northern Konkana , which
was located to the south of Lata.
Bhoja invaded and captured Konkana
sometime between 1018 and 1020 CE, during the reign of the Shilahara
king Arikesari . He celebrated this victory in a big way by making
generous donations to Brahmins . His 1020 CE inscription states that
he organized a _Konkana-Grahana Vijaya Parva_ ("
Festival"). The Shilaharas probably continued to administer Konkana
as Bhoja's vassals. By the end of his reign,
Bhoja had lost this
territory to the
Chalukyas of Kalyani .
Sometime before 1019 CE,
Bhoja formed an alliance against the
Chalukyas of Kalyani with
Rajendra Chola and
Gangeyadeva Kalachuri .
At this time, Jayasimha II was the Chalukya king. The triple alliance
engaged the Chalukyas at their northern and southern frontiers
simultaneously. The extent of Bhoja's success in this campaign is not
certain, as both Chalukya and Paramara panegyrics claimed victory. D.
C. Ganguly believes that
Bhoja achieved some early victories against
the Chalukyas, but was ultimately defeated. Others, including D. B.
Diskalkar and H. C. Ray , believe that
Bhoja was defeated by Jayasimha
after some early successes, but ultimately emerged victorious against
the Chalukyas after 1028 CE. According to
Georg Bühler , the struggle
probably ended with some advantage for Bhoja, which might have been
exaggerated into a great victory by the Paramara poets.
The _Udaipur Prashasti_ states that
Bhoja defeated a ruler named
Indraratha. Modern historians identify this king with Indranatha, the
Somavamshi king of Kalinga . This king was defeated by Rajendra Chola
Bhoja may have played a secondary role in the Chola campaign as part
of an alliance.
Ghaznavids , a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin, invaded
north-western India in the 11th century, led by
Mahmud of Ghazni . The
_Udaipur Prashasti_ claims that Bhoja's mercenaries defeated the
Turushkas (Turkic people). There are some legendary accounts of
Bhoja's military successes against the foreign invaders identified
with the Ghaznavids. However, there is no clear evidence to show that
Bhoja fought against the
Ghaznavids or any other Muslim army. Bhoja
might have contributed troops to the
Kabul Shahi ruler
fight against the Ghaznavids. He is believed to have granted asylum to
Anandapala's son Trilochanapala. Several medieval Muslim historians
state that Mahmud avoided a confrontation with a powerful Hindu ruler
named Param Dev after sacking the
Somnath Hindu temple. Modern
historians identify Param Dev as Bhoja: the name may be a corruption
of Paramara-Deva or of Bhoja's title _Parameshvara-Paramabhattaraka_.
Bhoja may have also been a part of the Hindu alliance that expelled
Mahmud's governors from
Thanesar and other areas around 1043
Bhoja's attempt to expand his kingdom eastwards was foiled by the
Chandela king Vidyadhara . However,
Bhoja was able to extend his
influence among the
Chandela feudatories, possibly after Vidyadhara's
death. The Kachchhapaghatas of Dubkund, who were the northern
neighbours of the Paramaras, were originally
However, their ruler Abhimanyu accepted Bhoja's suzerainty. Bhoja
also launched a campaign against the Kachchhapaghatas of
possibly with the ultimate goal of capturing
Kannauj , but his attacks
were repulsed by their ruler Kirtiraja.
According to the _Udaipur Prashasti_ inscription,
Bhoja defeated the
Gurjara king. The identity of this king is debated by the historians,
but he is generally identified as a weak
Gurjara-Pratihara ruler of
Bhoja did not retain control of
Kannauj for a long time, if
The 1046 CE Tilakawada copper plate inscription states that Bhoja's
general Suraditya stabilized his royal fortune by slaughtering one
Sahavahana in a battle. Some earlier historians identified Sahavahana
as a king of Chamba , but this identification is doubtful, considering
the distance between Chamba and Malwa, and the fact that the ruler of
Chamba was not powerful enough to destabilize Bhoja's kingdom.
Sahavahana might been a general of one of Bhoja's rivals, possibly the
Kalachuri king Karna.
Bhoja defeated and killed
Viryarama , the Shakambhari Chahamana
ruler. Encouraged by this success, he also waged a war against the
Chahamanas of Naddula . But in this second camapaign, his army was
forced to retreat, and his general Sadha was killed.
During the last years of Bhoja's reign, sometime after 1042 CE,
Jayasimha's son and successor
Someshvara I invaded Malwa, and sacked
his capital Dhara . Multiple Chalukya inscriptions dated between 1058
and 1067 CE state that the Chalukyas plundered the important Paramara
cities, including Dhara,
Ujjayini and Mandapa .
his control over
Malwa soon after the departure of the Chalukya army.
Nevertheless, the defeat was a major setback for the Paramaras, and
pushed back the southern boundary of their kingdom from Godavari to
Bhoja and Kalachuri king Gangeya were part of an
alliance against the Chalukyas,
Bhoja defeated Gangeya. It is not
certain when they turned into enemies. According to one theory, Bhoja
defeated Gangeya before his Chalukya campaign, in which Gangeya must
have fought as a Paramara vassal. A contradictory theory is that the
two turned enemies after their Chalukya campaign, sometime between
1028 CE and 1042 CE. The _Udaipur Prashasti_ also claims that Bhoja
defeated one Togglala, who might have been Gangeya's predecessor
Kokalla II .
During the last year of Bhoja's reign, or shortly after his death,
the Chaulukya king
Bhima I and the Kalachuri king Karna attacked his
kingdom. According to the 14th century author Merutunga,
once thought of subjugating Bhima, but Bhima's diplomat avoided a
Paramara invasion by instigating
Bhoja against the Chalukyas of
Kalyani instead. Sometime before 1031 CE, Bhima launched an
expedition against the Paramara branch at Abu , forcing its ruler
Dhandhuka to seek shelter with Bhoja.
Hemachandra , who was
patronized by the Chaulukyas, states that Bhoja's general Kulachandra
once sacked the Chaulukya capital while Bhima was fighting a war at
Sindh frontier. Bhima later dispatched his soldiers to raid Malwa
several times. Merutunga's _Prabandha-Chintamani_ states that once two
such soldiers attacked
Bhoja in the vicinity of his capital Dhara ,
but the Paramara king escaped unhurt.
Merutunga also states that Karna once challenged
Bhoja to either a
war or a palace-building contest. Bhoja, who was an old man by this
time, chose the second option.
Bhoja lost this contest, but refused to
accept Karna's suzerainty. As a result, Karna, in alliance with Bhima,
invaded Malwa. According to Merutunga,
Bhoja died of a disease at the
same time the allied army attacked his kingdom. Several literary
works written under Chaulukya patronage suggest that Bhima subjugated
Bhoja was still alive. However, such claims are not
corroborated by historical evidence.
Bhojeshwar Temple in
Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh
Bhoja is best remembered for his intellect and patronage to cultural
activities. Noted poets and writers of his time sought his
sponsorship. The Kashmiri writer
Bilhana famously rued that that Bhoja
died before him, because of which he failed to seek the king's
patronage. Several later kings also emulated Bhoja. For example,
Krishnadevaraya of the
Vijayanagara Empire styled himself as
_Abhinava-Bhoja_ ("the new Bhoja") and _Sakala-Kala-Bhoja_ ("
all the arts").
Bhoja was himself a polymath, and his extensive writings cover
philosophy, poetry, medicine, veterinary science , phonetics , yoga ,
and archery . Under his rule, Mālwa and its capital Dhara became one
of the chief intellectual centres of India. He is said to have paid
great attention to the education of his people, so much so that even
humble weavers in the kingdom are supposed to have composed metrical
Bhoja is said to have founded the city of Bhojpur , a belief
supported by historical evidence. Besides the
Bhojeshwar Temple there,
the construction of three now-breached dams in that area is attributed
to him. The temple originally stood on the banks of a reservoir 18.5
long and 7.5 miles wide. This reservoir was formed through
construction of 3 earth-and-stone dams during Bhoja's reign. The first
dam, built on
Betwa River , trapped the river waters in a depression
surrounded by hills. A second dam was constructed in a gap between the
hills, near present-day Mendua village. A third dam, located in
present-day Bhopal, diverted more water from the smaller Kaliasot
river into the Betwa dam reservoir. This man-made reservoir existed
until 15th century, when
Hoshang Shah emptied the lake by breaching
two of the dams.
Bhoja established the
Bhoj Shala which was a centre for Sanskrit
studies and a temple of
Sarasvatī in present-day
Dhar . According to
Bhopal city was established by and named after him
("Bhojpal"), but it is possible that the city derives its name from
another king called Bhupala (or Bhupal).
Bhoja was renowned as a scholar-king, and several books are
attributed to him. Because these books cover an enormous range of
topics, it is not certain if he actually wrote all these books or if
he only commissioned these works, acting as a patron of their actual
writers. But it is known that he was an expert on poetry, and the
treatise _Shringara-Prakasha_ was definitely authored by him.
According to Ajada, who wrote a commentary titled _Padaka-prakasha_
Bhoja wrote 84 books. The surviving
works attributed to
Bhoja include the following
IAST titles in bracket):
* _Bhujabala-bhima_ (_Bhujabalabhīma_), a work on astrology
* _Champu-Ramayana_ or _Bhoja-Champu_ (_Campūrāmāyaṇa_), a
re-telling of the _
Ramayana _ in mixture of prose and poetry, which
characterises the champu genre. The first five _kanda_s (chapters) are
attributed to Bhoja. The sixth and seventh chapters were completed by
Lakshmana and Venkatadhvarin respectively.
* _Charucharya_ (Cārucārya), a treatise on personal hygiene
* _Govinda-vilasa_, poem
* _Nama-Malika_, a compiled treatise on lexicography
* _Raja-Martaṅda_ (_Rājamārtanḍa_) or
_Patanjali-Yogasutra-Bhashya_, a major commentary on the
of Patanjali ; includes an explanation of various forms of meditations
* _Raja-Mriganka-Karana_ (_Rājamrigankakaraṅa_), a treatise on
chemistry, especially dealing with the extraction of metals from ores,
and production of various drugs.
* _Samarangana-Sutradhara _ (_Samarāṇgaṇasūtradhāra_), a
treatise on architecture and iconography. It details construction of
buildings, forts , temples, idols of deities and mechanical devices
including a so-called flying machine or glider.
* _Sarasvati-Kanthabharana_ (_Sarasvatīkaṇṭhabharaṇa_), a
Sanskrit grammar for poetic and rhetorical compositions.
Most of it is a compilation of works by other writers. Some of the
poetic examples provided by him in this work are still appreciated as
the highest cream of
* _Shalihotra_ (_Śālihotra_), a book on horses, their diseases and
* _Shringara-Prakasha_ (_Śṛṅgāraprakāśa_), treatise on
poetics and dramaturgy
* _Sringara-Manjari-Katha_ (_Śṛṅgāramanjarīkathā_), a poem
composed in _akhyayika_ form
* _Tattva-Prakasha_ (_Tattvaprākaśa_), a treatise on Shaivite
philosophy. It provides a synthesis of the voluminous literature of
the siddhanta tantras
* _Vidvajjana-Vallabha_, treatise on astronomy
* _Vyavahara-Manjari_ (_Vyavahāramanjarī), a work on
dharmaśāstra or Hindu law_
* _Yukti-Kalpataru_, a work dealing with several topics including
statecraft, politics, city-building, jewel-testing, characteristics of
books, ship-building etc.
Prakrit language poems _Kodanda-Kavya_ and _Kurma-Sataka_ are
also attributed to Bhoja. The _Kodanda-Kavya_ (Kodaṅḍakāvya) was
found inscribed on stone slab fragments at Mandu . The _Kurma-Sataka_
(_Avanikūrmaśataka_), which praises the
Kurma (tortoise) incarnation
Vishnu , was found inscribed at the
Bhoj Shala in Dhar.
_Sangitaraja_, attributed to Kalasena or Kumbha , names
Bhoja as an
authority on music, which suggests that
Bhoja also compiled or wrote a
work on music.
Historical evidence suggests that
Bhoja was a devotee of
Shiva . His
Shiva as "Jagadguru" ("World teacher"), and his
inscriptions begin with verses praising Shiva. The _Udaipur
Prashasti_ inscription of the later Paramara rulers states that Bhoja
"covered the earth with temples" dedicated to the various aspects of
Shiva, including Kedareshvara, Rameshwara, Somanatha, Kala , and
Rudra. The Jain writer Merutunga, in his _Prabandha-Chintamani_,
Bhoja constructed 104 temples in his capital city of Dhara
alone. However, the
Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur is the only surviving
shrine that can be attributed to
Bhoja with certainty. The
Samidheshvara or Tribhuvana Narayana
Shiva temple of Chittor is also
believed to have been constructed by Bhoja; it has an idol, which was
originally called Bhoja-svamin-deva.
The Jain legends state that
Bhoja convereted to
Jainism . According
to this account, his court poet Dhanapala convinced the king to give
up Vedic animal sacrifices . The poet also openly ridiculed Bhoja's
other religious beliefs, including his worship of
cow . Gradually, Dhanapala convinced
Bhoja to become a Jain.
These accounts of Bhoja's conversion to
Jainism are irreconcilable
with historical evidence. In a _Bhoja-Prabandlha_ legend, a Brahmin
named Govinda calls
Vaishnavite . It is possible that Bhoja
patronized other faiths despite being a Shaivite.
Bhoja married multiple women as part of matrimonial alliances with
other ruling dynasties. His chief queen was Liladevi or Lilavati. His
other queens included Padmavati (princess of Kuntala ), Chandramukhi
Anga ) and Kamala.
Inscriptional evidence suggests that he was succeeded by Jayasimha ,
who was probably his son. Jayasimha's
Mandhata grant of 1055 CE
mentions his predecessors as Bhoja,
Sindhuraja and Vakpati. However,
this inscription does not specify the relationship between
Jayasimha, and it is the only epigraph that mentions a Paramara king
named Jayasimha. The _Udaipur Prashasti_ and _Nagpur Prashasti_
inscriptions of the later Paramara kings give a detailed genealogy of
the Paramara kings, but do not mention Jayasimha. These two
Udayaditya as the next ruler after Bhoja. Udayaditya
is now known to be Bhoja's brother.
In terms of the number of legends centered around him,
comparable to the fabled
Sheldon Pollock describes
Bhoja as "the most celebrated poet-king and philosopher-king of his
time, and perhaps of any Indian time".
Bhoja came to be featured in
several legends as a righteous scholar-king, who was the ultimate
judge of literary qualities and generously rewarded good poets and
writers. Most of these legends were written three to five centuries
after his death.
Apart from epigraphic records, much of the information about Bhoja
comes from these legendary accounts, including Merutunga's
_Prabandha-Chintamani_ (14th century), Rajavallabha's _Bhoja-Charitra_
(15th century), and Ballala's _Bhoja-Prabandha_ (17th century).
However, many of the popular legends about
Bhoja do not have any
historical basis. For example, the _Bhoja-Prabandha_
anachronistically describes the ancient poet
Kalidasa as a
contemporary of Bhoja.
In order to enhance their imperial claims, the Paramaras promoted
several legends associating
Bhoja with the ancient legendary kings.
For example, in _
Simhasana Dvatrimsika _ (popularly known as
Bhoja finds a throne of Vikramaditya, and each
of the 22 divine figurines attached to the throne tell him a story
about Vikramaditya. A _
Bhavishya Purana _ legend describes
a descendant of
Shalivahana . According to this
legend, the mleccha (foreign) influence had corrupted Indian culture
by the time of Bhoja's ascension.
Bhoja marched up to the banks of the
Indus river , and defeated several mleccha kings. The poet
who accompanied him, magically turned into ashes a mleccha named
Mahamada, whose followers came to be known as Muslim (The character
Mahamada is based on
Muhammad possibly combined with Mahmud of Ghazni
). After returning to his capital,
among the top three varnas and
Prakrit language among the Shudras .
During his 50-year reign,
Aryavarta (the land between the Himalayas
Vindhyas ) became a blessed land where the varna system was
established. On the other hand, caste mixture took place beyond the
Vindhyas (that is, in
South India ). Again, this is an imaginary
account not supported by any historical evidence.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 22.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 23-24.
* ^ Hoernle 1907 , p. xvii.
* ^ Ramamurthi (2005). _Textbooks of Operative Neurosurgery (2
Vol.)_. BI. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7225-217-5 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Yadava 1982 , p. 38.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Singh 1984 , p. 16.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 24.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 24-25.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 25-26.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 26-27.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 26.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 16-17.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 27-28.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mankodi 1987 , pp. 71-72.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Singh 1984 , p. 21.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Jain 1972 , p. 341.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 30-33.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 30.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Trivedi 1991 , p. 33.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Seth 1978 , p. 129.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 37.
* ^ Mankodi 1987 , p. 62.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 130-132.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 38-40.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 133-134.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 41.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 137.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Sen 1999 , p. 320.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 136.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 139.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 140-141.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 46.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 141-144.
* ^ Choubey 2006 , p. 63.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 144-145.
* ^ Bose 2015 , p. 27.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 50.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 167-168.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 56-57.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 155-156.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Singh 1984 , p. 60.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 158.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 163-165.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 61-62.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 166.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 69.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 172-173.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 173.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 174-175.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 175.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 175-176.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 176.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 177.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 151-153.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 154.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 56.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 65-66.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 170-171.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 36.
* ^ Bose 2015 , p. 281.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 148-150.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 180-181.
* ^ Seth 1978 , pp. 179-181.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 181.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 182.
* ^ Singh 1984 , pp. 66-67.
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 184.
* ^ Singh 1984 , p. 68.
* ^ Pollock 2003 , p. 179.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Mankodi 1987 , p. 71.
* ^ Mankodi 1987 , p. 68.
* ^ Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of
Bhopal (1876). _The táj-ul ikbál
tárikh Bhopal, or, The history of Bhopal_. Thacker, Spink. p. 222.
OCLC 28302607 .
* ^ Pranab Kumar Bhattacharyya (1977). _Historical Geography of
Madhya Pradesh from Early Records_.
Motilal Banarsidass . p. 275. ISBN
* ^ CPI joins campaign against naming
Bhopal as Bhojpal. Daily
Bhaskar, 16 March 2011.
* ^ Ashfaq Ali (1981). _Bhopal, Past and Present_. Jai Bharat. p.
* ^ Martinez, José Luiz (2001) . _Semiosis in Hindustani music_.
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 169. ISBN 81-208-1801-6 .
* ^ Banerji, Sures (1989). _A companion to
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bhatia 1970 , pp. 318-321.
* ^ D. B. Diskalkar (1960). P. S. Raghavan, ed. "The Influence of
Classical Poets on the Inscriptional Poets". _Journal Of Indian
History_. University of Kerala. 38 (2): 292.
* ^ V. M. Kulkarni (2003). _Kūrmaśatakadvayam: Two
on Tortoise who Supports the Earth_. L.D. Institute of Indology. pp.
* ^ S. Venkitasubramonia Iyer (1978). _Technical Literature in
Sanskrit_. 10. Department of Sanskrit, University of Kerala. p. 161.
* ^ Mankodi 1987 , p. 61.
* ^ Yadava 1982 , p. 166.
* ^ Yadava 1982 , p. 12.
* ^ Yadava 1982 , p. 13.
* ^ Yadava 1982 , p. 14.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Ballala (1950). _The Narrative of Bhoja
(Bhojaprabandlha)_. Translated by Louis H. Gray .
* ^ Rahman Ali (2008). _Art & Architecture of Daśārṇa (Malwa)
Region_. Sharada. p. 38. ISBN 9788188934546 .
* ^ Seth 1978 , p. 130.
* ^ Warder 1992 , pp. 177.
* ^ Trivedi 1991 , p. 62.
* ^ Trivedi 1991 , p. 63.
* ^ Warder 1992 , pp. 176.
* ^ Pollock 2003 , p. 178.
* ^ Pollock 2003 , pp. 179-180.
* ^ P.N. Sundaresan, ed. (2000). _Sruti, Issues 184-195_. p. 253.
Venkataraman Raghavan (1975). _
Sanskrit and Indological
Studies: Dr. V. Raghavan Felicitation Volume_.
Motilal Banarsidass .
* ^ Ziolkowski, Jan M. (2007). _Fairy Tales from Before Fairy
Tales: The Medieval Latin Past of Wonderful Lies_. Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press. p. 220.
* ^ Hiltebeitel 2009 , p. 264.
* ^ Hiltebeitel 2009 , pp. 273-275.
* Bhatia, Pratipal (1970). _The Paramāras, c. 800-1305 A.D._
OCLC 776890380 .
* Bose, Saikat K. (2015). _Boot, Hooves and Wheels: And the Social
Dynamics behind South Asian Warfare_. Vij Books. ISBN
* Choubey, M. C. (2006). _Tripurī, history and culture_. Sharada.
ISBN 9788188934287 .
* Hiltebeitel, Alf (2009). _Rethinking India\'s Oral and Classical
Epics: Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims, and Dalits_. University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226340555 .
* Hoernle, Rudolf August Friedrich (1907). _Studies in the Medicine
of Ancient India: Part I: Osteology_. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
* Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). _
Malwa Through the Ages, from the
Earliest Times to 1305 A.D_. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN
* Mankodi, Kirit (1987). "Scholar-Emperor and a Funerary Temple:
Eleventh Century Bhojpur". _Marg _. National Centre for the Performing
Arts . 39 (2): 61–72.
* Pollock, Sheldon (2003). _The Language of the Gods in the World of
Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India_. University of
California Press. ISBN 0-5202-4500-8 .
* Sen, Shailendra Nath (1999). _Ancient Indian History and
Civilization_. New Age International. ISBN 9788122411980 .
* Seth, Krishna Narain (1978). _The Growth of the Paramara Power in
OCLC 8931757 .
* Singh, Mahesh (1984). _
Bhoja Paramāra and His Times_. Bharatiya
OCLC 11786897 .
* Trivedi, Harihar Vitthal (1991). _Inscriptions of the Paramāras,
Chandēllas, Kachchapaghātas, and two minor dynasties_.
Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India .
* Warder, Anthony Kennedy (1992). "XLVI: The
_Indian Kāvya Literature: The art of storytelling_. Motilal
Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0615-3 .
* Yadava, Ganga Prasad (1982). _Dhanapāla and His Times: A
Socio-cultural Study Based Upon His Works_. Concept.
* Upendra (9th century)
* Vairisimha I (9th century, possibly fictional)
Siyaka I (9th century, possibly fictional)
* Vakpati I (9th-10th century)
* Vairisimha (10th century)
Siyaka (c. 948-972)
* Munja alias Vakpati II (c. 972-990s)
Sindhuraja (c. 990s-1010)
Bhoja (c. 1010-1055)
* Jayasimha I (c. 1055-1070)
Udayaditya (c. 1070-1086)
Lakshmadeva (c. 1086-1094)
Naravarman (c. 1094-1130)
* Yashovarman (c. 1133-1142)
* Jayavarman I (c. 1142-1143)
* _Interregnum_ (c. 1144-1174)
Vindhyavarman (c. 1175-1194)
Subhatavarman (c. 1194-1209)
Arjunavarman I (c. 1210-1215)
* Devapala (c. 1218-1239)
Jaitugideva (c. 1239-1255)
* Jayavarman II (c. 1255-1274)
Arjunavarman II (13th century)
Bhoja II (13th century)
Mahalakadeva (died 1305)
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 51846559
* LCCN : n50029995
* ISNI : 0000 0000 8130 5623
* GND : 119169703
* SUDOC : 076029409
* BNF : cb135052304 (data)
Bhoja additional terms may
Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
* Cookie statement
* Mobile view