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BHEDāBHEDA VEDāNTA is a subschool of Vedānta , which teaches that the individual self (_jīvātman_) is both different and not different from the ultimate reality known as Brahman.
* 1 Etymology * 2 Philosophy * 3 Influence * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 External links
_Bhedābheda_ ( Devanagari : भेदाभेद) is a Sanskrit word meaning "difference and non-difference ".
The characteristic position of all the different Bhedābheda Vedānta schools is that the individual self (_jīvātman_) is both different and not different from the ultimate reality known as Brahman. Bhedābheda reconciles the positions of two other major schools of Vedānta. The _ Advaita _ (Non-dual) Vedānta that claims that the individual self is completely identical to Brahman, and the _Dvaita_ (Dualist) Vedānta that teaches complete difference between the individual self and Brahman. Bādarāyaṇa’s Brahma Sūtra (c. 4th century CE) may also have been written from a Bhedābheda Vedāntic viewpoint.
Each thinker within the Bhedābheda Vedānta tradition has their own particular understanding of the precise meanings of the philosophical terms "difference" and "non-difference". Bhedābheda Vedāntic ideas can traced to some of the very oldest Vedāntic texts, including quite possibly Bādarāyaṇa’s _Brahma Sūtra_ (c. 4th century CE).
Bhedābheda ideas had an enormous influence on the devotional (bhakti ) schools of India’s medieval period. Among medieval Bhedābheda thinkers are:
* Ramanuja (11th century), who pioneered the Sri Vaishnava school of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta * Nimbārka (7th century), who founded the Svābhābika Dvaitādvaita school. * Vallabha (1479-1531), who founded Shuddhadvaita and the Puṣṭimārga devotional sect now centered in Nathdwara, Rajasthan * Caitanya (1485-1533), the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism based in the eastern Indian State of West Bengal , and the theological founder of Achintya Bheda Abhedavedanta
Other major names are Bhāskara (8th and 9th centuries), Rāmānuja’s teacher Yādavaprakāśa, and Vijñānabhikṣu (16th century).
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ " Bhedabheda Vedanta". _Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy_. Retrieved 2015-02-04. * ^ Malkovsky, _The Role of Divine Grace in the Soteriology of Śaṃkarācārya_, Leiden: Brill, p. 118, * ^ Sivananda 1993 , p. 247-253.
* Sivananda, Swami (1993), _All About Hinduism_, The Divine Life Society
* Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), _Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History _, Columbia University Press * Complete English Translation of _Sri Subodhini jee_, published in _Collected Works of Sri Vallabhcharya series_, Sri Satguru Publications
* Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, _Bhedabheda_
_ This Hindu philosophy