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RELATED HINDU TEXTS
Puranas BRAHMA PURANAS
* Vishnu * Bhagavata * Naradiya * Garuda * Padma * Vamana * Kurma * Matsya
* Shiva * Linga * Skanda * Vayu * Agni
Shastras and sutras
* Artha Śastra
* Chronology of Hindu texts
* v * t * e
The BHAVISHYA PURANA (Bhaviṣya Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen
major works in the
Purana genre of
Hinduism , written in
The text exists in many inconsistent versions, wherein the content as well as their subdivisions vary, and five major versions are known. Some manuscripts have four Parvan (parts), some two, others don't have any parts. The text as it exists today is a composite of material ranging from medieval era to very recent. The available versions of Bhavishya Purana are based on a printed text published during the British colonial era.
The first 16 chapters of the first part of the Bhavisya Purana is called Brahmaparvan. It shows similarities to, and likely borrowed verses from some version of the Manusmriti . However, some of the caste -related and women's rights related discussion in the Bhavishya Purana is egalitarian and challenge those found in the 19th-century published manuscripts of the Manusmriti. The Brahmaparvan part of the Bhavishya Purana includes a 169 chapters compendium of Surya (Sun god) related literature, that overlaps with Zoroastrianism-related views. These Sun-related sections are a notable and important part of the Bhavishya Purana, and it may be related to the migration or interaction between people of Persia and central Asia with those in Indian subcontinent.
The second part of the text, called Madhyamaparvan, is a
Tantra-related work. The "prophecy"-related third part
Pratisargaparvan includes sections on Christianity, Islam, Bhakti
movement, Sikhism, British rule, and considered by scholars as a
19th-century creation. The fourth part of the text called
Uttaraparvan, is also known as Bhavishyottara Purana. This last part
describes festivals related to various Hindu gods and goddesses and
their Tithis (dates on lunar calendar), as well as mythology and a
Dharma particularly vrata (vow) and dana (charity).
The text also has many Mahatmya chapters on geography, travel guide
and pilgrimage to holy sites such as
* 1 Dating and texts * 2 Structure
* 3 Contents
* 3.1 Brāhmaparvan * 3.2 Madhyamaparvan * 3.3 Pratisargaparvan * 3.4 Uttaraparvan
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 5.1 Bibliography
* 6 External links
DATING AND TEXTS
In records of land grants of the fifth century CE verses are quoted
which occur only in the Padma , Bhavishya, and
According to Maurice Winternitz, the text which has come down to us in manuscript form under this title is certainly not the ancient work which is quoted in the Āpastambīya Dharmasūtra. A quotation appearing in the Āpastambīya Dharmasūtra attributed to the Bhaviṣyat Purāṇa cannot be found in the extant text of the Purana.
Some manuscripts of the Bhavishya Purana assert that it has five parts (Sanskrit: parvans), but the extant printed editions contain four parts (Brāhma, Madhyama, Pratisarga, and Uttara). These four parts have distinctive content and dating.
The Brahmaparvan contains 215 chapters, the Madhyamaparvan has three sections with a cumulative total of 62 chapters, the Pratisargaparvan has four sections with 7, 35, 32 and 26 chapters sequentially, and the Uttaraparvan has 208 chapters. Some manuscripts of the text do not have these Parvans and have different number of chapters. The Madhyamaparvan part is a Tantra-related work, while the "prophecy"-related third part Pratisargaparvan is likely a 19th-century creation.
The text is sometimes titled Bhaviṣyat Purāṇa. In the Padma
Purana , it is classified in the rajas category, which contains
puranas related to
Despite being labelled a purana or "tales of ancient times", the work relates only a few legends. It is one of several puranas in which a list of royal dynasties of the "past" are followed by lists of kings predicted to rule in the future.
This part of the text has 215 chapters. It covers topics such as rites of passage, ceremonies and feasts. It also covers the duties and rights of women, a discussion on the nature of people and how to identify good and bad characters, and a caste-related discussion. According to Arora, and other scholars, the caste -related and women's rights related discussion in the Bhavishya Purana is egalitarian, similar to those found in Brahma Purana and Vajrasuchi Upanishad , all three of which challenge the views expressed in the Manusmriti.
The Brahmaparvan also includes sections on festival dates and methods
This is not mentioned in other Indian text, states Hazra, to have been a part of the Bhavishya Purana, and therefore he states that it may be "a late appendage" abounding in Tantric theories of the 2nd-millennium. However, states Rocher, the tantra sections of this Purana were likely part of the text by about 1500 CE.
The Pratisarga parvan has 100 chapters, which deal with topics such as the genealogy of the kings and sages, and prophecies. It is written as a universal history with the first and the second chapters (called Khandas) deal with old time, the third part with the medieval, while the fourth deals with the new age. This section has led scholars to question the veracity and authenticity of much of the Bhavishya Purana, and as evidence that the Puranas were not scriptures, but texts that were constantly revised and of living nature, both over time and over geography.
Alf Hiltebeitel , who has translated and summarized this part of the
Bhasvisya Purana, considers that 1739 marks the terminus a quo
(completed after year) for the text's history of the
Mughals and the
same terminus a quo would apply to Pratisargaparvan's first khanda
Genesis-Exodus sequence, and the diptych in the section concerning
"Isha Putra " (
The Uttaraparvan is large with 208 chapters. Though nominally attached to the Bhavishya Purana, is usually considered to be an independent work, also known as the Bhaviṣyottara Purāṇa, and as such is included among the Upapuranas (Lesser Puranas). The Bhaviṣyottara Purana is primarily a handbook of religious rites with a few legends and myths. Rajendra Hazra characterizes it as "a loose collection of materials taken from various sources" that is lacking in many of the traditional five characteristics of a purana, but which offers an interesting study of vows, festivals, and donations from sociological and religious point of view.
* ^ A B Dalal 2014 , p. 71.
* ^ A B Winternitz 1922 , p. 541.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Rocher 1986 , pp. 151-154.
* ^ A B K P Gietz 1992 , p. 215 with note 1180.
* ^ A B C D E F Dalal 2014 , p. 72.
* ^ A B C Rocher 1986 , p. 153.
* ^ K P Gietz 1992 , p. 48-49 with note 246.
* ^ Sarma, KV (1977). "Review of The Manava Dharmasastra I-III and
Purana by Ludwik Sternbach". J. Royal Asiatic Soc. G.B.
Irel. Cambridge University Press. 109 (02): 217. doi
* ^ A B Rocher 1986 , p. 152 with footnotes.
* ^ A B Raj Arora (1972), Historical and cultural data from the
Bhavisya Purana, Sterling Publishers,
OCLC 844555576, pages viii-ix,
92-119, Chapter 4
* ^ A B L Gopal (1986), Bhavisya
* Gregory Bailey (2003). Arvind Sharma, ed. The Study of Hinduism.
University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7 .
* Dalal, Rosen (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin.
ISBN 978-8184752779 .
* Dimmitt, Cornelia; van Buitenen, J. A. B. (2012). Classical Hindu
Mythology: A Reader in the
* A Review: The Manava Dharmasastra I-III and the Bhavishya Purana by Ludwik Sternback, KV Sarma (1997)