Betty Friedan (/ˈfriːdən, friːˈdæn, frɪ-/
February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer,
activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in
the United States, her 1963 book
The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique is often
credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the
20th century. In 1966, Friedan co-founded and was elected the first
president of the
National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to
bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully
equal partnership with men."
In 1970, after stepping down as NOW's first president, Friedan
organized the nationwide
Women's Strike for Equality on August 26, the
50th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution granting women the right to vote. The national strike was
successful beyond expectations in broadening the feminist movement;
the march led by Friedan in New York City alone attracted over 50,000
people. In 1971, Friedan joined other leading feminists to establish
the National Women's Political Caucus. Friedan was also a strong
supporter of the proposed
Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment to the United States
Constitution that passed the United States House of Representatives
(by a vote of 354–24) and Senate (84–8) following intense pressure
by women's groups led by NOW in the early 1970s. Following
Congressional passage of the amendment, Friedan advocated for
ratification of the amendment in the states and supported other
women's rights reforms: she founded the National Association for the
Repeal of Abortion Laws but was later critical of the
abortion-centered positions of many liberal feminists.
Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United
States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest
of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was
critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked
groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second
Stage (1981), critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of
1 Early life
2 Writing career
2.1 Before 1963
2.2 The Feminine Mystique
2.3 Other works
Activism in the women's movement
3.1 National Organization for Women
3.2 Women's Strike for Equality
3.3 National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws
3.5 Movement image and unity
3.6 Related issues
3.6.1 Lesbian politics
3.6.2 Abortion choice
6 Personal life
9 Awards and honors
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Friedan was born Bettye Naomi Goldstein on February 4, 1921
in Peoria, Illinois, to Harry and Miriam (Horwitz) Goldstein,
whose Jewish families were from Russia and Hungary. Harry
owned a jewelry store in Peoria, and Miriam wrote for the society page
of a newspaper when Friedan's father fell ill. Her mother's new life
outside the home seemed much more gratifying.
As a young girl, Friedan was active in both Marxist and Jewish
circles; she later wrote how she felt isolated from the latter
community at times, and felt her "passion against
injustice...originated from my feelings of the injustice of
anti-Semitism". She attended Peoria High School, and became
involved in the school newspaper. When her application to write a
column was turned down, she and six other friends launched a literary
magazine called Tide, which discussed home life rather than school
She attended all-female
Smith College in 1938. She won a scholarship
prize in her first year for outstanding academic performance. In her
second year she became interested in poetry, and had many poems
published in campus publications. In 1941, she became editor-in-chief
of the college newspaper. The editorials became more political under
her leadership, taking a strong antiwar stance and occasionally
causing controversy. She graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta
Kappa in 1942 with a major in psychology.
In 1943 she spent a year at the
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley on
a fellowship for graduate work in psychology with Erik Erikson.
She became more politically active, continuing to mix with Marxists
(many of her friends were investigated by the FBI). In her
memoirs, she claimed that her boyfriend at the time had pressured her
into turning down a Ph.D. fellowship for further study and abandoning
her academic career.
Betty Friedan photographed by Lynn Gilbert, 1981
After leaving Berkeley, Friedan became a journalist for leftist and
labor union publications. Between 1943 and 1946 she wrote for The
Federated Press and between 1946 and 1952 she worked for the United
Electrical Workers' UE News. One of her assignments was to report on
the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Friedan was dismissed from the union newspaper
UE News in 1952 because
she was pregnant with her second child. After leaving
UE News she
became a freelance writer for various magazines, including
According to Friedan biographer Daniel Horowitz, Friedan started as a
labor journalist when she first became aware of women's oppression and
exclusion, although Friedan herself disputed this interpretation of
The Feminine Mystique
Main article: The Feminine Mystique
For her 15th college reunion in 1957 Friedan conducted a survey of
college graduates, focusing on their education, subsequent experiences
and satisfaction with their current lives. She started publishing
articles about what she called "the problem that has no name," and got
passionate responses from many housewives grateful that they were not
alone in experiencing this problem.
The shores are strewn with the casualties of the feminine mystique.
They did give up their own education to put their husbands through
college, and then, maybe against their own wishes, ten or fifteen
years later, they were left in the lurch by divorce. The strongest
were able to cope more or less well, but it wasn't that easy for a
woman of forty-five or fifty to move ahead in a profession and make a
new life for herself and her children or herself alone.
Friedan then decided to rework and expand this topic into a book, The
Feminine Mystique. Published in 1963, it depicted the roles of women
in industrial societies, especially the full-time homemaker role which
Friedan deemed stifling. In her book, Friedan described a
depressed suburban housewife who dropped out of college at the age of
19 to get married and raise four children. She spoke of her own
'terror' at being alone, wrote that she had never once in her life
seen a positive female role-model who worked outside the home and also
kept a family, and cited numerous cases of housewives who felt
similarly trapped. From her psychological background she criticized
Freud's penis envy theory, noting a lot of paradoxes in his work, and
offered some answers to women desirous of further education.
The "Problem That Has No Name" was described by Friedan in the
beginning of the book:
The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of
American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction,
a yearning [that is, a longing] that women suffered in the middle of
the 20th century in the United States. Each suburban [house]wife
struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries
… she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — "Is
Friedan asserted that women are as capable as men for any type of work
or any career path against arguments to the contrary by the mass
media, educators and psychologists. The restrictions of the 1950s,
and the trapped, imprisoned feeling of many women forced into these
roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending
consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of
oppressive laws and social views that restricted women.
The book became a bestseller, which many historians believe was the
impetus for the "second wave" of the women's movement in the United
States, and significantly shaped national and world events.
Friedan originally intended to write a sequel to The Feminine
Mystique, which was to be called "Woman: The Fourth Dimension," but
instead only wrote an article by that title, which appeared in the
Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal in June 1964.
Booknotes interview with Friedan on The Fountain of Age, November 28,
Friedan published six books. Her other books include The Second Stage,
It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement, Beyond Gender
and The Fountain of Age. Her autobiography, Life so Far, was published
She also wrote for magazines and a newspaper:
McCall's magazine, 1971–1974
Writings for The
New York Times
New York Times Magazine, Newsday, Harper's, Saturday
Review, Mademoiselle, Ladies' Home Journal, Family Circle, TV Guide,
and True Magazine
Activism in the women's movement
National Organization for Women
Billington, Friedan, Ireton, and Rawalt
In 1966 Friedan co-founded, and became the first president of the
National Organization for Women. Some of the founders of NOW,
including Friedan, were inspired by the failure of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce Title VII of the Civil
Rights Act of 1964; at the Third National Conference of State
Commissions on the Status of Women they were prohibited from issuing a
resolution that recommended the EEOC carry out its legal mandate to
end sex discrimination in employment. They thus gathered in
Friedan's hotel room to form a new organization. On a paper napkin
Friedan scribbled the acronym "NOW". Later more people became
founders of NOW at the October 1966 NOW Organizing Conference.
Friedan, with Pauli Murray, wrote NOW's statement of purpose; the
original was scribbled on a napkin by Friedan. Under Friedan, NOW
advocated fiercely for the legal equality of women and men.
NOW lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative
victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and
urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully
campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same affirmative
action granted to blacks to women, and for a 1968 EEOC decision ruling
illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme
Court. NOW was vocal in support of the legalization of abortion, an
issue that divided some feminists. Also divisive in the 1960s among
women was the Equal Rights Amendment, which NOW fully endorsed; by the
1970s, women and labor unions opposed to ERA warmed up to it and began
to support it fully. NOW also lobbied for national daycare.
Despite the success NOW achieved under Friedan, her decision to
pressure Equal Employment Opportunity to use Title VII of the 1964
Civil Rights Act to enforce more job opportunities among American
women met with fierce opposition within the organization. Siding
with arguments from the group's African American members, many of
NOW's leaders accepted that the vast number of male and female African
Americans who lived below the poverty line needed more job
opportunities than women within the middle and upper class.
Friedan stepped down as president in 1969.
In 1973, Friedan founded the First Women's Bank and Trust Company.
Women's Strike for Equality
In 1970 back then, with Friedan leading the cause, was instrumental in
the U.S. Senate's rejection of President Richard M. Nixon's Supreme
Court nominee G. Harrold Carswell, who had opposed the 1964 Civil
Rights Act granting (among other things) women workplace equality with
men. On August 26, 1970, the 50th anniversary of the Women's Suffrage
Amendment to the Constitution, Friedan organized the national Women's
Strike for Equality, and led a march of an estimated 20,000 women in
New York City. While the march's primary objective was
promoting equal opportunities for women in jobs and education,
protestors and organizers of the event also demanded abortion rights
and the establishment of child-care centers.
Friedan spoke about the Strike for Equality:
All kinds of women's groups all over the country will be using this
week on August 26 particularly, to point out those areas in women's
life which are still not addressed. For example, a question of
equality before the law; we are interested in the equal rights
amendment. The question of child care centers which are totally
inadequate in the society, and which women require, if they are going
to assume their rightful position in terms of helping in decisions of
the society. The question of a women's right to control her own
reproductive processes, that is, laws prohibiting abortion in the
state or putting them into criminal statutes; I think that would be a
statute that we would [be] addressing ourselves to.
So I think individual women will react differently; some will not cook
that day, some will engage in dialog with their husband[s], some will
be out at the rallies and demonstrations that will be taking place all
over the country. Others will be writing things that will help them to
define where they want to go. Some will be pressuring their Senators
and their Congressmen to pass legislations that affect women. I don't
think you can come up with any one point, women will be doing their
own thing in their own way.
National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws
back, l to r, Prof. Albert M. Sacks, Pauli Murray, Dr. Mary Bunting;
seated, l to r, Alma Lutz, suffragette and Harvard Law School Forum
Guest, and Betty Friedan
Friedan founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion
National Abortion Rights Action League
National Abortion Rights Action League after the Supreme
Court had legalized abortion in 1973.
In 1970 Friedan led other feminists in derailing the nomination of
Supreme Court nominee G. Harold Carswell, whose record of racial
discrimination and antifeminism made him unacceptable and unfit to sit
on the highest court in the land to virtually everyone in the civil
rights and feminist movements. Friedan's impassioned testimony before
the Senate helped sink Carswell's nomination.
In 1971 Friedan, along with many other leading women's movement
Gloria Steinem (with whom she had a legendary
rivalry) founded the National Women's Political Caucus.
In 1972, Friedan unsuccessfully ran as a delegate to the 1972
Democratic National Convention in support of Congresswoman Shirley
Chisholm. That year at the DNC Friedan played a very prominent role
and addressed the convention, although she clashed with other women,
notably Steinem, on what should be done there, and how.
Movement image and unity
One of the most influential feminists of the twentieth century,
Friedan (in addition to many others) opposed equating feminism with
lesbianism. As early as 1964, very early in the movement, and only a
year after the publication of The Feminine Mystique, Friedan appeared
on television to address the fact the media was, at that point, trying
to dismiss the movement as a joke and centering argument and debate
around whether or not to wear bras and other issues considered
ridiculous. In 1982, during the second wave, she wrote a book for
the post-feminist 1980s called The Second Stage, about family life,
premised on women having conquered social and legal
She pushed the feminist movement to focus on economic issues,
especially equality in employment and business as well as provision
for child care and other means by which both women and men could
balance family and work. She tried to lessen the focuses on abortion,
as an issue already won, and on rape and pornography, which she
believed most women did not consider to be high priorities.
When she grew up in Peoria, Illinois, she knew only one gay man. She
said, "the whole idea of homosexuality made me profoundly uneasy".
She later acknowledged that she had been very square, and was
uncomfortable about homosexuality. "The women's movement was not about
sex, but about equal opportunity in jobs and all the rest of it. Yes,
I suppose you have to say that freedom of sexual choice is part of
that, but it shouldn't be the main issue…."[Note 1][Note 2] She
ignored lesbians in the
National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women (NOW)
initially, and objected to what she saw as their demands for equal
time. "'Homosexuality…is not, in my opinion, what the women's
movement is all about.'" While opposing all repression, she wrote,
she refused to wear a purple armband as an act of political
solidarity, considering it not part of the mainstream issues of
abortion and child care. But in 1977, at the National Women's
Conference, she seconded a lesbian rights resolution "which everyone
thought I would oppose" in order to "preempt any debate" and move on
to other issues she believed were more important and less divisive in
the effort to add the
Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the U.S.
Constitution. She accepted lesbian sexuality, albeit not its
politicization. In 1995, at the United Nations Fourth World
Conference on Women in Beijing, China, she found advice given by
Chinese authorities to taxi drivers that naked lesbians would be
"cavorting" in their cars so that the drivers should hang sheets
outside their cab windows, and that lesbians would have AIDS and so
drivers should carry disinfectants, to be "ridiculous", "incredibly
stupid" and "insulting". In 1997, she wrote that "children…will
ideally come from mother and father." She wrote in 2000, "I'm more
relaxed about the whole issue now".
She supported the concept that abortion is a woman's choice, that it
shouldn't be a crime or exclusively a doctor's choice or anyone else
involved, and helped form NARAL (now NARAL Pro-Choice America) at a
Planned Parenthood wasn't yet supportive. Alleged death
threats against her speaking on abortion led to the cancellation of
two events, although subsequently one of the host institutions, Loyola
College, invited her back to speak on abortion and other homosexual
rights issues and she did so. Her draft of NOW's first statement
of purpose included an abortion plank, but NOW didn't include it until
the next year. In 1980, she believed abortion should be in the
context of "'the choice to have children'", a formulation supported by
the Roman Catholic priest organizing Catholic participation in the
White House Conference on Families for that year, though perhaps
not by the bishops above him. A resolution embodying the
formulation passed at the conference by 460 to 114, whereas a
resolution addressing abortion, ERA and "sexual preference" passed by
only 292–291 and that only after 50 opponents of abortion had walked
out and so hadn't voted on it. She disagreed with a resolution
that framed abortion in more feminist terms that was introduced in the
Minneapolis regional conference resulting from the same White House
Conference on Families, believing it to be more polarizing, while the
drafters apparently thought Friedan's formulation too
conservative. As of 2000, she wrote, referring to "NOW and the
other women's organizations" as seeming to be in a "time warp", "to my
mind, there is far too much focus on abortion.... [I]n recent years
I've gotten a little uneasy about the movement's narrow focus on
abortion as if it were the single, all-important issue for women when
it's not". She asked, "Why don't we join forces with all who have
true reverence for life, including Catholics who oppose abortion, and
fight for the choice to have children?"
She joined nearly 200 others in Feminists for Free Expression in
opposing the Pornography Victims' Compensation Act. "'To suppress free
speech in the name of protecting women is dangerous and wrong,' says
Friedan. 'Even some blue-jean ads are insulting and denigrating. I'm
not adverse to a boycott, but I don't think they should be
In 1968, Friedan signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest"
pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam
Friedan is credited for starting the contemporary feminist movement
and writing a book that is one of the cornerstones of American
feminism. Her activist work and her book The Feminine Mystique
have been a critical influence to authors, educators, writers,
anthropologists, journalists, activists, organizations, unions, and
everyday women taking part in the feminist movement. Allan Wolf,
in The Mystique of
Betty Friedan writes: "She helped to change not
only the thinking but the lives of many American women, but recent
books throw into question the intellectual and personal sources of her
work." Although there have been some debates on Friedan's work in
The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique since its publication, there is no doubt that
her work for equality for women was sincere and committed.
Judith Hennessee (Betty Friedan: Her Life) and Daniel Horowitz, a
professor of American Studies at Smith College, have also written
about Friedan. Horowitz explored Friedan's engagement with the women's
movement before she began to work on The Feminine Mystique and
pointed out that Friedan's feminism did not start in the 1950s but
even earlier, in the 1940s. Focusing his study on Friedan's ideas
in feminism rather than on her personal life Horowitz's book gave
Friedan a major role in the history of American feminism.
Justine Blau was also greatly influenced by Friedan. In Betty Friedan:
Feminist Blau wrote of the feminist movement's influence on Friedan's
personal and professional life. Lisa Fredenksen Bohannon, in
Woman's work: The story of Betty Friedan, went deep into Friedan's
personal life and wrote about her relationship with her mother.
Sandra Henry and Emily Taitz (Betty Friedan, Fighter for Woman's
Rights) and Susan Taylor Boyd (Betty Friedan: Voice of Woman's Right,
Advocates of Human Rights), wrote biographies on Friedan's life and
works. Journalist Janann Sheman wrote a book called Interviews with
Betty Friedan containing interviews with Friedan for the New York
Times, Working Women and Playboy, among others. Focusing on interviews
that relate to Friedan's views on men, women and the American Family,
Sheman traced Friedan's life with an analysis of The Feminine
Friedan (among others) was featured in the 2013 documentary Makers:
Women Who Make America, about the women's movement.
In 2014, a biography of Friedan was added to the American National
Biography Online (ANB).
New York Times
New York Times obituary for Friedan noted that she was "famously
abrasive", and that she could be "thin-skinned and imperious, subject
to screaming fits of temperament."
Media focus would fall on feminists grading each other on personality
and appearance, the source of
Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem's
well-documented antipathy. In February 2006, shortly after
Friedan's death, the feminist writer
Germaine Greer published an
article in The Guardian, in which she described Friedan as pompous
and egotistic, somewhat demanding and sometimes selfish, citing
several incidents during a 1972 tour of Iran.
Betty Friedan "changed the course of human history almost
single-handedly." Her ex-husband, Carl Friedan, believes this; Betty
believed it too. This belief was the key to a good deal of Betty's
behaviour; she would become breathless with outrage if she didn't get
the deference she thought she deserved. Though her behaviour was often
tiresome, I figured that she had a point. Women don't get the respect
they deserve unless they are wielding male-shaped power; if they
represent women they will be called "love" and expected to clear up
after themselves. Betty wanted to change that for ever.
— Germaine Greer, "The Betty I Knew,"
The Guardian (February 7,
Indeed, Carl Friedan had been quoted as saying "She changed the course
of history almost singlehandedly. It took a driven, super aggressive,
egocentric, almost lunatic dynamo to rock the world the way she did.
Unfortunately, she was that same person at home, where that kind of
conduct doesn't work. She simply never understood this."
Writer Camille Paglia, who had been denounced by Friedan in a Playboy
interview, wrote a brief obituary for her in Entertainment Weekly:
Betty Friedan wasn't afraid to be called abrasive. She pursued her
feminist principles with a flamboyant pugnacity that has become all
too rare in these yuppified times. She hated girliness and bourgeois
decorum, and never lost her earthly ethnicity.
— Camille Paglia, December 29, 2006/January 5, 2007 double End of
the Year issue, section Farewell, pg. 94
The truth is that I've always been a bad-tempered bitch. Some people
say that I have mellowed some. I don't know....
— Betty Friedan, Life So Far
The only way for a woman, as for a man, to find herself, to know
herself as a person, is by creative work of her own.
--Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
She married Carl Friedan (né Friedman), a theater producer, in 1947
while working at UE News. She continued to work after marriage, first
as a paid employee and, after 1952, as a freelance journalist. The
couple divorced in May 1969, and Carl died in December 2005.
Friedan stated in her memoir Life So Far (2000) that Carl had beaten
her during their marriage; friends such as
Dolores Alexander recalled
having to cover up black eyes from Carl's abuse in time for press
conferences (Brownmiller 1999, p. 70). But Carl denied abusing
her in an interview with Time magazine shortly after the book was
published, describing the claim as a "complete fabrication". She
later said, on Good Morning America, "I almost wish I hadn't even
written about it, because it's been sensationalized out of context. My
husband was not a wife-beater, and I was no passive victim of a
wife-beater. We fought a lot, and he was bigger than me."
Betty Friedan had three children, Daniel, Emily and Jonathan.
She was raised in a Jewish family, but was an agnostic.[Note 3] In
1973, Friedan was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II.
Friedan died of congestive heart failure at her home in Washington,
D.C., on February 4, 2006, her 85th birthday.[Note 4]
Some of Friedan's papers are held at the Schlesinger Library,
Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Awards and honors
Honorary doctorate of humane letters from
Smith College (1975)
Humanist of the Year
Humanist of the Year from the
American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association (1975)
Mort Weisinger Award from the American Society of Journalists and
Honorary doctorate of humane letters from the State University at
Stony Brook (1985)
Eleanor Roosevelt Leadership Award (1989)
Honorary doctorate of humane letters from Bradley University
Induction into the
National Women's Hall of Fame
National Women's Hall of Fame (1993)
Honorary doctorate of letters from
Columbia University (1994)
"The 75 Most Important Women of the Past 75 Years" – Glamour
magazine listed Friedan as one of them (2014)
The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique (1963)
It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement (1976)
The Second Stage (1981)
The Fountain of Age (1993)
Beyond Gender (1997)
Life So Far (2000)
List of women's rights activists
^ On equal opportunity in jobs: equal opportunity employment, access
to jobs without suffering discrimination on certain grounds.
^ On freedom of sexual choice: human female sexuality#Feminist
concepts, how feminism addresses a wide range of sexual issues.
^ "As an agnostic Jew many of whose Jewish friends had become
Unitarians, she arranged a Bar Mitzvah celebration for Daniel."
^ "Betty Friedan, the feminist crusader and author whose searing first
book, The Feminine Mystique, ignited the contemporary women's movement
in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of
the United States and countries around the world, died yesterday, her
85th birthday, at her home in Washington. The cause was congestive
heart failure, said Emily Bazelon, a family spokeswoman. ... For
decades a familiar presence on television and the lecture circuit, Ms.
Friedan, with her short stature and deeply hooded eyes, looked for
much of her adult life like a 'combination of
Hermione Gingold and
Bette Davis,' as
Judy Klemesrud wrote in The
New York Times
New York Times Magazine
^ Carnegie Mellon University Pronouncing Dictionary
^ Collins English Dictionary
^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary
^ Library of Congress pronunciation guide
^ Random House Dictionary
^ "'The Second Stage'". nytimes.com. NY Times. Retrieved 9 March
^ a b c d e f Margalit Fox (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, who
ignited cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' dies at 85". The New York Times.
Retrieved February 2, 2010.
^ Sweet, Corinne (Feb. 7, 2006). Ground-Breaking Author of 'The
Feminine Mystique' Who Sparked Feminism's Second Wave. The (London,
Eng., U.K.) Independent (obit), Retrieved February 2, 2010.
^ Betty Friedan, in 300 Women Who Changed the World. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Retrieved February 2, 2010.
^ Wing Katie Loves Jason, Liz (Summer 2006). "NOW Mourns Foremothers
of Feminist, Civil Rights Movements". National Organization for Women.
Archived from the original on November 20, 2006. Retrieved February
^ Frost, Bryan-Paul; Sikkenga, Jeffrey (September 15, 2017). "History
of American Political Thought". Lexington Books – via Google
^ Reynolds, Moira Davison (January 1, 1994). "Women advocates of
reproductive rights: eleven who led the struggle in the United States
and Great Britain". McFarland & Co. – via Google Books.
^ a b c d e f g Horowitz (2000)
^ a b c Henderson, Margaret (July 2007). "
Betty Friedan 1921–2006".
Australian Feminist Studies. 22 (53): 163–166.
Betty Friedan Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story -
Biography.com". archive.is. January 18, 2013. Archived from the
original on January 18, 2013.
^ Horowitz (2000), pp. ix–xi
^ a b Spender, Dale (1985). For the Record: The Making and Meaning of
Feminist Knowledge. London: Women's Press. pp. 7–18.
^ Gilbert, Lynn (2012-12-10). Particular Passions: Betty Friedan.
Women of Wisdom Series (1st ed.). New York City:
Lynn Gilbert Inc.
^ "The Feminine Mystique," page 8.
^ "Betty Friedan's Enduring 'Mystique'". nytimes.com. NY Times.
Retrieved 9 March 2018.
^ Friedan, Betty (1963). "1 The Problem That Has No Name". The
Feminine Mystique. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 15.
^ Davis, Flora (1991). Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in
America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster.
^ a b "American National Biography Online: Friedan, Betty".
^ Bradley, Patricia (September 15, 2017). "Mass Media and the Shaping
of American Feminism, 1963-1975". Univ. Press of Mississippi – via
^ "Fountain of Age". C-SPAN. November 28, 1993. Retrieved March 26,
^ Siegel (2007), pp. 90–91
^ Siegel (2007), p. 90
^ a b "(left to right): Billington; Betty Naomi Goldstein Friedan
(1921–2006); Barbara Ireton (1932–1998); and Marguerite Rawalt
(1895–1989)". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Smithsonian
Institution. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
^ "The Feminist Chronicles, 1953–1993 – 1966 – Feminist Majority
Foundation". Feminist.org. Retrieved 2015-05-05.
^ a b c MAKERS Team (June 30, 2013). "NOW's 47th Anniversary:
Celebrating Its Founders and Early Members". MAKERS. Retrieved
^ February 9th, 2014 by Allyson Goldsmith. (2014-02-09). "Honoring Our
Founders and Pioneers National Organization for Women". Now.org.
^ a b "
Betty Friedan Biography - life, family, children, name, wife,
mother, young, book, information, born".
^ Farber (2004), p. 256
^ Farber (2004), p. 257
^ NOW statement on Friedan's death Archived December 8, 2013, at the
^ Nation: Women on the March, Time Magazine, September 2, 1970,
Accessed December 28, 2013
^ 1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality Archived December 30,
2013, at the Wayback Machine., Mary Breasted, Village Voice, September
3, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013
^ Local Photographer Remembers Fight for Gender Equality,
Demonstration on Liberty Island, Matt Hunger, Jersey City Independent,
Accessed December 28, 2013
^ a b Nation: Who's Come a Long Way, Baby?, Time Magazine, August 31,
1970, Accessed December 28, 2013
^ a b anon, 1970 Year in Review: 50th Anniversary of Women's Suffrage,
UPI (United Press International), as accessed June 18, 2013.
^ "Gifts of Speech - Betty Friedan". gos.sbc.edu.
^ "National Women's Political Caucus". National Women's Political
Caucus. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
^ Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential
Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project.
Archived from the original on January 26, 2015.
^ a b CBCtv interview of
Betty Friedan on YouTube, from CBCtv
^ Hulu – PBS Indies: Sisters of '77 – Watch the full episode now
Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Friedan (1997), e.g. pp. 8–9
^ a b Friedan (2001), p. 221
^ Friedan (2001), p. 223
^ Friedan (2001), p. 222
^ Friedan (2001), pp. 248–249
^ Friedan (2001), p. 295
^ Friedan (1998), pp. 307–308
^ Friedan (2001), p. 365
^ Friedan (1997), p. 91
^ Friedan (2001), p. 249
^ Friedan (2001), pp. 212–216
^ Friedan (2001), p. 219
^ Friedan (2001), p. 176
^ Friedan (1998), pp. 94–95
^ Friedan (1998), p. 98
^ Friedan (1998), pp. 95–96
^ Friedan (1998), pp. 97–98
^ Friedan (2001), p. 377
^ Friedan (1998), pp. 246–248
^ Puente, Maria, Bill Holds Porn Producers Liable For Sex Crimes, in
USA Today, April 15, 1992, p. 09A (Final ed.).
^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968 New York Post
^ a b Wolf, Allan. "The Mystique of Betty Friedan".
^ National Organization for Women. Tributes to Betty Friedan.
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved
^ Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist. Chelsea House Publications,
^ Bohannon, Lisa Fredenksen. Woman's work: The story of Betty Friedan.
Morgan Reynolds, 2004.
^ Sheman, Janann. Interviews with Betty Friedan. University Press of
^ Weinreich, Regina (February 8, 2013). "
Gloria Steinem and the Faces
of Feminism: MAKERS: Women Who Make America".
^ "Betty Friedan, Norman Mailer among new biographies added to the
American National Biography Online". www.hnn.us.
^ Dean, Michelle. "On the 'Anger' of
Betty Friedan and 'The Feminine
Mystique". TheNation.com. TheNation.com. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew". The
Guardian. London. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew" – via
^ Ginsberg L., "Ex-hubby fires back at feminist icon Betty," New York
Post, July 5, 2000
^ "Remembering those who left us this year". ew.com. Entertainment
Weekly. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
^ Friedan (2001), p. 379
Betty Friedan Quotes (Author of The Feminine Mystique)".
www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
^ Horowitz (2000), p. 170
^ "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Retrieved
October 9, 2012.
^ "Friedan, Betty. Additional papers of Betty Friedan, 1937-1993
(inclusive), 1970-1993 (bulk): A Finding Aid".
^ Felder, Deborah G.; Rosen, Diana (September 15, 2017). "Fifty Jewish
Women Who Changed The World". Citadel Press – via Google
^ "Humanists of the Year".
^ a b "Women's Equity Resource Center". www2.edc.org.
^ "For Friedan, a Life on the Run". www.nytimes.com.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7,
2014. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
^ "Home - National Women's Hall of Fame". National Women’s Hall of
^ "The Most Inspiring Female Celebrities, Entrepreneurs, and Political
Farber, David (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing.
Friedan, Betty (1997). Brigid O'Farrell, ed. Beyond Gender: The New
Politics of Work and Family. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center
Press. ISBN 0-943875-84-6.
Friedan, Betty (1998) . The Second Stage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0-674-79655-1.
Friedan, Betty (2001). Life So Far: A Memoir. New York: Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0024-1.
Horowitz, Daniel (2000).
Betty Friedan and the Making of The Feminine
Mystique: The American Left, the Cold War and Modern Feminism.
Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Siegel, Deborah (2007). Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to
Grrls Gone Wild. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist, paperback edition, Women of
Achievement, Chelsea House Publications 1990, ISBN 1-55546-653-2
Bohannon, Lisa Frederikson. Women's Work: The Story of Betty Friedan,
hardcover edition, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, 2004,
Brownmiller, Susan. In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution, The Dial
Press, 1999, ISBN 0-385-31486-8
Friedan, Betty. "Breaking Through the Age Mystique." 1991, Proceedings
from the Kirkpatrick Memorial Conference. Muncie, IN.
Friedan, Betty. Fountain of Age, Paperback Edition, Simon &
Schuster 1994, ISBN 0-671-89853-1
Friedan, Betty. It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement,
hardcover edition, Random House Inc. 1978, ISBN 0-394-46398-6
Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, Paperback Edition, Simon & Schuster
2000, ISBN 0-684-80789-0
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique, hardcover edition, W. W. Norton
and Company Inc. 1963, ISBN 0-393-08436-1
Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, paperback edition, Abacus 1983, ASIN
Horowitz, Daniel (March 1996). "Rethinking
Betty Friedan and The
Feminine Mystique: Labor Union Radicalism and
Feminism in Cold War
America". American Quarterly. Johns Hopkins University Press. 48 (1):
Horowitz, Daniel. "
Betty Friedan and the Making of "The Feminine
Mystique", University of Massachusetts Press, 1998,
Hennessee, Judith. Betty Friedan: Her Life, hardcover edition, Random
House 1999, ISBN 0-679-43203-5
Henry, Sondra. Taitz, Emily. Betty Friedan: Fighter for Women's
Rights, hardcover edition, Enslow Publishers 1990,
Kaplan, Marion. "Betty Friedan", Jewish Women: A Comprehensive
Meltzer, Milton. Betty Friedan: A Voice For Women's Rights, hardcover
edition, Viking Press 1985, ISBN 0-670-80786-9
Moskowitz, Eva (Fall 1996). "It's Good to Blow Your Top: Women's
Magazines and a Discourse of Discontent, 1945–1965". Journal of
Women's History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 8 (3): 66–98.
Sherman, Janann. Interviews With Betty Friedan, Paperback Edition,
University Press of Mississippi 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5
Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls
Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007
(ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), chap. 3 (author Ph.D. & fellow,
Woodhull Institute for Ethical Leadership).
Taylor-Boyd, Susan. Betty Friedan: Voice for Women's Rights, Advocate
of Human Rights, hardcover edition, Gareth Stevens Publishing 1990,
Betty Friedan, philosopher of modern-day feminism, dies – CNN,
February 4, 2006.
Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85
– The New York Times, February 5, 2006.
Sullivan, Patricia (February 5, 2006). "Voice of Feminism's 'Second
Wave'". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
Woo, Elaine (February 4, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Philosopher Of
Modern-day Feminism, Dies". Los Angeles Times.
Woo, Elaine (February 5, 2006). "Catalyst of Feminist Revolution". Los
Feeney, Mark (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, feminist visionary,
dies at 85". The Boston Globe.
"Betty Friedan, 1921–2006". The Nation. February 9, 2006.
Anything you can do, Icon do better—
Germaine Greer remembers Betty
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Betty Friedan.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan Tribute website hosted by Bradley University,
National Women's Hall of Fame: Betty Friedan
Appearances on C-SPAN
"Writings of Betty Friedan" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey
Betty Friedan's Biography from The Encyclopaedia Judaica
The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund
Freud (chapter 5 of The Feminine
First Measured Century: Interview: Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan: Late Bloomer.
Cheerless Fantasies, A Corrective Catalogue of Errors in Betty
Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
After a Life of Telling It Like It Is:
Betty Friedan Dies at Age 85,
Moondance magazine Spring 2006
Papers of Betty Friedan, 1933–1985: A Finding Aid. Schlesinger
Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
Video collection of Betty Friedan, ca.1970–2006: A Finding
Aid.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
Audio collection of Betty Friedan, 1963–2007: A Finding
Aid.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
Lecture on Betty Friedan: Jews and American Feminism[permanent dead
link] by Dr.
Henry Abramson of Touro College South
Michals, Debra "Betty Friedan". National Women’s History Museum.
President of the National Organization for Women
Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)
In the United States
Timeline of second-wave
Bicycling and feminism
Feminism and equality
Feminism and media
Feminist effects on society
Feminism in culture
African-American women's suffrage movement
In hip hop
in composition studies
Men and feminism
Second-generation gender bias
Sexism in medicine
Transgender and transexual
Views on BDSM
Views on pornography
Views on prostitution
War on Women
Republic of the Congo
Republic of Ireland
Trinidad and Tobago
History of women
American feminist literature
Feminist comic books
Countries by women's average years in school
Feminist art critics
Suffragists and suffragettes
Women's rights activists
Women's studies journals
Women's suffrage organizations
Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame
Susan B. Anthony
Mary McLeod Bethune
Pearl S. Buck
Margaret Chase Smith
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Helen Brooke Taussig
Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias
Juliette Gordon Low
Elizabeth Bayley Seton
Carrie Chapman Catt
Mary "Mother" Harris Jones
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Billie Jean King
Florence B. Seibert
Gertrude Belle Elion
Ethel Percy Andrus
Marian Wright Edelman
Martha Wright Griffiths
Fannie Lou Hamer
Constance Baker Motley
Ellen Swallow Richards
Katherine Siva Saubel
Madam C. J. Walker
Rosalyn S. Yalow
Annie Jump Cannon
Jane Cunningham Croly
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Helen LaKelly Hunt
Zora Neale Hurston
Frances Wisebart Jacobs
Susette La Flesche
Betty Bone Schiess
Elizabeth Hanford Dole
Anne Dallas Dudley
Mary Baker Eddy
Matilda Joslyn Gage
Lillian Moller Gilbreth
Nannerl O. Keohane
Sandra Day O'Connor
Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
Hannah Greenebaum Solomon
Louisa May Alcott
Charlotte Anne Bunch
Frances Xavier Cabrini
Mary A. Hallaren
Oveta Culp Hobby
Wilhelmina Cole Holladay
Anne Morrow Lindbergh
Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose
Lydia Moss Bradley
Mary Steichen Calderone
Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Joan Ganz Cooney
Julia Ward Howe
Shirley Ann Jackson
Katharine Dexter McCormick
Rozanne L. Ridgway
Edith Nourse Rogers
Eunice Kennedy Shriver
Angelina Grimké Weld
Faye Glenn Abdellah
Emma Smith DeVoe
Marjory Stoneman Douglas
Sylvia A. Earle
Leontine T. Kelly
Frances Oldham Kelsey
Anna Howard Shaw
Wilma L. Vaught
Mary Edwards Walker
Annie Dodge Wauneka
Frances E. Willard
Dorothy H. Andersen
Lydia Maria Child
Marian de Forest
Beatrice A. Hicks
Harriet Williams Russell Strong
Emily Howell Warner
Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Mary Engle Pennington
Mercy Otis Warren
Linda G. Alvarado
Donna de Varona
Martha Matilda Harper
Patricia Roberts Harris
Stephanie L. Kwolek
Mildred Robbins Leet
Patsy Takemoto Mink
Sheila E. Widnall
Florence Ellinwood Allen
Ruth Fulton Benedict
Rita Rossi Colwell
Mother Marianne Cope
Maya Y. Lin
Patricia A. Locke
Blanche Stuart Scott
Mary Burnett Talbert
Eleanor K. Baum
Martha Coffin Pelham Wright
Judith L. Pipher
Catherine Filene Shouse
Allie B. Latimer
Rebecca Talbot Perkins
St. Katharine Drexel
Dorothy Harrison Eustis
Loretta C. Ford
Abby Kelley Foster
Helen Murray Free
Coretta Scott King
Barbara A. Mikulski
Donna E. Shalala
Ina May Gaskin
Mary Joseph Rogers
Carlotta Walls LaNier
Mary Harriman Rumsey
Clare Boothe Luce
ISNI: 0000 0001 2279 6538
BNF: cb11903613k (data)