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Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
(/ˈfriːdən, friːˈdæn, frɪ-/[1][2][3][4][5] February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist. A leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique
is often credited with sparking the second wave of American feminism in the 20th century. In 1966, Friedan co-founded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women
(NOW), which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now [in] fully equal partnership with men." In 1970, after stepping down as NOW's first president, Friedan organized the nationwide Women's Strike for Equality on August 26, the 50th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution granting women the right to vote. The national strike was successful beyond expectations in broadening the feminist movement; the march led by Friedan in New York City alone attracted over 50,000 people. In 1971, Friedan joined other leading feminists to establish the National Women's Political Caucus. Friedan was also a strong supporter of the proposed Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
to the United States Constitution that passed the United States House of Representatives (by a vote of 354–24) and Senate (84–8) following intense pressure by women's groups led by NOW in the early 1970s. Following Congressional passage of the amendment, Friedan advocated for ratification of the amendment in the states and supported other women's rights reforms: she founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws but was later critical of the abortion-centered positions of many liberal feminists. Regarded as an influential author and intellectual in the United States, Friedan remained active in politics and advocacy for the rest of her life, authoring six books. As early as the 1960s Friedan was critical of polarized and extreme factions of feminism that attacked groups such as men and homemakers. One of her later books, The Second Stage (1981), critiqued what Friedan saw as the extremist excesses of some feminists.[6]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Writing career

2.1 Before 1963 2.2 The Feminine Mystique 2.3 Other works

3 Activism
Activism
in the women's movement

3.1 National Organization for Women 3.2 Women's Strike for Equality 3.3 National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws 3.4 Politics 3.5 Movement image and unity 3.6 Related issues

3.6.1 Lesbian politics 3.6.2 Abortion choice 3.6.3 Pornography 3.6.4 War

4 Influence 5 Personality 6 Personal life 7 Death 8 Papers 9 Awards and honors 10 Books 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Bibliography

14 Further reading

14.1 Obituaries

15 External links

Early life[edit] Friedan was born Bettye Naomi Goldstein[7][8][9] on February 4, 1921 in Peoria, Illinois,[10] to Harry and Miriam (Horwitz) Goldstein, whose Jewish families were from Russia and Hungary.[11][12] Harry owned a jewelry store in Peoria, and Miriam wrote for the society page of a newspaper when Friedan's father fell ill. Her mother's new life outside the home seemed much more gratifying. As a young girl, Friedan was active in both Marxist and Jewish circles; she later wrote how she felt isolated from the latter community at times, and felt her "passion against injustice...originated from my feelings of the injustice of anti-Semitism".[13] She attended Peoria High School, and became involved in the school newspaper. When her application to write a column was turned down, she and six other friends launched a literary magazine called Tide, which discussed home life rather than school life. She attended all-female Smith College
Smith College
in 1938. She won a scholarship prize in her first year for outstanding academic performance. In her second year she became interested in poetry, and had many poems published in campus publications. In 1941, she became editor-in-chief of the college newspaper. The editorials became more political under her leadership, taking a strong antiwar stance and occasionally causing controversy.[13] She graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1942 with a major in psychology. In 1943 she spent a year at the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
on a fellowship for graduate work in psychology with Erik Erikson.[14] She became more politically active, continuing to mix with Marxists (many of her friends were investigated by the FBI).[13] In her memoirs, she claimed that her boyfriend at the time had pressured her into turning down a Ph.D. fellowship for further study and abandoning her academic career. Writing career[edit]

Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
photographed by Lynn Gilbert, 1981

Before 1963[edit] After leaving Berkeley, Friedan became a journalist for leftist and labor union publications. Between 1943 and 1946 she wrote for The Federated Press and between 1946 and 1952 she worked for the United Electrical Workers' UE News. One of her assignments was to report on the House Un-American Activities Committee.[14] Friedan was dismissed from the union newspaper UE News in 1952 because she was pregnant with her second child.[15] After leaving UE News she became a freelance writer for various magazines, including Cosmopolitan.[14] According to Friedan biographer Daniel Horowitz, Friedan started as a labor journalist when she first became aware of women's oppression and exclusion, although Friedan herself disputed this interpretation of her work.[16] The Feminine Mystique[edit] Main article: The Feminine Mystique For her 15th college reunion in 1957 Friedan conducted a survey of college graduates, focusing on their education, subsequent experiences and satisfaction with their current lives. She started publishing articles about what she called "the problem that has no name," and got passionate responses from many housewives grateful that they were not alone in experiencing this problem.[17]

The shores are strewn with the casualties of the feminine mystique. They did give up their own education to put their husbands through college, and then, maybe against their own wishes, ten or fifteen years later, they were left in the lurch by divorce. The strongest were able to cope more or less well, but it wasn't that easy for a woman of forty-five or fifty to move ahead in a profession and make a new life for herself and her children or herself alone.[18]

Friedan then decided to rework and expand this topic into a book, The Feminine Mystique. Published in 1963, it depicted the roles of women in industrial societies, especially the full-time homemaker role which Friedan deemed stifling.[17] In her book, Friedan described a depressed suburban housewife who dropped out of college at the age of 19 to get married and raise four children.[19] She spoke of her own 'terror' at being alone, wrote that she had never once in her life seen a positive female role-model who worked outside the home and also kept a family, and cited numerous cases of housewives who felt similarly trapped. From her psychological background she criticized Freud's penis envy theory, noting a lot of paradoxes in his work, and offered some answers to women desirous of further education.[20] The "Problem That Has No Name" was described by Friedan in the beginning of the book:

The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning [that is, a longing] that women suffered in the middle of the 20th century in the United States. Each suburban [house]wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries … she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question — "Is this all?"[21]

Friedan asserted that women are as capable as men for any type of work or any career path against arguments to the contrary by the mass media, educators and psychologists.[7] The restrictions of the 1950s, and the trapped, imprisoned feeling of many women forced into these roles, spoke to American women who soon began attending consciousness-raising sessions and lobbying for the reform of oppressive laws and social views that restricted women. The book became a bestseller, which many historians believe was the impetus for the "second wave" of the women's movement in the United States, and significantly shaped national and world events.[22] Friedan originally intended to write a sequel to The Feminine Mystique, which was to be called "Woman: The Fourth Dimension," but instead only wrote an article by that title, which appeared in the Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
in June 1964.[23][24] Other works[edit]

External video

Booknotes interview with Friedan on The Fountain of Age, November 28, 1993, C-SPAN[25]

Friedan published six books. Her other books include The Second Stage, It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement, Beyond Gender and The Fountain of Age. Her autobiography, Life so Far, was published in 2000. She also wrote for magazines and a newspaper:

Columns in McCall's
McCall's
magazine, 1971–1974[26] Writings for The New York Times
New York Times
Magazine, Newsday, Harper's, Saturday Review, Mademoiselle, Ladies' Home Journal, Family Circle, TV Guide, and True Magazine[27]

Activism
Activism
in the women's movement[edit] National Organization for Women[edit]

Billington, Friedan, Ireton, and Rawalt[28]

In 1966 Friedan co-founded, and became the first president of the National Organization for Women.[28] Some of the founders of NOW, including Friedan, were inspired by the failure of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; at the Third National Conference of State Commissions on the Status of Women they were prohibited from issuing a resolution that recommended the EEOC carry out its legal mandate to end sex discrimination in employment.[29][30] They thus gathered in Friedan's hotel room to form a new organization.[30] On a paper napkin Friedan scribbled the acronym "NOW".[30] Later more people became founders of NOW at the October 1966 NOW Organizing Conference.[31] Friedan, with Pauli Murray, wrote NOW's statement of purpose; the original was scribbled on a napkin by Friedan.[32] Under Friedan, NOW advocated fiercely for the legal equality of women and men. NOW lobbied for enforcement of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the first two major legislative victories of the movement, and forced the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to stop ignoring, and start treating with dignity and urgency, claims filed involving sex discrimination. They successfully campaigned for a 1967 Executive Order extending the same affirmative action granted to blacks to women, and for a 1968 EEOC decision ruling illegal sex-segregated help want ads, later upheld by the Supreme Court. NOW was vocal in support of the legalization of abortion, an issue that divided some feminists. Also divisive in the 1960s among women was the Equal Rights Amendment, which NOW fully endorsed; by the 1970s, women and labor unions opposed to ERA warmed up to it and began to support it fully. NOW also lobbied for national daycare.[7] Despite the success NOW achieved under Friedan, her decision to pressure Equal Employment Opportunity to use Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to enforce more job opportunities among American women met with fierce opposition within the organization.[33] Siding with arguments from the group's African American members, many of NOW's leaders accepted that the vast number of male and female African Americans who lived below the poverty line needed more job opportunities than women within the middle and upper class.[34] Friedan stepped down as president in 1969.[35] In 1973, Friedan founded the First Women's Bank and Trust Company. Women's Strike for Equality[edit] In 1970 back then, with Friedan leading the cause, was instrumental in the U.S. Senate's rejection of President Richard M. Nixon's Supreme Court nominee G. Harrold Carswell, who had opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act granting (among other things) women workplace equality with men. On August 26, 1970, the 50th anniversary of the Women's Suffrage Amendment to the Constitution, Friedan organized the national Women's Strike for Equality, and led a march of an estimated 20,000 women in New York City.[36][37][38] While the march's primary objective was promoting equal opportunities for women in jobs and education,[39] protestors and organizers of the event also demanded abortion rights and the establishment of child-care centers.[39] Friedan spoke about the Strike for Equality:

All kinds of women's groups all over the country will be using this week on August 26 particularly, to point out those areas in women's life which are still not addressed. For example, a question of equality before the law; we are interested in the equal rights amendment. The question of child care centers which are totally inadequate in the society, and which women require, if they are going to assume their rightful position in terms of helping in decisions of the society. The question of a women's right to control her own reproductive processes, that is, laws prohibiting abortion in the state or putting them into criminal statutes; I think that would be a statute that we would [be] addressing ourselves to.[40]

So I think individual women will react differently; some will not cook that day, some will engage in dialog with their husband[s], some will be out at the rallies and demonstrations that will be taking place all over the country. Others will be writing things that will help them to define where they want to go. Some will be pressuring their Senators and their Congressmen to pass legislations that affect women. I don't think you can come up with any one point, women will be doing their own thing in their own way.[40]

National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws[edit]

back, l to r, Prof. Albert M. Sacks, Pauli Murray, Dr. Mary Bunting; seated, l to r, Alma Lutz, suffragette and Harvard Law School Forum Guest, and Betty Friedan

Friedan founded the National Association for the Repeal of Abortion Laws, renamed National Abortion Rights Action League
National Abortion Rights Action League
after the Supreme Court had legalized abortion in 1973. Politics[edit] In 1970 Friedan led other feminists in derailing the nomination of Supreme Court nominee G. Harold Carswell, whose record of racial discrimination and antifeminism made him unacceptable and unfit to sit on the highest court in the land to virtually everyone in the civil rights and feminist movements. Friedan's impassioned testimony before the Senate helped sink Carswell's nomination.[41] In 1971 Friedan, along with many other leading women's movement leaders, including Gloria Steinem
Gloria Steinem
(with whom she had a legendary rivalry) founded the National Women's Political Caucus.[42] In 1972, Friedan unsuccessfully ran as a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention in support of Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm. That year at the DNC Friedan played a very prominent role and addressed the convention, although she clashed with other women, notably Steinem, on what should be done there, and how.[43] Movement image and unity[edit] One of the most influential feminists of the twentieth century, Friedan (in addition to many others) opposed equating feminism with lesbianism. As early as 1964, very early in the movement, and only a year after the publication of The Feminine Mystique, Friedan appeared on television to address the fact the media was, at that point, trying to dismiss the movement as a joke and centering argument and debate around whether or not to wear bras and other issues considered ridiculous.[44] In 1982, during the second wave, she wrote a book for the post-feminist 1980s called The Second Stage, about family life, premised on women having conquered social and legal obstacles.[32][44][45] She pushed the feminist movement to focus on economic issues, especially equality in employment and business as well as provision for child care and other means by which both women and men could balance family and work. She tried to lessen the focuses on abortion, as an issue already won, and on rape and pornography, which she believed most women did not consider to be high priorities.[46] Related issues[edit] Lesbian politics[edit] When she grew up in Peoria, Illinois, she knew only one gay man. She said, "the whole idea of homosexuality made me profoundly uneasy".[47] She later acknowledged that she had been very square, and was uncomfortable about homosexuality. "The women's movement was not about sex, but about equal opportunity in jobs and all the rest of it. Yes, I suppose you have to say that freedom of sexual choice is part of that, but it shouldn't be the main issue…."[48][Note 1][Note 2] She ignored lesbians in the National Organization for Women
National Organization for Women
(NOW) initially, and objected to what she saw as their demands for equal time.[47] "'Homosexuality…is not, in my opinion, what the women's movement is all about.'"[49] While opposing all repression, she wrote, she refused to wear a purple armband as an act of political solidarity, considering it not part of the mainstream issues of abortion and child care.[50] But in 1977, at the National Women's Conference, she seconded a lesbian rights resolution "which everyone thought I would oppose" in order to "preempt any debate" and move on to other issues she believed were more important and less divisive in the effort to add the Equal Rights Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA) to the U.S. Constitution.[51] She accepted lesbian sexuality, albeit not its politicization.[52] In 1995, at the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, she found advice given by Chinese authorities to taxi drivers that naked lesbians would be "cavorting" in their cars so that the drivers should hang sheets outside their cab windows, and that lesbians would have AIDS and so drivers should carry disinfectants, to be "ridiculous", "incredibly stupid" and "insulting".[53] In 1997, she wrote that "children…will ideally come from mother and father."[54] She wrote in 2000, "I'm more relaxed about the whole issue now".[55] Abortion choice[edit] She supported the concept that abortion is a woman's choice, that it shouldn't be a crime or exclusively a doctor's choice or anyone else involved, and helped form NARAL (now NARAL Pro-Choice America) at a time when Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood
wasn't yet supportive.[56] Alleged death threats against her speaking on abortion led to the cancellation of two events, although subsequently one of the host institutions, Loyola College, invited her back to speak on abortion and other homosexual rights issues and she did so.[57] Her draft of NOW's first statement of purpose included an abortion plank, but NOW didn't include it until the next year.[58] In 1980, she believed abortion should be in the context of "'the choice to have children'", a formulation supported by the Roman Catholic priest organizing Catholic participation in the White House Conference on Families for that year,[59] though perhaps not by the bishops above him.[60] A resolution embodying the formulation passed at the conference by 460 to 114, whereas a resolution addressing abortion, ERA and "sexual preference" passed by only 292–291 and that only after 50 opponents of abortion had walked out and so hadn't voted on it.[61] She disagreed with a resolution that framed abortion in more feminist terms that was introduced in the Minneapolis
Minneapolis
regional conference resulting from the same White House Conference on Families, believing it to be more polarizing, while the drafters apparently thought Friedan's formulation too conservative.[62] As of 2000, she wrote, referring to "NOW and the other women's organizations" as seeming to be in a "time warp", "to my mind, there is far too much focus on abortion.... [I]n recent years I've gotten a little uneasy about the movement's narrow focus on abortion as if it were the single, all-important issue for women when it's not".[63] She asked, "Why don't we join forces with all who have true reverence for life, including Catholics who oppose abortion, and fight for the choice to have children?"[64] Pornography[edit] She joined nearly 200 others in Feminists for Free Expression in opposing the Pornography Victims' Compensation Act. "'To suppress free speech in the name of protecting women is dangerous and wrong,' says Friedan. 'Even some blue-jean ads are insulting and denigrating. I'm not adverse to a boycott, but I don't think they should be suppressed.'"[65] War[edit] In 1968, Friedan signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War.[66] Influence[edit] Friedan is credited for starting the contemporary feminist movement and writing a book that is one of the cornerstones of American feminism.[67] Her activist work and her book The Feminine Mystique have been a critical influence to authors, educators, writers, anthropologists, journalists, activists, organizations, unions, and everyday women taking part in the feminist movement.[68] Allan Wolf, in The Mystique of Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
writes: "She helped to change not only the thinking but the lives of many American women, but recent books throw into question the intellectual and personal sources of her work."[67] Although there have been some debates on Friedan's work in The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique
since its publication, there is no doubt that her work for equality for women was sincere and committed. Judith Hennessee (Betty Friedan: Her Life) and Daniel Horowitz, a professor of American Studies at Smith College, have also written about Friedan. Horowitz explored Friedan's engagement with the women's movement before she began to work on The Feminine Mystique[13] and pointed out that Friedan's feminism did not start in the 1950s but even earlier, in the 1940s.[13] Focusing his study on Friedan's ideas in feminism rather than on her personal life[13] Horowitz's book gave Friedan a major role in the history of American feminism.[13] Justine Blau was also greatly influenced by Friedan. In Betty Friedan: Feminist Blau wrote of the feminist movement's influence on Friedan's personal and professional life.[69] Lisa Fredenksen Bohannon, in Woman's work: The story of Betty Friedan, went deep into Friedan's personal life and wrote about her relationship with her mother.[70] Sandra Henry and Emily Taitz (Betty Friedan, Fighter for Woman's Rights) and Susan Taylor Boyd (Betty Friedan: Voice of Woman's Right, Advocates of Human Rights), wrote biographies on Friedan's life and works. Journalist Janann Sheman wrote a book called Interviews with Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
containing interviews with Friedan for the New York Times, Working Women and Playboy, among others. Focusing on interviews that relate to Friedan's views on men, women and the American Family, Sheman traced Friedan's life with an analysis of The Feminine Mystique.[71] Friedan (among others) was featured in the 2013 documentary Makers: Women Who Make America, about the women's movement.[72] In 2014, a biography of Friedan was added to the American National Biography Online (ANB).[23][73] Personality[edit] The New York Times
New York Times
obituary for Friedan noted that she was "famously abrasive", and that she could be "thin-skinned and imperious, subject to screaming fits of temperament." Media focus would fall on feminists grading each other on personality and appearance, the source of Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and Gloria Steinem's well-documented antipathy.[74] In February 2006, shortly after Friedan's death, the feminist writer Germaine Greer
Germaine Greer
published an article in The Guardian,[75] in which she described Friedan as pompous and egotistic, somewhat demanding and sometimes selfish, citing several incidents during a 1972 tour of Iran.[7]

Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
"changed the course of human history almost single-handedly." Her ex-husband, Carl Friedan, believes this; Betty believed it too. This belief was the key to a good deal of Betty's behaviour; she would become breathless with outrage if she didn't get the deference she thought she deserved. Though her behaviour was often tiresome, I figured that she had a point. Women don't get the respect they deserve unless they are wielding male-shaped power; if they represent women they will be called "love" and expected to clear up after themselves. Betty wanted to change that for ever. — Germaine Greer, "The Betty I Knew," The Guardian
The Guardian
(February 7, 2006)[76]

Indeed, Carl Friedan had been quoted as saying "She changed the course of history almost singlehandedly. It took a driven, super aggressive, egocentric, almost lunatic dynamo to rock the world the way she did. Unfortunately, she was that same person at home, where that kind of conduct doesn't work. She simply never understood this."[77] Writer Camille Paglia, who had been denounced by Friedan in a Playboy interview, wrote a brief obituary for her in Entertainment Weekly:

Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
wasn't afraid to be called abrasive. She pursued her feminist principles with a flamboyant pugnacity that has become all too rare in these yuppified times. She hated girliness and bourgeois decorum, and never lost her earthly ethnicity. — Camille Paglia, December 29, 2006/January 5, 2007 double End of the Year issue,[78] section Farewell, pg. 94

The truth is that I've always been a bad-tempered bitch. Some people say that I have mellowed some. I don't know.... — Betty Friedan, Life So Far[79]

The only way for a woman, as for a man, to find herself, to know herself as a person, is by creative work of her own. --Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique[80] Personal life[edit] She married Carl Friedan (né Friedman), a theater producer, in 1947 while working at UE News. She continued to work after marriage, first as a paid employee and, after 1952, as a freelance journalist. The couple divorced in May 1969, and Carl died in December 2005. Friedan stated in her memoir Life So Far (2000) that Carl had beaten her during their marriage; friends such as Dolores Alexander
Dolores Alexander
recalled having to cover up black eyes from Carl's abuse in time for press conferences (Brownmiller 1999, p. 70). But Carl denied abusing her in an interview with Time magazine shortly after the book was published, describing the claim as a "complete fabrication".[7] She later said, on Good Morning America, "I almost wish I hadn't even written about it, because it's been sensationalized out of context. My husband was not a wife-beater, and I was no passive victim of a wife-beater. We fought a lot, and he was bigger than me." Carl and Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
had three children, Daniel, Emily and Jonathan. She was raised in a Jewish family, but was an agnostic.[Note 3] In 1973, Friedan was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto II.[82] Death[edit] Friedan died of congestive heart failure at her home in Washington, D.C., on February 4, 2006, her 85th birthday.[Note 4] Papers[edit] Some of Friedan's papers are held at the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.[83] Awards and honors[edit]

Honorary doctorate of humane letters from Smith College
Smith College
(1975)[84] Humanist of the Year
Humanist of the Year
from the American Humanist Association
American Humanist Association
(1975)[85] Mort Weisinger
Mort Weisinger
Award from the American Society of Journalists and Authors (1979)[86] Honorary doctorate of humane letters from the State University at Stony Brook (1985)[87] Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Leadership Award (1989)[86] Honorary doctorate of humane letters from Bradley University (1991)[88] Induction into the National Women's Hall of Fame
National Women's Hall of Fame
(1993)[89] Honorary doctorate of letters from Columbia University
Columbia University
(1994)[90] "The 75 Most Important Women of the Past 75 Years" – Glamour magazine listed Friedan as one of them (2014)[91]

Books[edit]

The Feminine Mystique
The Feminine Mystique
(1963) It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement (1976) The Second Stage (1981) The Fountain of Age (1993) Beyond Gender (1997) Life So Far (2000)

See also[edit]

Feminism
Feminism
portal Biography portal

Gloria Steinem List of women's rights activists

Notes[edit]

^ On equal opportunity in jobs: equal opportunity employment, access to jobs without suffering discrimination on certain grounds. ^ On freedom of sexual choice: human female sexuality#Feminist concepts, how feminism addresses a wide range of sexual issues. ^ "As an agnostic Jew many of whose Jewish friends had become Unitarians, she arranged a Bar Mitzvah celebration for Daniel."[81] ^ "Betty Friedan, the feminist crusader and author whose searing first book, The Feminine Mystique, ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963 and as a result permanently transformed the social fabric of the United States and countries around the world, died yesterday, her 85th birthday, at her home in Washington. The cause was congestive heart failure, said Emily Bazelon, a family spokeswoman. ... For decades a familiar presence on television and the lecture circuit, Ms. Friedan, with her short stature and deeply hooded eyes, looked for much of her adult life like a 'combination of Hermione Gingold
Hermione Gingold
and Bette Davis,' as Judy Klemesrud wrote in The New York Times
New York Times
Magazine in 1970."[7]

References[edit]

^ Carnegie Mellon University Pronouncing Dictionary ^ Collins English Dictionary ^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary ^ Library of Congress pronunciation guide ^ Random House Dictionary ^ "'The Second Stage'". nytimes.com. NY Times. Retrieved 9 March 2018.  ^ a b c d e f Margalit Fox (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, who ignited cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2010.  ^ Sweet, Corinne (Feb. 7, 2006). Ground-Breaking Author of 'The Feminine Mystique' Who Sparked Feminism's Second Wave. The (London, Eng., U.K.) Independent (obit), Retrieved February 2, 2010. ^ Betty Friedan, in 300 Women Who Changed the World. Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved February 2, 2010. ^ Wing Katie Loves Jason, Liz (Summer 2006). "NOW Mourns Foremothers of Feminist, Civil Rights Movements". National Organization for Women. Archived from the original on November 20, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2007.  ^ Frost, Bryan-Paul; Sikkenga, Jeffrey (September 15, 2017). "History of American Political Thought". Lexington Books – via Google Books.  ^ Reynolds, Moira Davison (January 1, 1994). "Women advocates of reproductive rights: eleven who led the struggle in the United States and Great Britain". McFarland & Co. – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d e f g Horowitz (2000) ^ a b c Henderson, Margaret (July 2007). " Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
1921–2006". Australian Feminist Studies. 22 (53): 163–166. doi:10.1080/08164640701361725.  ^ " Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com". archive.is. January 18, 2013. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013.  ^ Horowitz (2000), pp. ix–xi ^ a b Spender, Dale (1985). For the Record: The Making and Meaning of Feminist Knowledge. London: Women's Press. pp. 7–18. ISBN 0704328623.  ^ Gilbert, Lynn (2012-12-10). Particular Passions: Betty Friedan. Women of Wisdom Series (1st ed.). New York City: Lynn Gilbert
Lynn Gilbert
Inc. ISBN 978-1-61979-593-8.  ^ "The Feminine Mystique," page 8. ^ "Betty Friedan's Enduring 'Mystique'". nytimes.com. NY Times. Retrieved 9 March 2018.  ^ Friedan, Betty (1963). "1 The Problem That Has No Name". The Feminine Mystique. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 15.  ^ Davis, Flora (1991). Moving the Mountain: The Women's Movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 50–53.  ^ a b "American National Biography Online: Friedan, Betty". www.anb.org.  ^ Bradley, Patricia (September 15, 2017). "Mass Media and the Shaping of American Feminism, 1963-1975". Univ. Press of Mississippi – via Google Books.  ^ "Fountain of Age". C-SPAN. November 28, 1993. Retrieved March 26, 2017.  ^ Siegel (2007), pp. 90–91 ^ Siegel (2007), p. 90 ^ a b "(left to right): Billington; Betty Naomi Goldstein Friedan (1921–2006); Barbara Ireton (1932–1998); and Marguerite Rawalt (1895–1989)". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ "The Feminist Chronicles, 1953–1993 – 1966 – Feminist Majority Foundation". Feminist.org. Retrieved 2015-05-05.  ^ a b c MAKERS Team (June 30, 2013). "NOW's 47th Anniversary: Celebrating Its Founders and Early Members". MAKERS. Retrieved 2015-05-05.  ^ February 9th, 2014 by Allyson Goldsmith. (2014-02-09). "Honoring Our Founders and Pioneers National Organization for Women". Now.org. Retrieved 2015-05-05.  ^ a b " Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
Biography - life, family, children, name, wife, mother, young, book, information, born". www.notablebiographies.com.  ^ Farber (2004), p. 256 ^ Farber (2004), p. 257 ^ NOW statement on Friedan's death Archived December 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nation: Women on the March, Time Magazine, September 2, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013 ^ 1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality Archived December 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Mary Breasted, Village Voice, September 3, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013 ^ Local Photographer Remembers Fight for Gender Equality, Demonstration on Liberty Island, Matt Hunger, Jersey City Independent, Accessed December 28, 2013 ^ a b Nation: Who's Come a Long Way, Baby?, Time Magazine, August 31, 1970, Accessed December 28, 2013 ^ a b anon, 1970 Year in Review: 50th Anniversary of Women's Suffrage, UPI (United Press International), as accessed June 18, 2013. ^ "Gifts of Speech - Betty Friedan". gos.sbc.edu.  ^ "National Women's Political Caucus". National Women's Political Caucus. Retrieved 18 January 2017.  ^ Freeman, Jo (February 2005). "Shirley Chisholm's 1972 Presidential Campaign". University of Illinois at Chicago Women's History Project. Archived from the original on January 26, 2015.  ^ a b CBCtv interview of Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
on YouTube, from CBCtv (Canadian television) ^ Hulu – PBS Indies: Sisters of '77 – Watch the full episode now Archived March 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Friedan (1997), e.g. pp. 8–9 ^ a b Friedan (2001), p. 221 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 223 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 222 ^ Friedan (2001), pp. 248–249 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 295 ^ Friedan (1998), pp. 307–308 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 365 ^ Friedan (1997), p. 91 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 249 ^ Friedan (2001), pp. 212–216 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 219 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 176 ^ Friedan (1998), pp. 94–95 ^ Friedan (1998), p. 98 ^ Friedan (1998), pp. 95–96 ^ Friedan (1998), pp. 97–98 ^ Friedan (2001), p. 377 ^ Friedan (1998), pp. 246–248 ^ Puente, Maria, Bill Holds Porn Producers Liable For Sex Crimes, in USA Today, April 15, 1992, p. 09A (Final ed.). ^ "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968 New York Post ^ a b Wolf, Allan. "The Mystique of Betty Friedan".  ^ National Organization for Women. Tributes to Betty Friedan. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-29.  ^ Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist. Chelsea House Publications, 1990. ^ Bohannon, Lisa Fredenksen. Woman's work: The story of Betty Friedan. Morgan Reynolds, 2004. ^ Sheman, Janann. Interviews with Betty Friedan. University Press of Mississippi, 2002. ^ Weinreich, Regina (February 8, 2013). " Gloria Steinem
Gloria Steinem
and the Faces of Feminism: MAKERS: Women Who Make America".  ^ "Betty Friedan, Norman Mailer among new biographies added to the American National Biography Online". www.hnn.us.  ^ Dean, Michelle. "On the 'Anger' of Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and 'The Feminine Mystique". TheNation.com. TheNation.com. Retrieved 4 April 2016.  ^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ Greer, Germaine (February 7, 2006). "The Betty I knew" – via www.theguardian.com.  ^ Ginsberg L., "Ex-hubby fires back at feminist icon Betty," New York Post, July 5, 2000 ^ "Remembering those who left us this year". ew.com. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 9 March 2018.  ^ Friedan (2001), p. 379 ^ " Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
Quotes (Author of The Feminine Mystique)". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 2016-09-06.  ^ Horowitz (2000), p. 170 ^ "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Retrieved October 9, 2012.  ^ "Friedan, Betty. Additional papers of Betty Friedan, 1937-1993 (inclusive), 1970-1993 (bulk): A Finding Aid". oasis.lib.harvard.edu.  ^ Felder, Deborah G.; Rosen, Diana (September 15, 2017). "Fifty Jewish Women Who Changed The World". Citadel Press – via Google Books.  ^ "Humanists of the Year".  ^ a b "Women's Equity Resource Center". www2.edc.org.  ^ "For Friedan, a Life on the Run". www.nytimes.com.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-20.  ^ "Home - National Women's Hall of Fame". National Women’s Hall of Fame.  ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol19/vol19_iss30/record1930.23 ^ "The Most Inspiring Female Celebrities, Entrepreneurs, and Political Figures". Glamour. 

Bibliography[edit]

Farber, David (2004). The Sixties Chronicle. Legacy Publishing. ISBN 141271009X.  Friedan, Betty (1997). Brigid O'Farrell, ed. Beyond Gender: The New Politics of Work and Family. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. ISBN 0-943875-84-6.  Friedan, Betty (1998) [1981]. The Second Stage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-79655-1.  Friedan, Betty (2001). Life So Far: A Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0024-1.  Horowitz, Daniel (2000). Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and the Making of The Feminine Mystique: The American Left, the Cold War and Modern Feminism. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 9781558492769.  Siegel, Deborah (2007). Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Blau, Justine. Betty Friedan: Feminist, paperback edition, Women of Achievement, Chelsea House Publications 1990, ISBN 1-55546-653-2 Bohannon, Lisa Frederikson. Women's Work: The Story of Betty Friedan, hardcover edition, Morgan Reynolds Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-931798-41-9 Brownmiller, Susan. In Our Time: Memoir of a Revolution, The Dial Press, 1999, ISBN 0-385-31486-8 Friedan, Betty. "Breaking Through the Age Mystique." 1991, Proceedings from the Kirkpatrick Memorial Conference. Muncie, IN. Friedan, Betty. Fountain of Age, Paperback Edition, Simon & Schuster 1994, ISBN 0-671-89853-1 Friedan, Betty. It Changed My Life: Writings on the Women's Movement, hardcover edition, Random House Inc. 1978, ISBN 0-394-46398-6 Friedan, Betty. Life So Far, Paperback Edition, Simon & Schuster 2000, ISBN 0-684-80789-0 Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique, hardcover edition, W. W. Norton and Company Inc. 1963, ISBN 0-393-08436-1 Friedan, Betty. The Second Stage, paperback edition, Abacus 1983, ASIN B000BGRCRC Horowitz, Daniel (March 1996). "Rethinking Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and The Feminine Mystique: Labor Union Radicalism and Feminism
Feminism
in Cold War America". American Quarterly. Johns Hopkins University Press. 48 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1353/aq.1996.0010.  Horowitz, Daniel. " Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
and the Making of "The Feminine Mystique", University of Massachusetts Press, 1998, ISBN 1-55849-168-6 Hennessee, Judith. Betty Friedan: Her Life, hardcover edition, Random House 1999, ISBN 0-679-43203-5 Henry, Sondra. Taitz, Emily. Betty Friedan: Fighter for Women's Rights, hardcover edition, Enslow Publishers 1990, ISBN 0-89490-292-X Kaplan, Marion. "Betty Friedan", Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Meltzer, Milton. Betty Friedan: A Voice For Women's Rights, hardcover edition, Viking Press 1985, ISBN 0-670-80786-9 Moskowitz, Eva (Fall 1996). "It's Good to Blow Your Top: Women's Magazines and a Discourse of Discontent, 1945–1965". Journal of Women's History. Johns Hopkins University Press. 8 (3): 66–98. doi:10.1353/jowh.2010.0458.  Sherman, Janann. Interviews With Betty Friedan, Paperback Edition, University Press of Mississippi 2002, ISBN 1-57806-480-5 Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 (ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), chap. 3 (author Ph.D. & fellow, Woodhull Institute for Ethical Leadership). Taylor-Boyd, Susan. Betty Friedan: Voice for Women's Rights, Advocate of Human Rights, hardcover edition, Gareth Stevens Publishing 1990, ISBN 0-8368-0104-0

Obituaries[edit]

Betty Friedan, philosopher of modern-day feminism, dies – CNN, February 4, 2006. Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85 – The New York Times, February 5, 2006. Sullivan, Patricia (February 5, 2006). "Voice of Feminism's 'Second Wave'". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2010.  Woo, Elaine (February 4, 2006). "Betty Friedan, Philosopher Of Modern-day Feminism, Dies". Los Angeles Times.  Woo, Elaine (February 5, 2006). "Catalyst of Feminist Revolution". Los Angeles Times.  Feeney, Mark (February 5, 2006). "Betty Friedan, feminist visionary, dies at 85". The Boston Globe.  "Betty Friedan, 1921–2006". The Nation. February 9, 2006.  Anything you can do, Icon do better— Germaine Greer
Germaine Greer
remembers Betty Friedan

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Betty Friedan.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Betty Friedan

The Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
Tribute website hosted by Bradley University, Peoria, IL National Women's Hall of Fame: Betty Friedan Appearances on C-SPAN

"Writings of Betty Friedan" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History

Betty Friedan's Biography from The Encyclopaedia Judaica The Sexual Solipsism of Sigmund Freud
Freud
(chapter 5 of The Feminine Mystique) First Measured Century: Interview: Betty Friedan Betty Friedan: Late Bloomer. Cheerless Fantasies, A Corrective Catalogue of Errors in Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique After a Life of Telling It Like It Is: Betty Friedan
Betty Friedan
Dies at Age 85, Lys Anzia, Moondance magazine Spring 2006 Papers of Betty Friedan, 1933–1985: A Finding Aid. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. Video collection of Betty Friedan, ca.1970–2006: A Finding Aid.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. Audio collection of Betty Friedan, 1963–2007: A Finding Aid.Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. Lecture on Betty Friedan: Jews and American Feminism[permanent dead link] by Dr. Henry Abramson
Henry Abramson
of Touro College South Michals, Debra "Betty Friedan". National Women’s History Museum. 2017.

Preceded by (none) President of the National Organization for Women 1966–1970 Succeeded by Aileen Hernandez

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Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1973

Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman

1976

Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias

1979

Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton

1980–1989

1981

Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth

1982

Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins

1983

Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott

1984

Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith

1986

Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe

1988

Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett

1990–1999

1990

Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert

1991

Gertrude Belle Elion

1993

Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich

1994

Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright

1995

Virginia Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon

1996

Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton

1998

Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu

2000–2009

2000

Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard

2001

Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull

2002

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren

2003

Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall

2005

Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert

2007

Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold

2009

Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman

2010–2019

2011

St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer

2013

Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard

2015

Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal

2017

Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49225729 LCCN: n50024063 ISNI: 0000 0001 2279 6538 GND: 118535528 SELIBR: 187503 SUDOC: 026875306 BNF: cb11903613k (data) BIBSYS: 90127493 ULAN: 500216837 NDL: 00440189 NKC: xx0002175 BNE: XX933

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