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Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
is a fictional character used in advertising campaigns for food and recipes. It was originally created by the Washburn-Crosby Company in 1921 following a contest in the Saturday Evening Post. In 1954, General Mills, an American Fortune 500
Fortune 500
corporation branded the red spoon logo, giving various food-related merchandise the Betty Seal of Approval. [1] A portrait of Betty Crocker, first commissioned in 1936 and revised several times since, appears on printed advertisements and product packaging. On television and radio broadcasts, Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
was portrayed by several actresses, on radio by Marjorie Husted
Marjorie Husted
for twenty years, and on television by Adelaide Hawley Cumming between 1949 and 1964. The character was first developed in 1921 as a way to give a personalized response to consumer product questions. The name Betty was selected because it was viewed as a cheery, all-American name. It was paired with the last name Crocker, in honor of William Crocker, a Washburn Crosby Company director.[2] Described as an American cultural icon, the image of Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
has endured several generations, adapting to changing social, political and economic currents.[3][4] Apart from advertising campaigns in printed, broadcast and digital media, she received a number of cultural references in film, literature, music and comics.

Contents

1 Founding 2 Cookbook publications 3 Media 4 Legacy 5 Products 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Founding[edit] Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
was founded in 1921 by Washburn-Crosby and advertiser Bruce Barton.[5] Under Marjorie Husted's supervision the image of Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
became the "Zeus" of General Mills. In 1928, Washburn Crosby merged with other milling companies to form General Mills.[3] In 1924, Crocker acquired a voice with the debut of "The Betty Crocker Cooking School of the Air" on one station in Minneapolis. It was the country's first radio cooking program. Blanche Ingersoll followed by Husted were selected to portray Betty Crocker. The show proved popular, and eventually was carried nationally on NBC
NBC
Radio, with Agnes White as Betty. Over the next three decades, the women would anonymously portray Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
on the air and at cooking schools.[6] In 1929, Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
coupons were introduced. Inserted in bags of flour, they could be used to reduce the cost of Oneida Limited flatware. By 1932, this scheme had become so popular that General Mills began to offer an entire set of flatware; the pattern was called "Friendship" (later renamed "Medality"). In 1937, the coupons were printed on the outside of packages, copy on which told purchasers to "save and redeem for huge savings on fine kitchen and home accessories in our catalog". Cookbook publications[edit] From 1930, General Mills
General Mills
issued softbound recipe books, including in 1933 Betty Crocker's 101 Delicious Bisquick
Bisquick
Creations, As Made and Served by Well-Known Gracious Hostesses, Famous Chefs, Distinguished Epicures and Smart Luminaries of Movieland.[citation needed] 1941–1945: Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Cook Book of All-Purpose Baking. (published as an aid to wartime considerations in cooking).[7] In 1950, the Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Picture Cookbook was published, despite negative press surrounding the word "moist". It was written by Agnes White Tizard, a nutritionist and a member of Alpha Delta Pi sorority.[8] In 2005, the 10th edition of the Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
cookbook was published, as well as a Spanish/English bilingual book that collects some of the more common recipes for Spanish-speaking readers looking to cook American-style food. An 11th edition, in ring-binder format, appeared in 2011. At least 17 other Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
recipe collections were also in print in 2015. Recipes and collections are also available digitally.[9] Media[edit] Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
programs first appeared on radio on local stations in 1924. The first network Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
broadcast was on NBC
NBC
in 1926. The show remained on network radio until 1953; most of the time the program was on NBC
NBC
or CBS, but it was on ABC from 1947 to 1953.[10] In 1949, the actress Adelaide Hawley Cumming
Adelaide Hawley Cumming
became Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
for many years. She appeared for several years on The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show,[11] and even had her own TV show, Betty Crocker Star Matinee.[12] She also appeared in the CBS
CBS
network's first color commercial, in which she baked a "mystery fruit cake". Hawley continued to portray Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
until 1964.[13] A portrait of Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
was first commissioned in 1936,[14] a "motherly image" that "blended the features of several Home Service Department members" that was painted by Neysa McMein.[15] It subtly changed over the years, but always accommodated General Mills' cultural perception of the American homemaker — knowledgeable and caring.[14] The 1996 portrait of Betty Crocker, according to General Mills, was partially inspired by a "computerized composite" of "75 women of diverse backgrounds and ages."[16] These portraits were always painted, with no real person ever having posed as a model.[citation needed] In 1945, Fortune magazine named Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
the second most popular woman in America; Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
was named first.[17] Fortune published an article "outing" Betty Crocker's fictitious nature, calling her a "fake" and a "fraud."[specify][11] Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
also appears as an antagonist in the popular webcomic Homestuck
Homestuck
by Andrew Hussie. Legacy[edit] The Minneapolis suburb of Golden Valley, Minnesota
Golden Valley, Minnesota
(where General Mills is headquartered) has a street named Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Drive.[18] There are a number of Betty Crocker-branded products, such as plastic food containers and measuring cups, and a line of small appliances like popcorn poppers and sandwich makers with the Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
brand name. In 2006, the Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
catalog operation went out of business with all of its inventory on sale. Points were redeemable until December 15, 2006. A new online store was launched in April 2007 but discontinued sometime thereafter. Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
recipes and tips from the "Atomic Age" of the 1950s are of cultural interest.[19][20] The 2009 webcomic Homestuck
Homestuck
by Andrew Hussie
Andrew Hussie
featured Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
as a company secretly ruled by an evil alien empress and was a major plot point throughout the story. Products[edit]

Bac-Os Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Brownie bar Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Cookbook Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
baking mixes Fruit Roll-Ups Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
canned frosting Bowl Appetit shelf-stable entrees Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Soda Licious (discontinued) Cake and dessert decorating products Dunk-a-roos Fruit by the Foot Fruit Gushers[21][22] Hamburger Helper
Hamburger Helper
and related products Potato Buds instant mashed potatoes Suddenly Salad mixes 'Shake and make' pancake mix Warm Delights microwavable desserts

See also[edit]

Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Kitchens Betty Bossi

References[edit]

^ Goetz, Kathryn. "Betty Crocker". MNOPEDIA. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ "The Story of Betty Crocker". Betty Crocker. Betty Crocker. Retrieved 28 April 2016.  ^ a b Adema, Pauline (2006). Dennis Hall; Susan G. Hall, eds. American Icons: An Encyclopedia of the People, Places, and Things that Have Shaped Our Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-313-02767-3.  ^ Patrick, Jeanette (2017), "Aunt Jemima and Betty Crocker: American Cultural Icons that Never Existed", National Women's History Museum  ^ Charles H. Lippy (2005). Do Real Men Pray?: Images of the Christian Man and Male Spirituality in White Protestant America. Univ. of Tennessee Press. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-57233-358-1.  ^ "Agnes White Tizard: Betty Crocker". Retrieved 14 January 2014.  ^ Jarvits, Janet. " Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Edition History". General Mills.  ^ "Accomplished Alpha Delta Pi
Alpha Delta Pi
Members in Education and Science". Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2011.  ^ man, VANNY. the crokk. Hannibal.  ^ Dunning, John. (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. P. 82. ^ a b Dakss, Brian (May 6, 2005). " Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Unveiled". CBS
CBS
News Sunday Morning. CBS.  ^ McDonough, John; Egolf, Karen (2015). The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising. Routledge. ISBN 9781135949136. Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ "Adelaide Hawley Cumming, 93, Television's First Betty Crocker". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2016.  ^ a b "New Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
dressed for success". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). Associated Press. May 23, 1986. p. 17.  ^ "From Bold Suffragette to Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
- 150 Years of SAIC". www.saic.edu. Retrieved 23 March 2018.  ^ "The Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Portraits". General Mills. Retrieved 7 January 2013.  ^ Marks, Susan (2005). Finding Betty Crocker : the secret life of America's first lady of food. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743265017. LCCN 2004061566. OCLC 56880048.  ^ "City Streets, Sidewalks, & Trails Map" (PDF). City of Golden Valley Minnesota. City of Golden Valley, Minnesota. Retrieved 28 April 2016.  ^ Tamar Adler (October 27, 2015). "Betty Crocker's Absurd, Gorgeous Atomic-Age Creations The iconic brand's midcentury recipes evoke the era's peculiar optimism, encased in gelatin and smothered in mayonnaise". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 1, 2015. segment of American culinary life is on display  ^ "A Box of Betty" (Images). aboxofbetty.tumblr.com. Tumbir. Retrieved November 1, 2015.  ^ Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
product list, General Mills ^ "Products". bettycrocker.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 

17. "Homestuck," Andrew Hussie, 2009[1] Sources[edit]

Tori Avey (February 15, 2013). "Who Was Betty Crocker?". PBS Food.  Dunning, John. On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-507678-8 Marks, Susan. (2007) Finding Betty Crocker: The Secret Life of America's First Lady of Food University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-5018-7 (popular book.) Crocker, Betty. Betty Crocker's Picture Cook Book. New York: McGraw–Hill and General Mills, 1950 (first edition of the "Big Red" cookbook.) Gray, James. Business without Boundary: The Story of General Mills. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954 (scholarly history of General Mills, including the invention of Crocker.) Shapiro, Laura. "Is She Real?" In Something from the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America, 169–209. New York: Viking, 2004 (chapter on Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
in a popular book with footnotes.) "Homestuck," Andrew Hussie, 2009[1]

External links[edit]

Collection of mid-twentieth century advertising featuring Betty Crocker from The TJS Labs Gallery of Graphic Design. Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
in MNopedia, the Minnesota Encyclopedia www.bettycrocker.com — Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
official site www.bettycrocker.com/products — Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
products Who was Betty Crocker, GMU  Marks, Susan, Finding Betty Crocker, archived from the original on 2008-03-08  Fish Hawley Cumming, Adelaide, Biography, I love the Fingerlakes .

v t e

General Mills

Historical figures

Cadwallader C. Washburn John Crosby Charles Alfred Pillsbury James Ford Bell William de la Barre Adelaide Hawley Cumming

Cereals

Boo-Berry Cheerios Chex Cinnamon Toast Crunch Cocoa Puffs Cookie Crisp Count Chocula Franken-Berry French Toast Crunch Golden Grahams Honey Nut Cheerios Honey Nut Clusters Kaboom Kix Lucky Charms Nesquik Oatmeal Crisp Reese's Puffs Total Trix Wheaties

Brands

Betty Crocker Green Giant Hamburger Helper Old El Paso Progresso Totino's Wanchai Ferry

Pillsbury

Jus-Rol Pillsbury Toaster Strudel

Snacks

Bugles Chex
Chex
Mix Fruit by the Foot Fruit Gushers Fruit Roll-Ups Gardetto's Nature Valley Shark Bites

Dairy

Go-Gurt Häagen-Dazs Liberté Yoplait

Baking

Betty Crocker Bisquick Gold Medal Flour

Natural and organic

Annie's Homegrown Cascadian Farms Food Should Taste Good Lärabar

Former

Colombo Yogurt Pet, Inc. Squeezit

Other

Betty Crocker
Betty Crocker
Kitchens Cereal Partners Worldwide The General Mills
General Mills
Radio Adventure Theater Mill City Museum Pillsbury Bake-Off Pillsbury Doughboy

Key innovations

DSV Alvin Hazard analysis and critical control points Project Strato-Lab Skyhook balloon Space food

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 290404914 LCCN: n80067014 SELIBR: 232130 SUDOC: 156986302 BNF: cb160575572 (data)

^ a b "MS Paint Adventures". www.mspaintadventures.com. Retrieved 23

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