The Info List - Bertrand Russell

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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS[61] (/ˈrʌsəl/; 18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate.[62][63] At various points in his life, Russell considered himself a liberal, a socialist and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense".[64] Russell was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom.[65] In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism".[66] He is considered one of the founders of analytic philosophy along with his predecessor Gottlob Frege, colleague G. E. Moore and protégé Ludwig Wittgenstein. He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians.[63] With A. N. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica, an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics. His philosophical essay "On Denoting" has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy".[67] His work has had a considerable influence on mathematics, logic, set theory, linguistics, artificial intelligence, cognitive science, computer science (see type theory and type system) and philosophy, especially the philosophy of language, epistemology and metaphysics. Russell was a prominent anti-war activist and he championed anti-imperialism.[68][69] Occasionally, he advocated preventive nuclear war, before the opportunity provided by the atomic monopoly had passed and "welcomed with enthusiasm" world government.[70] He went to prison for his pacifism during World War
I.[71] Later, Russell concluded war against Adolf Hitler was a necessary "lesser of two evils" and criticized Stalinist totalitarianism, attacked the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and was an outspoken proponent of nuclear disarmament.[72] In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought".[73][74]


1 Biography

1.1 Early life and background 1.2 Childhood and adolescence 1.3 University and first marriage 1.4 Early career 1.5 First World War 1.6 G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
on the Trinity controversy and Russell's personal life 1.7 Between the wars 1.8 Second World War 1.9 Later life 1.10 Political causes 1.11 Final years and death 1.12 Titles and honours from birth


2.1 Philosophy 2.2 Religion 2.3 Society

3 Ancestry 4 Selected bibliography 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Russell 6.2 Secondary references 6.3 Books about Russell's philosophy 6.4 Biographical books 6.5 Notes

7 External links

7.1 Other writings available online 7.2 Audio

Biography[edit] Early life and background[edit]

Russell as a four-year-old

Childhood home, Pembroke Lodge

Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
was born on 18 May 1872 at Ravenscroft, Trellech, Monmouthshire, into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy.[75] His parents, Viscount and Viscountess Amberley, were radical for their times. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous.[76] Lord Amberley was an atheist and his atheism was evident when he asked the philosopher John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
to act as Russell's secular godfather.[77] Mill died the year after Russell's birth, but his writings had a great effect on Russell's life. His paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell, had been asked twice by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister in the 1840s and 1860s.[78] The Russells had been prominent in England for several centuries before this, coming to power and the peerage with the rise of the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
(see: Duke of Bedford). They established themselves as one of the leading British Whig families, and participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536–40 to the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in 1688–89 and the Great Reform Act
Great Reform Act
in 1832.[78][79] Lady Amberley was the daughter of Lord and Lady Stanley of Alderley.[72] Russell often feared the ridicule of his maternal grandmother,[80] one of the campaigners for education of women.[81] Childhood and adolescence[edit] Russell had two siblings: brother Frank (nearly seven years older than Bertrand), and sister Rachel (four years older). In June 1874 Russell's mother died of diphtheria, followed shortly by Rachel's death. In January 1876, his father died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park. His grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell, died in 1878, and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. His grandmother, the Countess Russell (née Lady Frances Elliot), was the dominant family figure for the rest of Russell's childhood and youth.[72][76] The countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian
family, and successfully petitioned the Court of Chancery
Court of Chancery
to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics. Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas (accepting Darwinism
and supporting Irish Home Rule), and her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life. (One could challenge the view that Bertrand stood up for his principles, based on his own well-known quotation: "I would never die for my beliefs because I might be wrong".) Her favourite Bible verse, 'Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil' (Exodus 23:2), became his motto. The atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, and formality; Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings. Russell's adolescence was very lonely, and he often contemplated suicide. He remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in religion and mathematics, and that only his wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide.[82] He was educated at home by a series of tutors.[83] When Russell was eleven years old, his brother Frank introduced him to the work of Euclid, which transformed his life.[76][84] During these formative years he also discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In his autobiography, he writes: "I spent all my spare time reading him, and learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, I used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley, and to wonder whether I should meet any live human being with whom I should feel so much sympathy".[85] Russell claimed that beginning at age 15, he spent considerable time thinking about the validity of Christian religious dogma, which he found very unconvincing.[86] At this age, he came to the conclusion that there is no free will and, two years later, that there is no life after death. Finally, at the age of 18, after reading Mill's "Autobiography", he abandoned the "First Cause" argument and became an atheist.[87][88] University and first marriage[edit] Russell won a scholarship to read for the Mathematical Tripos
Mathematical Tripos
at Trinity College, Cambridge, and commenced his studies there in 1890,[89] taking as coach Robert Rumsey Webb. He became acquainted with the younger George Edward Moore
George Edward Moore
and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead, who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles. He quickly distinguished himself in mathematics and philosophy, graduating as seventh Wrangler in the former in 1893 and becoming a Fellow in the latter in 1895.[90][91] Russell first met the American Quaker Alys Pearsall Smith
Alys Pearsall Smith
when he was 17 years old. He became a friend of the Pearsall Smith family – they knew him primarily as "Lord John’s grandson" and enjoyed showing him off. He traveled with them to the continent; it was in their company that Russell visited the Paris Exhibition of 1889
Paris Exhibition of 1889
and was able to climb the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
soon after it was completed.[92] He soon fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys, who was a graduate of Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College
near Philadelphia, and, contrary to his grandmother's wishes, married her on 13 December 1894. Their marriage began to fall apart in 1901 when it occurred to Russell, while he was cycling, that he no longer loved her.[93] She asked him if he loved her and he replied that he did not. Russell also disliked Alys's mother, finding her controlling and cruel. It was to be a hollow shell of a marriage and they finally divorced in 1921, after a lengthy period of separation.[94] During this period, Russell had passionate (and often simultaneous) affairs with a number of women, including Lady Ottoline Morrell[95] and the actress Lady Constance Malleson.[96] Some have suggested that at this point he had an affair with Vivienne Haigh-Wood, the English governess and writer, and first wife of T. S. Eliot.[97] Early career[edit]

Russell in 1907

Russell began his published work in 1896 with German Social Democracy, a study in politics that was an early indication of a lifelong interest in political and social theory. In 1896 he taught German social democracy at the London School of Economics.[98] He was a member of the Coefficients dining club of social reformers set up in 1902 by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb.[99] He now started an intensive study of the foundations of mathematics at Trinity. In 1898 he wrote An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry which discussed the Cayley–Klein metrics used for non-Euclidean geometry.[100] He attended the International Congress of Philosophy in Paris in 1900 where he met Giuseppe Peano
Giuseppe Peano
and Alessandro Padoa. The Italians had responded to Georg Cantor, making a science of set theory; they gave Russell their literature including the Formulario mathematico. Russell was impressed by the precision of Peano's arguments at the Congress, read the literature upon returning to England, and came upon Russell's paradox. In 1903 he published The Principles of Mathematics, a work on foundations of mathematics. It advanced a thesis of logicism, that mathematics and logic are one and the same.[101] At the age of 29, in February 1901, Russell underwent what he called a "sort of mystic illumination", after witnessing Whitehead's wife's acute suffering in an angina attack. "I found myself filled with semi-mystical feelings about beauty ... and with a desire almost as profound as that of the Buddha
to find some philosophy which should make human life endurable", Russell would later recall. "At the end of those five minutes, I had become a completely different person."[102] In 1905 he wrote the essay "On Denoting", which was published in the philosophical journal Mind. Russell was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1908.[61][72] The three-volume Principia Mathematica, written with Whitehead, was published between 1910 and 1913. This, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics, soon made Russell world-famous in his field. In 1910 he became a University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
lecturer at Trinity College where he studied. He was considered for a Fellowship, which would give him a vote in the college government and protect him from being fired for his opinions, but was passed over because he was "anti-clerical", essentially because he was agnostic. He was approached by the Austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgenstein, who became his PhD student. Russell viewed Wittgenstein as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobias and his frequent bouts of despair. This was often a drain on Russell's energy, but Russell continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in 1922.[103] Russell delivered his lectures on Logical Atomism, his version of these ideas, in 1918, before the end of World War
I. Wittgenstein was, at that time, serving in the Austrian Army and subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp at the end of the conflict. First World War[edit] During World War
I, Russell was one of the few people to engage in active pacifist activities and in 1916, because of his lack of a Fellowship, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act 1914.[104] He later described this as an illegitimate means the state used to violate freedom of expression, in Free Thought
and Official Propaganda. Russell played a significant part in the Leeds Convention in June 1917, a historic event which saw well over a thousand "anti-war socialists" gather; many being delegates from the Independent Labour Party and the Socialist Party, united in their pacifist beliefs and advocating a peace settlement.[105] The international press reported that Russell appeared with a number of Labour MPs, including Ramsay MacDonald and Philip Snowden, as well as former Liberal MP and anti-conscription campaigner, Professor Arnold Lupton. After the event, Russell told Lady Ottoline Morrell
Lady Ottoline Morrell
that, "to my surprise, when I got up to speak, I was given the greatest ovation that was possible to give anybody".[106][107] The Trinity incident resulted in Russell being fined £100, which he refused to pay in hope that he would be sent to prison, but his books were sold at auction to raise the money. The books were bought by friends; he later treasured his copy of the King James Bible that was stamped "Confiscated by Cambridge Police". A later conviction for publicly lecturing against inviting the US to enter the war on the United Kingdom's side resulted in six months' imprisonment in Brixton prison (see Bertrand Russell's views on society) in 1918.[108] He later said of his imprisonment:

I found prison in many ways quite agreeable. I had no engagements, no difficult decisions to make, no fear of callers, no interruptions to my work. I read enormously; I wrote a book, "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy"... and began the work for " Analysis
of Mind" — The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell[109]

Russell was reinstated to Trinity in 1919, resigned in 1920, was Tarner Lecturer 1926 and became a Fellow again in 1944 until 1949.[110] In 1924, Bertrand again gained press attention when attending a "banquet" in the House of Commons with well-known campaigners, including Arnold Lupton, who had been a Member of Parliament and had also endured imprisonment for "passive resistance to military or naval service".[111] G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
on the Trinity controversy and Russell's personal life[edit] In 1941, G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
wrote a 61-page pamphlet titled Bertrand Russell and Trinity – published later as a book by Cambridge University Press with a foreword by C. D. Broad
C. D. Broad
– in which he gave an authoritative account about Russell's 1916 dismissal from Trinity College, explaining that a reconciliation between the college and Russell had later taken place and gave details about Russell's personal life. Hardy writes that Russell's dismissal had created a scandal since the vast majority of the Fellows of the College opposed the decision. The ensuing pressure from the Fellows induced the Council to reinstate Russell. In January 1920, it was announced that Russell had accepted the reinstatement offer from Trinity and would begin lecturing from October. In July 1920, Russell applied for a one year leave of absence; this was approved. He spent the year giving lectures in China
and Japan. In January 1921, it was announced by Trinity that Russell had resigned and his resignation had been accepted. This resignation, Hardy explains, was completely voluntary and was not the result of another altercation. The reason for the resignation, according to Hardy, was that Russell was going through a tumultuous time in his personal life with a divorce and subsequent remarriage. Russell contemplated asking Trinity for another one-year leave of absence but decided against it, since this would have been an "unusual application" and the situation had the potential to snowball into another controversy. Although Russell did the right thing, in Hardy's opinion, the reputation of the College suffered due to Russell's resignation since the ‘world of learning’ knew about Russell's altercation with Trinity but not that the rift had healed. In 1925, Russell was asked by the Council of Trinity College to give the Tarner Lectures on the Philosophy of the Sciences; these would later be the basis for one of Russell's best received books according to Hardy: The Analysis
of Matter, published in 1927.[112] In the preface to this pamphlet, Hardy wrote:

I wish to make it plain that Russell himself is not responsible, directly or indirectly, for the writing of the pamphlet ... I wrote it without his knowledge and, when I sent him the typescript and asked for his permission to print it, I suggested that, unless it contained misstatement of fact, he should make no comment on it. He agreed to this ... no word has been changed as the result of any suggestion from him.

Between the wars[edit]

Russell in 1938

In August 1920, Russell travelled to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government to investigate the effects of the Russian Revolution.[113] He wrote a four-part series of articles, titled "Soviet Russia—1920", for the US magazine The Nation.[114][115] He met Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and had an hour-long conversation with him. In his autobiography, he mentions that he found Lenin disappointing, sensing an "impish cruelty" in him and comparing him to "an opinionated professor". He cruised down the Volga
on a steamship. His experiences destroyed his previous tentative support for the revolution. He wrote a book The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism[116] about his experiences on this trip, taken with a group of 24 others from the UK, all of whom came home thinking well of the régime, despite Russell's attempts to change their minds. For example, he told them that he heard shots fired in the middle of the night and was sure these were clandestine executions, but the others maintained that it was only cars backfiring.[citation needed]

Russell with his children, John and Kate

Russell's lover Dora Black, a British author, feminist and socialist campaigner, visited Russia independently at the same time; in contrast to his reaction, she was enthusiastic about the revolution.[116] The following autumn Russell, accompanied by Dora, visited Peking (as it was then known in the West) to lecture on philosophy for a year.[83] He went with optimism and hope, seeing China
as then being on a new path.[117] Other scholars present in China
at the time included John Dewey[118] and Rabindranath Tagore, the Indian Nobel-laureate poet.[83] Before leaving China, Russell became gravely ill with pneumonia, and incorrect reports of his death were published in the Japanese press.[118] When the couple visited Japan on their return journey, Dora took on the role of spurning the local press by handing out notices reading "Mr. Bertrand Russell, having died according to the Japanese press, is unable to give interviews to Japanese journalists".[119][120] Apparently they found this harsh and reacted resentfully.[citation needed] Dora was six months pregnant when the couple returned to England on 26 August 1921. Russell arranged a hasty divorce from Alys, marrying Dora six days after the divorce was finalised, on 27 September 1921. Russell's children with Dora were John Conrad Russell, 4th Earl Russell, born on 16 November 1921, and Katharine Jane Russell (now Lady Katharine Tait), born on 29 December 1923. Russell supported his family during this time by writing popular books explaining matters of physics, ethics, and education to the layman. From 1922 to 1927 the Russells divided their time between London and Cornwall, spending summers in Porthcurno.[121] In the 1922 and 1923 general elections Russell stood as a Labour Party candidate in the Chelsea constituency, but only on the basis that he knew he was extremely unlikely to be elected in such a safe Conservative seat, and he was not on either occasion. Together with Dora, Russell founded the experimental Beacon Hill School in 1927. The school was run from a succession of different locations, including its original premises at the Russells' residence, Telegraph House, near Harting, West Sussex. On 8 July 1930 Dora gave birth to her third child Harriet Ruth. After he left the school in 1932, Dora continued it until 1943.[122][123] On a tour through the US in 1927 Russell met Barry Fox (later Barry Stevens) who became a well-known Gestalt therapist and writer in later years.[124] Russell and Fox developed an intensive relationship. In Fox's words: "... for three years we were very close."[125] Fox sent her daughter Judith to Beacon Hill School for some time.[126] From 1927 to 1932 Russell wrote 34 letters to Fox.[127] Upon the death of his elder brother Frank, in 1931, Russell became the 3rd Earl Russell. Russell's marriage to Dora grew increasingly tenuous, and it reached a breaking point over her having two children with an American journalist, Griffin Barry.[123] They separated in 1932 and finally divorced. On 18 January 1936, Russell married his third wife, an Oxford undergraduate named Patricia ("Peter") Spence, who had been his children's governess since 1930. Russell and Peter had one son, Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell, who became a prominent historian and one of the leading figures in the Liberal Democrat party.[72] Russell returned to the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
to lecture on the science of power in 1937.[98] During the 1930s, Russell became a close friend and collaborator of V. K. Krishna Menon, then secretary of the India League, the foremost lobby in the United Kingdom for Indian self-rule.[vague] Second World War[edit] Russell opposed rearmament against Nazi Germany. In 1937 he wrote in a personal letter: "If the Germans succeed in sending an invading army to England we should do best to treat them as visitors, give them quarters and invite the commander and chief to dine with the prime minister."[128] In 1940, he changed his view that avoiding a full-scale world war was more important than defeating Hitler. He concluded that Adolf Hitler taking over all of Europe would be a permanent threat to democracy. In 1943, he adopted a stance toward large-scale warfare: " War
was always a great evil, but in some particularly extreme circumstances, it may be the lesser of two evils."[129][130] Before World War
II, Russell taught at the University of Chicago, later moving on to Los Angeles to lecture at the UCLA Department of Philosophy. He was appointed professor at the City College of New York (CCNY) in 1940, but after a public outcry the appointment was annulled by a court judgment that pronounced him "morally unfit" to teach at the college due to his opinions, especially those relating to sexual morality, detailed in Marriage and Morals
Marriage and Morals
(1929). The matter was however taken to the New York Supreme Court
New York Supreme Court
by Jean Kay who was afraid that her daughter would be harmed by the appointment, though her daughter was not a student at CCNY.[131] Many intellectuals, led by John Dewey, protested at his treatment.[132] Albert Einstein's oft-quoted aphorism that "great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds" originated in his open letter, dated 19 March 1940, to Morris Raphael Cohen, a professor emeritus at CCNY, supporting Russell's appointment.[133] Dewey and Horace M. Kallen edited a collection of articles on the CCNY affair in The Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Case. Russell soon joined the Barnes Foundation, lecturing to a varied audience on the history of philosophy; these lectures formed the basis of A History of Western Philosophy. His relationship with the eccentric Albert C. Barnes
Albert C. Barnes
soon soured, and he returned to the UK in 1944 to rejoin the faculty of Trinity College.[134] Later life[edit] Russell participated in many broadcasts over the BBC, particularly The Brains Trust and the Third Programme, on various topical and philosophical subjects. By this time Russell was world-famous outside academic circles, frequently the subject or author of magazine and newspaper articles, and was called upon to offer opinions on a wide variety of subjects, even mundane ones. En route to one of his lectures in Trondheim, Russell was one of 24 survivors (among a total of 43 passengers) of an aeroplane crash in Hommelvik in October 1948. He said he owed his life to smoking since the people who drowned were in the non-smoking part of the plane.[135][136] A History of Western Philosophy (1945) became a best-seller and provided Russell with a steady income for the remainder of his life. In 1942 Russell argued in favour of a moderate socialism, capable of overcoming its metaphysical principles, in an inquiry on Dialectical Materialism, launched by the Austrian artist and philosopher Wolfgang Paalen in his journal DYN, saying, "I think the metaphysics of both Hegel and Marx plain nonsense – Marx's claim to be 'science' is no more justified than Mary Baker Eddy's. This does not mean that I am opposed to socialism."[137] In 1943, Russell expressed support for Zionism: "I have come gradually to see that, in a dangerous and largely hostile world, it is essential to Jews
to have some country which is theirs, some region where they are not suspected aliens, some state which embodies what is distinctive in their culture".[138] In a speech in 1948, Russell said that if the USSR's aggression continued, it would be morally worse to go to war after the USSR possessed an atomic bomb than before it possessed one, because if the USSR had no bomb the West's victory would come more swiftly and with fewer casualties than if there were atom bombs on both sides.[139][140] At that time, only the United States possessed an atomic bomb, and the USSR was pursuing an extremely aggressive policy towards the countries in Eastern Europe which were being absorbed into the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. Many understood Russell's comments to mean that Russell approved of a first strike in a war with the USSR, including Nigel Lawson, who was present when Russell spoke of such matters. Others, including Griffin, who obtained a transcript of the speech, have argued that he was merely explaining the usefulness of America's atomic arsenal in deterring the USSR from continuing its domination of Eastern Europe.[135] However, just after the atomic bombs exploded over Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, Russell wrote letters, and published articles in newspapers from 1945 to 1948, stating clearly that it was morally justified and better to go to war against the USSR using atomic bombs while the United States possessed them and before the USSR did. In September 1949, one week after the USSR tested its first A-bomb, but before this became known, Russell wrote that USSR would be unable to develop nuclear weapons because following Stalin's purges only science based on Marxist principles would be practiced in the Soviet Union.[141] After it became known that the USSR carried out its nuclear bomb tests, Russell declared his position advocating for the total abolition of atomic weapons.[142] In 1948, Russell was invited by the BBC to deliver the inaugural Reith Lectures[143]—what was to become an annual series of lectures, still broadcast by the BBC. His series of six broadcasts, titled Authority and the Individual,[144] explored themes such as the role of individual initiative in the development of a community and the role of state control in a progressive society. Russell continued to write about philosophy. He wrote a foreword to Words and Things by Ernest Gellner, which was highly critical of the later thought of Ludwig Wittgenstein and of ordinary language philosophy. Gilbert Ryle
Gilbert Ryle
refused to have the book reviewed in the philosophical journal Mind, which caused Russell to respond via The Times. The result was a month-long correspondence in The Times
The Times
between the supporters and detractors of ordinary language philosophy, which was only ended when the paper published an editorial critical of both sides but agreeing with the opponents of ordinary language philosophy.[145] In the King's Birthday Honours of 9 June 1949, Russell was awarded the Order of Merit,[146] and the following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.[72][83] When he was given the Order of Merit, George VI
George VI
was affable but slightly embarrassed at decorating a former jailbird, saying, "You have sometimes behaved in a manner that would not do if generally adopted".[147] Russell merely smiled, but afterwards claimed that the reply "That's right, just like your brother" immediately came to mind. In 1952 Russell was divorced by Spence, with whom he had been very unhappy. Conrad, Russell's son by Spence, did not see his father between the time of the divorce and 1968 (at which time his decision to meet his father caused a permanent breach with his mother). Russell married his fourth wife, Edith Finch, soon after the divorce, on 15 December 1952. They had known each other since 1925, and Edith had taught English at Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College
near Philadelphia, sharing a house for 20 years with Russell's old friend Lucy Donnelly. Edith remained with him until his death, and, by all accounts, their marriage was a happy, close, and loving one. Russell's eldest son John suffered from serious mental illness, which was the source of ongoing disputes between Russell and his former wife Dora. In September 1961, at the age of 89, Russell was jailed for seven days in Brixton Prison for "breach of peace" after taking part in an anti-nuclear demonstration in London. The magistrate offered to exempt him from jail if he pledged himself to "good behaviour", to which Russell replied: "No, I won't."[148][149] In 1962 Russell played a public role in the Cuban Missile Crisis: in an exchange of telegrams with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Khrushchev assured him that the Soviet government would not be reckless.[150] Russell sent this telegram to President Kennedy:


According to historian Peter Knight, after JFK's assassination, Russell, "prompted by the emerging work of the lawyer Mark Lane in the US ... rallied support from other noteworthy and left-leaning compatriots to form a Who Killed Kennedy Committee in June 1964, members of which included Michael Foot
Michael Foot
MP, Caroline Benn, the publisher Victor Gollancz, the writers John Arden and J. B. Priestley, and the Oxford history professor Hugh Trevor-Roper." Russell published a highly critical article weeks before the Warren Commission
Warren Commission
Report was published, setting forth 16 Questions on the Assassination and equating the Oswald case with the Dreyfus affair
Dreyfus affair
of late 19th-century France, in which the state wrongly convicted an innocent man. Russell also criticised the American press for failing to heed any voices critical of the official version.[152] Political causes[edit]

Russell (centre) alongside his wife Edith, leading a CND
anti-nuclear march in London, 18 February 1961

Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
was opposed to war from early on, his opposition to World War I
World War I
being used as grounds for his dismissal from Trinity College at Cambridge. This incident fused two of his most controversial causes, as he'd failed to be granted Fellow status, which would have protected him from firing, because he was not willing to either pretend to be a devout Christian, or at least avoid admitting he was agnostic. He later described the resolution of these issues as essential to freedom of thought and expression, citing the incident in Free Thought and Official Propaganda, where he explained that the expression of any idea, even the most obviously "bad", must be protected not only from direct State intervention, but also economic leveraging and other means of being silenced:

The opinions which are still persecuted strike the majority as so monstrous and immoral that the general principle of toleration cannot be held to apply to them. But this is exactly the same view as that which made possible the tortures of the Inquisition.[153]

Russell spent the 1950s and 1960s engaged in political causes primarily related to nuclear disarmament and opposing the Vietnam War. The 1955 Russell–Einstein Manifesto was a document calling for nuclear disarmament and was signed by eleven of the most prominent nuclear physicists and intellectuals of the time.[154] In 1966–67, Russell worked with Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
and many other intellectual figures to form the Russell Vietnam War
Vietnam War
Crimes Tribunal to investigate the conduct of the United States in Vietnam. He wrote a great many letters to world leaders during this period. In 1956, immediately before and during the Suez Crisis, Russell expressed his opposition to European imperialism in the Middle East. He viewed the crisis as another reminder of the pressing need for a more effective mechanism for international governance, and to restrict national sovereignty to places such as the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
area "where general interest is involved". At the same time the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
was taking place, the world was also captivated by the Hungarian Revolution
and the subsequent crushing of the revolt by intervening Soviet forces. Russell attracted criticism for speaking out fervently against the Suez war while ignoring Soviet repression in Hungary, to which he responded that he did not criticise the Soviets "because there was no need. Most of the so-called Western World was fulminating". Although he later feigned a lack of concern, at the time he was disgusted by the brutal Soviet response, and on 16 November 1956, he expressed approval for a declaration of support for Hungarian scholars which Michael Polanyi
Michael Polanyi
had cabled to the Soviet embassy in London twelve days previously, shortly after Soviet troops had already entered Budapest.[155] In November 1957 Russell wrote an article addressing US President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, urging a summit to consider "the conditions of co-existence". Khrushchev responded that peace could indeed be served by such a meeting. In January 1958 Russell elaborated his views in The Observer, proposing a cessation of all nuclear-weapons production, with the UK taking the first step by unilaterally suspending its own nuclear-weapons program if necessary, and with Germany "freed from all alien armed forces and pledged to neutrality in any conflict between East and West". US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
replied for Eisenhower. The exchange of letters was published as The Vital Letters of Russell, Khrushchev, and Dulles.[156] Russell was asked by The New Republic, a liberal American magazine, to elaborate his views on world peace. He urged that all nuclear-weapons testing and constant flights by planes armed with nuclear weapons be halted immediately, and negotiations be opened for the destruction of all hydrogen bombs, with the number of conventional nuclear devices limited to ensure a balance of power. He proposed that Germany be reunified and accept the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
as its border, and that a neutral zone be established in Central Europe, consisting at the minimum of Germany, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, with each of these countries being free of foreign troops and influence, and prohibited from forming alliances with countries outside the zone. In the Middle East, Russell suggested that the West avoid opposing Arab nationalism, and proposed the creation of a United Nations peacekeeping force to guard Israel's frontiers to ensure that Israel was prevented from committing aggression and protected from it. He also suggested Western recognition of the People's Republic of China, and that it be admitted to the UN with a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.[156] He was in contact with Lionel Rogosin while the latter was filming his anti-war film Good Times, Wonderful Times
Good Times, Wonderful Times
in the 1960s. He became a hero to many of the youthful members of the New Left. In early 1963, in particular, Russell became increasingly vocal in his disapproval of the Vietnam War, and felt that the US government's policies there were near-genocidal. In 1963 he became the inaugural recipient of the Jerusalem Prize, an award for writers concerned with the freedom of the individual in society.[157] In 1964 he was one of eleven world figures who issued an appeal to Israel and the Arab countries to accept an arms embargo and international supervision of nuclear plants and rocket weaponry.[158] In October 1965 he tore up his Labour Party card because he suspected Harold Wilson's Labour government was going to send troops to support the United States in Vietnam.[72] Final years and death[edit] In June 1955 Russell had leased Plas Penrhyn in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales and on 5 July of the following year it became his and Edith's principal residence.[159]

Bust of Russell in Red Lion Square

Russell published his three-volume autobiography in 1967, 1968, and 1969. Russell made a cameo appearance playing himself in the anti-war Hindi
film Aman, by Mohan Kumar, which was released in India in 1967. This was Russell's only appearance in a feature film.[160] On 23 November 1969 he wrote to The Times
The Times
newspaper saying that the preparation for show trials in Czechoslovakia
was "highly alarming". The same month, he appealed to Secretary General U Thant
U Thant
of the United Nations to support an international war crimes commission to investigate alleged torture and genocide by the United States in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The following month, he protested to Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
over the expulsion of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
of Writers. On 31 January 1970 Russell issued a statement condemning "Israel's aggression in the Middle East", and in particular, Israeli bombing raids being carried out deep in Egyptian territory as part of the War of Attrition. He called for an Israeli withdrawal to the pre-Six-Day War
borders. This was Russell's final political statement or act. It was read out at the International Conference of Parliamentarians in Cairo
on 3 February 1970, the day after his death.[161] Russell died of influenza on 2 February 1970 at his home in Penrhyndeudraeth. His body was cremated in Colwyn Bay
Colwyn Bay
on 5 February 1970. In accordance with his will, there was no religious ceremony; his ashes were scattered over the Welsh mountains later that year. He left an estate valued at £69,423.[162] In 1980 a memorial to Russell was commissioned by a committee including the philosopher A. J. Ayer. It consists of a bust of Russell in Red Lion Square
Red Lion Square
in London sculpted by Marcelle Quinton.[163] Titles and honours from birth[edit] Russell held throughout his life the following styles and honours:

from birth until 1908: The Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell from 1908 until 1931: The Honourable Bertrand Arthur William Russell, FRS from 1931 until 1949: The Right Honourable The Earl Russell, FRS from 1949 until death: The Right Honourable The Earl Russell, OM, FRS


Part of a series on

Bertrand Russell

Russell in 1916

Views on philosophy Views on society Russell's paradox Russell's teapot Theory of descriptions Logical atomism

v t e

Philosophy[edit] Main article: Bertrand Russell's philosophical views Russell is generally credited with being one of the founders of analytic philosophy. He was deeply impressed by Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716), and wrote on every major area of philosophy except aesthetics. He was particularly prolific in the field of metaphysics, the logic and the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, ethics and epistemology. When Brand Blanshard
Brand Blanshard
asked Russell why he did not write on aesthetics, Russell replied that he did not know anything about it, "but that is not a very good excuse, for my friends tell me it has not deterred me from writing on other subjects".[164] On ethics, Russell considered himself a utilitarian.[165] For the advancement of science and protection of the right to freedom of expression, Russell advocated The Will to Doubt, the recognition that all human knowledge is at most a best guess, that one should always remember:

None of our beliefs are quite true; all have at least a penumbra of vagueness and error. The methods of increasing the degree of truth in our beliefs are well known; they consist in hearing all sides, trying to ascertain all the relevant facts, controlling our own bias by discussion with people who have the opposite bias, and cultivating a readiness to discard any hypothesis which has proved inadequate. These methods are practised in science, and have built up the body of scientific knowledge. Every man of science whose outlook is truly scientific is ready to admit that what passes for scientific knowledge at the moment is sure to require correction with the progress of discovery; nevertheless, it is near enough to the truth to serve for most practical purposes, though not for all. In science, where alone something approximating to genuine knowledge is to be found, men’s attitude is tentative and full of doubt.

Religion[edit] Russell described himself in 1947 as an agnostic, saying: "Therefore, in regard to the Olympic gods, speaking to a purely philosophical audience, I would say that I am an Agnostic. But speaking popularly, I think that all of us would say in regard to those gods that we were Atheists. In regard to the Christian God, I should, I think, take exactly the same line."[166] For most of his adult life, Russell maintained religion to be little more than superstition and, in spite of any positive effects, largely harmful to people. He believed that religion and the religious outlook serve to impede knowledge and foster fear and dependency, and to be responsible for much of our world's wars, oppression, and misery. He was a member of the Advisory Council of the British Humanist Association
British Humanist Association
and President of Cardiff Humanists until his death.[167] Society[edit] Main article: Bertrand Russell's views on society Political and social activism occupied much of Russell's time for most of his life. Russell remained politically active almost to the end of his life, writing to and exhorting world leaders and lending his name to various causes. Russell argued for a "scientific society", where war would be abolished, population growth would be limited, and prosperity would be shared.[168] He suggested the establishment of a "single supreme world government" able to enforce peace,[169] claiming that "the only thing that will redeem mankind is co-operation".[170] Russell was an active supporter of the Homosexual Law
Reform Society, being one of the signatories of A. E. Dyson's 1958 letter to The Times calling for a change in the law regarding male homosexual practices, which were partly legalised in 1967, when Russell was still alive.[171] In "Reflections on My Eightieth Birthday" ("Postscript" in his Autobiography), Russell wrote: "I have lived in the pursuit of a vision, both personal and social. Personal: to care for what is noble, for what is beautiful, for what is gentle; to allow moments of insight to give wisdom at more mundane times. Social: to see in imagination the society that is to be created, where individuals grow freely, and where hate and greed and envy die because there is nothing to nourish them. These things I believe, and the world, for all its horrors, has left me unshaken".[172] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Bertrand Russell

8. John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford

4. John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

9. Hon. Georgiana Byng

2. John Russell, Viscount Amberley

10. Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto

5. Frances Anna Maria Elliot

11. Mary Brydone

1. Bertrand Russell

12. John Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley

6. Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley

13. Hon. Maria Holroyd

3. Katharine Louisa Stanley

14. Henry Dillon, 13th Viscount Dillon

7. Hon. Henrietta Dillon-Lee

15. Henrietta Browne

Selected bibliography[edit] Below is a selected bibliography of Russell's books in English, sorted by year of first publication:

1896. German Social Democracy. London: Longmans, Green. 1897. An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry.[173] Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1900. A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1903. The Principles of Mathematics.[174] Cambridge University Press. 1903. A Free man's worship, and other essays.[175] 1905. "On Denoting", Mind, Vol. 14. ISSN 0026-4423. Basil Blackwell. 1910. Philosophical Essays. London: Longmans, Green. 1910–1913. Principia Mathematica[176] (with Alfred North Whitehead). 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1912. The Problems of Philosophy.[177] London: Williams and Norgate. 1914. Our Knowledge
of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy.[178] Chicago and London: Open Court Publishing. 1916. Principles of Social Reconstruction.[179] London, George Allen and Unwin. 1916. Why Men Fight. New York: The Century Co. 1916. The Policy of the Entente, 1904–1914 : a reply to Professor Gilbert Murray. Manchester: The National Labour Press 1916. Justice
in War-time. Chicago: Open Court. 1917. Political Ideals.[180] New York: The Century Co. 1918. Mysticism
and Logic
and Other Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1918. Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism.[181] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1919. Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy.[182][183] London: George Allen & Unwin. (ISBN 0-415-09604-9 for Routledge paperback)[184] 1920. The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism.[185] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1921. The Analysis
of Mind.[186] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1922. The Problem of China.[187] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1922 Free Thought
and Official Propaganda, delivered at South Place Institute[188] 1923. The Prospects of Industrial Civilization, in collaboration with Dora Russell. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1923. The ABC of Atoms, London: Kegan Paul. Trench, Trubner. 1924. Icarus; or, The Future of Science. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1925. The ABC of Relativity. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1925. What I Believe. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1926. On Education, Especially in Early Childhood. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1927. The Analysis
of Matter. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1927. An Outline of Philosophy. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1927. Why I Am Not a Christian.[189] London: Watts. 1927. Selected Papers of Bertrand Russell. New York: Modern Library. 1928. Sceptical Essays. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1929. Marriage and Morals. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1930. The Conquest of Happiness. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1931. The Scientific Outlook,[190] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1932. Education and the Social Order,[191] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1934. Freedom and Organization, 1814–1914. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1935. In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays.[192] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1935. Religion
and Science. London: Thornton Butterworth. 1936. Which Way to Peace?. London: Jonathan Cape. 1937. The Amberley Papers: The Letters and Diaries of Lord and Lady Amberley, with Patricia Russell, 2 vols., London: Leonard & Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press. 1938. Power: A New Social Analysis. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1940. An Inquiry
into Meaning and Truth. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. 1945. A History of Western Philosophy and Its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day[193] New York: Simon and Schuster. 1948. Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1949. Authority and the Individual.[194] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1950. Unpopular Essays.[195] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1951. New Hopes for a Changing World. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1952. The Impact of Science on Society. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1953. Satan in the Suburbs and Other Stories. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1954. Human Society
in Ethics
and Politics. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1954. Nightmares of Eminent Persons and Other Stories.[196] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1956. Portraits from Memory and Other Essays.[197] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1956. Logic
and Knowledge: Essays 1901–1950, edited by Robert C. Marsh. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1957. Why I Am Not A Christian and Other Essays on Religion
and Related Subjects, edited by Paul Edwards. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1958. Understanding History and Other Essays. New York: Philosophical Library. 1959. Common Sense and Nuclear Warfare.[198] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1959. My Philosophical Development.[199] London: George Allen & Unwin. 1959. Wisdom of the West, edited by Paul Foulkes. London: Macdonald. 1960. Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Speaks His Mind, Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company. 1961. The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell, edited by R. E. Egner and L. E. Denonn. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1961. Fact and Fiction. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1961. Has Man a Future? London: George Allen & Unwin. 1963. Essays in Skepticism. New York: Philosophical Library. 1963. Unarmed Victory. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1965. Legitimacy Versus Industrialism, 1814–1848. London: George Allen & Unwin (first published as Parts I and II of Freedom and Organization, 1814–1914, 1934). 1965. On the Philosophy of Science, edited by Charles A. Fritz, Jr. Indianapolis: The Bobbs–Merrill Company. 1966. The ABC of Relativity. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1967. Russell's Peace
Appeals, edited by Tsutomu Makino and Kazuteru Hitaka. Japan: Eichosha's New Current Books. 1967. War
Crimes in Vietnam. London: George Allen & Unwin. 1951–1969. The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell,[200] 3 vols., London: George Allen & Unwin. Vol. 2, 1956[200] 1969. Dear Bertrand Russell... A Selection of his Correspondence with the General Public 1950–1968, edited by Barry Feinberg and Ronald Kasrils. London: George Allen and Unwin.

Russell was the author of more than sixty books and over two thousand articles.[201][202] Additionally, he wrote many pamphlets, introductions, and letters to the editor. One pamphlet titled, 'I Appeal unto Caesar': The Case of the Conscientious Objectors, ghostwritten for Margaret Hobhouse, the mother of imprisoned peace activist Stephen Hobhouse, allegedly helped secure the release from prison of hundreds of conscientious objectors.[203] His works can be found in anthologies and collections, including The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell, which McMaster University
McMaster University
began publishing in 1983. By March 2017 this collection of his shorter and previously unpublished works included 18 volumes,[204] and several more are in progress. A bibliography in three additional volumes catalogues his publications. The Russell Archives held by McMaster's William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections
William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections
possess over 40,000 of his letters.[205] See also[edit]

Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Foundation Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club Criticism of Jesus List of peace activists List of pioneers in computer science

References[edit] Russell[edit]

1900, Sur la logique des relations avec des applications à la théorie des séries, Rivista di matematica 7: 115–148. 1901, On the Notion of Order, Mind
(n.s.) 10: 35–51. 1902, (with Alfred North Whitehead), On Cardinal Numbers, American Journal of Mathematics
24: 367–384. 1948, BBC Reith Lectures: Authority and the Individual A series of six radio lectures broadcast on the BBC Home Service in December 1948.

Secondary references[edit]

John Newsome Crossley. A Note on Cantor's Theorem and Russell's Paradox, Australian Journal of Philosophy 51, 1973, 70–71. Ivor Grattan-Guinness. The Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Alan Ryan. Bertrand Russell: A Political Life, New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Books about Russell's philosophy[edit]

Alfred Julius Ayer. Russell, London: Fontana, 1972. ISBN 0-00-632965-9. A lucid summary exposition of Russell's thought. Celia Green. The Lost Cause: Causation and the Mind-Body Problem, Oxford: Oxford Forum, 2003. ISBN 0-9536772-1-4 Contains a sympathetic analysis of Russell's views on causality. A. C. Grayling. Russell: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2002. Nicholas Griffin. Russell's Idealist Apprenticeship, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. A. D. Irvine (ed.). Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, 4 volumes, London: Routledge, 1999. Consists of essays on Russell's work by many distinguished philosophers. Michael K. Potter. Bertrand Russell's Ethics, Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006. A clear and accessible explanation of Russell's moral philosophy. Elizabeth Ramsden Eames. Bertrand Russell's Theory of Knowledge, London: George Allen and Unwin, 1969. A clear description of Russell's philosophical development. P. A. Schilpp (ed.). The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, Evanston and Chicago: Northwestern University, 1944. John Slater. Bertrand Russell, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1994.

Biographical books[edit]

A. J. Ayer. Bertrand Russell, New York: Viking Press, 1972, reprint ed. London: University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press, 1988: ISBN 0-226-03343-0 Ronald W. Clark. The Life of Bertrand Russell, London: Jonathan Cape, 1975 ISBN 0-394-49059-2 Ronald W. Clark. Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and His World, London: Thames & Hudson, 1981 ISBN 0-500-13070-1 Rupert Crawshay-Williams. Russell Remembered, London: Oxford University Press, 1970. Written by a close friend of Russell's[206] John Lewis. Bertrand Russell: Philosopher and Humanist, London: Lawerence & Wishart, 1968 Ray Monk. Bertrand Russell: Mathematics: Dreams and Nightmares London: Phoenix, 1997 ISBN 0-7538-0190-6 Ray Monk. Bertrand Russell: 1872–1920 The Spirit
of Solitude Vol. I, New York: Routledge, 1997 ISBN 0-09-973131-2 Ray Monk. Bertrand Russell: 1921–1970 The Ghost of Madness Vol. II, New York: Routledge, 2001 ISBN 0-09-927275-X George Santayana. 'Bertrand Russell', in Selected Writings of George Santayana, ed. Norman Henfrey, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, I, 1968, pp. 326–329 Katharine Tait. My father Bertrand Russell, New York: Thoemmes Press, 1975 David Wallechinsky & Wallace Irving. 1975–1981, "Famous Marriages Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
& Alla Pearsall Smith Part 1" & "Part 3", on "Alys" Pearsall Smith, webpage content from The People's Almanac, webpages: Part 1 & Part 3 (accessed 18 May 2014). Alan Wood. Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
The Passionate Sceptic London: George Allen & Unwin, 1957. Peter Stone et al. Bertrand Russell´s Life and Legacy. Wilmington: Vernon Press, 2017.


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(2006). Ann Druyan, ed. The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God. Penguin. ISBN 9781594201073.  ^ George Crowder (2004). Isaiah Berlin: Liberty, Pluralism and Liberalism. Polity. p. 15. ISBN 9780745624778.  ^ Elsie Jones-Smith (2011). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach: An Integrative Approach. SAGE. p. 142. ISBN 9781412910040.  ^ "Interview with Martin Gardner" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. June–July 2005. p. 603. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ Peter S Williams (2013). S Lewis Vs The New Atheists. Authentic Media Inc. ISBN 9781780780931.  ^ Loretta Lorance; Richard Buckminster Fuller
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Frank Wilczek
- Biographical". Nobel Media AB 2017. Another thing that shaped my thinking was religious training. I was brought up as a Roman Catholic. I loved the idea that there was a great drama and a grand plan behind existence. Later, under the influence of Bertrand Russell's writings and my increasing awareness of scientific knowledge, I lost faith in conventional religion.  ^ Azurmendi, Joxe (1999): Txillardegiren saioa: hastapenen bila, Jakin, 114: pp. 17–45. ISSN 0211-495X ^ a b Kreisel, G. (1973). "Bertrand Arthur William Russell, Earl Russell. 1872–1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 19: 583–620. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1973.0021. JSTOR 769574.  ^ The Life of Bertrand Russell. Knopf. 1976. p. 119. ISBN 9780394490595. He became a relentless political activist during World War
I, and throughout his life was an ardent advocate of parliamentary democracy through his support first of the Liberal Party and then of Labour.  ^ a b Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Bertrand Russell", 1 May 2003 ^ Bertrand Russell. Autobiography. p. 260. ISBN 9780415189859. I have imagined myself in turn a Liberal, a Socialist, or a Pacifist, but I have never been any of these things, in any profound sense.  ^ Hestler, Anna (2001). Wales. Marshall Cavendish. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7614-1195-6.  ^ Russell and G. E. Moore
G. E. Moore
broke themselves free from British Idealism which, for nearly 90 years, had dominated British philosophy. Russell would later recall in "My Mental Development" that "with a sense of escaping from prison, we allowed ourselves to think that grass is green, that the sun and stars would exist if no one was aware of them ..."—Russell B, (1944) "My Mental Development", in Schilpp, Paul Arthur: The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, New York: Tudor, 1951, pp. 3–20. ^ Ludlow, Peter. "Descriptions, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)".  ^ Richard Rempel (1979). "From Imperialism to Free Trade: Couturat, Halevy and Russell's First Crusade". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 40 (3): 423–443. doi:10.2307/2709246. JSTOR 2709246.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1988) [1917]. Political Ideals. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10907-8.  ^ Russell, Bertrand. "Atomic Weapon and the Prevention of War". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 2/7-8, (October 1, 1946). p. 20.  ^ Samoiloff, Louise Cripps. C .L. R. James: Memories and Commentaries, p. 19. Associated University Presses, 1997. ISBN 0-8453-4865-5 ^ a b c d e f g "The Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
oGallery". Russell.mcmaster.ca. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1950 — Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1950 was awarded to Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought". Retrieved on 22 March 2013. ^ "British Nobel Prize Winners (1950)". YouTube. 13 April 2014.  ^ Sidney Hook, "Lord Russell and the War
Crimes Trial", Bertrand Russell: critical assessments, Vol. 1, edited by A. D. Irvine, New York 1999, p. 178 ^ a b c Paul, Ashley. "Bertrand Russell: The Man and His Ideas". Archived from the original on 1 May 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2007.  ^ Russell, Bertrand and Perkins, Ray (ed.) Yours faithfully, Bertrand Russell. Open Court Publishing, 2001, p. 4. ^ a b Bloy, Marjie, PhD. "Lord John Russell (1792–1878)". Retrieved 28 October 2007.  ^ Cokayne, G. E.; Vicary Gibbs, H. A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, eds. The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed. 13 volumes in 14. 1910–1959. Reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, UK: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000. ^ Booth, Wayne C. (1974). Modern Dogma and the Rhetoric
of Assent. University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. ISBN 0226065723.  ^ The Women's Suffrage Movement: A Reference Guide, 1866–1928 By Elizabeth Crawford ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). Autobiography. Psychology Press. p. 38. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ a b c d The Nobel Foundation (1950). Bertrand Russell: The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950. Retrieved 11 June 2007. ^ Lenz, John R. " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and the Greeks" (PDF). Retrieved 27 October 2007.  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). Autobiography. Psychology Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ "1959 Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
CBC interview". 1959.  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). "2: Adolescence". Autobiography. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
on God". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 1959. Archived from the original on 26 January 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2010.  ^ "Russell, the Hon. Bertrand Arthur William (RSL890BA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (October 2003). "Alfred North Whitehead". School of Mathematics
and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved 8 November 2007.  ^ Griffin, Nicholas; Lewis, Albert C. "Russell's Mathematical Education". Notes and Records of the Royal Society
of London. 44 (1): 51–71. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1990.0004. JSTOR 531585.  ^ Wallenchinsky et al. (1981), "Famous Marriages Bertrand ... Part 1". ^ Bertrand Russell. Autobiography. p. 150. ISBN 9780415189859. I went out bicycling one afternoon, and suddenly, as I was riding along a country road, I realised that I no longer loved Alys  ^ Wallenchinsky et al. (1981), "Famous Marriages Bertrand ... Part 3". ^ Moran, Margaret (1991). " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Meets His Muse: The Impact of Lady Ottoline Morrell
Lady Ottoline Morrell
(1911–12)". McMaster University
McMaster University
Library Press. Retrieved 1 March 2012.  ^ Kimball, Roger. "Love, logic & unbearable pity: The private Bertrand Russell". The New Criterion Vol. 11, No. 1, September 1992. The New Criterion. Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2007.  ^ Monk, Ray (September 2004). "Russell, Bertrand Arthur William, third Earl Russell
Earl Russell
(1872–1970)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35875. Retrieved 14 March 2008. (subscription required) ^ a b "London School of Economics". Lse.ac.uk. 26 August 2015.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (2001). Ray Perkins, ed. Yours Faithfully, Bertrand Russell: Letters to the Editor 1904–1969. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 0-8126-9449-X. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1898) An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry, p. 32, re-issued 1956 by Dover Books ^ "Bertrand Russell, biography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 23 June 2010.  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). "6: Principia Mathematica". Autobiography. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ "Russell on Wittgenstein". Rbjones.com. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ Hochschild, Adam (2011). "I Tried to Stop the Bloody Thing". The American Scholar. Retrieved 10 May 2011.  ^ Scharfenburger, Paul (17 October 2012). "1917". MusicandHistory.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2014.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1995). "A Summer of Hope". Pacifism and Revolution. Routledge. p. xxxiv.  ^ "British Socialists – Peace
Terms Discussed". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 June 1917. Retrieved 7 January 2014.  ^ Vellacott, Jo (1980). Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and the Pacifists in the First World War. Brighton: Harvester Press. ISBN 0-85527-454-9.  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). "8: The First War". Autobiography. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ "Trinity in Literature". Trinity College. Retrieved 3 August 2017.  ^ "M. P.'s Who Have Been in Jail To Hold Banquet". The Reading Eagle. 8 January 1924. Retrieved 18 May 2014.  ^ G. H. Hardy
G. H. Hardy
(1970). Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and Trinity. pp. 57–8.  ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1872–1970)". Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 11 December 2007.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (31 July 1920). "Soviet Russia—1920". The Nation. pp. 121–125. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (20 February 2008) [First published 1920]. "Lenin, Trotzky and Gorky". The Nation. Retrieved 20 August 2016.  ^ a b Russell, Bertrand The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism by Bertrand Russell, 1920 ^ Russell, Bertrand (1972). The Problem of China. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. p. 252.  ^ a b " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Reported Dead" (PDF). The New York Times. 21 April 1921. Retrieved 11 December 2007.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (2000). Richard A. Rempel, ed. Uncertain Paths to Freedom: Russia and China, 1919–22. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell. 15. Routledge. lxviii. ISBN 0-415-09411-9.  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). "10: China". Autobiography. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415189859. It provided me with the pleasure of reading my obituary notices, which I had always desired without expecting my wishes to be fulfilled... As the Japanese papers had refused to contradict the news of my death, Dora gave each of them a type-written slip saying that as I was dead I could not be interviewed  ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). Autobiography. Psychology Press. p. 386. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ Inside Beacon Hill: Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
as Schoolmaster. Jespersen, Shirley ERIC# EJ360344, published 1987 ^ a b "Dora Russell". 12 May 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ Kranz, D. (2011): Barry Stevens: Leben Gestalten. In: Gestaltkritik, 2/2011, p. 4-11. ^ Stevens, B. (1970): Don't Push the River. Lafayette, Cal. (Real People Press), p. 26. ^ Gorham, D. (2005): Dora and Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and Beacon Hill School, in: Russell: the Journal of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Studies, n.s. 25, (summer 2005), p. 39 – 76, p. 57. ^ Spadoni, C. (1981): Recent Acquisitions: Correspondence, in: Russell: the Journal of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Studies, Vol 1, Iss. 1, Article 6, 43 – 67. ^ "Museum Of Tolerance Acquires Bertrand Russell's Nazi Appeasement Letter". Losangeles.cbslocal.com. 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ Russell, Bertrand, "The Future of Pacifism", The American Scholar, (1943) 13: 7–13 ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). "12: Later Years of Telegraph House". Autobiography. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415189859. I found the Nazis utterly revolting – cruel, bigoted, and stupid. Morally and intellectually they were alike odious to me. Although I clung to my pacifist convictions, I did so with increasing difficulty. When, in 1940, England was threatened with invasion, I realised that, throughout the First War, I had never seriously envisaged the possibility of utter defeat. I found this possibility unbearable, and at last consciously and definitely decided that I must support what was necessary for victory in the Second War, however difficult victory might be to achieve, and however painful in its consequences  ^ McCarthy, Joseph M. (May 1993). The Russell Case: Academic Freedom vs. Public Hysteria (PDF). Educational Resources Information
Center. p. 9.  ^ Leberstein, Stephen (November–December 2001). "Appointment Denied: The Inquisition of Bertrand Russell". Academe. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ Einstein quotations and sources.. Retrieved 9 July 2009. ^ "Bertrand Russell". 2006. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ a b Griffin, Nicholas (ed.) (2002). The Selected Letters of Bertrand Russell. Routledge. p. 660. ISBN 0-415-26012-4. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1998). Autobiography. Psychology Press. p. 512. ISBN 9780415189859.  ^ Russell to Edward Renouf, assistant of Wolfgang Paalen, 23 March 1942 (Succession Wolfgang Paalen, Berlin); this letter is cited in DYN, No. 2, Mexico, July–August 1942, p. 52 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2014-09-13.  ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and Preventive War" (PDF). Plymouth.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ "A philosopher's letters – Love, Bertie". The Economist. 21 July 2001.  ^ He wrote: "There is reason to think Stalin will insist on a new orthodoxy in atomic physics, since there is much in quantum theory that runs contrary to Communist dogma. An atomic bomb' made on Marxist principles would probably not explode because, after all, Marxist science was that of a hundred years ago. For those who fear the military power of Russia there is, therefore, some reason to rejoice in the muzzling of Russian science." Russell, Bertrand "Stalin Declares War
on Science"  Review of Langdon-Davies, Russia Puts Back the Clock, Evening Standard (London), Sep 7 1949, p. 9. ^ "The life of Bertrand Russell: Ronald William Clark: 9780394490595: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com.  ^ –06:04. "Radio 4 Programmes – The Reith Lectures". BBC. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ –06:04. "Radio 4 Programmes – The Reith Lectures: Bertrand Russell: Authority and the Individual: 1948". BBC. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ T. P. Uschanov, The Strange Death of Ordinary Language
Philosophy. The controversy has been described by the writer Ved Mehta in Fly and the Fly Bottle (1963). ^ "No. 38628". The London Gazette
The London Gazette
(Supplement). 3 June 1949. p. 2796.  ^ Ronald W. Clark, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and His World, p. 94. (1981) ISBN 0-500-13070-1 ^ Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Foundation, Bertrand Russell, 1872–1970 [1970], p. 12 ^ Russell, Bertrand (1967). The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, Vol. 3. Little, Brown. p. 157.  ^ Sanderson Beck (2003–2005). "Pacifism of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and A. J. Muste". World Peace
Efforts Since Gandhi. Sanderson Beck. Retrieved 24 June 2012.  ^ John H. Davis. The Kennedys: Dynasty and Disaster. S. P. Books. p. 437.  ^ Peter Knight, The Kennedy Assassination, Edinburgh University Press Ltd., 2007, p. 77. Also see "External Links": "Sixteen Questions on the Assassination (of President Kennedy)". ^ Free Thought
and Official Propaganda ^ Russell, Bertrand; Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
(9 July 1955). "Russell Einstein Manifesto". Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(Psychology Press, 2005) ^ a b Yours Faithfully, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(pp. 212–213) ^ "Jerusalem International Book Fair". Jerusalembookfair.com. Retrieved 1 October 2011.  ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Appeals to Arabs and Israel on Rocket Weapons". Jewish Telegraphic Agency.  ^ Russell, Bertrand. Andrew G. Bone, ed. The Collected Papers of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Volume 29: Détente Or Destruction, 1955–57. Abingdon: Routledge. p. iii. ISBN 978-0415-3583-78.  ^ "Aman (1967)". Internet Movie Database.  ^ "Bertrand Russell's Last Message". Connexions.org. 1970-01-31. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ Russell, 1970, p. 3 at probatesearch.service.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 August 2015 ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Memorial". Mind. 353: 320. 1980.  ^ Blanshard, in Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Brand Blanshard, Open Court, 1980, p. 88, quoting a private letter from Russell. ^ The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, London: Routledge, 2000 [London: Allen and Unwin, 1969, Vol. 1], p. 39 ("It appeared to me obvious that the happiness of mankind should be the aim of all action, and I discovered to my surprise that there were those who thought otherwise. Belief
in happiness, I found, was called Utilitarianism, and was merely one among a number of ethical theories. I adhered to it after this discovery."). ^ Russell, Bertrand (1947). "Am I An Atheist
or an Agnostic?". Encyclopedia of Things. Archived from the original on 22 June 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2005. : "I never know whether I should say "Agnostic" or whether I should say "Atheist"... As a philosopher, if I were speaking to a purely philosophic audience I should say that I ought to describe myself as an Agnostic, because I do not think that there is a conclusive argument by which one prove (sic) that there is not a God. On the other hand, if I am to convey the right impression to the ordinary man in the street I think I ought to say that I am an Atheist..." ^ 'Humanist News', March 1970 ^ Russell, Bertrand (1952). "Conclusions". The Impact of Science on Society.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1936). Which Way to Peace? (Part 12). M. Joseph Ltd. p. 173.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1954). Human Society
in Ethics
and Politics. London: G. Allen & Unwin. p. 212.  ^ Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association (2 November 1997). "Lesbian and Gay Rights: The Humanist and Religious Stances". Retrieved 17 February 2008.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1968). The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell: 1944–1969. Little, Brown. p. 330.  Published separately as 'Reflections on My Eightieth Birthday' in Portraits from Memory. ^ "An essay on the foundations of geometry". Internet Archive.  ^ "The Principles of Mathematics". fair-use.org.  ^ Free man's worship, and other essays, London : Unwin Books, 1976, ISBN 0048240214 ^ "Principia mathematica, by Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead
... and Bertrand Russell". umich.edu.  ^ "The Problems of Philosophy". ditext.com.  ^ "OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE EXTERNAL WORLD". Internet Archive.  ^ "Principles of social reconstruction". Internet Archive.  ^ "Political Ideals". Project Gutenberg.  ^ "Proposed Roads to Freedom". Project Gutenberg.  ^ Kevin C. Klement. "Russell's Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy". umass.edu.  ^ Pfeiffer, G. A. (1920). "Review: Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy by Bertrand Russell" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 27 (2): 81–90. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1920-03365-3.  ^ "Introduction to mathematical philosophy". Internet Archive.  ^ "The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism". Project Gutenberg.  ^ "The Analysis
of Mind". Project Gutenberg.  ^ "The Problem of China". Project Gutenberg.  ^ Conway Memorial Lecture — Free Thought
And Official Propaganda ^ "Why I Am Not A Christian". positiveatheism.org. Archived from the original on 19 November 2006.  ^ "The Scientific Outlook". Internet Archive.  ^ "Education and the Social Order". Internet Archive.  ^ "In Praise of Idleness By Bertrand Russell". zpub.com.  ^ "Western Philosophy". Internet Archive.  ^ "Authority and the individual". Internet Archive.  ^ "Unpopular Essays". Internet Archive.  ^ "Nightmares of Eminent Persons And Other Stories". Internet Archive.  ^ "Portraits From Memory And Other Essays". Internet Archive.  ^ "Common Sense And Nuclear Warfare". Internet Archive.  ^ "MY PHILOSOPHICAL DEVELOPMENT". Internet Archive.  ^ a b "The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
1872 1914". Internet Archive.  ^ Charles Pigden in Bertrand Russell, Russell on Ethics: Selections from the Writings of Bertrand Russell, Routledge (2013), p. 14 ^ James C. Klagge, Wittgenstein: Biography and Philosophy, Cambridge University Press (2001), p. 12 ^ Hochschild, Adam (2011). To end all wars: a story of loyalty and rebellion, 1914–1918. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 270–272. ISBN 0-618-75828-3.  ^ "McMaster University: The Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Research Centre". Russell.mcmaster.ca. 2017-03-06. Retrieved 2017-03-29.  ^ " Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Archives Catalogue Entry and Research System". McMaster University
McMaster University
Library. The William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ "Book Review: 'Russell Remembered' The Socialist Party of Great Britain". Worldsocialism.org. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 

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Other writings available online[edit]

Works by Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
at Internet Archive Works by Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
at Open Library German Social Democracy
(1896) Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz (1900) "A Free Man's Worship" (1903) "On Denoting" (1905) Anti-Suffragist Anxieties (1910) "The Elements of Ethics" (1910) Principia Mathematica, volume one (1910) War
and Non-Resistance (1915) The War
and Non-Resistance — A Rejoinder to Professor Perry (1915) The Ethics
of War
(1915) Justice
in Wartime (1917) Why Men Fight: A Method of Abolishing the International Duel (1917) The Philosophy of Logical Atomism
Logical Atomism
(1918–19) Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy (1919) "The Conquest of Happiness" (1930) "Has Religion
Made Useful Contributions to Civilization?" (1930) Legitimacy Versus Industrialism 1814–1848 (1935) "Am I an Atheist
or an Agnostic?" (1947) "Ideas that Have Harmed Mankind" (1950) "What Desires Are Politically Important?" Bertrand Russell's Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech (1950) An Outline of Philosophy (1951) Is There a God? (1952) Russell, Bertrand (1953). "What is an Agnostic?". Archived from the original on 3 February 2008.  The Scientific Outlook (1954) "16 Questions on the Assassination" (of President Kennedy) (1964) Bertrand Russell, Selected Writings


Works by Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Sound clips of Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
speaking Russell's BBC broadcast on "Man's Peril" (1954) and the "Russell–Einstein Manifesto" Press conference (1955) "What Desires Are Politically Important?" Bertrand Russell's Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech (1950)

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George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

Related topics

Criticism of religion Ethics
in religion Exegesis History of religions Religion Religious language Religious philosophy Relationship between religion and science Political science of religion Faith
and rationality more...

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Philosophy of science


Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist
method Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science

Metatheory of science

Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism

Philosophy of


thermal and statistical Motion

Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology

Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science

Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space and time

Related topics

Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith
and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric
of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance

Philosophers of science by era


Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans


Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby

Early modern

Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume

Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

Portal Category

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist
political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika


Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

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Set theory



countable dependent

Constructibility (V=L) Determinacy Extensionality Infinity Limitation of size Pairing Power
set Regularity Union Martin's axiom


replacement specification


Cartesian product Complement De Morgan's laws Disjoint union Intersection Power
set Set difference Symmetric difference Union

Concepts Methods

Cardinality Cardinal number (large) Class Constructible universe Continuum hypothesis Diagonal argument Element

ordered pair tuple

Family Forcing One-to-one correspondence Ordinal number Transfinite induction Venn diagram

Set types

Countable Empty Finite (hereditarily) Fuzzy Infinite Recursive Subset · Superset Transitive Uncountable Universal


Alternative Axiomatic Naive Cantor's theorem



Principia Mathematica

New Foundations


von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel


Kripke–Platek Tarski–Grothendieck

Paradoxes Problems

Russell's paradox Suslin's problem Burali-Forti paradox

Set theorists

Abraham Fraenkel Bertrand Russell Ernst Zermelo Georg Cantor John von Neumann Kurt Gödel Paul Bernays Paul Cohen Richard Dedekind Thomas Jech Thoralf Skolem Willard Quine

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature


1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw


1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell


1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale


1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian


2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

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Recipients of the Sonning Prize

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1950) Albert Schweitzer
Albert Schweitzer
(1959) Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1960) Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1961) Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
(1962) Karl Barth
Karl Barth
(1963) Dominique Pire
Dominique Pire
(1964) Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
(1965) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1966) Willem Visser 't Hooft
Willem Visser 't Hooft
(1967) Arthur Koestler
Arthur Koestler
(1968) Halldór Laxness
Halldór Laxness
(1969) Max Tau
Max Tau
(1970) Danilo Dolci
Danilo Dolci
(1971) Karl Popper
Karl Popper
(1973) Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
(1975) Arne Næss
Arne Næss
(1977) Hermann Gmeiner
Hermann Gmeiner
(1979) Dario Fo
Dario Fo
(1981) Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
(1983) William Heinesen
William Heinesen
(1985) Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1989) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1991) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Günter Grass
Günter Grass
(1996) Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
(1998) Eugenio Barba
Eugenio Barba
(2000) Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
(2002) Mona Hatoum (2004) Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
(2006) Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
(2008) Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
(2010) Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
(2012) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke

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Anti-nuclear movement

Protests and groups

Anti-nuclear organizations Anti-nuclear power groups Anti-nuclear protests Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Greenpeace International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons International Day against Nuclear Tests International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Mayors for Peace Nuclear Information
and Resource Service Nevada Desert Experience Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign Peace
Action and SANE Physicians for Social Responsibility Pembina Institute Sortir du nucléaire World Uranium Hearing

By country

Australia Austria Canada France Germany India Japan Kazakhstan New Zealand Philippines Poland Russia South Africa South Korea Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan Turkey United Kingdom United States


Tadatoshi Akiba Daniel Berrigan Albert Bigelow Helen Caldicott Norman Cousins Gordon Edwards Albert Einstein Randall Forsberg John Gofman Jim Green Paul Gunter Otto Hahn Nobuto Hosaka Jackie Hudson Kate Hudson Ole Kopreitan David Lange Amory Lovins Caroline Lucas Freda Meissner-Blau Gregory Minor Hermann Joseph Muller Kenzaburō Ōe Linus Pauling Mike Pentz C. F. Powell Adi Roche Joseph Rotblat Tilman Ruff Bertrand Russell Jens Scheer Jonathan Schell Christopher Weeramantry


Books about nuclear issues Films about nuclear issues Nuclear holocaust fiction Nuclear weapons in popular culture Songs about nuclear war and weapons

Related topics

Anti-war movement Bikini Atoll Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists France and weapons of mass destruction Göttingen Manifesto History of the anti-nuclear movement International Court of Justice
advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents Mainau Declaration Nuclear-Free Future Award Nuclear-free zone Nuclear power debate Nuclear power phase-out Nuclear weapons debate Peace
activists Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn
Medal Peace
movement Peace
camp Russell–Einstein Manifesto Stockholm International Peace
Research Institute Smiling Sun The Bomb

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Criticism of religion

By religion

Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Christianity


Opus Dei

Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saint movement Protestantism Seventh-day Adventist Unification Church Westboro Baptist Church

Hinduism Islam

Islamism Twelver Shia Islam Wahhabism

Jainism Judaism Monotheism New religious movement Scientology Sikhism Yazdânism Zoroastrianism

Religious texts

Bible Quran Hadiths Mormon sacred texts

Book of Mormon


Religious figures

Aisha Charles Taze Russell Ellen White Jesus Moses Muhammad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Saul

Religious violence

Buddhism Christianity


Judaism Islam Terrorism

Christian Hindu Islamic Jewish


Christian thought on persecution and tolerance


In Islam In Judaism

Sectarian violence By country


Anti-Christian violence In Odisha

Nigeria Pakistan


Manifesto Breaking the Spell: Religion
as a Natural Phenomenon Christianity Unveiled God
in the Age of Science? God
Is Not Great God: The Failed Hypothesis Letter to a Christian Nation The Age of Reason The Blind Watchmaker The Caged Virgin The End of Faith The God
Delusion The Rage Against God Why I Am Not a Christian Why I Am Not a Muslim Books critical of Christianity Books critical of Islam


Agnosticism Antitheism Atheism Criticism of atheism Cārvāka New Atheism Nontheistic religions Parody religion

v t e

Social democracy


Humanism Age of Enlightenment French Revolution Utopian socialism Trade unionism Revolutions of 1848 Orthodox Marxism


Revisionism Reformism Gradualism Democratic socialism Frankfurt Declaration Keynesianism Welfare capitalism Third Way Modern European socialism


Representative democracy Civil liberties Labor rights Mixed economy Land reform Nationalization Welfare state Fair trade Environmental protection Secularism


Social democratic parties Socialist International Party of European Socialists Progressive Alliance International Trade Union Confederation
International Trade Union Confederation


Jacinda Ardern Clement Attlee Obafemi Awolowo José Batlle y Ordóñez David Ben-Gurion Eduard Bernstein Rómulo Betancourt Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Tony Blair Louis Blanc Willy Brandt Hjalmar Branting Gro Harlem Brundtland Jeremy Corbyn Bettino Craxi Ignacy Daszyński Eugene V. Debs Tommy Douglas Willem Drees Émile Durkheim Friedrich Ebert Bülent Ecevit Albert Einstein Tage Erlander Einar Gerhardsen Felipe González João Goulart Bob Hawke Rudolf Hilferding Jean Jaurès Zhang Junmai Tetsu Katayama Karl Kautsky Charles Kennedy Alexander Kerensky Martin Luther King Jr. Wim Kok Ricardo Lagos Ferdinand Lassalle Jack Layton René Lévesque Ramsay MacDonald Nelson Mandela Evo Morales Jawaharlal Nehru Olof Palme Georgi Plekhanov Romano Prodi John Ruskin Bertrand Russell Bernie Sanders Michael Joseph Savage Thorvald Stauning Norman Thomas Joop den Uyl


The Internationale

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36924137 LCCN: n79056054 ISNI: 0000 0001 2100 6514 GND: 118604287 SELIBR: 88516 SUDOC: 027419762 BNF: cb11923140h (data) BIBSYS: 90052932 MGP: 66811 NLA: 35468761 NDL: 00454997 NKC: jn20000604734 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00585 BNE: XX986609 CiNii: DA00236