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The BERNOULLIS (/bərˈnuːli/ ) were a patrician family of merchants and scholars, originally from Antwerp
Antwerp
, Belgium
Belgium
who resettled in Basel , Switzerland
Switzerland
. The name is sometimes misspelled Bernou-Ill-i and mispronounced accordingly. Over the course of three generations, the Bernoullis produced eight mathematically gifted academics who, between them, contributed to the foundations of applied mathematics and physics.

Leon Bernoulli was a doctor in Antwerp
Antwerp
, which, at that time, was in the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
. He died in 1561, and in 1570 his son, Jacob, emigrated to Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
to escape from the Spanish persecution of the Huguenots . Jacob’s grandson, a spice trader, also named Jacob, moved to Basel
Basel
, Switzerland
Switzerland
in 1620, and was granted Swiss citizenship. His son, Niklaus (1623-1708), Leon’s great-great-grandson, married Margarethe Schönauer. The Bernoulli family was related by marriage to the prominent French academic dynasty, Curie family through Johann Bernoulli
Johann Bernoulli
(1667-1748).

Niklaus had three sons, who became the foundation of the dynasty of mathematicians:

* Jacob Bernoulli
Jacob Bernoulli
(1654–1705; also known as James or Jacques) mathematician after whom Bernoulli numbers
Bernoulli numbers
are named, and author of the early probability text Ars Conjectandi
Ars Conjectandi
* Nicolaus Bernoulli (1662–1716) painter and alderman of Basel * Johann Bernoulli
Johann Bernoulli
(1667–1748; also known as Jean) mathematician and early adopter of infinitesimal calculus

In addition to those mentioned above, the Bernoulli family produced many notable artists and scientists, in particular, a number of famous mathematicians in the 18th century:

* Nicolaus I Bernoulli (1687–1759) mathematician; * Nicolaus II Bernoulli (1695–1726) mathematician; worked on curves, differential equations , and probability , and originator of the St. Petersburg paradox * Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli
(1700–1782) developer of Bernoulli\'s principle and originator of the concept of expected utility for resolving the St. Petersburg paradox * Johann II Bernoulli (1710–1790; also known as Jean) mathematician and physicist * Johann III Bernoulli (1744–1807; also known as Jean) astronomer, geographer, and mathematician * Jacob II Bernoulli (1759–1789; also known as Jacques) physicist and mathematician * Hans Bernoulli , (1876–1959) architect, designer of the Bernoullihäuser in Zurich and Grenchen SO * Elisabeth Bernoulli (1873-1935), suffragette and campaigner against alcoholism

DEVICES AND IDEAS NAMED FOR MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY

Main article: List of things named after members of the Bernoulli family

* Bernoulli differential equation * Bernoulli distribution * Bernoulli number * Bernoulli polynomials * Bernoulli process * Bernoulli trial
Bernoulli trial
* Bernoulli\'s principle * Bernoulli\'s triangle

REFERENCES

* ^ Talk
Talk
page, section Pronunciation * ^ David Darling Encyclopedia of Science Bernoulli family Archived 2014-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Historic Lexicon of the Swiss, Bernoulli Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article BERNOULLI .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BERNOULLI .

* Family tree at the MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive . * Bernoulli family in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Switzerland
.

* v * t * e

Bernoulli family tree

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Nicolaus Bernoulli (1623–1708)

Jacob Bernoulli
Jacob Bernoulli
(1654–1705) Nicolaus Bernoulli (1662–1716)

Johann Bernoulli
Johann Bernoulli
(1667–1748)

Nicolaus I Bernoulli (1687–1759) Nicolaus II Bernoulli (1695–1726) Daniel Bernoulli
Daniel Bernoulli
(1700–1782) Johann II Bernoulli (1710–1790)

Johann III Bernoulli (1744–1807) Daniel II Bernoulli (1751–1834) Nicolaus IV Bernoulli (1754–1841) Jakob II Bernoulli
Jakob II Bernoulli
(1759–1789)

Nicolaus (1793–1876)

Fritz (1824–1913)

Theodor (1837–1909)

Hermann Hesse
Hermann Hesse
(1877–1962) Maria Bernoulli (1868–1963) Elisabeth Bernoulli (1873–1935) Hans Benno Bernoulli (1876–1959)

NOTES

Family tree of the Bernoulli family

* v * t * e

Patrician families of Basel
Basel

* Bernoulli * Burckhardt * Faesch
Faesch
* Iselin * Merian * Meyer zum Pfeil * Sarasin * Seiler * Socin * Vischer

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