Berne
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Bern or Berne (; gsw, Bärn ; french: Berne ; it, Berna ; rm, Berna ) is the ' of , referred to by the Swiss as their "", in german: Bundesstadt, link=no, french: ville fédérale, link=no, and it, città federale, link=no.According to the Swiss constitution, the Swiss Confederation intentionally has no "capital", but Bern has governmental institutions such as the and . However, the is in , the is in and the and the are in , exemplifying the federal nature of the Confederation. With a population of about 144,000 (as of 2020), Bern is the in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is also the capital of the , the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons. The official language in Bern is (the Swiss variety of Standard) , but the most-spoken language is an dialect, . In 1983, the (in german: Altstadt) in the centre of Bern became a .


Etymology

The etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on , , the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, and this turned out to be a bear. It has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of , which at the time was known as ''Bern'' in . The city was sometimes referred to as ''Bern im '' to distinguish it from Verona. As a result of the finding of the in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin, possibly ''*berna'' "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the ' dates to the 1440s.


History


Early history

No evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today's city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a ' stood on the ''Engehalbinsel'' (peninsula) north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC (late ), thought to be one of the 12 ''oppida'' of the mentioned by . During the , a ' was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name ''Brenodor'' ("dwelling of Breno"). In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in , now a city district of Bern, was some from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the ruling family, which rose to power in in the 12th century. According to 14th-century historiography (''Cronica de Berno'', 1309), Bern was founded in 1191 by . In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a by the ' of .


Old Swiss Confederacy

In 1353, Bern joined the , becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered in 1415 and in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest north of the ; by the 18th century, it comprised most of what is today the and the . The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river . The ' tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the ''Käfigturm'' took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the ' (formerly located close to the site of the modern-day railway station) until 1622. During the time of the , two new fortifications – the so-called big and small ' (entrenchment) – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were gradually replaced by houses and subsequently the buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town. Despite the waves of that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow, mainly due to from the surrounding countryside.


Modern history

Bern was occupied by troops in 1798 during the , when it was stripped of parts of its territories. It regained control of the in 1802, and following the of 1814, it newly acquired the . At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the and until the secession of the in 1979. Bern was made the (seat of the ) within the new in 1848. A number of congresses of the and s were held in Bern, particularly during when Switzerland was neutral; see . The city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased slightly, to below 130,000 by 2000. As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 (31%) resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate .


Geography and climate


Topography

Bern lies on the in the canton of Bern, slightly west of the centre of Switzerland and north of the . The countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent . The two mountains closest to Bern are with a height of and with a height of . The site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the at . The city was originally built on a hilly surrounded by the river , but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on very uneven ground. An elevation difference of up to 60 metres exists between the inner city districts on the Aare (, Marzili) and the higher ones (Kirchenfeld, Länggasse). Bern has an area, , of . Of this area, or 18.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 33.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 46.0% is settled (buildings or roads), or 2.1% is either rivers or lakes, and or 0.3% is unproductive land.
2018 data accessed 26 July 2020
Of the developed area of Bern, 3.1% consists of industrial buildings, 22.3% housing and other buildings, and 12.9% is devoted to transport infrastructure. Power and water infrastructure, as well as other special developed areas, made up 1.2% of the city, while another 6.5% consists of parks, green belts, and sports fields. Of Bern's total land area, 32.8% is heavily forested. Of the agricultural land, 13.3% is used for growing crops and 4.4% is designated to be used as pasture. Local rivers and streams provide all the water in the municipality.


Climate

According to the , Bern has a (''Dfb'') closely bordering on an (''Cfb''). The closest weather station near Bern is located in the municipality of , about north of the city centre. The warmest month for Bern is July, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily maximum temperature of . The highest temperature recorded at Bern / Zollikofen is , recorded in . On average, a temperature of or above is recorded 40.7 days per year, and 6 days per year with a temperature of or above at Zollikofen, and the warmest day reaches an average of . There are 103.7 days of air frost, and 22.3 ice days per year at Bern (Zollikofen) for the period of 1981–2010, as well as 14.1 days of snowfall, 36.7 days of snow cover per year and the average amount of snow measured per year is . On average, January is the coldest month, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily minimum temperature of . The lowest temperature ever recorded at Bern (Zollikofen) was , recorded in February 1929, and typically the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of for the period of 1981–2010.


Politics


Subdivisions

The municipality is administratively subdivided into six districts (''Stadtteile''), each of which consists of several quarters (''Quartiere'').


Government

The Municipal Council (de: Gemeinderat, fr: conseil municipal) constitutes the government of the City of Bern and operates as a . It is composed of five councillors (german: Gemeinderat/-rätin, french: conseiller/conseillère municipal(e)), each presiding over a directorate (de: ''Direktion'', fr: ''direction'') comprising several departments and bureaus. The president of the executive department acts as (de: ''Stadtpräsident'', fr: ''Le Maire''). In the mandate period 2017–2020 (''Legislatur'') the Municipal Council is presided by ''Stadtpräsident'' . Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Council are carried by the Municipal Council. The regular election of the Municipal Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. Contrary to most other municipalities, the executive government in Berne is selected by means of a system of . The mayor is elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the , built by architect after 1747. , Bern's Municipal Council is made up of two representatives of the SP (), and one each of CVP (), GFL (''Grüne Freie Liste'' a.k.a. Green Free List, who is the newly elected mayor since 2017), and GB (), giving the left parties a very strong majority of four out of five seats. The last regular election was held on 27 November 2016/15 January 2017. Dr. Jürg Wichtermann is State Chronicler (''Staatsschreiber'') since 2008. He has been elected by the collegiate.


Parliament

The City Council (de: Stadtrat, fr: Conseil de ville) holds . It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every four years. The City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipal Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of . The sessions of the City Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipal Council, members of the City Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the ''Stadthaus'' (Town Hall). The last regular election of the City Council was held on 27 November 2016 for the mandate period (german: Legislatur, french: la législature) from 2017 to 2020. The City Council consist of 24 members of the including 2 members of the junior party ''JUSO'', 9 , 9 , 9 , 8 ''Grüne Freie Liste (GFL)'' (Green Free List), 8 including one member of its junior party ''jglp'', 3 , 2 , 2 , 2 ''Junge Alternative (JA!)'' (or Young Alternatives), 2 , 1 ''Grüne Partei Bern – Demokratische Alternative (GPB-DA)'' (or Green Party Bern – Democratic Alternative), and 1 . The following parties combine their parliamentary power in parliamentary groups (german: Fraktion(en)): AL and GPB-DA and PdA (4), SP and JUSO (24), GB and JA! (11), GFL and EVP (10), glp und jglp (8), BDP and CVP (5), FDP (9), and SVP (9). This gives the left parties an absolute majority of 49 seats.


National elections


National Council

In the for the the most popular party was the which received 28.7% (-5.6) of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the (25.2%, +7.9), the (13.5%, +4.1), the (9.5%, -2.9), (4.2%, -2.8), and the (7.0%). In the federal election a total of 49,030 votes were cast, and the was 56%. In the for the the most popular party was the which received 34.3% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the (17.4%), the (12.4%), and the (9.9%), (9.4%), and the (7.0%). In the federal election, a total of 48,556 voters were cast, and the was 56.0%.


International relations


Twin and sister cities

The Municipal Council of the city of Bern decided against having twinned cities except for a temporary (during the ) cooperation with the n city .


Demographics


Population

Bern has a population () of .. About 34% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the 10 years between 2000 and 2010, the population changed at a rate of 0.6%. Migration accounted for 1.3%, while births and deaths accounted for −2.1%.
accessed 23-January-2012
Most of the population () speaks German (104,465 or 81.2%) as their first language, Italian is the second most common (5,062 or 3.9%) and French is the third (4,671 or 3.6%). There are 171 people who speak . , the population was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. The population was made up of 44,032 Swiss men (35.4% of the population) and 15,092 (12.1%) non-Swiss men. There were 51,531 Swiss women (41.4%) and 13,726 (11.0%) non-Swiss women.
accessed 4 January 2012
Of the population in the municipality, 39,008 or about 30.3% were born in Bern and lived there in 2000. There were 27,573 or 21.4% who were born in the same canton, while 25,818 or 20.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 27,812 or 21.6% were born outside of Switzerland. , children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 15.1% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 19.9%. , there were 59,948 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 49,873 married individuals, 9,345 widows or widowers and 9,468 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 – 2000
accessed 2 February 2011
, there were 67,115 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.8 persons per household. There were 34,981 households that consist of only one person and 1,592 households with five or more people. , a total of 65,538 apartments (90.6% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 5,352 apartments (7.4%) were seasonally occupied and 1,444 apartments (2.0%) were empty.Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen
accessed 28 January 2011
, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.2 new units per 1000 residents. the average price to rent an average apartment in Bern was 1108.92 s (CHF) per month (US$890, £500, €710 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 619.82 CHF (US$500, £280, €400), a two-room apartment was about 879.36 CHF (US$700, £400, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1040.54 CHF (US$830, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2094.80 CHF (US$1680, £940, €1340). The average apartment price in Bern was 99.4% of the national average of 1116 CHF.
2003 data accessed 26 May 2010
The vacancy rate for the municipality, , was 0.45%.


Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart: Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:800 height:500 PlotArea = top:10 left: 100 bottom:90 right:100 Legend = columns:3 left:220 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:170000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:30000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:6000 start:0 Colors= id:TO value:yellowgreen legend:Total id:GE value:teal legend:German_Speaking id:FR value:green legend:French_Speaking id:PR value:lightpurple legend:Protestant id:CA value:oceanblue legend:Catholic id:SW value:red legend:Swiss PlotData= color:yellowgreen width:40 mark:(line,white) align:center bar:1850 from:start till:29670 text:"29,670" color:TO bar:1880 from:start till:44087 text:"44,087" color:TO bar:1910 from:start till:90937 text:"90,937" color:TO bar:1930 from:start till:111783 text:"111,783" color:TO bar:1950 from:start till:146499 text:"146,499" color:TO bar:1970 from:start till:162405 text:"162,405" color:TO bar:1990 from:start till:136338 text:"136,338" color:TO LineData = points:(213,188)(307,286) color:GE points:(307,286)(400,331) color:GE points:(400,331)(493,395) color:GE points:(493,395)(587,405) color:GE points:(587,405)(680,349) color:GE points:(213,94)(307,101) color:FR points:(307,101)(400,105) color:FR points:(400,105)(493,114) color:FR points:(493,114)(587,109) color:FR points:(587,109)(680,102) color:FR points:(120,156)(213,184) color:PR points:(213,184)(307,274) color:PR points:(307,274)(400,315) color:PR points:(400,315)(493,370) color:PR points:(493,370)(587,362) color:PR points:(587,362)(680,278) color:PR points:(120,93)(213,98) color:CA points:(213,98)(307,113) color:CA points:(307,113)(400,121) color:CA points:(400,121)(493,145) color:CA points:(493,145)(587,187) color:CA points:(587,187)(680,176) color:CA points:(120,156)(213,185) color:SW points:(213,185)(307,281) color:SW points:(307,281)(400,337) color:SW points:(400,337)(493,418) color:SW points:(493,418)(587,419) color:SW points:(587,419)(680,355) color:SW


Religion

From the , 60,455 or 47.0% belonged to the , while 31,510 or 24.5% were members of the . Of the rest of the population, there were 1,874 (or about 1.46% of the population), there were 229 persons (or about 0.18% of the population) who belonged to the , and there were 5,531 persons (or about 4.30% of the population) who belonged to another Christian religion. There were 324 persons (or about 0.25% of the population) who were , and 4,907 (or about 3.81% of the population) who were . There were 629 persons who were , 1,430 persons who were and 177 persons who belonged to another religion. 16,363 (or about 12.72% of the population) belonged to no religion, are agnostic or , and 7,855 persons (or about 6.11% of the population) did not answer the question. On 14 December 2014 the was inaugurated.


Main sights

The structure of Bern's is largely and has been recognised by as a Cultural . Perhaps its most famous sight is the ' (Bernese German for "Time Bell"), an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. It also has an impressive 15th century cathedral, the ', and a 15th-century town hall. Thanks to of arcades, the old town boasts one of the longest covered shopping promenades in Europe. Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit, the ', at the far end of the to house its heraldic animals. The four bears are now kept in an open-air enclosure nearby, and two other young bears, a present by the Russian president, are kept in zoo. The Federal Palace (), built from 1857 to 1902, which houses the , government and part of the federal administration, can also be visited. lived in a flat at the 49, the site of the , from 1903 to 1905, the year in which the were published. The Rose Garden (''Rosengarten''), from which a scenic panoramic view of the medieval town centre can be enjoyed, is a well-kept Rosarium on a hill, converted into a park from a former cemetery in 1913. There are on public fountains in the Old Town. Nearly all the 16th-century fountains, except the , which was created by , are the work of the master . One of the more interesting fountains is the (Bernese German: ''Child Eater Fountain''), which is claimed to represent a Jew, the Greek god , or a figure meant to frighten disobedient children. Bern's most recent sight is the set of fountains in front of the Federal Palace. It was inaugurated on 1 August 2004. The is situated in Bern.


Heritage sites of national significance

Bern is home to 114 Swiss . It includes the entire , which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and many sites within and around it. Some of the most notable in the Old Town include the which was started in 1421 and is the tallest cathedral in Switzerland, the and towers, which mark two successive expansions of the Old Town, and the , which is one of the largest churches in Switzerland. Within the Old Town, there are eleven , most attributed to , that are on the list. Outside the Old Town the heritage sites include the Bärengraben, the (1937), the , the (after 1881), the , the building, the , the , the (1894), , and .


Culture


Theatres

* * Narrenpack Theatre Bern * Schlachthaus Theatre * * The Theatre on the Effinger-Street * Theatre am Käfigturm


Cinemas

Bern has several dozen cinemas. As is customary in German Switzerland, films are generally in German. Some films in select cinemas are shown in their original language with German and French subtitles.


Film festivals

* shnit International Shortfilmfestival, held annually in early October. *  – gay and lesbian film festival, held annually in the second week of November.


Festivals

* Summer and Winter Festival * Buskers Bern Festival * * Internationales Jazzfestival Bern * Taktlos-Festival


Music events

The ''Musikpreis des Kantons Bern'' is an annual musical event where "Outstanding musicians which styles shape the Bern music scene" are honored.


Fairs

*  – The Zibelemärit (onion market) is an annual fair held on the fourth Monday in November. *


Sports

Bern was the site of the , a huge upset for the Hungarian , who were beaten 3–2 by West Germany. The football team is based in Bern at the , which also was one of the venues for the in which it hosted 3 matches. , founded in 1994, also play in Bern. is the major ice hockey team of Bern which plays in the . They compete in the (NL), the highest league in Switzerland. The team has ranked highest in attendance for a European hockey team for more than a decade. The PostFinance Arena was the main host of the , including the opening game and the final of the tournament. The PostFinance Arena was also the host of the 2011 European Figure Skate Championships. is the and team of Bern, which plays at the Allmend Bern Grizzlies is the American football club in Bern and plays at Athletics Arena Wankdorf. Bern was a candidate to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, but withdrew its bid in September 2002 after a referendum was passed that showed that the bid was not supported by locals. Those games were eventually awarded to , Canada. RC Bern is the local rugby club (since 1972) and plays at the Allmend. The ladies team was founded in 1995. The locality of Bremgartenwald was home to the , the course that at one time hosted the . is an NGO Basketball Club since 2010 in city of Bern. The was held on the street track from 1950 to 1954, with also running their from 1949 to 1954. The circuit eventually fell into disrepair after Switzerland banned motorports after the 1955 Le Mans Disaster, but they made an amendment in 2015 to host electric racing, which is how the happened in 2019.


Economy

, Bern had an unemployment rate of 3.3%. , there were 259 people employed in the and about 59 businesses involved in this sector. 16,413 people were employed in the and there were 950 businesses in this sector. 135,973 people were employed in the , with 7,654 businesses in this sector. the total number of jobs was 125,037. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 203, of which 184 were in agriculture and 19 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 15,476 of which 7,650 or (49.4%) were in manufacturing, 51 or (0.3%) were in mining and 6,389 (41.3%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 109,358. In the tertiary sector; 11,396 or 10.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 10,293 or 9.4% were in the movement and storage of goods, 5,090 or 4.7% were in a hotel or restaurant, 7,302 or 6.7% were in the information industry, 8,437 or 7.7% were the insurance or financial industry, 10,660 or 9.7% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,338 or 4.9% were in education and 17,903 or 16.4% were in health care. , there were 94,367 workers who commuted into the municipality and 16,424 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 5.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
accessed 24 June 2010
Of the working population, 50.6% used public transport to get to work, and 20.6% used a private car.


Education

The , whose buildings are mainly located in the ''Länggasse'' quarter, is located in Bern, as well as the (''Fachhochschule'') and several vocations schools. In Bern, about 50,418 or (39.2%) of the population have completed non-mandatory , and 24,311 or (18.9%) have completed additional higher education (either or a '). Of the 24,311 who completed tertiary schooling, 51.6% were Swiss men, 33.0% were Swiss women, 8.9% were non-Swiss men and 6.5% were non-Swiss women. The canton of Bern school system provides one year of non-obligatory , followed by six years of primary school. This is followed by three years of obligatory lower secondary school where the pupils are separated according to ability and aptitude. Following the lower secondary pupils may attend additional schooling or they may enter an . During the 2009–10 school year, there were a total of 10,979 pupils attending classes in Bern. There were 89 kindergarten classes with a total of 1,641 pupils in the municipality. Of the kindergarten pupils, 32.4% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 40.2% have a different mother language than the classroom language. The municipality had 266 primary classes and 5,040 pupils. Of the primary pupils, 30.1% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 35.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language. During the same year, there were 151 lower secondary classes with a total of 2,581 pupils. There were 28.7% who were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 32.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language.
accessed 4 January 2012
Bern is home to 8 libraries. These libraries include; the Schweiz. Nationalbibliothek/ Bibliothèque nationale suisse, the ''Universitätsbibliothek Bern'', the ''Kornhausbibliotheken Bern'', the ''BFH Wirtschaft und Verwaltung Bern'', the ''BFH Gesundheit'', the ''BFH Soziale Arbeit'', the ''Hochschule der Künste Bern, Gestaltung und Kunst'' and the ''Hochschule der Künste Bern, Musikbibliothek''. There was a combined total () of 10,308,336 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 2,627,973 items were loaned out. , there were 9,045 pupils in Bern who came from another municipality, while 1,185 residents attended schools outside the municipality.


Transport


Public transport

Bern is served by a dense network of trains, , , and conventional motorbuses. The is Switzerland's second busiest. Bern is the centre of the , which covers the cantons of Bern and and includes the towns of , , and . The network allows easy and coordinated travel on all modes of public transport, such as trains, , , buses ( and motorbuses) and others, regardless of transport operator. Fares are based on the number of zones in a journey. The central part of Bern, (excluding , ''Betlehem'', ''Bottigen'', ''Brünnen'', and ''Riedbach'' in the west of the municipality), is part of the fare zone ''100''. The city is well served by railways, with the extensive S-Bahn network and many regional and international connections. (''Bahnhof Bern'') is Switzerland's second busiest station (202,600 passengers per working day in 2014), and is the main transport hub in the region. A called the leads from the ''Marzili'' district to the . With a length of , it is the second shortest public railway in Europe after the .


Road traffic

connect the old parts of the city with the newer districts outside of the peninsula. Bern is well connected to other cities by several (, , ).


Airport

(colloquially called ''Bern-Belp'' or ''Belpmoos)'' located outside the city near the town of , as of March 2021 mostly serves and charter flights. , and serve as gateways for air traffic, all reachable in less than two hours by or car from Bern.


Bicycle transport

The city has made efforts to make Bern the "bicycle capital" of Switzerland through the creation of better infrastructure, such as dedicated cycle paths. operates a bike-sharing system.


Notable people

; Public servants, the military and the church * (c. 1360–1438) – chronicler, magistrate and notary public of the city of Bern * (1540–1617) – Protestant divine, a theologian of the school of * (1714–1786) – military officer, in Austrian and later, Prussian service * (1801–1867) – Swiss military officer and who fought in the * (1871–1944) – Austrian jurist, civil servant and politician * (1895–1987) – Swiss-born naturalized British nurse, a pioneer in Britain's public-funded nursing service * (1905–2000) – lawyer and diplomat, Chairman of 1953–1954 and 1956–1960 * (1918–2006) – lawyer, President of the International Ski Federation 1951–1998, exposed the * (1925–1994) – Christian minister of the * (1938–2018 in Bern) – UN Secretary-General 1997–2006 * (born 1971) – Lithuanian diplomat, politician and columnist ; Politicians and the landed gentry * (c. 1434–1479) – Bernese knight, military commander and 3-time mayor (Schultheiss) of Bern, hero of the * (1595–1670) – Bernese politician, Schultheiss (mayor) of Bern 1636–1667 * (1661–1743) – British peer from Switzerland who founded in 1710 * (1731–1778) – famous salonist and lady of letters, the salon became the center of intellectual life in Bern. * (1781 – Elfenau, near Bern 1860) – German princess of the ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * (1814– 1876 in Bern) – Russian revolutionary anarchist * (1823–1895) – pastor, politician and longest serving member of the Swiss Federal Council 1863–1895 * (1870–1924) – lived in Bern 1914–1917 * (1882–1980) – aristocrat and eccentric personality in Bern * Dom (born 1945) – claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the * (born 1962) – politician, sociologist and historian * (born 1973) – economist and politician * (born 1974), politician, publisher, sociologist and historian ; Science and academia * (1708–1777) – anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet * (1803–1839) – * (1806–1874) – * (1823–1914) – entomologist who specialised in * (1828–1907) – botanist, researched and * (1841–1917) – physician and medical researcher, received the 1909 for work on the thyroid * (1870–1943) – physician who specialized in the study of * (1875–1951) – Russian-born, naturalized Swiss academic, the first woman to become a professor of philosophy at the * (1879–1955) – worked out his while living in Bern, employed as a at the * (1880–1952) – pioneering doctor, a feminist activist and one of Bern's first regular female motorists * (1895–1954) – Swiss-born, Argentine professor, writer and equestrian adventurer * (1904–1973) – Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of * (born 1937) – nuclear engineer connected with the proliferation of nuclear materials in Iran, Libya, and North Korea * (born 1960) – German-Swiss academic in Dance and Media studies, a festival director and cultural manager * (born 1963) – ophthalmologist and ophthalmic surgeon, invented minimally-invasive ; Writing and acting * or Bonerius (early 14th century) – German-speaking Swiss writer of fable * (died 1558) – Bernese dramatist and chronicler of the Swiss Reformation * (1743–1818) – author, best remembered for * (1745–1832) – liberal writer * (1746–1820) – German Swiss classical scholar * (1782–1830) – author, writer, and folklorist who wrote the words to the former Swiss national anthem * (1790–1865) – historian and member of the * (1928–2013) – author, translator and actress * (born 1929) – actress, well known for her hearty and joyful laughter * (born 1942) – French actor, director, screenwriter and voice actor * (born 1944) – children's writer, Switzerland's "first husband" in 2015 * (born 1955) – Swiss-Chinese poet associated with the * (born 1957) – actress, has appeared in more than forty films since 1981 * (born 1958) – theatre director, artistic director and professor * (born 1975) – actress * (born 1980) – actress, activist and writer * (born 1987) – German-Chilean actress ; Artists and painters * (c. 1484–1530) – artist, writer, mercenary and Reformed politician * (1621–1681) – still-life painter, cartographer and a painter of * the Elder (1763–1840) – Bernese landscape painter and illustrator * (1853–1918) – painter of portraits, landscapes and genre paintings * (1858–1941) – painter and author of children's books * (1864–1930) – artist associated with ; Musicians * (1879–1962) – conductor and composer * (born 1977) – Moldovan-Austrian-Swiss violinist * (born 1927) – pianist, composer, conductor and music educator * , horn player with * CBE (1888–1959) – Swiss-born British-naturalised music lexicographer, musicologist, music critic and music * (1924–2017) – composer and academic * (1936–1972) – singer-songwriter * (born 1951) – songwriter and novelist, lives on the * (born 1956) – singer, yodeler and actress * (born 1994) – singer-songwriter, dancer, and model, Swiss representative at the * (born 1997) – actor, dancer, and singer IMDb Database
retrieved 06 December 2018
; Business * (1716–1780) – agronomist, a wealthy merchant, economist, and lawyer * (1733–1807) – Bernese patrician, officer, politician, and industrialist, founded the * (1855–1909) – chocolate manufacturer, founded the * (born 1964) – fashion designer ; Sports * (1878–1926) a pitcher for the 1902 and 1904–08 and 1912–15 * (1914–1998) a military officer, skier, ski official and writer * (1920–2017) was a Swiss-born Belgian alpine skier and a member of the , competed at the * (1924–2002) a mountaineer, achieved the second successful summit of in 1956 * (1925–2005) a former fighter pilot and international footballer, won 28 caps for his country * (1927–2013) a mountaineer, part of the first two-man Swiss team which climbed in 1956 * (born 1947) a retired equestrian, gold medallist in dressage at the compete at six Olympics: 1972, 1976, 1984, 1988, 1996 and 2000. * (born 1947) a fencer, silver medallist in the team épée at the and bronze medallist at the * (born 1955) a former long-distance runner, silver medallist in the 5000 metres at the * (born 1963) an Italian-Swiss football manager and former player * (born 1968) a footballer, 351 club caps, 58 national team caps * (born 1970) a retired Swiss-Italian footballer, almost 250 club caps * (born 1972) a retired curler, captain of the Swiss Olympic Curling Team. * (born 1976) a snowboarder and gold medallist in the Snowboard Cross at the * (born 1979) a football referee, on the FIFA International Referees List since 2006 * (born 1980) a long-distance runner who competes in marathon races * (born 1989) a football goalkeeper, member of the * (born 1990) a Swiss curler, living in , bronze medallist in the * (born 1990) a professional ice hockey player, selected to play for Switzerland at the


See also

*


Notes and references


Notes


References


External links

* *
Bern Public Transportation Website (BernMobil)
* *
GurtenfestivalBuskers Bern
{{Authority control Free imperial cities