Bernard Lewis, FBA (born 31 May 1916) is a
British American historian
specializing in oriental studies. He is also known as a public
intellectual and political commentator. Lewis is the Cleveland E.
Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton
University. Lewis' expertise is in the history of
Islam and the
Islam and the West. He is also noted in academic
circles for his works on the history of the Ottoman Empire.
Lewis served as a soldier in the British Army in the Royal Armoured
Corps and Intelligence Corps during the
Second World War
Second World War before being
seconded to the Foreign Office. After the war, he returned to the
School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies at the
University of London
University of London and
was appointed to the new chair in Near and Middle Eastern History.
In 2007 and 1999, respectively, Lewis was called "the West’s leading
interpreter of the Middle East" and "the most influential postwar
Islam and the Middle East." His advice was frequently
sought by neoconservative policymakers, including the Bush
administration. Lewis, therefore, is generally regarded as the dean
of Middle East scholars. However, his support of the
Iraq War and
neoconservative ideals have since come under
Lewis is also notable for his public debates with Edward Said, who
accused Lewis and other orientalists of misrepresenting
serving the purposes of imperialist domination, to which Lewis
responded by defending
Orientalism as a facet of humanism and accusing
Said of politicizing the subject.
Lewis argues that the deaths of the
Armenian Genocide resulted from a
struggle between two nationalistic movements and that there is no
proof of intent by the Ottoman government to exterminate the Armenian
nation. These views prompted a number of scholars to accuse Lewis
of genocide denial and resulted in a successful civil lawsuit against
him in a French court.
1.1 Family and personal life
1.2 Academic career
2.1 Armenian Genocide
3 Views and influence on contemporary politics
3.2 Debates with Edward Said
3.3 Stance on the Iraq War
3.4 Alleged nuclear threat from Iran
4 See also
6 External links
Family and personal life
Bernard Lewis was born to middle-class Jewish parents in Stoke
Newington, London. He became interested in languages and history while
preparing for his bar mitzvah.
Lewis has been a naturalized citizen of the United States since 1982.
He married Ruth Hélène Oppenhejm in 1947 with whom he had a daughter
and a son. Their marriage was dissolved in 1974.
In 1936, Lewis graduated from the School of Oriental Studies (now
School of Oriental and African Studies, SOAS) at the University of
London with a BA in history with special reference to the Near and
Middle East. He earned his PhD three years later, also from SOAS,
specializing in the history of Islam. Lewis also studied law,
going part of the way toward becoming a solicitor, but returned to
study Middle Eastern history. He undertook post-graduate studies at
the University of Paris, where he studied with the orientalist Louis
Massignon and earned the "Diplôme des Études Sémitiques" in
1937. He returned to SOAS in 1938 as an assistant lecturer in
During the Second World War, Lewis served in the British Army in the
Royal Armoured Corps
Royal Armoured Corps and as a
Corporal in the Intelligence Corps in
1940–41 before being seconded to the Foreign Office. After the
war, he returned to SOAS. In 1949, at the age of 33, he was appointed
to the new chair in Near and Middle Eastern History.
In 1974, aged 57, Lewis accepted a joint position at Princeton
University and the Institute for Advanced Study, also located in
Princeton, New Jersey. The terms of his appointment were such that
Lewis taught only one semester per year, and being free from
administrative responsibilities, he could devote more time to research
than previously. Consequently, Lewis's arrival at Princeton marked the
beginning of the most prolific period in his research career during
which he published numerous books and articles based on previously
accumulated materials. After retiring from Princeton in 1986,
Lewis served at
Cornell University until 1990.
Bernard Lewis in 2007
In 1966, Lewis was a founding member of the learned society, Middle
East Studies Association of North America (MESA), but in 2007 he broke
away and founded Association for the Study of the Middle East and
Africa (ASMEA) to challenge MESA, which the
New York Sun
New York Sun noted as
"dominated by academics who have been critical of
Israel and of
America's role in the Middle East." The organization was formed as
an academic society dedicated to promoting high standards of research
and teaching in Middle Eastern and African studies and other related
fields, with Lewis as Chairman of its academic council.
In 1990, the
National Endowment for the Humanities
National Endowment for the Humanities selected Lewis for
the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for
achievement in the humanities. His lecture, entitled "Western
Civilization: A View from the East", was revised and reprinted in The
Atlantic Monthly under the title "The Roots of Muslim Rage."
Irving Kristol Lecture, given to the American Enterprise
Institute, was published as Europe and Islam.
Lewis' influence extends beyond academia to the general public. He is
a pioneer of the social and economic history of the Middle East and is
famous for his extensive research of the Ottoman archives. He began
his research career with the study of medieval Arab, especially
Syrian, history. His first article, dedicated to professional
guilds of medieval Islam, had been widely regarded as the most
authoritative work on the subject for about thirty years. However,
after the establishment of the state of
Israel in 1948, scholars of
Jewish origin found it more and more difficult to conduct archival and
field research in the Arab countries, where they were suspected of
espionage. Therefore, Lewis switched to the study of the Ottoman
Empire, while continuing to research Arab history through the Ottoman
archives which had only recently been opened to Western
researchers. A series of articles that Lewis published over the next
several years revolutionized the history of the Middle East by giving
a broad picture of Islamic society, including its government, economy,
Lewis argues that the Middle East is currently backward and its
decline was a largely self-inflicted condition resulting from both
culture and religion, as opposed to the post-colonialist view which
posits the problems of the region as economic and political
maldevelopment mainly due to the 19th-century European
colonization. In his 1982 work Muslim Discovery of Europe, Lewis
argues that Muslim societies could not keep pace with the West and
that "Crusader successes were due in no small part to Muslim
weakness." Further, he suggested that as early as the 11th century
Islamic societies were decaying, primarily the byproduct of internal
problems like "cultural arrogance," which was a barrier to creative
borrowing, rather than external pressures like the Crusades.
In the wake of Soviet and Arab attempts to delegitimize
Israel as a
racist country, Lewis wrote a study of anti-Semitism, Semites and
Anti-Semites (1986). In other works he argued Arab rage against
Israel was disproportionate to other tragedies or injustices in the
Muslim world, such as the
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and control
of Muslim-majority land in Central Asia, the bloody and destructive
fighting during the Hama uprising in Syria (1982), the Algerian civil
war (1992–98), and the Iran–
Iraq War (1980–88).
Booknotes interview with Lewis on What Went Wrong?, December 30,
In addition to his scholarly works, Lewis wrote several influential
books accessible to the general public: The Arabs in History (1950),
The Middle East and the West (1964), and The Middle East (1995). In
the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the interest in Lewis's
work surged, especially his 1990 essay The Roots of Muslim Rage. Three
of his books were published after 9/11:
What Went Wrong?
What Went Wrong? (written
before the attacks), which explored the reasons of the Muslim world's
apprehension of (and sometimes outright hostility to) modernization;
The Crisis of Islam; and Islam: The Religion and the People.
Armenian Genocide denial
The first two editions of Lewis' The Emergence of Modern Turkey (1961
and 1968) describe the
Armenian Genocide as "the terrible holocaust of
1915, when a million and a half Armenians perished". In later
editions, this text is altered to "the terrible slaughter of 1915,
when, according to estimates, more than a million Armenians perished,
as well as an unknown number of Turks." In this passage, Lewis
argues that the deaths were the result of a struggle for the same land
between two competing nationalist movements. Lewis was later one
of 69 scholars to co-sign a 1985 petition asking the
US Congress to
avoid a resolution condemning the events as genocide.
The change in Lewis' textual description of the
Armenian Genocide and
his signing of the petition against the Congressional resolution was
controversial among some Armenian historians as well as journalists,
who suggested that Lewis was engaging in historical revisionism to
serve his own political and personal interests.
Lewis called the label "genocide" the "Armenian version of this
history" in a November 1993 interview with Le Monde, for which he
faced a civil proceeding in a French court. In a subsequent
exchange on the pages of Le Monde, Lewis wrote that while "terrible
atrocities" did occur, "there exists no serious proof of a decision
and of a plan of the Ottoman government aiming to exterminate the
Armenian nation". In reference to both these articles, the court
stated that Lewis "failed in his duty of objectivity and prudence in
expressing himself without nuance on such a sensitive subject". He
was ordered to pay one franc as damages for his statements on the
Armenian Genocide in Ottoman Turkey. Three other court cases
Bernard Lewis failed in the Paris tribunal, including one
filed by the Armenian National Committee of France and two filed by
Jacques Trémollet de Villers.
Lewis' views on the
Armenian Genocide were criticized by a number of
historians and sociologists, among them Alain Finkielkraut, Yves
Ternon, Richard G. Hovannisian, Robert Melson, and Pierre
Lewis has argued for his denial stance that:
The meaning of genocide is the planned destruction of a religious and
ethnic group, as far as it is known to me, there is no evidence for
that in the case of the Armenians. [...] There is no evidence of a
decision to massacre. On the contrary, there is considerable evidence
of attempts to prevent it, which were not very successful. Yes there
were tremendous massacres, the numbers are very uncertain but a
million may well be likely... [and] the issue is not whether the
massacres happened or not, but rather if these massacres were as a
result of a deliberate preconceived decision of the Turkish
government... there is no evidence for such a decision.
Lewis stated that he believed "to make [the Armenian Genocide] a
parallel with the Holocaust in Germany" was "rather absurd." In an
interview with Ha'aretz, he stated:
The deniers of Holocaust have a purpose: to prolong Nazism and to
return to Nazi legislation. Nobody wants the 'Young Turks' back, and
nobody wants to have back the Ottoman Law. What do the Armenians want?
The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they
speak with pride of their struggle against the Ottoman despotism,
while on the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish
Holocaust. I do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did
not suffer terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their
attempts to use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the
Jewish Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute.
Lewis has been labelled a genocide denier by Stephen Zunes, Israel
Charny, David B. MacDonald and Armenian National Committee of
Yair Auron suggested that "Lewis' stature provided a
lofty cover for the Turkish national agenda of obfuscating academic
research on the Armenian Genocide".
Israel Charny wrote that
Lewis' "seemingly scholarly concern ... of Armenians constituting a
threat to the Turks as a rebellious force who together with the
Russians threatened the Ottoman Empire, and the insistence that only a
policy of deportations was executed, barely conceal the fact that the
organized deportations constituted systematic mass murder". Charny
compares the "logical structures" employed by Lewis in his denial of
the genocide to those employed by
Ernst Nolte in his Holocaust
When Lewis received the National
Humanities Medal from US President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush in November 2006, the Armenian National Committee of
America objected: "The President's decision to honor the work of a
known genocide denier—an academic mercenary whose politically
motivated efforts to cover up the truth run counter to the very
principles this award was established to honor—represents a true
betrayal of the public trust."
Views and influence on contemporary politics
In the mid-1960s, Lewis emerged as a commentator on the issues of the
modern Middle East and his analysis of the Israeli–Palestinian
conflict and the rise of militant
Islam brought him publicity and
aroused significant controversy. American historian
Joel Beinin has
called him "perhaps the most articulate and learned Zionist advocate
in the North American Middle East academic community". Lewis's
policy advice has particular weight thanks to this scholarly
authority. U.S. Vice President
Dick Cheney remarked "in this new
century, his wisdom is sought daily by policymakers, diplomats, fellow
academics, and the news media."
A harsh critic of the Soviet Union, Lewis continued the liberal
tradition in Islamic historical studies. Although his early Marxist
views had a bearing on his first book The Origins of Ismailism, Lewis
subsequently discarded Marxism. His later works are a reaction against
the left-wing current of
Third-worldism which came to be a significant
current in Middle Eastern studies.
David Horovitz interviewing
Bernard Lewis in 2011
Lewis advocated closer Western ties with
Israel and Turkey, which he
saw as especially important in light of the extension of the Soviet
influence in the Middle East. Modern Turkey holds a special place in
Lewis's view of the region due to the country's efforts to become a
part of the West. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of
Turkish Studies, an honor which is given "on the basis of generally
recognized scholarly distinction and ... long and devoted service to
the field of Turkish Studies."
Islam as civilizations that have been in
perpetual collision since the advent of
Islam in the 7th century. In
his essay The Roots of Muslim Rage (1990), he argued that the struggle
between the West and
Islam was gathering strength. According to one
source, this essay (and Lewis' 1990
Jefferson Lecture on which the
article was based) first introduced the term "Islamic fundamentalism"
to North America. This essay has been credited with coining the
phrase "clash of civilizations", which received prominence in the
eponymous book by Samuel Huntington. However, another source
indicates that Lewis first used the phrase "clash of civilizations" at
a 1957 meeting in Washington where it was recorded in the
In 1998, Lewis read in a London-based newspaper
Al-Quds Al-Arabi a
declaration of war on the United States by Osama bin Laden. In his
essay "A License to Kill", Lewis indicated he considered bin Laden's
language as the "ideology of jihad" and warned that bin Laden would be
a danger to the West. The essay was published after the Clinton
administration and the
US intelligence community
US intelligence community had begun its hunt
for bin Laden in
Sudan and then in Afghanistan.
Lewis presents some of his conclusions about Islamic culture, Shari'a
law, jihad, and the modern day phenomenon of terrorism in his text
Islam: The Religion and the People. He writes of jihad as a
distinct "religious obligation", but suggests that "it is a pity" that
people engaging in terrorist activities are not more aware of their
Muslim fighters are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged
unless they attack first; not to torture or otherwise ill-treat
prisoners; to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities or their
resumption after a truce; and to honor agreements. ... At no time did
the classical jurists offer any approval or legitimacy to what we
nowadays call terrorism. Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use
of terrorism as it is practiced nowadays."
In Lewis' view, the "by now widespread terrorism practice of suicide
bombing is a development of the 20th century" with "no antecedents in
Islamic history, and no justification in terms of Islamic theology,
law, or tradition." He further comments that "the fanatical
warrior offering his victims the choice of the Koran or the sword is
not only untrue, it is impossible" and that "generally speaking,
Muslim tolerance of unbelievers was far better than anything available
in Christendom, until the rise of secularism in the 17th century."
Debates with Edward Said
Lewis is known for his literary debates with Edward Said, the
Palestinian American literary theorist whose aim was to deconstruct
what he called Orientalist scholarship. Said, who was a professor at
Columbia University, characterized Lewis' work as a prime example of
Orientalism in his 1978 book
Orientalism and in his later book
Covering Islam. Said asserted that the field of
political intellectualism bent on self-affirmation rather than
objective study, a form of racism, and a tool of imperialist
domination. He further questioned the scientific neutrality of
some leading Middle East scholars, including Lewis, on the Arab World.
In an interview with
Al-Ahram weekly, Said suggested that Lewis'
knowledge of the Middle East was so biased that it could not be taken
seriously and claimed "
Bernard Lewis hasn't set foot in the Middle
East, in the Arab world, for at least 40 years. He knows something
about Turkey, I'm told, but he knows nothing about the Arab
world." Said considered that Lewis treats
Islam as a monolithic
entity without the nuance of its plurality, internal dynamics, and
historical complexities, and accused him of "demagogy and downright
ignorance." In Covering Islam, Said argued that "Lewis simply
cannot deal with the diversity of Muslim, much less human life,
because it is closed to him as something foreign, radically different,
and other," and he criticised Lewis' "inability to grant that the
Islamic peoples are entitled to their own cultural, political, and
historical practices, free from Lewis' calculated attempt to show that
because they are not Western... they can't be good."
Rejecting the view that Western scholarship was biased against the
Middle East, Lewis responded that
Orientalism developed as a facet of
European humanism, independently of the past European imperial
expansion. He noted the French and English pursued the study of
Islam in the 16th and 17th centuries, yet not in an organized way, but
long before they had any control or hope of control in the Middle
East; and that much of Orientalist study did nothing to advance the
cause of imperialism. In his 1993 book
Islam and the West, Lewis wrote
"What imperial purpose was served by deciphering the ancient Egyptian
language, for example, and then restoring to the Egyptians knowledge
of and pride in their forgotten, ancient past?"
Furthermore, Lewis accusing Said of politicizing the scientific study
of the Middle East (and Arabic studies in particular); neglecting to
critique the scholarly findings of the Orientalists; and giving "free
rein" to his biases.
Stance on the Iraq War
In 2002, Lewis wrote an article for the
Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal regarding
the buildup to the
Iraq War entitled "Time for Toppling", where he
stated his opinion that "a regime change may well be dangerous, but
sometimes the dangers of inaction are greater than those of
action." In 2007,
Jacob Weisberg described Lewis as "perhaps the
most significant intellectual influence behind the invasion of
Iraq". Michael Hirsh attributed to Lewis the view that regime
change in Iraq would provide a jolt that would "modernize the Middle
East" and suggested that Lewis' allegedly 'orientalist' theories about
"what went wrong" in the Middle East, and other writings, formed the
intellectual basis of the push towards war in Iraq.
Writing in 2008, Lewis did not advocate imposing freedom and democracy
on Islamic nations. "There are things you can't impose. Freedom, for
example. Or democracy. Democracy is a very strong medicine which has
to be administered to the patient in small, gradually increasing
doses. Otherwise, you risk killing the patient. In the main, the
Muslims have to do it themselves."
Ian Buruma, writing for
The New Yorker
The New Yorker in an article subtitled "The
two Minds of Bernard Lewis", finds Lewis's stance on the war difficult
to reconcile with Lewis' past statements cautioning democracy
enforcement in the world at large. Buruma ultimately rejects
suggestions by his peers that Lewis promotes war with Iraq to
safeguard Israel, but instead concludes "perhaps he loves it [the Arab
world] too much":
It is a common phenomenon among Western students of the Orient to fall
in love with a civilization. Such love often ends in bitter impatience
when reality fails to conform to the ideal. The rage, in this
instance, is that of the Western scholar. His beloved civilization is
sick. And what would be more heartwarming to an old Orientalist than
to see the greatest Western democracy cure the benighted Muslim? It is
either that or something less charitable: if a final showdown between
the great religions is indeed the inevitable result of a millennial
clash, then we had better make sure that we win.
Alleged nuclear threat from Iran
In 2006, Lewis wrote that
Iran had been working on a nuclear weapon
for fifteen years. In August 2006, in an article about whether the
world can rely on the concept of mutual assured destruction as a
deterrent in its dealings with Iran, Lewis wrote in the Wall Street
Journal about the significance of 22 August 2006 in the Islamic
calendar. The Iranian president had indicated he would respond by that
date to U.S. demands regarding Iran's development of nuclear power.
Lewis wrote that the date corresponded to the 27th day of the month of
Rajab of the year 1427, the day Muslims commemorate the night flight
Jerusalem to heaven and back. Lewis wrote that it
would be "an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel
and, if necessary, of the world."
According to Lewis, mutual assured destruction is not an effective
deterrent in the case of Iran, because of what Lewis describes as the
Iranian leadership's "apocalyptic worldview" and the "suicide or
martyrdom complex that plagues parts of the Islamic world today".
He then suggested the possibility of a nuclear strike on
Israel on 22
What is the significance of Aug. 22? This year, Aug. 22 corresponds,
in the Islamic calendar, to the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the
year 1427. This, by tradition, is the night when many Muslims
commemorate the night flight of
Muhammad on the winged horse Buraq,
first to "the farthest mosque," usually identified with Jerusalem, and
then to heaven and back[Quran 17:1]. This might well be deemed an
appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of
Israel and if necessary
of the world. It is far from certain that Mr. Ahmadinejad plans any
such cataclysmic events precisely for 22 Aug.. But it would be wise to
bear the possibility in mind.
Lewis' article received significant press coverage. However,
the day passed without any incident. In his 2009 book Engaging
the Muslim World, the American academic
Juan Cole responded that there
was no evidence to suggest that
Iran had been working on a nuclear
weapon for fifteen years. He also disagreed with Lewis' suggestion
that Ahmadinejad "might deploy this weapon against
Israel on 22 August
Bernard Lewis bibliography
Princeton University people
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard
Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 1. London:
Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–20. Archived from the original on 13
November 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2006.
^ Abrahmson, James L. (8 June 2007). "Will the West – and the United
States – Go the Distance?". American Diplomacy. Retrieved 16
^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's weird celebration". Slate.
Retrieved 16 February 2015.
^ Neocons Gather To Fete
Iraq War Godfather Bernard Lewis, The Forward
Bernard Lewis revises
Bernard Lewis (says he opposed invasion of
^ How neoconservatives led US to war in Iraq, The National (Abu Dhabi)
^ Migdal, Joel (2014). Shifting Sands the United States in the Middle
East. New York:
Columbia University Press. p. 241.
Muhammad (2014). The road to Iraq : the making of a
neoconservative war. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
^ Chaudet, Didier (2016). When Empire Meets Nationalism : Power
Politics in the US and Russia. City: Routledge.
^ a b Said, Edward (1997). Covering Islam: how the media and the
experts determine how we see the rest of the world. New York: Random
House. pp. xxx–xxxi. ISBN 978-0-679-75890-7.
^ Edward W. Said and Oleg Grabar, reply by
Bernard Lewis (Aug 12,
1982). "Orientalism: An Exchange". New York Review of Books. CS1
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^ a b Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek, Norman M. Naimark, eds.
(2011). A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the
Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 31. CS1 maint:
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^ a b Getler, Michae (21 April 2006). "Documenting and Debating a
'Genocide'". PBS. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ Lewis 2004, pp. 1–2.
Bernard Lewis Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near Eastern Studies,
Emeritus". University of Princeton. Archived from the original on 16
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^ Sugarman, Martin (6 October 2008). "Breaking the codes; Jewish
personnel at Bletchley Park" (PDF). Bletchley Park. Retrieved 19
^ Lewis 2004, pp. 3–4.
^ Lewis 2004, pp. 6–7.
^ Karni, Annie (8 November 2007). "Group formed to improve Middle East
scholarship". The New York Sun. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
^ "Jefferson Lecture". The National Endowment for the Humanities.
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^ Lewis, Bernard (1 September 1990). "The roots of Muslim rage". The
Atlantic. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
^ a b c Humphreys, R. Stephen (May–June 1990). "Bernard Lewis: An
Appreciation". Humanities. 11 (3): 17–20. Retrieved 20 February
^ Lewis 2004, pp. 156–80.
^ Lewis, Bernard (2001). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: W.
W. Norton & Company. p. 22. ISBN 0393321657.
^ Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy
Terror. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. pp. 90–91,
108, 110–11. ISBN 0812967852.
^ "What Went Wrong". C-SPAN. December 30, 2001. Retrieved March 25,
^ Karsh, Efraim (2007). Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven,
Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0300106033.
Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ Bostom, Andrew G. (6 June 2006). "
Bernard Lewis and Islam".
FrontPageMagazine. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. (2007). Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of
Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
p. 131. ISBN 0765805596.
^ Nathaniel Herzberg (Apr 22, 2005). "L'historien Bernard Lewis
condamné pour avoir nié la réalité du génocide arménien". Le
^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in
French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in
French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015. c’est en occultant
les éléments contraires à sa thèse, que le défendeur a pu
affirmer qu’il n’y avait pas de "preuve sérieuse" du génocide
arménien ; [...] il a ainsi manqué à ses devoirs
d’objectivité et de prudence, en s’exprimant sans nuance, sur un
sujet aussi sensible (Translation: it is by concealing the elements
contrary to his thesis that the defendant could affirm that there was
no "serious proof" of the Armenian genocide; [...] he has thus failed
in his duty of objectivity and prudence in expressing himself without
nuance on such a sensitive subject)
^ a b "Les actions engagées par les parties civiles arméniennes
contre "le Monde" déclarées irrecevables par le tribunal de Paris".
Le Monde (in French). 27 November 1994.
^ "Lewis Replies". Princeton Alumni Weekly. 5 June 1996. Retrieved 21
^ Auron, Yair (2005). The Banality of Denial:
Israel and the Armenian
Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 235.
^ Melson, Robert (1992). Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of
Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press. p. 289. ISBN 0226519902.
^ MacDonald, David B. (2008). Identity Politics in the Age of
Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation'. London:
Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 0415430615.
^ Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). The Holocaust Industry: Reflections
on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering. London: Verso. p. 69.
^ a b "Statement of Professor Bernard Lewis, Princeton University,
"Distinguishing Armenian Case from Holocaust"" (PDF). Assembly of
Turkish American Associations. 14 April 2002. Archived (PDF) from the
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^ Karpel, Dalia (23 January 1998). "There Was No Genocide: Interview
with Prof. Bernard Lewis".
Ha'aretz Weekly. Assembly of Turkish
American Associations. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ Zunes, Stephen. "US Denial of the Armenian Genocide". Common Dreams.
Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other
Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars, by
Israel Charny, "IDEA" journal, July 17, 2001, Vol.6, no.1
^ Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and
Historical Representation, By David B. MacDonald, Routledge, 2008,
ISBN 0-415-43061-5, p. 121
^ Bostom, Andrew G. (31 December 2004). "The Islamization of Europe".
FrontPageMagazine. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
Israel (17 July 2001). "The Psychological Satisfaction of
Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or
Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars". IDEA. Retrieved 21 February
Israel W. (2006). Fighting Suicide Bombing: A Worldwide
Campaign for Life. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security
International. p. 241. ISBN 0275993361.
Armenian Genocide Denier
Bernard Lewis Awarded National Humanities
Medal". Armenian National Committee of America. Archived from the
original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
^ Beinin, Joel (July 1987). "Review of Semites and Anti-Semites: An
Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice by Bernard Lewis". MERIP Middle
East Report (147): 42–45. doi:10.2307/3011952.
^ "Remarks by Vice President Cheney at the World Affairs Council of
Philadelphia Luncheon Honoring Professor Bernard Lewis". The White
House. 2 May 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
^ "About the Institute of Turkish Studies". Institute of Turkish
Studies. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
^ Haque, Amber (2004). "Islamophobia in North America: Confronting the
Menace". In Driel, Barry van. Confronting Islamophobia in Educational
Practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. p. 6.
^ a b Ajami, Fouad (2 May 2006). "A Sage in Christendom: A Personal
Tribute to Bernard Lewis". OpinionJournal. Retrieved 23 May
^ Liebowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat
^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 145–50.
^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 151.
^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, p. 153.
^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 146.
^ Said, Edward W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books.
p. 12. ISBN 039474067X.
^ Windschuttle, Keith (January 1999). "Edward Said's "Orientalism"
Revisited". The New Criterion. 17: 30. Retrieved 27 February
^ "Resources of Hope".
Al-Ahram Weekly (631). 2 April 2003. Archived
from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February
^ Said, Edward W. (4 October 2001). "The Clash of Ignorance". The
Nation. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
^ Lewis, Bernard (1993).
Islam and the West. New York City: Oxford
University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0195090616.
^ Lewis, Bernard (June 24, 1982). "The Question of Orientalism" (PDF).
New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
^ Lewis, Bernard (27 September 2002). "Time for Toppling". Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's Weird Celebration". Slate
Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
^ Hirsh, Michael (November 2004). "
Bernard Lewis Revisited".
Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014.
Retrieved 24 February 2015.
^ Leibowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat
Means Liberation". The
Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 24 February
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Bernard Lewis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
^ a b Lewis, Bernard (8 August 2006). "August 22". Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
^ Greene, Thomas C. (21 August 2006). "Nuclear Holocaust Starts Today:
WSJ". The Register. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
^ Eslocker, Asa (21 August 2006). "August 22: Doomsday?". ABC News.
Retrieved 26 February 2015.
^ Krieger, Hilary Leila (22 August 2006). "Apocalypse Now?". Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
^ Greene, Thomas C. (23 August 2006). "Nuclear Apocalypse Milder Than
Expected: Back to the Ouija Board". The Register. Retrieved 26
^ Gawenda, Michael (26 August 2006). "World Survives, But Solution on
Iran is No Closer". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 February
Lewis, Bernard (2002). What Went Wrong?. New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-06051-6-055.
Lewis, Bernard (2004). From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting The
Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, Bernard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2008). Islam: The Religion
and the People. Indianapolis: Wharton Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernard Lewis.
Bernard Lewis on IMDb
Bernard Lewis at
Lewis' page at Princeton University
Revered and Reviled – Lewis' profile on Moment Magazine
Appearances on C-SPAN
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