The Info List - Bernard Lewis

--- Advertisement ---

Bernard Lewis, FBA (born 31 May 1916) is a British American
British American
historian specializing in oriental studies. He is also known as a public intellectual and political commentator. Lewis is the Cleveland E. Dodge Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. Lewis' expertise is in the history of Islam
and the interaction between Islam
and the West. He is also noted in academic circles for his works on the history of the Ottoman Empire.[1] Lewis served as a soldier in the British Army in the Royal Armoured Corps and Intelligence Corps during the Second World War
Second World War
before being seconded to the Foreign Office. After the war, he returned to the School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
at the University of London
University of London
and was appointed to the new chair in Near and Middle Eastern History. In 2007 and 1999, respectively, Lewis was called "the West’s leading interpreter of the Middle East"[2] and "the most influential postwar historian of Islam
and the Middle East."[1] His advice was frequently sought by neoconservative policymakers, including the Bush administration.[3] Lewis, therefore, is generally regarded as the dean of Middle East scholars.[4] However, his support of the Iraq War
Iraq War
and neoconservative ideals have since come under scrutiny.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Lewis is also notable for his public debates with Edward Said, who accused Lewis and other orientalists of misrepresenting Islam
and serving the purposes of imperialist domination,[11] to which Lewis responded by defending Orientalism
as a facet of humanism and accusing Said of politicizing the subject.[1][12] Lewis argues that the deaths of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
resulted from a struggle between two nationalistic movements[13] and that there is no proof of intent by the Ottoman government to exterminate the Armenian nation.[14] These views prompted a number of scholars to accuse Lewis of genocide denial and resulted in a successful civil lawsuit against him in a French court.[15]


1 Biography

1.1 Family and personal life 1.2 Academic career

2 Research

2.1 Armenian Genocide

3 Views and influence on contemporary politics

3.1 Jihad 3.2 Debates with Edward Said 3.3 Stance on the Iraq War 3.4 Alleged nuclear threat from Iran

4 See also 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography

6 External links

Biography[edit] Family and personal life[edit] Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
was born to middle-class Jewish parents in Stoke Newington, London. He became interested in languages and history while preparing for his bar mitzvah.[16] Lewis has been a naturalized citizen of the United States since 1982. He married Ruth Hélène Oppenhejm in 1947 with whom he had a daughter and a son. Their marriage was dissolved in 1974.[1] Academic career[edit] In 1936, Lewis graduated from the School of Oriental Studies (now School of Oriental and African Studies, SOAS) at the University of London with a BA in history with special reference to the Near and Middle East. He earned his PhD three years later, also from SOAS, specializing in the history of Islam.[17] Lewis also studied law, going part of the way toward becoming a solicitor, but returned to study Middle Eastern history. He undertook post-graduate studies at the University of Paris, where he studied with the orientalist Louis Massignon and earned the "Diplôme des Études Sémitiques" in 1937.[1] He returned to SOAS in 1938 as an assistant lecturer in Islamic History. During the Second World War, Lewis served in the British Army in the Royal Armoured Corps
Royal Armoured Corps
and as a Corporal
in the Intelligence Corps in 1940–41 before being seconded to the Foreign Office.[18] After the war, he returned to SOAS. In 1949, at the age of 33, he was appointed to the new chair in Near and Middle Eastern History.[19] In 1974, aged 57, Lewis accepted a joint position at Princeton University and the Institute for Advanced Study, also located in Princeton, New Jersey. The terms of his appointment were such that Lewis taught only one semester per year, and being free from administrative responsibilities, he could devote more time to research than previously. Consequently, Lewis's arrival at Princeton marked the beginning of the most prolific period in his research career during which he published numerous books and articles based on previously accumulated materials.[20] After retiring from Princeton in 1986, Lewis served at Cornell University
Cornell University
until 1990.[1]

Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
in 2007

In 1966, Lewis was a founding member of the learned society, Middle East Studies Association of North America (MESA), but in 2007 he broke away and founded Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA) to challenge MESA, which the New York Sun
New York Sun
noted as "dominated by academics who have been critical of Israel
and of America's role in the Middle East."[21] The organization was formed as an academic society dedicated to promoting high standards of research and teaching in Middle Eastern and African studies and other related fields, with Lewis as Chairman of its academic council. In 1990, the National Endowment for the Humanities
National Endowment for the Humanities
selected Lewis for the Jefferson Lecture, the U.S. federal government's highest honor for achievement in the humanities. His lecture, entitled "Western Civilization: A View from the East", was revised and reprinted in The Atlantic Monthly under the title "The Roots of Muslim Rage."[22][23] His 2007 Irving Kristol
Irving Kristol
Lecture, given to the American Enterprise Institute, was published as Europe and Islam. Research[edit] Lewis' influence extends beyond academia to the general public. He is a pioneer of the social and economic history of the Middle East and is famous for his extensive research of the Ottoman archives.[1] He began his research career with the study of medieval Arab, especially Syrian, history.[1] His first article, dedicated to professional guilds of medieval Islam, had been widely regarded as the most authoritative work on the subject for about thirty years.[24] However, after the establishment of the state of Israel
in 1948, scholars of Jewish origin found it more and more difficult to conduct archival and field research in the Arab countries, where they were suspected of espionage. Therefore, Lewis switched to the study of the Ottoman Empire, while continuing to research Arab history through the Ottoman archives[1] which had only recently been opened to Western researchers. A series of articles that Lewis published over the next several years revolutionized the history of the Middle East by giving a broad picture of Islamic society, including its government, economy, and demographics.[24] Lewis argues that the Middle East is currently backward and its decline was a largely self-inflicted condition resulting from both culture and religion, as opposed to the post-colonialist view which posits the problems of the region as economic and political maldevelopment mainly due to the 19th-century European colonization.[25] In his 1982 work Muslim Discovery of Europe, Lewis argues that Muslim societies could not keep pace with the West and that "Crusader successes were due in no small part to Muslim weakness."[26] Further, he suggested that as early as the 11th century Islamic societies were decaying, primarily the byproduct of internal problems like "cultural arrogance," which was a barrier to creative borrowing, rather than external pressures like the Crusades.[1] In the wake of Soviet and Arab attempts to delegitimize Israel
as a racist country, Lewis wrote a study of anti-Semitism, Semites and Anti-Semites (1986).[1] In other works he argued Arab rage against Israel
was disproportionate to other tragedies or injustices in the Muslim world, such as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
and control of Muslim-majority land in Central Asia, the bloody and destructive fighting during the Hama uprising in Syria (1982), the Algerian civil war (1992–98), and the Iran– Iraq War
Iraq War

External video

Booknotes interview with Lewis on What Went Wrong?, December 30, 2001, C-SPAN[28]

In addition to his scholarly works, Lewis wrote several influential books accessible to the general public: The Arabs in History (1950), The Middle East and the West (1964), and The Middle East (1995).[1] In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the interest in Lewis's work surged, especially his 1990 essay The Roots of Muslim Rage. Three of his books were published after 9/11: What Went Wrong?
What Went Wrong?
(written before the attacks), which explored the reasons of the Muslim world's apprehension of (and sometimes outright hostility to) modernization; The Crisis of Islam; and Islam: The Religion and the People. Armenian Genocide[edit] See also: Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
denial The first two editions of Lewis' The Emergence of Modern Turkey (1961 and 1968) describe the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
as "the terrible holocaust of 1915, when a million and a half Armenians perished".[29] In later editions, this text is altered to "the terrible slaughter of 1915, when, according to estimates, more than a million Armenians perished, as well as an unknown number of Turks."[30] In this passage, Lewis argues that the deaths were the result of a struggle for the same land between two competing nationalist movements.[13] Lewis was later one of 69 scholars to co-sign a 1985 petition asking the US Congress
US Congress
to avoid a resolution condemning the events as genocide. The change in Lewis' textual description of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and his signing of the petition against the Congressional resolution was controversial among some Armenian historians as well as journalists, who suggested that Lewis was engaging in historical revisionism to serve his own political and personal interests.[31] Lewis called the label "genocide" the "Armenian version of this history" in a November 1993 interview with Le Monde, for which he faced a civil proceeding in a French court.[32] In a subsequent exchange on the pages of Le Monde, Lewis wrote that while "terrible atrocities" did occur, "there exists no serious proof of a decision and of a plan of the Ottoman government aiming to exterminate the Armenian nation".[33] In reference to both these articles, the court stated that Lewis "failed in his duty of objectivity and prudence in expressing himself without nuance on such a sensitive subject".[34] He was ordered to pay one franc as damages for his statements on the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
in Ottoman Turkey.[35] Three other court cases against Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
failed in the Paris tribunal, including one filed by the Armenian National Committee of France and two filed by Jacques Trémollet de Villers.[35][36] Lewis' views on the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
were criticized by a number of historians and sociologists, among them Alain Finkielkraut, Yves Ternon, Richard G. Hovannisian, Robert Melson, and Pierre Vidal-Naquet.[37][38][39][40] Lewis has argued for his denial stance that:

The meaning of genocide is the planned destruction of a religious and ethnic group, as far as it is known to me, there is no evidence for that in the case of the Armenians. [...] There is no evidence of a decision to massacre. On the contrary, there is considerable evidence of attempts to prevent it, which were not very successful. Yes there were tremendous massacres, the numbers are very uncertain but a million may well be likely...[41] [and] the issue is not whether the massacres happened or not, but rather if these massacres were as a result of a deliberate preconceived decision of the Turkish government... there is no evidence for such a decision.[14]

Lewis stated that he believed "to make [the Armenian Genocide] a parallel with the Holocaust in Germany" was "rather absurd."[41] In an interview with Ha'aretz, he stated:

The deniers of Holocaust have a purpose: to prolong Nazism and to return to Nazi legislation. Nobody wants the 'Young Turks' back, and nobody wants to have back the Ottoman Law. What do the Armenians want? The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they speak with pride of their struggle against the Ottoman despotism, while on the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish Holocaust. I do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did not suffer terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their attempts to use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the Jewish Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute.[42]

Lewis has been labelled a genocide denier by Stephen Zunes,[43] Israel Charny,[44] David B. MacDonald[45] and Armenian National Committee of America.[46] Yair Auron suggested that "Lewis' stature provided a lofty cover for the Turkish national agenda of obfuscating academic research on the Armenian Genocide".[47] Israel
Charny wrote that Lewis' "seemingly scholarly concern ... of Armenians constituting a threat to the Turks as a rebellious force who together with the Russians threatened the Ottoman Empire, and the insistence that only a policy of deportations was executed, barely conceal the fact that the organized deportations constituted systematic mass murder".[48] Charny compares the "logical structures" employed by Lewis in his denial of the genocide to those employed by Ernst Nolte
Ernst Nolte
in his Holocaust negationism.[49] When Lewis received the National Humanities
Medal from US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
in November 2006, the Armenian National Committee of America objected: "The President's decision to honor the work of a known genocide denier—an academic mercenary whose politically motivated efforts to cover up the truth run counter to the very principles this award was established to honor—represents a true betrayal of the public trust."[50] Views and influence on contemporary politics[edit] In the mid-1960s, Lewis emerged as a commentator on the issues of the modern Middle East and his analysis of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and the rise of militant Islam
brought him publicity and aroused significant controversy. American historian Joel Beinin
Joel Beinin
has called him "perhaps the most articulate and learned Zionist advocate in the North American Middle East academic community".[51] Lewis's policy advice has particular weight thanks to this scholarly authority.[24] U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
remarked "in this new century, his wisdom is sought daily by policymakers, diplomats, fellow academics, and the news media."[52] A harsh critic of the Soviet Union, Lewis continued the liberal tradition in Islamic historical studies. Although his early Marxist views had a bearing on his first book The Origins of Ismailism, Lewis subsequently discarded Marxism. His later works are a reaction against the left-wing current of Third-worldism
which came to be a significant current in Middle Eastern studies.[1]

David Horovitz
David Horovitz
interviewing Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
in 2011

Lewis advocated closer Western ties with Israel
and Turkey, which he saw as especially important in light of the extension of the Soviet influence in the Middle East. Modern Turkey holds a special place in Lewis's view of the region due to the country's efforts to become a part of the West.[1] He is an Honorary Fellow of the Institute of Turkish Studies, an honor which is given "on the basis of generally recognized scholarly distinction and ... long and devoted service to the field of Turkish Studies."[53] Lewis views Christendom
and Islam
as civilizations that have been in perpetual collision since the advent of Islam
in the 7th century. In his essay The Roots of Muslim Rage (1990), he argued that the struggle between the West and Islam
was gathering strength. According to one source, this essay (and Lewis' 1990 Jefferson Lecture on which the article was based) first introduced the term "Islamic fundamentalism" to North America.[54] This essay has been credited with coining the phrase "clash of civilizations", which received prominence in the eponymous book by Samuel Huntington.[55] However, another source indicates that Lewis first used the phrase "clash of civilizations" at a 1957 meeting in Washington where it was recorded in the transcript.[56] In 1998, Lewis read in a London-based newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi a declaration of war on the United States by Osama bin Laden. In his essay "A License to Kill", Lewis indicated he considered bin Laden's language as the "ideology of jihad" and warned that bin Laden would be a danger to the West.[55] The essay was published after the Clinton administration and the US intelligence community
US intelligence community
had begun its hunt for bin Laden in Sudan
and then in Afghanistan. Jihad[edit] Lewis presents some of his conclusions about Islamic culture, Shari'a law, jihad, and the modern day phenomenon of terrorism in his text Islam: The Religion and the People.[57] He writes of jihad as a distinct "religious obligation", but suggests that "it is a pity" that people engaging in terrorist activities are not more aware of their own religion:

Muslim fighters are commanded not to kill women, children, or the aged unless they attack first; not to torture or otherwise ill-treat prisoners; to give fair warning of the opening of hostilities or their resumption after a truce; and to honor agreements. ... At no time did the classical jurists offer any approval or legitimacy to what we nowadays call terrorism. Nor indeed is there any evidence of the use of terrorism as it is practiced nowadays."[58]

In Lewis' view, the "by now widespread terrorism practice of suicide bombing is a development of the 20th century" with "no antecedents in Islamic history, and no justification in terms of Islamic theology, law, or tradition."[59] He further comments that "the fanatical warrior offering his victims the choice of the Koran or the sword is not only untrue, it is impossible" and that "generally speaking, Muslim tolerance of unbelievers was far better than anything available in Christendom, until the rise of secularism in the 17th century."[60] Debates with Edward Said[edit] Lewis is known for his literary debates with Edward Said, the Palestinian American literary theorist whose aim was to deconstruct what he called Orientalist scholarship. Said, who was a professor at Columbia University, characterized Lewis' work as a prime example of Orientalism
in his 1978 book Orientalism
and in his later book Covering Islam. Said asserted that the field of Orientalism
was political intellectualism bent on self-affirmation rather than objective study,[61] a form of racism, and a tool of imperialist domination.[62] He further questioned the scientific neutrality of some leading Middle East scholars, including Lewis, on the Arab World. In an interview with Al-Ahram weekly, Said suggested that Lewis' knowledge of the Middle East was so biased that it could not be taken seriously and claimed " Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
hasn't set foot in the Middle East, in the Arab world, for at least 40 years. He knows something about Turkey, I'm told, but he knows nothing about the Arab world."[63] Said considered that Lewis treats Islam
as a monolithic entity without the nuance of its plurality, internal dynamics, and historical complexities, and accused him of "demagogy and downright ignorance."[64] In Covering Islam, Said argued that "Lewis simply cannot deal with the diversity of Muslim, much less human life, because it is closed to him as something foreign, radically different, and other," and he criticised Lewis' "inability to grant that the Islamic peoples are entitled to their own cultural, political, and historical practices, free from Lewis' calculated attempt to show that because they are not Western... they can't be good."[11] Rejecting the view that Western scholarship was biased against the Middle East, Lewis responded that Orientalism
developed as a facet of European humanism, independently of the past European imperial expansion.[1] He noted the French and English pursued the study of Islam
in the 16th and 17th centuries, yet not in an organized way, but long before they had any control or hope of control in the Middle East; and that much of Orientalist study did nothing to advance the cause of imperialism. In his 1993 book Islam
and the West, Lewis wrote "What imperial purpose was served by deciphering the ancient Egyptian language, for example, and then restoring to the Egyptians knowledge of and pride in their forgotten, ancient past?"[65] Furthermore, Lewis accusing Said of politicizing the scientific study of the Middle East (and Arabic studies in particular); neglecting to critique the scholarly findings of the Orientalists; and giving "free rein" to his biases.[66] Stance on the Iraq War[edit] In 2002, Lewis wrote an article for the Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
regarding the buildup to the Iraq War
Iraq War
entitled "Time for Toppling", where he stated his opinion that "a regime change may well be dangerous, but sometimes the dangers of inaction are greater than those of action."[67] In 2007, Jacob Weisberg
Jacob Weisberg
described Lewis as "perhaps the most significant intellectual influence behind the invasion of Iraq".[68] Michael Hirsh attributed to Lewis the view that regime change in Iraq would provide a jolt that would "modernize the Middle East" and suggested that Lewis' allegedly 'orientalist' theories about "what went wrong" in the Middle East, and other writings, formed the intellectual basis of the push towards war in Iraq.[69] Writing in 2008, Lewis did not advocate imposing freedom and democracy on Islamic nations. "There are things you can't impose. Freedom, for example. Or democracy. Democracy is a very strong medicine which has to be administered to the patient in small, gradually increasing doses. Otherwise, you risk killing the patient. In the main, the Muslims have to do it themselves."[70] Ian Buruma, writing for The New Yorker
The New Yorker
in an article subtitled "The two Minds of Bernard Lewis", finds Lewis's stance on the war difficult to reconcile with Lewis' past statements cautioning democracy enforcement in the world at large. Buruma ultimately rejects suggestions by his peers that Lewis promotes war with Iraq to safeguard Israel, but instead concludes "perhaps he loves it [the Arab world] too much":

It is a common phenomenon among Western students of the Orient to fall in love with a civilization. Such love often ends in bitter impatience when reality fails to conform to the ideal. The rage, in this instance, is that of the Western scholar. His beloved civilization is sick. And what would be more heartwarming to an old Orientalist than to see the greatest Western democracy cure the benighted Muslim? It is either that or something less charitable: if a final showdown between the great religions is indeed the inevitable result of a millennial clash, then we had better make sure that we win.[71]

Alleged nuclear threat from Iran[edit] In 2006, Lewis wrote that Iran
had been working on a nuclear weapon for fifteen years. In August 2006, in an article about whether the world can rely on the concept of mutual assured destruction as a deterrent in its dealings with Iran, Lewis wrote in the Wall Street Journal about the significance of 22 August 2006 in the Islamic calendar. The Iranian president had indicated he would respond by that date to U.S. demands regarding Iran's development of nuclear power. Lewis wrote that the date corresponded to the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the year 1427, the day Muslims commemorate the night flight of Muhammad
from Jerusalem
to heaven and back. Lewis wrote that it would be "an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel and, if necessary, of the world."[72] According to Lewis, mutual assured destruction is not an effective deterrent in the case of Iran, because of what Lewis describes as the Iranian leadership's "apocalyptic worldview" and the "suicide or martyrdom complex that plagues parts of the Islamic world today".[73] He then suggested the possibility of a nuclear strike on Israel
on 22 August 2006:

What is the significance of Aug. 22? This year, Aug. 22 corresponds, in the Islamic calendar, to the 27th day of the month of Rajab of the year 1427. This, by tradition, is the night when many Muslims commemorate the night flight of Muhammad
on the winged horse Buraq, first to "the farthest mosque," usually identified with Jerusalem, and then to heaven and back[Quran 17:1]. This might well be deemed an appropriate date for the apocalyptic ending of Israel
and if necessary of the world. It is far from certain that Mr. Ahmadinejad plans any such cataclysmic events precisely for 22 Aug.. But it would be wise to bear the possibility in mind.[72]

Lewis' article received significant press coverage.[74][75] However, the day passed without any incident.[76][77] In his 2009 book Engaging the Muslim World, the American academic Juan Cole
Juan Cole
responded that there was no evidence to suggest that Iran
had been working on a nuclear weapon for fifteen years. He also disagreed with Lewis' suggestion that Ahmadinejad "might deploy this weapon against Israel
on 22 August 2006". See also[edit]

Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
bibliography List of Princeton University
Princeton University

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 1. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–20. Archived from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2006.  ^ Abrahmson, James L. (8 June 2007). "Will the West – and the United States – Go the Distance?". American Diplomacy. Retrieved 16 February 2015.  ^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's weird celebration". Slate. Retrieved 16 February 2015.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYG29THsVwA ^ Neocons Gather To Fete Iraq War
Iraq War
Godfather Bernard Lewis, The Forward ^ Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
revises Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(says he opposed invasion of Iraq!), Mondoweiss ^ How neoconservatives led US to war in Iraq, The National (Abu Dhabi) ^ Migdal, Joel (2014). Shifting Sands the United States in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University
Columbia University
Press. p. 241. ISBN 9780231536349.  ^ Ahmad, Muhammad
(2014). The road to Iraq : the making of a neoconservative war. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748693054.  ^ Chaudet, Didier (2016). When Empire Meets Nationalism : Power Politics in the US and Russia. City: Routledge. ISBN 1134762534.  ^ a b Said, Edward (1997). Covering Islam: how the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world. New York: Random House. pp. xxx–xxxi. ISBN 978-0-679-75890-7.  ^ Edward W. Said and Oleg Grabar, reply by Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(Aug 12, 1982). "Orientalism: An Exchange". New York Review of Books. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Ronald Grigor Suny, Fatma Müge Göçek, Norman M. Naimark, eds. (2011). A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 31. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b Getler, Michae (21 April 2006). "Documenting and Debating a 'Genocide'". PBS. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ [1] ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 1–2. ^ " Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near Eastern Studies, Emeritus". University of Princeton. Archived from the original on 16 May 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2006.  ^ Sugarman, Martin (6 October 2008). "Breaking the codes; Jewish personnel at Bletchley Park" (PDF). Bletchley Park. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 3–4. ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 6–7. ^ Karni, Annie (8 November 2007). "Group formed to improve Middle East scholarship". The New York Sun. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ "Jefferson Lecture". The National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (1 September 1990). "The roots of Muslim rage". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 February 2015.  ^ a b c Humphreys, R. Stephen (May–June 1990). "Bernard Lewis: An Appreciation". Humanities. 11 (3): 17–20. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Lewis 2004, pp. 156–80. ^ Lewis, Bernard (2001). The Muslim Discovery of Europe. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 22. ISBN 0393321657.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (2004). The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. pp. 90–91, 108, 110–11. ISBN 0812967852.  ^ "What Went Wrong". C-SPAN. December 30, 2001. Retrieved March 25, 2017.  ^ Karsh, Efraim (2007). Islamic Imperialism: A History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0300106033. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (6 June 2006). " Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
and Islam". FrontPageMagazine. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. (2007). Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 131. ISBN 0765805596.  ^ Nathaniel Herzberg (Apr 22, 2005). "L'historien Bernard Lewis condamné pour avoir nié la réalité du génocide arménien". Le Monde.  ^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ "Condamnation judiciaire de Bernard Lewis". Voltaire Network (in French). 8 June 2004. Retrieved 21 February 2015. c’est en occultant les éléments contraires à sa thèse, que le défendeur a pu affirmer qu’il n’y avait pas de "preuve sérieuse" du génocide arménien ; [...] il a ainsi manqué à ses devoirs d’objectivité et de prudence, en s’exprimant sans nuance, sur un sujet aussi sensible (Translation: it is by concealing the elements contrary to his thesis that the defendant could affirm that there was no "serious proof" of the Armenian genocide; [...] he has thus failed in his duty of objectivity and prudence in expressing himself without nuance on such a sensitive subject)  ^ a b "Les actions engagées par les parties civiles arméniennes contre "le Monde" déclarées irrecevables par le tribunal de Paris". Le Monde
Le Monde
(in French). 27 November 1994.  ^ "Lewis Replies". Princeton Alumni Weekly. 5 June 1996. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Auron, Yair (2005). The Banality of Denial: Israel
and the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 235. ISBN 076580834X.  ^ Melson, Robert (1992). Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 289. ISBN 0226519902.  ^ MacDonald, David B. (2008). Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation'. London: Routledge. p. 241. ISBN 0415430615.  ^ Finkelstein, Norman G. (2003). The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering. London: Verso. p. 69. ISBN 185984488X.  ^ a b "Statement of Professor Bernard Lewis, Princeton University, "Distinguishing Armenian Case from Holocaust"" (PDF). Assembly of Turkish American Associations. 14 April 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Karpel, Dalia (23 January 1998). "There Was No Genocide: Interview with Prof. Bernard Lewis". Ha'aretz
Weekly. Assembly of Turkish American Associations. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Zunes, Stephen. "US Denial of the Armenian Genocide". Common Dreams. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars, by Israel
Charny, "IDEA" journal, July 17, 2001, Vol.6, no.1 ^ Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical Representation, By David B. MacDonald, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-43061-5, p. 121 ^ [2] ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (31 December 2004). "The Islamization of Europe". FrontPageMagazine. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Charny, Israel
(17 July 2001). "The Psychological Satisfaction of Denials of the Holocaust or Other Genocides by Non-Extremists or Bigots, and Even by Known Scholars". IDEA. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Charny, Israel
W. (2006). Fighting Suicide Bombing: A Worldwide Campaign for Life. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. p. 241. ISBN 0275993361.  ^ " Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Denier Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
Awarded National Humanities Medal". Armenian National Committee of America. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Beinin, Joel (July 1987). "Review of Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice by Bernard Lewis". MERIP Middle East Report (147): 42–45. doi:10.2307/3011952. JSTOR 3011952.  ^ "Remarks by Vice President Cheney at the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia Luncheon Honoring Professor Bernard Lewis". The White House. 2 May 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  ^ "About the Institute of Turkish Studies". Institute of Turkish Studies. Retrieved 22 February 2015.  ^ Haque, Amber (2004). "Islamophobia in North America: Confronting the Menace". In Driel, Barry van. Confronting Islamophobia in Educational Practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books. p. 6. ISBN 1858563402.  ^ a b Ajami, Fouad (2 May 2006). "A Sage in Christendom: A Personal Tribute to Bernard Lewis". OpinionJournal. Retrieved 23 May 2006.  ^ Liebowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat Means Liberation". Jerusalem
Post.  ^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 145–50. ^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 151. ^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, p. 153. ^ Lewis & Churchill 2008, pp. 146. ^ Said, Edward W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books. p. 12. ISBN 039474067X.  ^ Windschuttle, Keith (January 1999). "Edward Said's "Orientalism" Revisited". The New Criterion. 17: 30. Retrieved 27 February 2015.  ^ "Resources of Hope". Al-Ahram Weekly (631). 2 April 2003. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.  ^ Said, Edward W. (4 October 2001). "The Clash of Ignorance". The Nation. Retrieved 27 February 2015.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (1993). Islam
and the West. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0195090616.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (June 24, 1982). "The Question of Orientalism" (PDF). New York Review of Books. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (27 September 2002). "Time for Toppling". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Weisberg, Jacob (14 March 2007). "AEI's Weird Celebration". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Hirsh, Michael (November 2004). " Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
Revisited". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Leibowitz, Ruthie Blum (6 March 2008). "One on One: When Defeat Means Liberation". The Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Buruma, Ian (14 June 2004). "Lost in Translation: The Two Minds of Bernard Lewis". The New Yorker. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ a b Lewis, Bernard (8 August 2006). "August 22". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Greene, Thomas C. (21 August 2006). "Nuclear Holocaust Starts Today: WSJ". The Register. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Eslocker, Asa (21 August 2006). "August 22: Doomsday?". ABC News. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Krieger, Hilary Leila (22 August 2006). "Apocalypse Now?". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Greene, Thomas C. (23 August 2006). "Nuclear Apocalypse Milder Than Expected: Back to the Ouija Board". The Register. Retrieved 26 February 2015.  ^ Gawenda, Michael (26 August 2006). "World Survives, But Solution on Iran
is No Closer". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 


Lewis, Bernard (2002). What Went Wrong?. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-06051-6-055.  Lewis, Bernard (2004). From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting The Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517336-8.  Lewis, Bernard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2008). Islam: The Religion and the People. Indianapolis: Wharton Press. ISBN 0-13-223085-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bernard Lewis.

Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
on IMDb Works by Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
at Open Library
Open Library
Lewis' page at Princeton University Revered and Reviled – Lewis' profile on Moment Magazine Appearances on C-SPAN

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61548760 LCCN: n79119221 ISNI: 0000 0001 2135 5730 GND: 118897225 SELIBR: 326661 SUDOC: 026988860 BNF: cb119128880 (data) NLA: 36070221 NDL: 00447566 NKC: skuk0000794 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV21896 BNE: XX1154526

v t e



American exceptionalism Democratization Globalization Humanitarian intervention Liberal internationalism Bush Doctrine Pax Americana


William Kristol Robert Kagan Frederick Kagan Irving Kristol Paul Wolfowitz Richard Perle John R. Bolton Charles Krauthammer David Frum Elliott Abrams Norman Podhoretz David Wurmser Douglas J. Feith Paul Bremer Peter Berkowitz Douglas Murray David Aaronovitch Oliver Kamm Max Boot Eliot A. Cohen Jeane Kirkpatrick Michael Novak Jonah Goldberg Joshua Muravchik Jennifer Rubin Irwin Stelzer Bret Stephens Zalmay Khalilzad Scooter Libby Yuval Levin Michael Ledeen James Kirchick Michael Gerson Dan Senor Reuel Marc Gerecht R. James Woolsey Jr.

Major influences

Leo Strauss Bernard Lewis Henry M. Jackson James Burnham John Courtney Murray


Project for the New American Century National Endowment for Democracy Foundation for Defense of Democracies Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs Henry Jackson Society Euston Group Emergency Committee for Israel Hudson Institute American Enterprise Institute Foreign Policy Initiative NGO Monitor


Commentary The Weekly Standard The Public Interest National Affairs Encounter Harry's Place First Things Crisis

Related articles

Timeline of modern American conservatism Neoconservatism
and paleoconservatism British neoconservatism Clash of Civilizations Idealism in international relations Liberal hawk Pro-war Left Anti-Stalinist left
Anti-Stalinist left
( The New York Intellectuals and Trotskyism) Republican In Name Only
Republican In Name Only
(pejorative) Cuckservative (pejorative) S