Bernard Baruch
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Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American financier and
statesman A statesman or stateswoman typically is a politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
. According to historian Thomas A. Krueger: :For half a century Bernard Baruch was one of the country's richest and most powerful men. A great speculator, public official, presidential counselor, political benefactor, and indefatigable almonor, his public life provides a clear view of the inner workings of the American political system. After amassing a fortune on the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an U ...

New York Stock Exchange
, he impressed President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
by managing the nation's economic mobilization in World War I as chairman of the
War Industries Board The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies between the United States Department of War, War Department (Department of the Army) ...
, He advised Wilson during the Paris Peace Conference. He made another fortune in the postwar bull market, but foresaw the Wall Street crash and sold out well in advance. In World War II, he became a close advisor to President
Roosevelt Roosevelt may refer to: *Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), 26th U.S. president *Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), 32nd U.S. president Businesses and organisations * Roosevelt Hotel (disambiguation) * Roosevelt & Son, a merchant bank * Roosevel ...

Roosevelt
on the role of industry in war supply, and he was credited with greatly shortening the production time for tanks and aircraft. Later he helped to develop rehabilitation programs for injured servicemen. In 1946 he was the United States representative to the
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded on 24 January 1946 by the very first United Nations General Assembly resolution, resolution of the United Nations General Assembly "to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of ...
(UNAEC), though his
Baruch Plan The Baruch Plan was a proposal by the United States government, written largely by Bernard Baruch but based on the Acheson–Lilienthal Report, to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) during its first meeting in June 1946. The Unite ...
for international control of atomic energy was rejected by the Soviet Union.


Early life and education

Bernard Baruch was born to a
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...
familyJewish Virtual Library: "Bernard Baruch (1870–1965)"
retrieved March 29, 2015
on August 19, 1870, in
Camden, South Carolina Camden is a city in Kershaw County Kershaw County is a County (United States), county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 61,697. The county seat and largest city is Camden, South Carolina, Ca ...
. His parents were Belle (née Wolfe) and Simon Baruch, a physician. He was the second of four sons, including brothers Herman B. Baruch, Sailing Wolfe Baruch, and Hartwig Nathaniel Baruch. In 1881 the family moved from Camden to New York City, where Bernard and his brothers attended local schools. He studied at and graduated from the City College of New York. Baruch married Annie Griffin, an Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopalian, of New York.City University of New York: The Baruch Family
retrieved March 29, 2015 , ''Annie was Episcopalian and Bernard was Jewish. Annie's father never gave his consent and did not attend their wedding, however eventually he was forced to admit that he had been wrong. Bernard and Annie latter agreed that they would raise their two daughters Episcopalian and let their son decide for himself.''
They had three children: Belle W. Baruch, Belle Baruch; Bernard Baruch Jr.; and Renee Baruch.


Career

Baruch became a broker and then a partner in A.A. Housman & Company. With his earnings and commissions, he bought a seat on the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an U ...

New York Stock Exchange
for $19,000 ($552,960 in 2016 dollars). There he amassed a fortune before the age of 30 by profiting from speculation in the sugar market; at that time plantations were booming in Hawaii. Baruch founded the Intercontinental Rubber Company of New York, which dominated the guayule rubber market in the U.S. with holdings in Mexico. His partners in the enterprise were Senator Nelson Aldrich, Daniel Guggenheim, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., George Foster Peabody and others. By 1903 Baruch had his own brokerage firm and gained the reputation of "The Lone Wolf of Wall Street" because of his refusal to join any financial house. By 1910, he had become one of Wall Street's best-known financiers. In 1925 Baruch endowed the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) Mrs. Simon Baruch University Award in memory of his mother, to support scholars who have written unpublished monographs for full-length books on Confederate States of America, Confederate history. His mother had been an early member of the organization and supported its activities. Bernard Baruch made millions in the US bull market in stocks since 1924. However, he started anticipating a Wall Street crash as early as 1927 and sold stocks short periodically in 1927 and 1928. On September 25, 1929, after the 1929 post Labor Day peak of the Dow, Baruch refused to join a bull pool of financiers to support the declining market. He also advised humorist Will Rogers to exit the market before the crash. "I did what you told me," Rogers told Baruch when the two met after the Black Tuesday crash of October 29, 1929, "and you saved my life".


Presidential adviser: First World War

In 1916, Baruch left Wall Street to advise President
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
on national defense and terms of peace. He served on the Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense and, in January 1918, became the chairman of the new
War Industries Board The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies between the United States Department of War, War Department (Department of the Army) ...
. With his leadership, this body successfully managed the US's economic mobilization during World War I. In 1919, Wilson asked Baruch to serve as a staff member at the Paris Peace Conference. Baruch did not approve of the World War I reparations, reparations France and Britain demanded of Germany, and supported Wilson's view that there needed to be new forms of cooperation, as well as the creation of the League of Nations. For his services in support of the war effort, Baruch was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal with the following citation:
The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I, in the organization and administration of the War Industries Board and in the coordination of allied purchases in the United States. By establishing a broad and comprehensive policy for the supervision and control of the raw materials, manufacturing facilities, and distribution of the products of industry, he stimulated the production of war supplies, coordinated the needs of the military service and the civilian population, and contributed alike to the completeness and speed of the mobilization and equipment of the military forces and the continuity of their supply. War Department, General Orders No. 15 (1921)


Interwar

In the 1920s and 1930s, Baruch expressed his concern that the United States needed to be prepared for the possibility of another world war. He wanted a more powerful version of the
War Industries Board The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies between the United States Department of War, War Department (Department of the Army) ...
, which he saw as the only way to ensure maximum coordination between civilian business and military needs. Baruch remained a prominent government adviser during this time, and supported Franklin D. Roosevelt's domestic and foreign policy initiatives after his election. Baruch was also a major contributor to Eleanor Roosevelt's controversial initiative to build a resettlement community for unemployed mining families in Arthurdale, West Virginia. This relationship did not stop the Nye Committee from investigating Baruch's role in war profiteering. In 1940, responding to pleas to help Harry Truman's shoestring bid for reelection to the U.S. Senate, Baruch provided crucial funding.


Presidential adviser: Second World War

When the United States entered World War II, President Roosevelt appointed Baruch a special adviser to the director of the Office of War Mobilization. His offices at this time were at 120 Broadway. He supported what was known as a "work or fight" bill. Baruch advocated the creation of a permanent superagency similar to his old Industries Board. His theory enhanced the role of civilian businessmen and industrialists in determining what was needed and who would produce it. Baruch's ideas were largely adopted, with James F. Byrnes, James Byrnes appointed to carry them out. It is estimated that these policies cut two years off the time taken to produce tanks, bombers, etc. and caught Hitler totally by surprise. During World War II Baruch remained a trusted adviser and confidant of President Roosevelt, who in 1944 spent a month as a guest at Baruch's South Carolina estate, Hobcaw Barony. In February 1943, Roosevelt invited Baruch to replace the widely criticized War Production Board head Donald M. Nelson. Baruch had long coveted the job, and responded that he only needed to ask his doctor if he was healthy enough for the post. During the delay, however, presidential advisor Harry Hopkins persuaded Roosevelt that firing Nelson at the army's demands would make him look weak, and when Roosevelt and Baruch met at the White House, Roosevelt declined to discuss the job offer further. In 1944, Baruch commissioned a committee of physicians which developed recommendations for the formal establishment of the medical specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and provided over a million dollars of funding to many medical schools to further this cause. Baruch's father, Simon Baruch, had been a surgeon and was the first teacher of physical medicine at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia. In the same year, Baruch and Dr. Howard Rusk, an Air Force physician, advised President Roosevelt to expand rehabilitation programs for injured soldiers within all the armed forces. After the war, these programs were adopted by the United States Department of Veterans' Affairs, Veterans' Administration. In 1946 President Harry S. Truman appointed Baruch as the United States representative to the
United Nations Atomic Energy Commission The United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) was founded on 24 January 1946 by the very first United Nations General Assembly resolution, resolution of the United Nations General Assembly "to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of ...
(UNAEC). On Friday, June 14, 1946, Baruch presented his
Baruch Plan The Baruch Plan was a proposal by the United States government, written largely by Bernard Baruch but based on the Acheson–Lilienthal Report, to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (UNAEC) during its first meeting in June 1946. The Unite ...
, a modified version of the Acheson–Lilienthal plan, to the UNAEC, which proposed international control of then-new atomic energy. The Soviet Union rejected Baruch's proposal as unfair given the fact that the U.S. already had nuclear weapons; it proposed that the U.S. eliminate its nuclear weapons before a system of controls and inspections was implemented. A stalemate ensued. Baruch resigned from the commission in 1947. His influence began to diminish, as he grew further out of step with the views of the Truman administration.


Park bench statesman

Baruch was well-known, and often walked or sat in Washington, D.C's Lafayette Square (Washington, D.C.), Lafayette Park and in New York City's Central Park. It was not uncommon for him to discuss government affairs with other people while sitting on a park bench. This became his most famous characteristic. Winston Churchill and Baruch were personal friends, and Churchill sometimes stayed in Baruch's New York home when visiting the United States. In 1960, on his ninetieth birthday, a commemorative park bench in Lafayette Park across from the White House was dedicated to Baruch by the National Capital Area Council, Boy Scouts. A life-size bronze of Baruch sitting on a park bench is in the Lobby at Baruch College's Vertical Campus at 1 Bernard Baruch Way in NYC. Both Baruch and Adlai Stevenson II, Adlai Stevenson chose to donate their personal papers to Princeton University not only out of their mutual admiration for
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
, but also their mutual friend, Dean Mathey. He continued to advise on international affairs until his death on June 20, 1965, in New York City, at the age of 94. His funeral at Temple Shaaray Tefila, the family synagogue, was attended by 700 people. His grave is at Flushing Cemetery, Flushing, Queens, New York City.


Thoroughbred racing

Baruch owned a string of Thoroughbred Horse racing, racehorses and raced under the name "Kershaw Stable". In 1927 his horse, Happy Argo, won the Carter Handicap.


Legacy and honors

* Baruch College of City University of New York was named for him. * The Saratoga Race Course named the Bernard Baruch Handicap in his honor. * He was referenced in an episode of 'The Dick Van Dyke Show' (Season 2, Episode 28 "Divorce"), 'Leave It To Beaver', 'The Patti Duke Show', 'Make Room for Daddy' as well as 'The Burns and Allen Show' and the Art Buchwald book "A Gift From the Boys". * He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree in 1933 by Oglethorpe University.


Purchase of Hobcaw Barony

Between 1905 and 1907, Baruch systematically purchased a total of approximately 69,690 acres (69 square kilometers) of the former 18th century Hobcaw Barony, consolidating 69 plantations located on a peninsula called Waccamaw Neck between the Winyah Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, in Georgetown County, South Carolina. Baruch subsequently developed sections of the property as a winter hunting resort. He later sold the property to his eldest child, Belle W. Baruch. Upon her death in 1964, the property was transferred to The Belle W. Baruch Foundation as the Hobcaw Barony educational and research preserve. The property also includes 37 historic buildings representing the 18th and 19th century rice cultivation industry, and early-to-mid 20th century winter resorts. The entire property was named to the National Register of Historic Places on November 2, 1994. The Trustees of The Belle W. Baruch Foundation subsequently selected the University of South Carolina and Clemson University as educational institutions with a mandate to preserve and study the Hobcaw Barony, including the wetlands forest and coastal ecosystems. The University of South Carolina established the Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, and Clemson University established the Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences. Both universities have also formed partnerships with other schools in South Carolina that carry out research and educational programs which contribute to knowledge of coastal ecosystems. The Belle W. Baruch Foundation and the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve jointly operate the Hobcaw Barony Discovery Center and provide tours and special programs.


Screen portrayals

Francis X. Bushman portrayed Bernard Baruch in ''Wilson (1944 film), Wilson'' (1944) Larry Gates portrayed Bernard Baruch in ''Funny Lady'' (1975) Sam Wanamaker portrayed Bernard Baruch in ''Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years'' (1981)


See also

* Continental, Arizona


Notes


References


Primary sources

* Bernard M. Baruch. ''Baruch: My Own Story'' (1957). . Two volumes.
Bernard M. Baruch. ''The Making of the Reparation and Economic Sections of the Treaty'' 1920
* Bernard M. Baruch. ''American Industry in War: A Report of the War Industries Board (March 1921)''. ed. by Richard H. Hippelheuser; 1941.


Scholarly secondary sources

* * * Cuff, Robert D. "Bernard Baruch: Symbol and myth in industrial mobilization." ''Business History Review'' (1969): 115-133
online
* Gerber, Larry G. "The Baruch Plan and the origins of the Cold War." ''Diplomatic History'' 6.1 (1982): 69-96. * * Eisenhower worked closely with Baruch in 1930. * *
online review
* * Нехамкин Эрнст.БЕРНАРД БАРУХ. Их помнит Нью-Йорк * Preclík, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha (book), 219 pages, vydalo nakladatelství (publisher) Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karvina, Czech Republic) (in cooperation with Masaryk Democratic Movement, Prague), 2019,


External links

*
Bernard M. Baruch Papers at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University

Bernard Baruch writings and speeches, 1919–1958
held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Bernard Baruch Portrait



Annotated bibliography for Bernard Baruch from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
* Brown, Gates
Baruch, Bernard Mannes
in

* [https://archive.org/details/BernardBaruch FBI file on Bernard Baruch] at the Internet Archive
FBI files on Bernard Baruch
at vault.fbi.gov {{DEFAULTSORT:Baruch, Bernard 1870 births 1965 deaths American financiers American investors American people of German-Jewish descent Jewish American philanthropists American political consultants American racehorse owners and breeders American stockbrokers American stock traders Baruch College Burials at Flushing Cemetery Businesspeople from South Carolina City College of New York alumni Jewish American government officials People from Camden, South Carolina United States presidential advisors U.S. Synthetic Rubber Program Franklin D. Roosevelt administration personnel People of the Cold War Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (US Army) Civilian recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal (United States) Bernard Baruch,