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The AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES RELATING TO AIR SERVICES BETWEEN THEIR RESPECTIVE TERRITORIES (BERMUDA AGREEMENT), reached in 1946 by American and British negotiators in Bermuda
Bermuda
, was an early bilateral air transport agreement regulating civil air transport . It established a precedent for the signing of approximately 3,000 other such agreements between countries. The Agreement was replaced by the Bermuda
Bermuda
II Agreement , signed in 1977 and effective in 1978.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background * 2 Key terms

* 3 Operations under the agreement

* 3.1 1940s * 3.2 1950s * 3.3 1960s * 3.4 1970s

* 4 Termination * 5 Effect on other aviation agreements * 6 References

BACKGROUND

Boeing 314 flying boat

During World War II
World War II
, transatlantic air service between Britain and America was limited to Boeing 314 flying boat service between Baltimore and Foynes, which Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
had begun in July 1939. British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation
(BOAC) also flew the route using three Boeing 314s purchased from Pan Am.

The Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement arose in the wake of the Chicago Conference of 1944, where the United States
United States
and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
disagreed about economic control of international air transport. The US and UK had generally agreed on the first two freedoms of the air (overflight and landings for repair/refueling) but the UK and several other countries refused to accept the US position on the third, fourth and fifth freedoms regarding the handling of passenger and cargo traffic. Specifically, the US sought the freedom for its carriers to determine capacity and frequencies on international routes, while the UK sought predetermined routes and an equal division of capacity between the two nations' carriers on those routes. Britain had lost much of its air fleet in the course of World War II
World War II
and was reluctant to place itself in full competition with the stronger American air fleet.

Prior to the Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement, the United States
United States
signed bilateral aviation agreements with several other European countries (Ireland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark), and had signed a multilateral Transport Agreement with several European and Latin American countries, but service to and from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had to be negotiated with the British government on an ad hoc basis. As of late 1945, the UK had limited transatlantic traffic by the US to 14 services per week, 500 seats per week and a minimum fare of $375.

In July 1945, the US government granted Pan Am, Trans World Airlines (TWA) and American Export Airlines (shortly thereafter acquired by American Airlines
American Airlines
and renamed American Overseas Airlines ) the right to operate transatlantic service. American began its Douglas DC-4 service between New York and Bournemouth
Bournemouth
that October. Pan Am announced its own DC-4 service in October 1945 at prices less than 50% of the previous flying boat fares, which led the British government to pressure both Pan Am and the US government to back away from what Britain described as a "wholly uneconomic proposition."

The US and UK governments agreed in late 1945 to meet and discuss the terms of a bilateral aviation agreement. Bermuda
Bermuda
was chosen to host the meeting due to its location between the two countries and isolation from their respective governments. In a sign of the rapidly advancing technology of the time, the British delegation arrived in January by Boeing 314 flying boats, and departed in February by Lockheed 049 Constellation pressurized landplanes.

KEY TERMS

Unlike the existing bilateral and multilateral aviation agreements, the Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement defined specific routes on which each countries' carriers could fly, with the right to pick up or discharge international traffic (but no cabotage rights) at any point along the routes:

* British carriers:

* London - New York - San Francisco - Honolulu / Midway / Wake / Guam / Manila - Singapore / Hong Kong * London - New York - New Orleans - Mexico * London - New York - Cuba - Jamaica / Panama - Colombia / Ecuador / Peru / Chile

* United States
United States
carriers:

* US points - London - Netherlands / Germany / Scandinavia / Russia * US points - London - Belgium - Central Europe - Near East - India * Honolulu - Hong Kong - China / India * Honolulu - Hong Kong - Singapore - Netherlands East Indies

The inclusion of many fifth freedom routes (beyond the United States and British Isles) reflected the fact that many territories such as Hong Kong, Singapore and India were still British colonies at the time the agreement was signed, and that many third countries were eager for air service and willing to provide rights to British and American carriers without restrictions.

As a compromise on the capacity issue, the Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement provided for equitable principles that "there shall be a fair and equal opportunity for the carriers of the two nations to operate on any route between their respective territories (as defined in the Agreement) covered by the Agreement and its Annex" and that "in the operation by the air carriers of either Government of the trunk services described in the Annex to the Agreement, the interest of the air carriers of the other Government shall be taken into consideration so as not to affect unduly the services which the latter provides."

Fares were made subject to regulatory approval by authorities in each country or by the International Air Transport Association , effectively giving the IATA immunity from US antitrust law, which immunity remained in effect on North Atlantic routes until 1979.

OPERATIONS UNDER THE AGREEMENT

1940S

Pan Am Lockheed Constellation at Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
, London

Pan Am took delivery of the Lockheed 749 Constellation in June 1947 and began its "round-the-world" route with eastbound stops in New York, Gander, Shannon, London, Istanbul, Dhahran, Karachi, Calcutta, Bangkok, Manila, Shanghai, Tokyo, Guam, Wake, Midway, Honolulu and San Francisco, taking advantage of Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement fifth freedom rights.

Newfoundland
Newfoundland
, an essential refueling stop on any transatlantic air route in the 1940s, was part of Britain at the time the Bermuda Agreement was signed. In 1949, following its accession as a Canadian province, the United States
United States
signed an agreement with Canada to provide for fifth freedom rights to and from Gander .

1950S

BOAC de Havilland Comet jet

Pan Am acquired AOA from American Airlines
American Airlines
in 1950, concentrating the US-UK air travel market to three carriers: Pan Am, TWA and BOAC.

BOAC, still Britain's sole transatlantic carrier, sought to compete with Pan Am's "round the world" service by offering an "all-red" route from Britain to Australia via Canada, but bilateral agreements between the UK and these countries stalled in the early 1950s. BOAC proceeded to open a London-Chicago route in May 1954, with the intention to extend the service to San Francisco and Tokyo. The San Francisco extension was not realized until 1957, and US government approval for the Tokyo service did not come until 1959 due to objections by Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
.

BOAC introduced de Havilland Comet jet service on the London-New York route in 1958. TWA began jet service on the New York-London-Frankfurt route in 1959.

1960S

The United States
United States
began to exercise an even more dominant position in the transatlantic market during the 1960s. One key issue was that Pan Am and TWA began to use the hub and spoke system to feed passengers from many US destinations through a transatlantic "gateway" and on to Europe, giving the US carriers an advantage in serving secondary markets. Partly as a result of this competitive pressure, the market share of BOAC on transatlantic routes fell from 37.8% in 1961-62 to 30.9% by 1966-67.

1970S

The British government added a privately owned carrier, British Caledonian , to the transatlantic market in 1973, with flights from London's Gatwick Airport
Gatwick Airport
to New York and Los Angeles. BCal was forced to exit the market in 1976 after the British government determined that competition was not improving Britain's overall market share.

TERMINATION

In 1976, the British government announced its intention to renounce the agreement, beginning the negotiation of the Bermuda
Bermuda
II Agreement which became effective in 1978. Although the UK initially sought an equal division of capacity between UK and US carriers, the final Bermuda
Bermuda
II agreement largely preserved the liberal capacity provisions of Bermuda
Bermuda
I.

The Bermuda
Bermuda
agreements were replaced in two stages on 30 March 2008, and 24 June 2010, by the EU–US Open Skies Agreement between the European Union (representing 25 European countries) and the United States, providing for an Open Skies regime even more liberal even than Bermuda
Bermuda
I.

EFFECT ON OTHER AVIATION AGREEMENTS

Both the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
made the Bermuda Agreement their model for bilateral agreements with other countries until Bermuda
Bermuda
II. The only major exception during this era was the 1966 agreement between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union, which designated Pan Am and Aeroflot
Aeroflot
as the operating carriers from each country and left commercial details of service to the airlines' prior agreement. Although most other agreements during this era followed the Bermuda
Bermuda
I model, they tended to include fewer and fewer fifth and sixth freedom rights (traffic rights to and from third countries) as time went on, as the increased range of aircraft made such rights less necessary. The general principles of the Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement were also followed by other countries, such as Canada in its various bilateral agreements.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B "The Beginnings of Commercial Transatlantic Services". US Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ A B C Cooper, John C. (October 1946). "The Bermuda
Bermuda
Plan: World Pattern for Air Transport". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ A B C Azzie, Ralph. "Specific Problems Solved by the Negotiation of Bilateral Air Agreements" (PDF). McGill Law Journal. 13 (2): 303–308. * ^ A B C D E F Haanappel, PPC (1980). "Bilateral Air Transport Agreements - 1913-1980". Maryland Journal of International Law. 5 (2): 241–267. Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ A B Masefield, Peter (1990). " Bermuda
Bermuda
1". Putnam Aeronautical Review. 2 (6). Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ "The Pan Am Series – Part XXI: The Constellation". California Aviation Alliance. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. * ^ Higham, Robin (2013). Speedbird: The Complete History of BOAC. I.B.Tauris. pp. 179–182. ISBN 9781780764627 . * ^ A B "Select Committee on Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Eighteenth Report: AIR SERVICE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE UNITED STATES". House of Commons. Retrieved 8 May 2015.

* v * t * e

Commercial air travel

AIRLINES

* Airline
Airline
codes * Airline
Airline
holding companies * Charter airlines * Low-cost airlines * Passenger airlines * Regional airlines

ALLIANCES

* Oneworld
Oneworld
* SkyTeam
SkyTeam
* Star Alliance
Star Alliance
* Value Alliance
Value Alliance
* Vanilla Alliance * U-FLY Alliance

TRADE GROUPS

* International (ACO * ATAG * IATA * IATAN * ISTAT ) * United States
United States
(A4A * RAA ) * Europe (AEA * EBAA * ELFAA * ERA ) * Other regions (AACO * AAPA * AFRAA * RAAA )

AIRCREW

* Captain * First Officer * Second Officer * Third Officer * Flight attendant
Flight attendant
* Flight engineer
Flight engineer
* Loadmaster
Loadmaster
* Pilot * Purser * Deadheading

AIRLINER

* Travel class
Travel class

* First class (aviation)
First class (aviation)
* First class travel
First class travel
* Business * Premium economy
Premium economy
* Economy

* Aircraft cabin
Aircraft cabin
* Aircraft lavatory
Aircraft lavatory
* Aircraft seat map
Aircraft seat map
* Airline
Airline
meal * Airline
Airline
seat * Buy on board * Crew rest compartment * In-flight entertainment
In-flight entertainment
* Inflight smoking * Galley * Sickness bag

AIRPORT

* Aerodrome * Airline
Airline
hub * Airport
Airport
check-in * Airport
Airport
lounge * Airport
Airport
rail link * Airport
Airport
terminal * Airstair
Airstair
* Boarding * Domestic airport
Domestic airport
* Gate * International airport * Jet bridge
Jet bridge
* Low cost carrier terminal
Low cost carrier terminal
* Runway
Runway
* Transit hotel

CUSTOMS / IMMIGRATION

* Arrival card ( Landing card
Landing card
) * Border control
Border control
* Departure card
Departure card
* Passport
Passport
* Timatic
Timatic
* Travel document
Travel document
* Visa

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

* Hypermobility * Impact on environment

LAW

* Air transport
Air transport
agreement

* Bermuda
Bermuda
Agreement (UK-US, 1946-78) * Bermuda
Bermuda
II Agreement (UK-US, 1978-2008) * China-US * Cross-Strait charter
Cross-Strait charter
(China-Taiwan)

* Beijing Convention * Cape Town Treaty
Cape Town Treaty
* Chicago Convention * Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives * Flight permit
Flight permit
* Freedoms of the air
Freedoms of the air
* Hague Hijacking Convention * Hague Protocol * ICAO * Montreal Convention * Open skies ( EU–US Open Skies Agreement ) * Paris Convention of 1919 * Rome Convention * Sabotage Convention * Tokyo Convention * Warsaw Convention

LUGGAGE

* Bag tag * Baggage
Baggage
allowance * Baggage
Baggage
carousel * Baggage
Baggage
cart * Baggage
Baggage
reclaim * Baggage
Baggage
handler * Baggage
Baggage
handling system * Checked baggage
Checked baggage
* Hand luggage
Hand luggage
* Lost luggage * Luggage lock
Luggage lock

SAFETY

* Air Navigation and Transport Act * Air rage * Air traffic control
Air traffic control
(ATC) * Aircraft safety card * Airport
Airport
authority * Airport
Airport
crash tender * Airport
Airport
police * Airport
Airport
security * Brace position * Evacuation slide
Evacuation slide
* Flight recorder
Flight recorder
* National aviation authority * Overwing exits
Overwing exits
* Pre-flight safety demonstration
Pre-flight safety demonstration
* Sky marshal * Unruly aircraft passenger

TICKETING

* Airline
Airline
booking ploys * Airline
Airline
reservations system * Airline
Airline
ticket * Airline
Airline
timetable * Bereavement flight
Bereavement flight
* Boarding pass
Boarding pass
* Codeshare agreement
Codeshare agreement
* Continent pass
Continent pass
* Electronic ticket
Electronic ticket
* Fare basis code * Flight cancellation and delay * Frequent-flyer program * Government contract flight * One-way travel * Open-jaw ticket
Open-jaw ticket
* Passenger name record * Red-eye flight * Round-the-world ticket * Standby * Tracking * Travel agency
Travel agency
* Travel website

GROUNDCREW

* Aircraft maintenance technician
Aircraft maintenance technician
* Aircraft ground handler * Baggage
Baggage
handler * Flight dispatcher

MISCELLANEOUS

* Mile

.