Coordinates : 32°20′N 64°45′W / 32.333°N 64.750°W /
Flag Coat of arms
* "Quo Fata Ferunt" (Latin )
* "Whither the
God Save the Queen
God Save the Queen" (official)
Hail to Bermuda" (unofficial)
"All the Bermudians" (unofficial)a
Bermuda(circled in red)
Atlantic Ocean (blue)
British Overseas Territory
32°18′N 64°47′W / 32.300°N 64.783°W / 32.300;
ETHNIC GROUPS (2010 )
* 54% Black
* 31% White
* 4% Asian
* 3% Other
Parliamentary dependency under constitutional monarchy
• RESPONSIBLE MINISTERB (UK )
• UPPER HOUSE
• LOWER HOUSE
House of Assembly
53.2 km2 (20.5 sq mi) (230th )
• WATER (%)
• 2010 CENSUS
1,275/km2 (3,302.2/sq mi) (9th )
$5.60 billion (161th (estimate) )
• PER CAPITA
$89,795 (4th )
Bermudian dollarc (BMD )
AST (UTC –4)
• SUMMER (DST )
ADT (UTC –3)
dd/mm/yyyy (AD )
DRIVES ON THE
* This song is also used at international sporting events such as
Olympic Games. ("
Bermuda– London 2012 Olympics". Telegraph.
July 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2012. )
* For the Overseas Territories .
* On par with
United States dollar
United States dollar.
BERMUDA ( /bərˈmjuːdə/ ) is a British Overseas Territory in the
North Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 1,070 km (665 mi)
North Carolina; 1,236 km (768 mi)
Cape Sable Island,
Nova Scotia; and 1,578 km (981 mi) north
San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico. The capital city is Hamilton .
an associate member of
The first person known to have reached
Bermudawas the Spanish sea
Juan de Bermúdezin 1503, after whom the islands are named.
He claimed the islands for the
Spanish Empire. Bermúdez never landed
on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago , of which he
created a recognisable map. Shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now
thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on
Portuguese Rock (previously called Spanish Rock). Subsequent Spanish
or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there,
which had become feral and abundant on the island by the time European
settlement began. In 1609, the English
Virginia Company, which had
established Jamestown in
Virginiatwo years earlier, permanently
Bermudain the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew and
passengers of the _
Sea Venture_ steered the ship onto the surrounding
reef to prevent its sinking, then landed ashore.
The island was administered as an extension of
Company until 1614. Its spin-off , the
Somers Isles Company
Somers Isles Company, took
over in 1615 and managed the colony until 1684. At that time, the
company's charter was revoked, and the
English Crowntook over
administration. The islands became a British colony following the 1707
unification of the parliaments of
Scotlandand England, which created
Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain. After 1949, when Newfoundland became
part of Canada,
Bermudabecame the oldest remaining British overseas
territory. After the return of
Hong Kongto China in 1997, Bermuda
became the most populous British territory. Its first capital, St.
George\'s , was established in 1612.
Bermuda's economy is based on offshore insurance and reinsurance ,
and tourism , the two largest economic sectors .
Bermudahad one of
the world's highest
GDP per capita
GDP per capitafor most of the 20th century and
several years beyond. Recently, its economic status has been affected
by the global recession. It has a subtropical climate.
northernmost point of the
Bermuda Triangle, a region of sea in which,
according to legend , a number of aircraft and surface vessels have
disappeared under supposedly unexplained or mysterious circumstances.
The island is in the hurricane belt and prone to severe weather.
However, it is somewhat protected from the full force of a hurricane
by the coral reef that surrounds the island.
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Administrative divisions
* 1.2 Main sights
* 1.3 Climate
* 1.4 Flora and fauna
* 2 Demographics
* 2.1 Languages
* 2.2 Religions
* 3 Culture
* 3.1 Arts
* 4 History
* 4.1 Pre-settlement
* 4.2 Settlement by the English
* 4.3 Company colony
* 4.4 Civil War
* 4.5 Maritime economy
American War of Independence
* 4.7 Fortress
* 4.9 Economic and political development
* 5 Politics
* 5.1 Government organization
* 5.2 Role in international relations
* 5.2.1 Asylum offered to four former Guantánamo detainees
* 5.3 Military
* 6 Economy
* 7 Services
* 7.1 Education
* 7.2 Health care
* 7.3 Sports
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
View from the top of Gibb's Hill Lighthouse Landsat 8
Bermudapictured from the International Space
Station Topographic map of
Bermuda Main article: Geography
Bermudais a group of low-forming volcanoes in the Atlantic Ocean,
near the western edge of the
Sargasso Sea, roughly 578 nautical miles
(1,070 km (665 mi)) east-southeast of
Cape Hatteras on the Outer
North Carolinaand about 594 nautical miles (1,100 km (684
mi)) southeast of Martha\'s Vineyard of
Massachusetts. It is 898
nautical miles (1,664 km (1,034 mi)) northeast of Miami ,
and 667 nautical miles (1,236 km (768 mi)) from
Cape Sable Island, in
Nova Scotia, Canada. The islands lie due east of
Fripp Island, South
Carolina , west-northwest of
Cape Verde, southeast of
New York City
New York City,
New York , north-northwest of
Braziland north of San Juan, Puerto
The archipelago is formed by high points on the rim of the caldera of
a submarine volcano that forms a seamount . The volcano is one part of
a range that was formed as part of the same process that formed the
floor of the Atlantic and the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The top of the
seamount has gone through periods of complete submergence, during
which its limestone cap was formed by marine organisms, and in the Ice
Ages the entire caldera was above sea level, forming an island of
approximately two hundred square miles.
It has 103 km (64 mi) of coastline. The two incorporated
Bermudaare the City of Hamilton and the Town of St
Bermudais divided into nine parishes, which have some
localities called villages, such as Flatts Village and Somerset
Although usually referred to in the singular, the territory consists
of 181 islands, with a total area of 53.3 square kilometres (20.6
square miles). The largest island is Main Island, sometimes called
Bermuda. Eight of the larger islands are connected by bridges, and are
the populated islands. Compiling a list of the islands is often
complicated, as many have more than one name (as does the entire
archipelago, which has also been known historically as La Garza,
Virgineola, and the Isle of Devils. Somers Isles is often rendered
"Somers Islands", or mistaken for "Summer Isles").
Despite the small land mass, place names are repeated: two islands
named Long Island, three bays named Long Bay (on Somerset, Main, and
Cooper's islands), two Horseshoe Bays (one in Southampton, on the Main
Island, the other at Morgan's Point, formerly Tucker's Island), two
roads through cuttings called Khyber Pass, one in Warwick, the other
in St. George's Parish, and two St George\'s Towns on St George\'s
Island in St George\'s Parish , each known as St George's. There is a
Hamilton Parishin addition to the City of Hamilton in Pembroke Parish
Administrative divisions of Bermuda Parishes of
Bermudais divided into nine parishes and two incorporated
Bermuda's nine parishes are:
* St George\'s
Bermuda's two incorporated municipalities are:
* Hamilton (city)
* St George\'s (town)
Bermuda's two informal villages are:
* Flatts Village
* Somerset Village
Jones Village in Warwick, Cashew City (St. George's), Claytown
(Hamilton), Middle Town (Pembroke), and Tucker\'s Town (St. George's)
are neighbourhoods; Dandy Town and North Village are sports clubs, and
Harbour View Village is a small public housing development.
One of Bermuda's pink-sand beaches at Astwood Park.
Bermuda's pink sand beaches and clear, cerulean blue ocean waters are
popular with tourists. Many of Bermuda's few hotels are located along
the south shore of the island. In addition to its beaches, there are a
number of sightseeing attractions. Historic St George's is a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site. Scuba divers can explore numerous
wrecks and coral reefs in relatively shallow water (typically 30–40
ft or 9–12 m in depth), with virtually unlimited visibility. Many
nearby reefs are readily accessible from shore by snorkellers ,
especially at Church Bay .
Bermuda's most popular visitor attraction is the Royal Naval
Dockyard, which includes the
BermudaMaritime Museum. Other
attractions include the
Bermuda Aquarium, Museum and Zoo, Bermuda
Underwater Exploration Institute, the Botanical Gardens and
Masterworks Museum of Bermuda Art, lighthouses, and the Crystal Caves
with stalactites and underground saltwater pools. Admiralty House is
another nice attraction where locals and visitors enjoy cliff diving
into the beautiful blue water and where you are able to see Dockyard
in the distance.
It is not possible to rent a car on the island; public transport and
taxis are available or visitors can hire scooters for use as private
Climate of Bermudaand
List of Bermuda hurricanes
Residential scene in
Bermudahas a humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cfa_), bordering
on a tropical climate owing to the island's very mild winters. Bermuda
is warmed by the nearby
Gulf Stream, and low latitude. The islands do
get some cooler temperatures in January, February, and March (average
63 °F (17 °C)-64 °F (18 °C)). The lowest temperature on record
was 44 °F (7 °C); even Key West,
Florida, at about north latitude
24-1/2 degrees, has a cooler record low temperature, of 41 °F (5
°C). There has never been snow, a frost or freeze on record in
Summertime heat index in
Bermudacan be high, although mid-August
temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded
temperature was 34 °C (93 °F) in August 1989.
Bermudais in the hurricane belt . Along the Gulf Stream, it is often
directly in the path of hurricanes recurving in the westerlies,
although they usually begin to weaken as they approach Bermuda, whose
small size means that direct landfalls of hurricanes are rare. The
most recent hurricanes to cause significant damage to
Hurricane Gonzaloon 18 October 2014 and category 3
Hurricane Nicoleon 14 October 2016, both of which struck the island
directly. Before that,
Hurricane Fabianon 5 September 2003 was the
last major hurricane to hit
The only source of fresh water in
Bermudais rainfall, which is
collected on roofs and catchments (or drawn from underground lenses)
and stored in tanks. Each dwelling usually has at least one of these
tanks forming part of its foundation. The law requires that each
household collect rainwater that is piped down from the roof of each
house. Average monthly rainfall is highest in October, at over 6
inches, and lowest in April and May.
The average annual temperature of the
Atlantic Oceanaround Bermuda
is 22.8 °C (73.0 °F), from 18.6 °C (65.5 °F) in February to 28.2
°C (82.8 °F) in August.
Bermudais on the same parallel as the Portuguese archipelago Madeira
a few time zones farther east in the Atlantic. The two archipelagos
are the only land in the Atlantic on the
32nd parallel north.
CLIMATE DATA FOR HAMILTON – CAPITAL OF BERMUDA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 INCH)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Bermuda Weather Service(sun, 1999–2010)
FLORA AND FAUNA
Flora and fauna in Bermuda Young
Bermudawas uninhabited and mostly dominated by
Bermudacedar , with mangrove marshes along its shores.
Only 165 of the island's current 1,000 vascular plant species are
considered native . Of those, 15, including the eponymous cedar, are
Settlers have introduced many species of palm trees to Bermuda.
Coconutpalms are found on Bermuda, making it the northernmost
location for the natural growth of this species. However, the climate
is usually too cool to allow the palms to properly set fruit.
The only indigenous mammals of
Bermudaare five species of bats, all
of which are also found in the eastern United States: _Lasionycteris
noctivagans _, _
Lasiurus borealis_, _
Lasiurus cinereus_, _Lasiurus
seminolus _ and _
Perimyotis subflavus_. Other commonly known fauna
Bermudainclude its national bird, the
Bermuda petrelor cahow. It
was rediscovered in 1951 after having been thought extinct since the
1620s. It is important as an example of a Lazarus species. The
government has a programme to protect it, including restoration of a
habitat area. The
Bermuda rock skinkwas long thought to have been the
only indigenous land vertebrate of Bermuda, discounting the marine
turtles that lay their eggs on its beaches. Recently through genetic
DNA studies, scientists have discovered that a species of turtle , the
diamondback terrapin , previously thought to have been introduced,
pre-dated the arrival of humans in the archipelago. As this species
spends most of its time in brackish ponds, some question whether it
should be classified as a land vertebrate to compete with the skink's
Demographics of Bermuda
Bermuda's 2010 Census put Bermuda's population at 64,237 and, with an
area of 53.2 km2 (20.5 sq mi), it has a calculated population density
The racial makeup of
Bermudaas recorded by the 2010 census, was 54%
black, 31% white, 8% multiracial, 4% Asian, and 4% other races,
although these numbers are based on self-identification, and the
majority of those who answered "black" have any mixture of black,
white and indigenous American ancestry. Native-born Bermudians made
up 67% of the population, compared to 29% non-natives. The image
of the Lord Holy Christ of the Miracles , in Hamilton , venerated by
Azoreans in Bermuda.
The island experienced large-scale immigration over the 20th century,
especially after the Second World War.
Bermudahas a diverse
population including both those with relatively deep roots in Bermuda
extending back for centuries, and newer communities whose ancestry
results from recent immigration, especially from Britain, North
America, the West Indies, and the Portuguese Atlantic islands
Azores), although these groups are steadily merging.
About 46% of the population identified themselves with Bermudian
ancestry in 2010, which was a decrease from the 51% who did so in the
2000 census. Those identifying with British ancestry dropped by 1% to
11% (although those born in Britain remain the largest non-native
group at 3,942 persons). The number of people born in
by 13%. Those who reported West Indian ancestry were 13%. The number
of people born in the
West Indiesactually increased by 538. A
significant segment of the population is of Portuguese ancestry (10%),
the result of immigration over the past 160 years, of whom 79% have
The deeper ancestral demography of Bermuda's population has been
obscured by the ethnic homogenisation of the last four centuries.
There is effectively no ethnic distinction between black and white
Bermudians, other than those characterising recent immigrant
communities. In the 17th century, this was not so. For the first
hundred years of settlement, white Protestants of English heritage
were the distinct majority, with white minorities of Irish (the native
language of many of whom can be assumed to have been Gaelic) and Scots
Bermudaafter the English invasions of their homelands that
English Civil War
English Civil War. Non-white minorities included
Spanish-speaking, free (indentured) blacks from the West Indies, black
chattel slaves primarily captured from Spanish and Portuguese ships by
Bermudian privateers , and Native Americans, primarily from the
Algonquian and other tribes of the
Atlantic seaboard, but possibly
from as far away as Mexico. By the 19th century, the white
ethnically-English Bermudians had lost their numerical advantage.
Despite the banning of the importation of Irish, and the repeated
attempts to force free blacks to emigrate and the owners of black
slaves to export them, the merging of the various minority groups,
along with some of the white English, had resulted in a new
demographic group, "coloured" (which term, in Bermuda, referred to
anyone not wholly of European ancestry) Bermudians, gaining a slight
majority. Any child born before or since then to one coloured and one
white parent has been added to the coloured statistic. Most of those
historically described as "coloured" are today described as "black",
or "of African heritage", which obscures their non-African heritage
(those previously described as "coloured" who were not of African
ancestry had been very few, though the numbers of South Asians,
particularly, is now growing. The number of persons born in Asian
countries doubled between the 2000 and the 2010 censuses), blacks have
remained in the majority, with new white immigration from Portugal,
Britain and elsewhere countered by black immigration from the West
Bermuda's modern black population contains more than one demographic
group. Although the number of residents born in Africa is very small,
it has tripled between 2000 and 2010 (this group also includes
non-blacks). The majority of blacks in
Bermudacan be termed
"Bermudian blacks", whose ancestry dates back centuries between the
17th century and the end of slavery in 1834, Bermuda's black
population was self-sustaining, with its growth resulting largely from
natural expansion. This contrasts to the enslaved blacks of the
plantation colonies, who were subjected to conditions so harsh as to
drop their birth rate below the death rate, and slaveholders in the
United Statesand the
West Indiesfound it necessary to continue
importing more enslaved blacks from Africa until the end of slavery
(the same had been true for the Native Americans that the Africans had
replaced on the
New Worldplantations). The indigenous populations of
many West Indian islands, and much of the South-East of what is now
United Statesthat had survived the 16th- and 17th-century
epidemics of European-introduced diseases then became the victims of
large-scale slave raiding, with much of the region completely
depopulated. When the supply of indigenous slaves ran out, the
slaveholders looked to Africa. The ancestry of Bermuda's black
population is distinguished from that of the British West Indian black
population in two ways: firstly, the higher degree of European and
Native American admixture; secondly, the source of the African
In the British West Indian islands (and also in the United States),
the majority of enslaved blacks brought across the Atlantic came from
West Africa (roughly between modern Senegal and Ghana). Very little of
Bermuda's original black emigration came from this area. The first
blacks to arrive in
Bermudain any numbers were free blacks from
Spanish-speaking areas of the West Indies, and most of the remainder
were recently enslaved Africans captured from the Spanish and
Portugalsourced most of their slaves from
South-West Africa(the Portuguese through ports in modern-day Angola;
the Spanish purchased most of their African slaves from Portuguese
traders, and from Arabs whose slave trading was centred in Zanzibar).
Genetic studies have consequently shown that the African ancestry of
black Bermudians (other than those resulting from recent immigration
from the British West Indian islands) is largely from a band across
southern Africa, from Angola to Mozambique, which is similar to what
is revealed in Latin America, but distinctly different from the blacks
West Indiesand the United States.
Most of Bermuda's black population trace some of their ancestry to
Native Americans, although awareness of this is largely limited to St
David\'s Islanders and most who have such ancestry are unaware of it.
During the colonial period, hundreds of Native Americans were shipped
to Bermuda. The best-known examples were the
were exiled from the southern
New Englandcolonies and sold into
slavery in the 17th century, notably in the aftermaths of the Pequot
and King Philip\'s wars.
Today several thousand expatriate workers, principally from Britain,
Canada, the West Indies,
South Africaand the US, reside in Bermuda.
They are primarily engaged in specialised professions such as
accounting, finance, and insurance. Others are employed in various
trades, such as hotels, restaurants, construction, and landscaping
services. Of the total workforce of 38,947 persons in 2005, government
employment figures stated that 11,223 (29%) were non-Bermudians.
The predominant language on
Bermudian English. It
exhibits characteristics of British, West Indian, and American
English. Perhaps most interesting is its closeness to acrolectal
English compared to other varieties in the West Indies.
British Englishspellings and conventions are used in print media and
formal written communications.
Portuguese is also spoken in Bermuda; this is owing to immigration
Portugal, particularly from the
Protestant 46.2% (includes Anglican 15.8%, African Methodist
Episcopal 8.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 6.7, Pentecostal 3.5%, Methodist
2.7%, Presbyterian 2.0 %, Church of God 1.6%, Baptist 1.2%, Salvation
Army 1.1%, Brethren 1.0%, other Protestant 2.0%), Roman Catholic
14.5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other Christian 9.1%, Muslim 1%, other
3.9%, none 17.8%, unspecified 6.2% (2010 est.).
Culture of Bermuda See also:
Holidays in Bermuda
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Bermuda's culture is a mixture of the various sources of its
population: Native American, Spanish-Caribbean, English, Irish, and
Scots cultures were evident in the 17th century, and became part of
the dominant British culture. English is the primary and official
language. Due to 160 years of immigration from Portuguese Atlantic
islands (primarily the
Azores, though also from
Madeiraand the Cape
Verde Islands ), a portion of the population also speaks Portuguese.
There are strong British influences, together with Afro-Caribbean
A second wave of immigration from the
West Indieswas sustained
throughout the 20th century; the more recent arrivals have primarily
come from English-speaking countries, also bringing aspects of their
cultures. This new infusion of West Indians has both accelerated
social and political change, and diversified Bermuda's culture.
The first notable, and historically important, book credited to a
Bermudian was _The History of
Mary Prince_, a slave narrative by Mary
Prince . It is thought to have contributed to the abolition of slavery
British Empire. Ernest
Graham Ingham, an expatriate author,
published his books at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. In the
20th century, numerous books were written and published locally,
though few were directed at a wider market than Bermuda. (The latter
consisted primarily of scholarly works rather than creative writing).
Brian Burland(1931– 2010) achieved a degree of success
and acclaim internationally. More recently,
Angela Barryhas won
critical recognition for her published fiction.
Bermuda's proximity to the United States, as well as its origin as
Virginia, means that many aspects of US culture are reflected
in, or incorporated into, Bermudian culture. Many non-Bermudian
writers have also made
Bermudatheir home, or have had homes here,
A. J. Croninand
F. Van Wyck Mason, who wrote on Bermudian
Actors such as
Ernest Trimingham, Oona O\'Neill , Earl Cameron ,
Lena Headey, Will Kempe , and most famously, Michael
Catherine Zeta-Jones, grew up here or have lived here as
adults. Other native or resident film and television figures in
Arthur Rankin, Jr., and
Michael Frith; an
author and puppeteer most well known for his work on the Muppets
West Indian musicians introduced calypso music when Bermuda's tourist
industry was expanded with the increase of visitors brought by
post-Second World War aviation. While calypso appealed more to the
visitors than to the locals, reggae has been embraced by many
Bermudians since the 1970s with the influx of
Bermudaduring 2001 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Washington, D.C., United States.
Bermuda's early literature consisted of non-Bermudian writers
commenting on the island. These included John Smith\'s _The Generall
Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles _ (1624), and
Edmund Waller's poem, "Battle of the Summer Islands" (1645).
Music and dance are important in Bermuda. Noted musicians have
included local icons The Talbot Brothers , who performed for many
decades both in
Bermudaand the United States, and appeared on the _Ed
Sullivan Show _; jazz pianist
Lance Hayward, singer-songwriter
Heather Novaand her brother Mishka ; tenor Gary Burgess , classical
musician and conductor
Kenneth Amisand, more recently, dancehall
Bermudais the only placename in the
New Worldspecifically mentioned
in the works of
Shakespeare, in _
The Tempest_ in Act 1, Scene 2,
line 230: "the still-vexed Bermoothes".
The dances of the colourful
Gombeydancers, seen at many events, are
strongly influenced by African, Caribbean, Native American and British
cultural traditions. In summer 2001 they performed in Washington, D.C.
Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Smithsonian Folklife Festivalon the Mall (see photo).
Gina Swainsonwas crowned "
Miss World" in 1979.
Bermudahosts an annual international film festival, which shows many
independent films. One of the founders is film producer and director
Arthur Rankin, Jr., co-founder of the
Bermudawatercolours painted by local artists are sold at various
galleries. Hand-carved cedar sculptures are another speciality. One
such 7 ft (2.1 m) sculpture, created by Bermudian sculptor Chesley
Trott, is installed at the airport's baggage claim area. In 2010, his
sculpture _The Arrival_ was unveiled near the bay to commemorate the
freeing of slaves from the American brig _Enterprise _ in 1835. Local
artwork may also be viewed at several galleries around the island.
Alfred Birdsey was one of the more famous and talented
watercolourists; his impressionistic landscapes of Hamilton , St
George\'s and the surrounding sailboats, homes, and bays of Bermuda
Local resident Tom Butterfield founded the Masterworks Museum of
BermudaArt in 1986, initially featuring works about
artists from other countries. He began with pieces by American
artists, such as
Charles Demuth, and Georgia
O\'Keeffe , who had lived and worked here. He has increasingly
supported the development of local artists, arts education, and the
arts scene. In 2008, the museum opened its new building, constructed
within the Botanic Gardens.
History of Bermuda
Bermudawas discovered in 1503 by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermúdez
. It is mentioned in _Legatio Babylonica_, published in 1511 by
Pedro Mártirde Anglería , and was also included on
Spanish charts of that year. Both Spanish and Portuguese ships used
the islands as a replenishment spot to take on fresh meat and water.
Legends arose of spirits and devils, now thought to have stemmed from
the calls of raucous birds (most likely the
Bermuda petrel, or
_Cahow_) and the loud noise heard at night from wild hogs. Combined
with the frequent storm-wracked conditions and the dangerous reefs,
the archipelago became known as the ISLE OF DEVILS. Neither
Portugalattempted to settle it.
SETTLEMENT BY THE ENGLISH
John Smith wrote one of the first histories of
For the next century, the island is believed to have been visited
frequently, but not settled. After the failure of the first two
English colonies in Virginia, a more determined effort was initiated
James I of England
James I of England, who granted a Royal Charter to the
It established a colony at
Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Two years
later, a flotilla of seven ships left
Englandunder the Company's
George Somers, and the new Governor of Jamestown, Sir
Thomas Gates , with several hundred settlers, food and supplies to
relieve the colony of Jamestown. Somers had previous experience
sailing with both Sir
Francis Drakeand Sir
Walter Raleigh. The
flotilla was broken up by a storm. As the flagship, the _Sea Venture
_, was taking on water, Somers drove it onto Bermuda's reef and gained
the shores safely with smaller boats – all 150 passengers and a dog
Shakespeare's play _
The Tempest_, in which the
character Ariel refers to the "still-vex'd Bermoothes" (I.ii.229), is
thought to have been inspired by
William Strachey's account of this
shipwreck.) They stayed 10 months, starting a new settlement and
building two small ships to sail to Jamestown. The group of islands
were claimed for the English Crown, and the charter of the Virginia
Company was later extended to include them.
In 1610, all but three of the survivors of the _Sea Venture_ sailed
on to Jamestown. Among them was
John Rolfe, whose wife and child died
and were buried in Bermuda. Later in Jamestown he married
a daughter of the powerful Powhatan , leader of a large confederation
of about 30 Algonquian -speaking tribes in coastal Virginia. In 1612,
the English began intentional settlement of
Bermudawith the arrival
of the ship _Plough._ St. George's was settled that year and
designated as Bermuda's first capital. It is the oldest continually
inhabited English town in the
In 1615, the colony was passed to a new company, the Somers Isles
Company , named after the admiral who saved his passengers from the
_Sea Venture_. Many Virginian place names refer to the archipelago,
BermudaHundred . The first English coins to
North Americawere struck in Bermuda.
Because of its limited land area,
Bermudahas had difficulty with
over-population. In the first two centuries of settlement, it relied
on steady human emigration to keep the population manageable. Before
American Revolutionmore than ten thousand Bermudians (over half
of the total population through the years) gradually emigrated,
primarily to the
Southern United States
Southern United States. As Great Britain displaced
Spainas the dominant European imperial power, it opened up more land
for colonial development. A steady trickle of outward migration
continued. With seafaring the only real industry in the early decades,
by the end of the 18th century, at least a third of the island's
manpower was at sea at any one time.
The archipelago's limited land area and resources led to the creation
of what may be the earliest conservation laws of the
New World. In
1616 and 1620 acts were passed banning the hunting of certain birds
and young tortoises.
In 1649, the
English Civil War
English Civil Warwas in its seventh year and King
Charles I was beheaded in Whitehall, London. In Bermuda, related
tensions resulted in civil war on the island; it was ended by
militias. The majority of colonists developed a strong sense of
devotion to the Crown. Dissenters, such as Puritans and Independents ,
were pushed to settle the
Virginia, as well as
Barbadoswere, however, the subjects
of an Act of the
Rump Parliamentwhich was essentially a declaration
of war. An Act prohibiting Trade with Barbados, Virginia,
Antego, specified that:
_due punishment inflicted upon the said Delinquents, do Declare all
and every the said persons in Barbada's, Antego, Bermuda's and
Virginia, that have contrived, abetted, aided or assisted those horrid
Rebellions, or have since willingly joyned with them, to be notorious
Robbers and Traitors, and such as by the Law of Nations are not to be
permitted any maner of Commerce or Traffique with any people
whatsoever; and do forbid to all maner of persons, Foreiners, and
others, all maner of Commerce, Traffique and Correspondency
whatsoever, to be used or held with the said Rebels in the Barbada's,
Virginiaand Antego, or either of them._
All Ships that Trade with the Rebels may be surprised. Goods and
tackle of such ships not to be embezeled, till judgement in the
Admiralty.; Two or three of the Officers of every ship to be examined
The Royalist colonies were also threatened with invasion. The
Bermudaeventually reached an agreement with the
Englandwhich left the status quo in Bermuda.
BermudaGazette_ of 12 November 1796, calling for privateering
Spainand its allies; it has advertisements for crew for two
In the 17th century, the
Somers Isles Company
Somers Isles Companysuppressed
shipbuilding, as it needed Bermudians to farm in order for it to
generate income from the land. Agricultural production met with
limited success, however, due to limited areas available for
cultivation, high alkilinity of the soil, and the depletion of the
soil quality that resulted from excessive farming. The
boxes used to ship tobacco to
Englandwere reportedly worth more than
their contents. The colony of
quality and quantity of tobacco produced. Bermudians began to turn to
maritime trades relatively early in the 17th century, but the Somers
Isles Company used all its authority to suppress turning away from
agriculture. This interference led to the islanders demanding, and
receiving, the revocation of the Company's charter in 1684, and the
Company was dissolved.
Bermudians rapidly abandoned agriculture for shipbuilding, replanting
farmland with the native juniper (_
Juniperus bermudiana_, called
Bermudacedar_) trees that grew thickly over the entire island.
Establishing effective control over the
Turks Islands, Bermudians
deforested their landscape to begin the salt trade. It became the
world's largest and remained the cornerstone of Bermuda's economy for
the next century.
Bermudian sailors and merchants relied on more than the export of
salt, however. They vigorously pursued whaling, privateering , and the
merchant trade. Vessels sailed the normal shipping routes, but were
required to engage an enemy vessel no matter the size or strength. As
a result, many ships were destroyed.
Bermuda sloopbecame highly regarded for its speed and
manoeuverability, and was soon adapted for service with the Royal Navy
Bermuda sloopHMS _Pickle_ carried despatches of the victory at
Trafalgar , and news of the death of Admiral Nelson , to England.
BERMUDA AND THE AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
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American independence led to great changes for Bermuda. Prior to the
war, with no useful landmass or natural resources,
ignored and left to its own devices by the London government. By being
so deeply involved in trade,
Bermudamerchants and financiers had
played roles out of proportion to the colony's size in relation to the
development of the Triangle Trade, and the trans-Atlantic English and
Its people were settlers and founders of new colonies, especially in
the American South. Its merchant fleet and a web of expatriate
Bermudian merchants dominated trade through a number of American
Atlantic Seaboardports and the West Indies. Bermudians fished for cod
Grand Banksoff Newfoundland , and were involved in the lumber
Central America. Most importantly, they dominated the
North American salt trade with _de facto_ control of the Turks Islands
The close economic, family, and historical ties ensured Bermudians
were strongly sympathetic with the rebels at the start of the War.
They supplied the rebels illegally with ships, salt and gunpowder. As
the war progressed, economic realities caused Bermudians to seize
opportunities; they turned to privateering against the Americans.
The end of the war, however, was to cause profound change in Bermuda,
though some of those changes would take decades to crystallise.
Following the war, with the buildup of Naval and military forces in
Bermuda, the primary leg of the Bermudian economy became defence
infrastructure. Even after tourism began later in the 19th century,
Bermudaremained, in the eyes of London, a base more than a colony.
The Crown strengthened its political and economic ties to Bermuda, and
the colony's independence on the world stage was diminished.
The war had removed Bermuda's primary trading partners, the American
colonies, from the empire, and dealt a harsh blow to Bermuda's
merchant shipping trade. This also suffered due to the deforestation
of Bermuda, as well as the advent of metal ships and steam propulsion,
for which it did not have raw materials. During the course of the
War of 1812
War of 1812, the primary market for Bermuda's salt
disappeared as the Americans developed their own sources. Control of
the Turks had passed to the
By the end of the 19th century, except for naval and military
Bermudawas considered a quiet, rustic backwater. It had
been superseded in the development of the English-speaking Atlantic
Military of Bermuda An illustration of the
Devonshire Redoubt, Bermuda, 1614.
American Revolution, the
Royal Navybegan improving the
harbours. In 1811, it started building the large dockyard on Ireland
Island , in the west of the chain, to serve as its principal naval
base guarding the western
Atlantic Oceanshipping lanes. To guard it,
British Armybuilt up a large
Bermuda Garrison, and heavily
fortified the archipelago.
War of 1812
War of 1812between Britain and the United States, the
British attacks on
Washington, D.C.and the Chesapeake were planned
and launched from Bermuda, where the headquarters of the Royal Navy's
North American Station had recently been moved from Halifax, Nova
Scotia . The harbour at St. George
In 1816, James Arnold, the son of
Benedict Arnold, fortified
Bermuda's Royal Naval Dockyard against possible US attacks. Today,
National Museum of Bermuda, which incorporates Bermuda's Maritime
Museum, occupies the
Keepof the Royal Naval Dockyard, including the
Commissioner's House, and exhibits artifacts of the base's military
As a result of Bermuda's proximity to the southeastern US coast,
American Civil War
American Civil War
Confederate Statesblockade runners
frequently used it as a stopping point base for runs to and from the
Southern states or
Englandto evade Union naval vessels on blockade
patrol, delivering much needed war goods from
transporting much needed cotton back to England. The old Globe Hotel
in St George's, which was a centre of intrigue for Confederate agents,
is preserved as a public museum.
Anglo-Boer War(1899–1902), 5,000
Boerprisoners of war
were housed on five islands of Bermuda. They were located according to
their views of the war. "Bitterenders" (Afrikaans:
who refused to pledge allegiance to the British Crown, were interned
on Darrell's Island and closely guarded. Other islands such as
Morgan's Island held 884 men, including 27 officers; Tucker's Island
Boerprisoners, Burt's Island 607, and Port's Island held 35.
The New York Times
The New York Times_ reported an attempted mutiny by
of war en route to
Bermudaand that martial law was enacted on
Darrell's Island, in addition to the escape of three
to mainland Bermuda, a young
Boersoldier stowed away and sailed from
Bermudato New York on the steamship _Trinidad._
The most famous escapee was the
Boerprisoner of war Captain Fritz
Joubert Duquesne who was serving a life sentence for "conspiracy
against the British government and on (the charge of) espionage.". On
the night of 25 June 1902, Duquesne slipped out of his tent, worked
his way over a barbed-wire fence, swam 1.5 miles (2.4 km) past patrol
boats and bright spot lights, through storm-wracked, using the distant
Gibbs Hill Lighthousefor navigation until he arrived ashore on the
main island. From there he escaped to the port of St. George\'s and a
week later, he stowed away on a boat heading to Baltimore, Maryland.
He settled in the US and later became a spy for Germany in both World
Wars. He claimed to be responsible for the 1916 death of Lord Herbert
Kitchener in the sinking of HMS Hampshire , the head of the British
Army who had also commanded British forces in
South Africaduring the
BoerWar, but this had resulted from a mine. In 1942, Col.
Duquesne was arrested by the
FBIfor leading the
Duquesne Spy Ring,
which still to this day the largest espionage case in the history of
the United States.
Lord Kitchener's brother, Lt. Gen. Sir Walter Kitchener , had been
Governor of Bermudafrom 1908 until his death in 1912. His son,
Major Hal Kitchener, bought Hinson\'s Island (with his partner, Major
Hemming, another First World War aviator). The island had formerly
been part of the
BoerPOW camp, housing teenaged prisoners from 1901
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT
In the early 20th century, as modern transport and communication
Bermudabecame a popular destination for American,
Canadian and British tourists arriving by sea. The
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Actenacted protective tariffs. It cut off
Bermuda's once-thriving agricultural export trade to the US and
encouraged its development of tourism as an alternative. Queen
Elizabeth and Prince Philip in
BermudaNovember 24, 1953. They were
also there on November 25, but here they are wearing the same clothing
as video shows them wearing when they got off the plane on the 24th.
This is probably at Kindley Field as photographer was an American
Airman and those are uniformed American Airmen saluting in the photo.
Elizabeth IIand Prince Philip visiting
This is during their Nov 24 and 25 visit in 1953, probably the 25th as
clothing is different from what they were wearing on the 24th.
Hamilton Harbour in the mid-1920s.
After several failed attempts, in 1930 the first aeroplane reached
Stinson Detroiterseaplane flying from
New York City
New York City, it
had to land twice in the ocean: once because of darkness and again to
refuel. Navigation and weather forecasting improved in 1933 when the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force(then responsible for providing equipment and
personnel for the Royal Navy's
Fleet Air Arm) established a station
at the Royal Naval Dockyard to repair (and supply replacement) float
planes for the fleet. In 1936 Luft Hansa began to experiment with
seaplane flights from
Azoreswith continuation to New
Pan American World Airwaysbegan
operating scheduled flying-boat airline services from New York and
Baltimoreto Darrell\'s Island,
Bermuda. In 1948, regularly scheduled
commercial airline service by land-based aeroplanes began to Kindley
L.F. Wade International Airport), helping tourism to reach
its peak in the 1960s–1970s. By the end of the 1970s, international
business had supplanted tourism as the dominant sector of Bermuda's
Economy of Bermuda). _ The S.S. Queen of Bermuda_ in
Hamilton Harbour, December 1952 / January 1953. _ The S.S. Queen
of Bermuda_ departing the island in December 1952 / January 1953. The
Devonshire Dock is in the foreground.
The Royal Naval Dockyard, and the attendant military garrison,
continued to be important to Bermuda's economy until the mid-20th
century. In addition to considerable building work, the armed forces
needed to source food and other materials from local vendors.
World War II
World War II, US military installations also were
Bermuda(see "Military" section below and Military of
Universal adult suffrage and the development of a two-party political
system occurred in the 1960s. Before universal suffrage, adopted as
part of Bermuda's Constitution in 1967, voting was dependent on a
certain level of property ownership. (see "Politics" section, below,
Politics of Bermuda). On 10 March 1973, the Governor of Bermuda
Richard Sharpleswas assassinated by local
during a period of civil unrest.
Politics of Bermuda Map of the
the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost
The current ruling party in
One Bermuda Alliance,
commonly referred to as the OBA. They were voted into power in
December 2012 after
Bermudawas ruled by the Progressive Labour Party
for 14 years, from 1998 to 2012.
Michael Dunkleyis currently (2016)
Premier of Bermudaand David Burt is the opposition party leader
Executive authority in
Bermudais vested in the monarch and is
exercised on her behalf by the Governor . The governor is appointed by
the Queen on the advice of the
British Government. The current
governor is John Rankin ; he was sworn in on 5 December 2016. There
is also a Deputy Governor (currently David Arkley JP ). Defence and
foreign affairs are carried out by the United Kingdom, which also
retains responsibility to ensure good government. It must approve any
changes to the Constitution of Bermuda.
Bermudais classified as a
British Overseas Territory, but it is the oldest British colony. In
1620, a Royal Assent granted
Bermudalimited self-governance; its
Parliament is the fifth oldest in the world, behind the Parliament of
United Kingdom, the
Isle of Man
Isle of Man, the
Iceland, and Sejm of Poland. Of these, only Bermuda's and the Isle
Tynwaldhave been in continuous existence since 1620.
The State House, the home of Bermuda's parliament between 1620 and
1815 Sessions House, current home of the House of Assembly and
the Supreme Court
The Constitution of
Bermudacame into force on 1 June 1967; it was
amended in 1989 and 2003. The head of government is the premier . A
cabinet is nominated by the premier and appointed officially by the
governor. The legislative branch consists of a bicameral parliament
modelled on the
Westminster system. The Senate is the upper house,
consisting of 11 members appointed by the governor on the advice of
the premier and the leader of the opposition. The House of Assembly ,
or lower house, has 36 members, elected by the eligible voting
populace in secret ballot to represent geographically defined
Elections must be called at no more than five-year intervals. The
most recent took place on 17 December 2012. Following this election,
One Bermuda Alliancetook power, with
Paula Cox, of the Progressive Labour Party , as Premier .
There are few accredited diplomats in Bermuda. The United States
maintains the largest diplomatic mission in Bermuda, comprising both
United StatesConsulate and the US Customs and Border Protection
Services at the
L.F. Wade International Airport. The current US
Consul General is Robert Settje, who took office in August 2012. The
United Statesis Bermuda's largest trading partner (providing over 71%
of total imports, 85% of tourist visitors, and an estimated $163
billion of US capital in the
and an estimated 5% of
Bermudaresidents are US citizens, representing
14% of all foreign-born persons. The American diplomatic presence is
an important element in the
ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
As a British Overseas Territory,
Bermudadoes not have a seat in the
United Nations ; it is represented by Britain in matters of foreign
affairs . To promote its economic interests abroad,
representative offices in cities such as London and
Bermuda's proximity to the US had made it attractive as the site for
summit conferences between British Prime Ministers and US Presidents.
The first summit was held in December 1953, at the insistence of Prime
Winston Churchill, to discuss relations with the Soviet
Union during the
Cold War. Participants included Churchill, US
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhowerand French Premier
In 1957, a second summit conference was held. The British Prime
Harold Macmillan, arrived earlier than President
Eisenhower, to demonstrate they were meeting on British territory, as
tensions were still high regarding the previous year's conflict over
Suez Canal. Macmillan returned in 1961 for the third summit with
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy. The meeting was called to discuss Cold War
tensions arising from construction of the
The most recent summit conference in
Bermudabetween the two powers
occurred in 1990, when British Prime Minister
Margaret Thatchermet US
George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush.
Direct meetings between the President of the
United Statesand the
Premier of Bermudahave been rare. The most recent meeting was on 23
June 2008, between Premier
Ewart Brownand President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush.
Prior to this, the leaders of
United Stateshad not
met at the White House since a 1996 meeting between Premier David Saul
Bermudahas also joined several other nations in efforts to protect
Asylum Offered To Four Former Guantánamo Detainees
Main article: Uyghur detainees at Guantanamo Bay:
On 11 June 2009, four Uyghurs who had been held in the United States
Guantánamo Bay detention camp, in
Cuba, were transferred to
Bermuda. The four men were among 22 Uyghurs who claimed to be
refugees, who were captured in 2001 in
Pakistanafter fleeing the
American aerial bombardment of Afghanistan. They were accused of
training to assist the
Taliban's military. They were cleared as safe
for release from Guantánamo in 2005 or 2006, but US domestic law
prohibited deporting them back to China, their country of citizenship,
because the US government determined that China was likely to violate
their human rights.
In September 2008, the men were cleared of all suspicion and Judge
Ricardo Urbina in Washington ordered their release. Congressional
opposition to their admittance to the
United Stateswas very strong
and the US failed to find a home for them until
agreed to accept the 22 men in June 2009.
The secret bilateral discussions that led to prisoner transfers
between the US and the devolved
Bermudagovernment sparked diplomatic
ire from the United Kingdom, which was not consulted on the move
Bermudabeing a British territory. The British Foreign Office
issued the following statement:
We've underlined to the
BermudaGovernment that they should have
consulted with the
United Kingdomas to whether this falls within
their competence or is a security issue, for which the Bermuda
Government do not have delegated responsibility. We have made clear to
BermudaGovernment the need for a security assessment, which we
are now helping them to carry out, and we will decide on further steps
As of May 2013, the four Uyghurs still lived in Bermuda; but they
have not been given Bermudian status and remain stateless, posing
problems for emergency medical situations and finding certain jobs.
However, granting them Bermudian status would require a change in
Bermudian laws, and the issue has prompted a major debate within
Bermuda's parliament on what steps should be taken.
Bermudabecame an associate member of the Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) in 2003 despite not being in the Caribbean region.
This is a socio-economic bloc of nations in or near the Caribbean Sea
. Other outlying member states include the Co-operative Republic of
Guyanaand the Republic of
Surinamein South America, along with
Belizein Central America. The
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands, an associate
member of CARICOM, and the Commonwealth of
The Bahamas, a full member
of CARICOM, are in the Atlantic, but near to the Caribbean. Other
nearby nations or territories, such as the United States, are not
members (although the US Commonwealth of
Puerto Ricohas observer
status , and the
United States Virgin Islands
United States Virgin Islandsannounced in 2007 they
would seek ties with CARICOM). Bermuda, at roughly a thousand miles
from the Caribbean Sea, has little trade with, and little economically
in common with, the region, and joined primarily to strengthen
Among some scholars, "the Caribbean" can be a socio-historical
category, commonly referring to a cultural zone characterised by the
legacy of slavery (a characteristic
Bermudashared with the Caribbean
and the US) and the plantation system (which did not exist in
Bermuda). It embraces the islands and parts of the neighbouring
continent, and may be extended to include the Caribbean Diaspora
Bermudawas colonised by the English as an extension of
has long had close ties with the US
Atlantic Seaboardand Canadian
Maritimes as well as the UK. It had a history of African slavery,
although Britain abolished it decades before the US. Since the 20th
century, there has been considerable immigration to
West Indies, as well as continued immigration from Portuguese
Atlantic islands. Unlike immigrants from British colonies in the West
Indies, the latter immigrants have had greater difficulty in becoming
permanent residents as they lacked British citizenship, mostly spoke
no English, and required renewal of work permits to remain beyond an
initial period. From the 1950s onwards,
immigration laws, allowing increased immigration from Britain and
Canada. Some Black politicians accused the government of using this
device to counter the West Indian immigration of previous decades.
The PLP, the party in government when the decision to join CARICOM
was made, has been dominated for decades by West Indians and their
descendants. (The prominent roles of West Indians among Bermuda's
black politicians and labour activists predated party politics in
Bermuda, as exemplified by Dr.
E. F. Gordon). The late PLP leader,
Lois Browne-Evans, and her Trinidadian -born husband, John Evans
(who co-founded the _West Indian Association of Bermuda_ in 1976),
were prominent members of this group. They have emphasised Bermuda's
cultural connections with the West Indies. Many Bermudians, both black
and white, who lack family connections to the
objected to this emphasis.
Opinion polls conducted by Bermudian newspapers, _The Royal Gazette_
BermudaSun_, showed clear majorities of Bermudians to be
opposed to joining CARICOM. The UBP, which had been in Government from
1968 to 1998, objected that joining CARICOM was detrimental to
* Bermuda's trade with the
West Indiesis negligible, its primary
economic partners being the US, Canada, and UK (it has no direct air
or shipping links to Caribbean islands);
* CARICOM is moving towards a single economy, which
not be able to form part of without disastrous effects on its own
* the Caribbean islands are generally competitors to Bermuda's
already ailing tourism industry; and
* participation in CARICOM would involve considerable investment of
money and the time of government officials that could more profitably
be spent elsewhere.
Foreign relations in the
* South America
Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
* Saint Martin
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
* US Virgin Islands
Military of Bermuda _ The First
Rifle Corps Contingent, raised in 1914. By the war's end, the two BVRC
contingents had lost over 75% of their combined strength.
Remembrance DayParade, Hamilton, Bermuda.
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Once known as "the
Gibraltarof the West" and "Fortress Bermuda",
Bermudatoday is defended by forces of the British government. For the
first two centuries of settlement, the most potent armed force
Bermudawas its merchant shipping fleet, which turned
to privateering at every opportunity. The
maintained a local militia. After the
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War,
Bermudawas established as the Western Atlantic headquarters of the
Royal Navy. Once the
Royal Navyestablished a base and dockyard
defended by regular soldiers, however, the militias were disbanded
War of 1812
War of 1812. At the end of the 19th century, the colony
raised volunteer units to form a reserve for the military garrison .
Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
Due to its isolated location in the North
Atlantic Ocean, Bermuda
was vital to the Allies' war effort during both world wars of the 20th
century, serving as a marshalling point for trans-Atlantic convoys, as
well as a naval air base. By the Second World War, both the Royal
Fleet Air Armand the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Forcewere operating Seaplane
bases on Bermuda.
In May 1940, the US requested base rights in
Bermudafrom the United
Kingdom, but British Prime Minister
Winston Churchillwas initially
unwilling to accede to the American request without getting something
in return. In September 1940, as part of the Destroyers for Bases
Agreement , the UK granted the US base rights in Bermuda.
Newfoundland were not originally included in the agreement, but both
were added to it, with no war material received by the UK in exchange.
One of the terms of the agreement was that the airfield the US Army
built would be used jointly by the US and the UK (which it was for the
duration of the war, with RAF Transport Command relocating there from
Darrell\'s Island in 1943).
Construction began in 1941 of two airbases consisting of 5.8 km2 (2.2
sq mi) of land, largely reclaimed from the sea. For many years,
Bermuda's bases were used by
US Air Force
US Air Forcetransport and refuelling
aircraft and by
US Navyaircraft patrolling the Atlantic for enemy
submarines, first German and, later, Soviet . The principal
Kindley Air Force Baseon the eastern coast, was
transferred to the
US Navyin 1970 and redesignated Naval Air Station
Bermuda. As a naval air station, the base continued to host both
transient and deployed USN and USAF aircraft, as well as transitioning
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Forceand
NAS Bermudaon the west side of the island, a seaplane
base until the mid-1960s, was designated as the Naval Air Station
BermudaAnnex. It provided optional anchorage and/or dockage
facilities for transiting US Navy,
US Coast Guard
US Coast Guardand
depending on size. An additional
US Navycompound known as Naval
Bermuda(NAVFAC Bermuda), a
SOSUSstation, was located to the
west of the Annex near a
Canadian Forcescommunications facility.
Although leased for 99 years, US forces withdrew in 1995, as part of
the wave of base closures following the end of the
Canada, which had operated a war-time naval base, HMCS _Somers Isles_
, on the old
Royal Navybase at Convict Bay, St George's, also
established a radio-listening post at Daniel's Head in the West End of
the islands during this time.
In the 1950s, after the end of World War II, the Royal Naval dockyard
and the military garrison were closed. A small
Royal Navysupply base,
HMS Malabar , continued to operate within the dockyard area,
Royal Navyships and submarines until it, too,
was closed in 1995, along with the American and Canadian bases. _
HMS Ambuscade_ at the Royal Naval Dockyard .
Bermudians served in the British armed forces during both World War I
and World War II. After the latter, Major-General Glyn Charles Anglim
Gilbert , Bermuda's highest-ranking soldier, was instrumental in
BermudaRegiment. A number of other Bermudians and
their descendants had preceded him into senior ranks, including
Bahamian-born Admiral Lord Gambier , and Bermudian-born Royal Marines
Brigadier Harvey. When promoted to Brigadier at age 39, following his
wounding at the Anzio landings , Harvey became the youngest-ever Royal
Marine Brigadier. The
Cenotaphin front of the Cabinet Building (in
Hamilton) was erected in tribute to Bermuda's Great War dead (the
tribute was later extended to Bermuda's Second World War dead) and is
the site of the annual
Today, the only military unit remaining in Bermuda, other than naval
and army cadet corps, is the
Bermuda Regiment, an amalgam of the
voluntary units originally formed toward the end of the 19th century.
Although the Regiment's predecessors were voluntary units, the modern
body is formed primarily by conscription: balloted males are required
to serve for three years, two months part-time, once they turn 18.
Economy of Bermuda
In 1970 the country switched its currency from the
Bermudian dollar, which is pegged at par with the US dollar. US
notes and coins are used interchangeably with Bermudian notes and
coins within the islands for most practical purposes; however, banks
levy an exchange rate fee for the purchase of US dollars with
Bermudian dollars. Bermudian notes carry the image of Queen Elizabeth
II . The
Bermuda Monetary Authorityis the issuing authority for all
banknotes and coins, and regulates financial institutions. The Royal
Naval Dockyard Museum holds a permanent exhibition of
According to the
BermudaGovernment's Economic Statistics Division,
Bermuda's GDP was $5.85 billion in 2007, or $91,477 per capita, giving
GDP per capita
GDP per capitain the world.
The affordability of housing became a prominent issue during
Bermuda's business peak in 2005 but has softened with the decline of
Bermuda's real estate prices. The
World Factbooklists the average
cost of a house in June 2003 as $976,000, while real estate agencies
have claimed that this figure had risen to between $1.6 million and
$1.845 million by 2007, though such high figures have been disputed.
Bermudais an offshore financial centre , which results from its
minimal standards of business regulation/laws and direct taxation on
personal or corporate income. It has one of the highest consumption
taxes in the world and taxes all imports in lieu of an income tax
system. Bermuda's consumption tax is equivalent to local income tax to
local residents and funds government and infrastructure expenditures.
The local tax system depends upon import duties, payroll taxes and
consumption taxes . The legal system is derived from that of the
United Kingdom, with recourse to English courts of final appeal.
Foreign private individuals cannot easily open bank accounts or
subscribe to mobile phone or internet services.
Having no corporate income tax,
Bermudais a popular tax avoidance
location . Google, for example, is known to have shifted over $10
billion in revenue to its
Bermudasubsidiary utilising the "Double
Irish " and "Dutch Sandwich" tax avoidance strategies, reducing its
2011 tax liability by $2 billion.
Government employment, off-shore business, and tourism are the
largest sectors of Bermuda's economy. However, in September 2009, the
Irish press reported that a growing number of companies were moving
Bermudato Ireland as part of a search for "a more stable
environment". Front Street, Hamilton.
Large numbers of leading international insurance companies operate in
Bermuda. Those internationally owned and operated businesses that are
physically based in
Bermuda(around four hundred) are represented by
the Association of
BermudaInternational Companies (ABIC). In total,
over 15,000 exempted or international companies are currently
registered with the
Registrar of Companiesin Bermuda, most of which
hold no office space or employees.
There are four hundred securities listed on the stock exchange, of
which almost three hundred are offshore funds and alternative
investment structures attracted by Bermuda's regulatory environment.
The Exchange specialises in listing and trading of capital market
instruments such as equities, debt issues, funds (including hedge fund
structures) and depository receipt programmes. The BSX is a full
member of the
World Federation of Exchangesand is located in an OECD
member nation. It also has Approved Stock Exchange status under
Australia's Foreign Investment Fund (FIF) taxation rules and
Designated Investment Exchange status by the UK's Financial Services
Four banks operate in Bermuda, having consolidated total assets of
$24.3 billion (March 2014).
Tourismis Bermuda's second-largest industry, with the island
attracting over half a million visitors annually, of whom more than
80% are from the United States. Other significant sources of visitors
Canadaand the United Kingdom. Tourists arrive either by
cruise ship or by air at
L.F. Wade International Airport, the only
airport on the island.
Healthcare is another industry where expats are able to find
employment relatively easily. Physicians, registered nurses, imaging
technologists and healthcare managers and coders are in high demand
for a small country and all pay decent salaries in excess of $100k
List of schools in Bermuda
BermudaEducation Act 1996 requires that only three categories of
schools can operate in the
* An _aided school_ has all or a part of its property vested in a
body of trustees or board of governors and is partially maintained by
public funding or, since 1965 and the desegregation of schools, has
received a grant-in-aid out of public funds.
* A _maintained school_ has the whole of its property belonging to
the Government and is fully maintained by public funds.
* A _private school_, not maintained by public funds and which has
not, since 1965 and the desegregation of schools, received any capital
grant-in-aid out of public funds. The private school sector consists
of six traditional private schools, two of which are religious
schools, and the remaining four are secular with one of these being a
single-gender school and another a Montessori school . Also, within
the private sector there are a number of home schools, which must be
registered with the government and receive minimal government
regulation. The only boys' school opened its doors to girls in the
1990s, and in 1996, one of the aided schools became a private school.
Warwick Academy, one of the oldest schools in the western
hemisphere, is in the parish of Warwick, Bermuda.
Prior to 1965, the
Bermudaschool system was racially segregated.
When the desegregation of schools was enacted in 1965, two of the
formally maintained "white" schools and both single-sex schools opted
to become private schools. The rest became part of the public school
system and were either aided or maintained.
At present there are 26 schools in the
BermudaPublic School System,
18 of which are primary schools, five are middle schools, two senior
The Berkeley Instituteand
Cedarbridge Academy) and one
special school. An Alternative Programme is provided for students with
behavioural challenges who cannot function in the public mainstream.
There is one aided primary school, two aided middle schools, and one
aided senior school.
For higher education, the
Bermuda Collegeoffers various associate
degrees and other certificate programmes.
Bermudadoes not have any
four-year colleges or universities. Bermuda's graduates attend four
year Universities in the United States, Canada, or England.
In May 2009, Bermudian Government's application was approved to
become a contributory member of the University of the West Indies
(UWI). Bermuda's membership enabled Bermudian students to enter the
University at an agreed upon subsidised rate by 2010. UWI also agreed
that their Open Campus (online degree courses) would become open to
Bermudian students in the future, with
Bermudabecoming the 13th
country to have access to the Open Campus.
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
BermudaHospitals Board operates the King Edward VII Memorial
Hospital , located in
Paget Parish, and the Mid-Atlantic Wellness
Institute , located in
Devonshire Parish. Boston's Lahey Medical
Center has an established visiting specialists program on the island
which provides Bermudians and expats with access to specialists
regularly on the island.
Unlike other countries that are a part of the British Colonies,
Bermudadoes NOT have national healthcare . Employees must provide a
healthcare plan and pay 50% of the cost. Having healthcare is
mandatory and even with help from employers is expensive, though no
more expensive than that which an employee in the US would typically
pay for healthcare when obtained through their employer and the
coverage typically far exceeds that which one may have through their
employer in the US. There are only a few approved health care
providers that offer insurance to Bermudians. In 2016 these were the
Bermudan government's Health
InsuranceDepartment, three other
approved licensed health insurance companies, and three approved
health insurance schemes (provided by the Bermudan government for its
employees and by two banks).:
ICD-9diagnostic coding system. It plans, however,
to switch to the more comprehensive
ICD-10system to align with the US
(which switched in 2015), since Bermudan residents most commonly
obtain overseas healthcare there.
Bermudadoes not have Stark laws
nor do they have self-referral guidelines or anti-kickback laws. The
lack of regulation in healthcare, specifically with billing and
reimbursement, makes healthcare in
Bermudaquite lucrative for
physicians and owners of medical/healthcare practices.
Sports and recreation in Bermuda
Many sports popular today were formalised by British Public schools
and universities in the 19th century. These schools produced the civil
servants and military and naval officers required to build and
British empire, and team sports were considered a vital
tool for training their students to think and act as part of a team.
Former public schoolboys continued to pursue these activities, and
founded organisations such as the Football Association (FA). Today's
association of football with the working classes began in 1885 when
the FA changed its rules to allow professional players.
The professionals soon displaced the amateur ex-Public schoolboys.
Bermuda's role as the primary
Royal Navybase in the Western
Hemisphere, with an army garrison to match, ensured that the naval and
military officers quickly introduced the newly formalised sports to
Bermuda, including cricket, football , rugby football , and even
tennis and rowing (rowing did not adapt well from British rivers to
the stormy Atlantic. The officers soon switched to sail racing ,
Royal Bermuda Yacht Club). Once these sports reached
Bermuda, they were eagerly adopted by Bermudians.
Bermuda\'s national cricket team participated in the Cricket World
Cup 2007 in the West Indies. Their most famous player is a 130
kilograms (290 lb) police officer named
Dwayne Leverock. But India
Bermudaand set a record of 413 runs in a One-Day
Bermudawere knocked out of the World Cup. Also
very well-known is
David Hemp, a former captain of Glamorgan in
English first class cricket . The annual "Cup Match" cricket
tournament between rival parishes St George's in the east and Somerset
in the west is the occasion for a popular national holiday. This
tournament began in 1872 when Captain Moresby of the Royal Navy
introduced the game to Bermuda, holding a match at Somerset to mark
_forty years since the unjust thraldom of slavery_. The East End
versus West End rivalry resulted from the locations of the _St.
George's Garrison_ (the original army headquarters in Bermuda) on
Barrack Hill, St. George's, and the Royal Naval Dockyard at Ireland
Island. Moresby founded the Somerset Cricket Club which plays the St.
George's Cricket Club in this game (the membership of both clubs has
long been mostly civilian).
Bermudahosted the 25th
PGA Grand Slam of Golf. This
36-hole event was held on 16–17 October 2007, at the Mid Ocean Club
in Tucker's Town. This season-ending tournament is limited to four
golfers: the winners of the Masters , U.S. Open , British Open and PGA
Championship . The event returned to
Bermudain 2008 and 2009.
Bermudian Quinn Talbot was once the World one-armed golf champion.
An IOD racer on a mooring in Hamilton Harbour .
The Government announced in 2006 that it would provide substantial
financial support to Bermuda's cricket and football teams. Among
Bermuda's most prominent footballers are
Nahki Wells. In 2006,
Bermuda Hoggeswere formed as the nation's first professional
football team to raise the standard of play for the
football team. The team played in the United Soccer Leagues Second
Division but folded in 2013.
Sailing, fishing and equestrian sports are popular with both
residents and visitors alike. The prestigious Newport–
Race is a more than 100-year-old tradition, with boats racing between
Newport, Rhode Island
Newport, Rhode Islandand Bermuda. In 2007, the 16th biennial Marion
Bermudayacht race occurred. A sport unique to
Bermudais racing the
Bermuda Fitted Dinghy
Bermuda Fitted Dinghy.
International One Design
International One Designracing also
originated in Bermuda. In December 2013, Bermuda's bid to host the
2017 America\'s Cup was announced.
At the 2004 Summer Olympics ,
Bermudacompeted in sailing, athletics,
swimming, diving, triathlon and equestrian events. In those Olympics,
Bermuda's Katura Horton-Perinchief made history by becoming the first
black female diver to compete in the Olympic Games.
one Olympic medallist, Clarence Hill , who won a bronze medal in
Bermudaalso competed in Men's Skeleton at the 2006 Winter
Turin, Italy. Patrick Singleton placed 19th, with a final
time of 1:59.81. Jillian Teceira competed in the Beijing Olympics in
2008. It is tradition for
Bermudato march in the Opening Ceremony in
Bermuda shorts, regardless of the summer or winter Olympic
Bermudaalso competes in the biennial
which it hosted in 2013.
Bermudahas developed a proud rugby union community. The Bermuda
Rugby Union team won the 2011 Caribbean championships, defeating
Guyanain the final. They previously beat
take the crown. Rugby 7's is also played, with four rounds scheduled
to take place in the 2011–2012 season. The
Bermuda7's team competed
in the 2011 Las Vegas 7's, defeating the Mexican team. There are four
clubs on the island: (1) Police (2) Mariners (3) Teachers (4)
Renegades. There is a men's and women's competition–current league
champions are Police (Men) (winning the title for the first time since
the 1990s) and Renegades (women's). Games are currently played at
Bermudau/19 team won the 2010 Caribbean
New York Yankees
New York Yankeesof
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseballheld
Bermudain 1913. Yankee owner
Frank J. Farrellwas said to be so
pleased with the experience that he considered moving the Yankee
training camp to
Bermudaestablished its own Basketball Association. Since
then, its national team has taken advantage of Bermuda's advanced
basketball facilities and competed at the Caribbean Basketball
Championship where it beat competitors with multiple times its
Index of Bermuda-related articles
Outline of Bermuda
Places of interest in Bermuda
Telecommunications in Bermuda
CIAWorld Factbook, Field Listing(World).
* ^ "The World Factbook". _cia.gov_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Bermuda2010 Census" (PDF).
Statistics. December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28
February 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Bermuda. Data.un.org. Retrieved on 2017-04-26.
* ^ "Department of Community & Cultural Affairs – Portuguese
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "
Bermuda– History and Heritage".
_Smithsonian_. 6 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 May
2012. Retrieved 3 December 2008.
* ^ "Bermuda\'s
TourismIndustry" Tayfun King, _Fast Track_, BBC
World News (3 November 2009).
* ^ Rushe, George. "Bermuda". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved
1 September 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Forbes, Keith. "
BermudaClimate and Weather". _The
Royal Gazette _. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
* ^ Kara, James B. Elsner; A. Birol (1999). _Hurricanes of the
North Atlantic : climate and society_. New York, NY : Oxford Univ.
Press. ISBN 978-0195125085 .
* ^ Rushe, George. "
BermudaIslands, Atlantic Ocean". _Britannica_.
Retrieved 28 September 2015.
* ^ "Brief History of Bermuda:". _Ducksters_. Retrieved 28
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Rybeck, Lauren. "
BermudaFact Sheet" (PDF).
TourismAuthority_. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
* ^ "
BermudaAquarium, Museum and Zoo". Bamz.org. Retrieved 20 June
* ^ Ritter, Michael E. (2006). "The Physical Environment: an
Introduction to Physical Geography". University of Wisconsin–Madison
. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October
* ^ Forbes, Keith Archibald. "Bermuda\'s Climate and Weather".
* ^ "Weather Summary for January 2009".
Bermuda Weather Service. 4
February 2003. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Bermuda\'s Climatology (1949–1999 Data)". Bermuda
Weather Service. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
* ^ "Monthly Mean Temperature,
Precipitationand Sunshine data for
BermudaWeather Service. Archived from the
original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
* ^ Grady, F.V. & Olson, S.L. (2006). "Fossil bats from Quaternary
Bermuda(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)". _Journal of
Mammalogy_. 87 (1): 148–152. doi :10.1644/05-MAMM-A-179R1.1 .
* ^ "Diamondback Terrapin". _The Department of Conservation
* ^ "The Portuguese of the West Indies".
Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. 31 July 2001. Retrieved 20
* ^ _
BermudaSun_, 4 April 2007.
* ^ _Bermuda_, Richard A. Crooker Infobase Publishing, 2009, page
* ^ Support sought for
Portuguese languagecourses, _Royal Gazette
_, October 3, 2012
* ^ Portuguese community \'still not accepted\', _Royal Gazette _,
November 27, 2015
Edmund WallerHunter: "Battle of the Summer Islands".
Poemhunter.com. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ III. Writers of the Couplet. § 4. Edmund Waller. Bartleby.com.
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ "Index". bermudafilmfest.com. Archived from the original on 31
January 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
* ^ Tom Butterfield, CBS DC, 6 July 2011; accessed 5 April 2013.
* ^ Masterworks Museum of
BermudaArt, official website; accessed 5
* ^ Morison III, Samuel (1974). _The European Discovery of America:
The Southern Voyages, 1492–1616_. New York: Oxford University Press.
* ^ Mark Nicholls (3 May 2011). "Sir
* ^ Woodward, Hobson (2009). _A Brave Vessel: The True Tale of the
Castaways Who Rescued Jamestown and Inspired Shakespeare's The
Tempest_. Viking. pp. 191–199.
* ^ "Bermuda\'s 400th Birthday" (PDF). Bearboa.files.wordpress.com.
11 February 2009.
* ^ "Somers Garden". Bermuda, Bermuda-attractions.com.
* ^ Meggs, Martin. "Developing a Small Island GIS: the Bermuda
BermudaDepartment of Planning.
* ^ Forbes, Keith: "About
BermudaOnline", _The Royal Gazette_ Ltd.
Retrieved 22 September 2007.
* ^ Howes, James: "Attack on
\'War of 1812\'" 2005
* ^ Camps for Boers – Bermuda. Angloboerwar.com. Retrieved 15
* ^ "The Prisoner at
Bermuda– Boers Attempted to Mutiny in the
Course of the Voyage–Martial Law on Darrell\'s Island". _The New
York Times _. 10 June 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ "
BoerPrisoners Escape – Three Swim Away from Darrell\'s
Island to the Mainland". _
The New York Times
The New York Times_. 10 June 2012.
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ "Adventures of an Escaped
BoerPrisoner – Arrived Here as a
Stowaway on the Steamship Trinidad". _
The New York Times
The New York Times_, 10 June
2012, Retrieved 15 August 2012
* ^ Ronnie 1995 , p. 37.
* ^ Ronnie 1995 , pp. 54,63.
* ^ Ronnie 1995 , pp. 65–66.
* ^ Duffy 2014 , p. 2.
* ^ "Unusual Place – Unusual Story – Heroic Crew" (PDF).
Oldqslcards.com. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ Johnston-Barnes, Owain (19 September 2016). "Rankin named new
Governor The Royal Gazette:
BermudaNews". _The Royal Gazette_.
Retrieved 5 December 2016.
* ^ Taylor, Matthew. "The Governor\'s right hand man", _The Royal
Gazette_, 15 January 2007.
* ^ Pethen, Valarie: _
BermudaReport_, Second Edition 1985–1988,
p. 17. Department of Information Services, 1988. Bermuda
* ^ Cumberbatch, Jeff (5 May 2010). "Editorial got it right, Mr.
The Barbados Advocate_. Archived from the original on 6
May 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2011. Barbados' Parliament, which
postdates that of Britain and
Bermudacould not then be the third
Barbadosmight take a leaf from Bermuda's book and
describe our Parliament not as the third oldest in the world or the
third oldest in the Commonwealth, but truthfully as "the oldest
continuous Parliament of an independent Commonwealth country outside
the British Isles".
* ^ Clifford, Ivan. "
BermudaPLP 14-year reign ends with premier
also losing seat".
Caribbean360. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
* ^ Kent, Jonathan (18 December 2012). "Cannonier: \'
seen a new day\'". _Royal Gazette_. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
BermudaGovernment office in London. Londonoffice.gov.bm.
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
BermudaGovernment office in Washington, D.C., Dcoffice.gov.bm.
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Keith Forbes. "Bermuda\'s distinguished visitors over
the years". _Royal Gazette_. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
* ^ Kent, Jonathan (24 June 2008). "Premier meets the President".
_The Royal Gazette _. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
Retrieved 24 July 2008.
* ^ Shaw, David (2014-05-27). "Protecting the Sargasso Sea".
_Science & Diplomacy_. 3 (2).
* ^ _A_ _B_ Barrett, Devlin (11 June 2009). "4 Chinese Muslims
released from Guantanamo". Google. Associated Press. Archived from the
original on 11 June 2009.
* ^ "Four Uyghur Detainees Released".
Radio Free Asia. 11 June
2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.
* ^ "Breaking News: Premier\'s statement on Guantanamo Bay". _The
Royal Gazette _. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June
2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
* ^ "Breaking News update: Guantánamo decision taken "without
permission" Governor to assess implications". _The Royal Gazette _. 11
June 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2009.
* ^ Leonard, Tom (11 Jun 2009). "British anger over Bermuda
decision to take Guantanamo detainees". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 22
* ^ Johnson, Ayo (1 May 2013). "Cannonier: We Need to Resolve
Uighurs\' Status Problem". _The Royal Gazette_. Retrieved 27 September
* ^ "
BermudaGovernment today". _Bermuda-Online.org_. Retrieved 9
July 2010. In July 2003,
Bermudaformally joined the Caribbean
Community as an Associate Member (non-voting member), in certain areas
but not in others. This specifically excludes free movement of
Caribbean nationals to Bermuda, and any prospect of
CARIFTA or its newest free trade organization; the Free Trade Area of
Americas(FTAA). Membership of the
Bermudaabout US$90,000 a year. Direct trade between
Caribbean countries is also welcomed and encouraged, especially given
the close or extended family links many Bermudians have with Caribbean
islands or territories. ... All visitors to
Bermudawho are nationals
of and resident in Caribbean islands must come via the USA or Canada
United Kingdomand must have appropriate visas to come via those
countries. Effective January 2003, all
Jamaicannationals who are not
Bermudian must also have a visa to enter
Bermudaon business or
Bermudaprofile Archived 19 September 2010 at the Wayback
* ^ Norman Girvan (2001)"Reinterpreting the Caribbean". Archived
from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 2010-08-05. . in _New
Caribbean Thought_, Folke Lindahl and Brian Meeks (eds.), UWI Press.
pp. 3 ff. Google Books ISBN 976-640-103-9
* ^ The Royal Gazette: "Dr EF Gordon – fought tirelessly for
equal rights for black Bermudians". 14 June 2011.
* ^ "President aims to make West Indian Association more cohesive,
responsive". _The Royal Gazette_. 15 August 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wilson, Ceola (2012-08-24) Tributes for icon of
Bermuda\'s West Indian community. _The Royal Gazette_.
* ^ A Limey in Bermuda: _BIC releases final report_ Archived 13
March 2014 at the
* ^ A Limey in Bermuda: _Open mike:
Bermudaand the Caribbean_
Archived 13 March 2014 at the
* ^ The Royal Gazette: _Welcome to Caricom_. Royalgazette.com
(2002-12-19). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ UBP?s Simmons sees the light on Caricom. Royalgazette.com
(2004-08-17). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
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Politics. Royalgazette.com (2011-06-27). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ \'Strength through diversity\' Archived 10 November 2012 at the
Wayback Machine.. Royalgazette.com (2003-07-04). Retrieved 15 August
* ^ Premier signs Caricom deal. Royalgazette.com (2003-07-03).
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ UBP takes \'wait-and-see\' stance on Caricom, Royalgazette.com
(2003-06-18). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ Government unconcerned by Caricom \'arm-twisting\'.
Royalgazette.com (2003-04-15). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ \'Out of touch, out of ideas and out of time\' Archived 10
November 2012 at the
Wayback Machine.. Royalgazette.com (2003-02-22).
Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ The \'ayes\' have it in the great Caricom debate.
Royalgazette.com (2002-12-16). Retrieved 15 August 2012.
* ^ Caricom set to pass. Royalgazette.com (2002-12-14). Retrieved
15 August 2012.
* ^ Caricom set for Throne Speech. Royalgazette.com (2002-10-31).
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* ^ "Strengthening Bermuda\'s Links to the Caribbean" (PDF). Gov.bm
(a discussion paper by the
BermudaGovernment). Archived from the
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* ^ Martin Gilbert, _Churchill and America_. New York: Simon &
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$1.6m", _The Royal Gazette_.
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It\'s a distortion says Sir John, _The Royal Gazette_.
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BermudaSoar to $10 Billion". Bloomberg L.P.
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BermudaHolding Company", _Insurance
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* Ronnie, Art (1995). _Counterfeit hero : Fritz Duquesne, adventurer
and spy_. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-733-3 .
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article _BERMUDAS _.
* Boultbee, Paul G. and David F. Raine. _Bermuda._ Oxford: ABC-Clio
* Glover, Lorri. co-author, _The
ShipwreckThat Saved Jamestown: The
Sea VentureCastaways and the Fate of America_
* Anonymous, but probably written by John Smith (1580–1631): _The
Historye of the Bermudaes or Summer Islands_. University of Cambridge
Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1108011570
BermudaGovernment – Official government website
* _ Wikimedia Atlas of Bermuda