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Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland
Hordaland
on the west coast of Norway. At the end of the first quarter of 2016[update], the municipality's population was 278,121,[1] and the Bergen
Bergen
metropolitan region has about 420,000 inhabitants. Bergen
Bergen
is the second-largest city in Norway. The municipality covers 465 square kilometres (180 sq mi) and is on the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen. The city centre and northern neighbourhoods are on Byfjorden, 'the city fjord', and the city is surrounded by mountains; Bergen
Bergen
is known as the 'city of seven mountains'. Many of the extra-municipal suburbs are on islands. Bergen
Bergen
is the administrative centre of Hordaland, and consists of eight boroughs - Arna, Bergenhus, Fana, Fyllingsdalen, Laksevåg, Ytrebygda, Årstad, and Åsane. Trading in Bergen
Bergen
may have started as early as the 1020s. According to tradition, the city was founded in 1070 by king Olav Kyrre and was named Bjørgvin, 'the green meadow among the mountains'. It served as Norway's capital in the 13th century, and from the end of the 13th century became a bureau city of the Hanseatic League. Until 1789, Bergen
Bergen
enjoyed exclusive rights to mediate trade between Northern Norway
Norway
and abroad and it was the largest city in Norway
Norway
until the 1830s when it was surpassed by the capital, Christiania (now known as Oslo). What remains of the quays, Bryggen, is a World Heritage Site. The city was hit by numerous fires over the years. The Bergen
Bergen
School of Meteorology was developed at the Geophysical Institute beginning in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
was founded in 1936, and the University of Bergen
University of Bergen
in 1946. From 1831 to 1972, Bergen
Bergen
was its own county. In 1972 the municipality absorbed four surrounding municipalities and became a part of Hordaland
Hordaland
county. The city is an international centre for aquaculture, shipping, offshore petroleum industry and subsea technology, and a national centre for higher education, media, tourism and finance. Bergen
Bergen
Port is Norway's busiest in terms of both freight and passengers with over 300 cruise ship calls a year bringing nearly a half a million passengers to Bergen,[2] a number that has doubled in 10 years.[3] Almost half of the passengers are German or British.[3] The city's main football team is SK Brann
SK Brann
and the city's unique tradition is the buekorps. Natives speak a distinct dialect, known as 'Bergensk'. The city features Bergen
Bergen
Airport, Flesland, Bergen
Bergen
Light Rail, and is the terminus of the Bergen
Bergen
Line. Four large bridges connect Bergen
Bergen
to its suburban municipalities. Bergen
Bergen
has a mild winter climate, though with a lot of precipitation. During December - March, the temperature difference between Bergen
Bergen
and Oslo
Oslo
can be up to 30 degrees Celsius, despite the fact that both cities are at approximately 60 degrees North. The Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
keeps the sea relatively warm, considering the latitude, and the mountains protect the city from cold winds from the north, north-east and east.

Contents

1 History

1.1 World War II 1.2 Fires 1.3 Toponymy

2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Cityscape 6 Administration

6.1 2007 and 2011 elections 6.2 2015 elections 6.3 Boroughs

6.3.1 A former borough, Sentrum

7 Education 8 Economy 9 Transport 10 Culture and sports

10.1 Street art

11 Neighbourhoods 12 International relations

12.1 Sister (town) cities

13 Grunnkretser 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Bergen

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1500 5,500 —    

1769 18,827 +242.3%

1855 37,015 +96.6%

1900 94,485 +155.3%

1910 104,224 +10.3%

1920 118,490 +13.7%

1930 129,118 +9.0%

1940

—    

1950 162,381 —    

1960 185,822 +14.4%

1970 209,066 +12.5%

1980 207,674 −0.7%

1990 212,944 +2.5%

2000 229,496 +7.8%

2010 256,580 +11.8%

2014 271,949 +6.0%

2016 278,121 +2.3%

Source: Statistics Norway.[4][5] Note: The municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevåg
Laksevåg
and Åsane
Åsane
were merged with Bergen
Bergen
1 January 1972.

The city of Bergen
Bergen
was traditionally thought to have been founded by king Olav Kyrre, son of Harald Hardråde in 1070 AD,[6] four years after the Viking Age ended with the Battle of Hastings. Modern research has, however, discovered that a trading settlement was already established during the 1020s or 1030s.[7] Bergen
Bergen
gradually assumed the function of capital of Norway
Norway
in the early 13th century, as the first city where a rudimentary central administration was established. The city's cathedral was the site of the first royal coronation in Norway
Norway
in the 1150s, and continued to host royal coronations throughout the 13th century. Bergenhus
Bergenhus
fortress dates from 1240s and guards the entrance to the harbour in Bergen. The functions of the capital city were lost to Oslo during the reign of King Haakon V (1299-1319). In the middle of the 14th century, North German merchants who had already been present in substantial numbers since the 13th century, founded one of the four Kontore of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
at Bryggen
Bryggen
in Bergen. The principal export traded from Bergen
Bergen
was dried cod from the northern Norwegian coast,[8] which started around 1100. The city was granted monopoly with regard to trade from the north of Norway, by King Håkon Håkonsson
Håkon Håkonsson
(1217-1263).[9] Stockfish
Stockfish
was the main reason that the city became one of North Europe's largest centres for trade at the time.[9] By the late 14th century, Bergen
Bergen
had established itself as the centre of the trade in Norway.[10] The Hanseatic merchants lived in their own separate quarter of town, where Middle Low German
Low German
was used, enjoying exclusive rights to trade with the northern fishermen who each summer sailed to Bergen.[11] Today, Bergen's old quayside, Bryggen, is on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.[12]

Hieronymus Scholeus's impression of Bergen. The drawing was made in about 1580 and was published in an atlas with drawings of many different cities (Civitaes orbis terrarum).[13]

In 1349, the Black Death
Black Death
was inadvertently brought to Norway
Norway
by the crew of an English ship arriving in Bergen.[14] In the 15th century, the city was attacked several times by the Victual Brothers,[15] and in 1429 they succeeded in burning the royal castle and much of the city. In 1665, the city's harbour was the site of the Battle of Vågen, where an English naval flotilla attacked a Dutch merchant and treasure fleet supported by the city's garrison. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, Bergen
Bergen
remained one of the largest cities in Scandinavia, and was Norway's biggest city until the 1830s,[16] when the capital city of Oslo
Oslo
became the largest. From around 1600, the Hanseatic dominance of the city's trade gradually declined in favour of Norwegian merchants (often of Hanseatic ancestry), and in the 1750s, the Hanseatic Kontor
Kontor
finally closed. Bergen
Bergen
retained its monopoly of trade with Northern Norway
Norway
until 1789.[17]

An historic photochrom of Bergen
Bergen
near the end of the 19th century. Visible are Domkirken in the bottom left side, Holy Cross Church in the middle, the bay (Vågen) with its many boats and the Bergenhus Fortress to the right of the opening of Vågen.

The Bergen
Bergen
stock exchange, Bergen
Bergen
børs, was established in 1813. Bergen
Bergen
was separated from Hordaland
Hordaland
as a county of its own in 1831.[18] It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Bergen
Bergen
landdistrikt was merged with Bergen
Bergen
on 1 January 1877.[19] The rural municipality of Årstad was merged with Bergen
Bergen
on 1 July 1915. The rural municipalities of Arna, Fana, Laksevåg, and Åsane
Åsane
were merged with Bergen
Bergen
on 1 January 1972. The city lost its status as a separate county on the same date.[20] Bergen
Bergen
is now a municipality in Norway, in the county of Hordaland. World War II[edit] During World War II, Bergen
Bergen
was occupied on the first day of the German invasion on 9 April 1940, after a brief fight between German ships and the Norwegian coastal artillery. On 20 April 1944, during the German occupation, the Dutch cargo ship Voorbode
Voorbode
anchored off the Bergenhus
Bergenhus
Fortress, loaded with over 120 tons of explosives, blew up, killing at least 150 people and damaging historic buildings. The city was subject to some Allied bombing raids, aimed at German naval installations in the harbour. Some of these caused Norwegian civilian casualties numbering about 100. The Norwegian resistance movement
Norwegian resistance movement
groups in Bergen
Bergen
were Saborg, Milorg, "Theta-gruppen", Sivorg, Stein-organisasjonen and the Communist Party.[21] Fires[edit] The city's history is marked by numerous great fires. In 1198, the Bagler
Bagler
faction set fire to the city in connection with a battle against the Birkebeiner
Birkebeiner
faction during the civil war. In 1248, Holmen and Sverresborg burned, and 11 churches were destroyed. In 1413 another fire struck the city, and 14 churches were destroyed. In 1428 the city was plundered by German pirates, and in 1455, Hanseatic merchants were responsible for burning down Munkeliv Abbey. In 1476, Bryggen
Bryggen
burned down in a fire started by a drunk trader. In 1582, another fire hit the city centre and Strandsiden. In 1675, 105 buildings burned down in Øvregaten. In 1686 a new great fire hit Strandsiden, destroying 231 city blocks and 218 boathouses. The greatest fire to date happened in 1702 when 90 percent of the city was burned to ashes. In 1751, there was a great fire at Vågsbunnen. In 1756, a new fire at Strandsiden burned down 1,500 buildings, and further great fires hit Strandsiden in 1771 and 1901. In 1916, 300 buildings burned down in the city centre, and in 1955 parts of Bryggen burned down. Toponymy[edit] Bergen
Bergen
is pronounced in English /ˈbɜːrɡən/ or /ˈbɛərɡən/ and in Norwegian [ˈbærɡn̩] ( listen). The Old Norse
Old Norse
forms of the name were Bergvin and Bjǫrgvin (and in Icelandic and Faroese the city is still called Björgvin). The first element is berg (n.) or bjǫrg (n.), which translates to 'mountain(s)'. The last element is vin (f.), which means a new settlement where there used to be a pasture or meadow. The full meaning is then 'the meadow among the mountains'.[22] A suitable name: Bergen
Bergen
is often called 'the city among the seven mountains'. It was the playwright Ludvig Holberg
Ludvig Holberg
who felt so inspired by the seven hills of Rome, that he decided that his home town must be blessed with a corresponding seven mountains - and locals still argue which seven they are. In 1918, there was a campaign to re-introduce the Norse form Bjørgvin as the name of the city. This was turned down - but as a compromise, the name of the diocese was changed to Bjørgvin bispedømme.[23] Geography[edit]

Bergen: Urban areas (Statistics Norway)

Bergen
Bergen
occupies most of the peninsula of Bergenshalvøyen
Bergenshalvøyen
in the district of Midthordland
Midthordland
in mid-western Hordaland. The municipality covers an area of 465 square kilometres (180 square miles). Most of the urban area is on or close to a fjord or bay, although the urban area has several mountains. The city centre is surrounded by the Seven Mountains, although there is disagreement as to which of the nine mountains constitute these. Ulriken, Fløyen, Løvstakken
Løvstakken
and Damsgårdsfjellet are always included as well as three of Lyderhorn, Sandviksfjellet, Blåmanen, Rundemanen
Rundemanen
and Kolbeinsvarden.[24] Gullfjellet
Gullfjellet
is Bergen's highest mountain, at 987 metres (3,238 ft) above mean sea level.[25] Bergen
Bergen
is sheltered from the North Sea by the islands Askøy, Holsnøy (the municipality of Meland) and Sotra
Sotra
(the municipalities of Fjell and Sund). Bergen
Bergen
borders the municipalities Meland, Lindås, and Osterøy
Osterøy
to the north, Vaksdal
Vaksdal
and Samnanger
Samnanger
to the east, Os and Austevoll
Austevoll
to the south, and Sund, Fjell, and Askøy
Askøy
to the west.

View of the city centre from Mt. Fløyen

Climate[edit]

Bergen
Bergen
on a rainy day

Bergen
Bergen
features a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb). Bergen experiences plentiful rainfall in all seasons, with annual precipitation measuring 2,250 mm (89 in) on average.[26] This is because Bergen
Bergen
is surrounded by mountains that cause moist North Atlantic air to undergo orographic lift, yielding abundant rainfall. It rained every day from 29 October 2006 to 21 January 2007, 85 consecutive days.[27] The highest temperature ever recorded was 31.8 °C (89.2 °F) on 29 June 1947[28] and the lowest was −16.3 °C (2.7 °F) in January 1987.[29] Bergen's weather is warmer than the city's latitude (60.4° N) might suggest. Temperatures below -10 degrees Celsius are rare. Every summer, temperatures often reach the upper 20s, but the city sees temperatures over 30 degrees only a few days each decade. The high precipitation is often used in the marketing of the city, and features to a degree on postcards sold in the city. Compared to areas behind the mountains on the Scandinavian peninsula, Bergen
Bergen
is much wetter and has a narrower temperature range with cool summers and mild winters. In terms of temperature and precipitation, Bergen
Bergen
has more in common with the climate of Scotland
Scotland
than with Oslo
Oslo
or Sweden, where long heatwaves and cold snaps regularly occur. In recent years, precipitation and winds have increased in the city. In late 2005, heavy rains caused floods and several landslides, the worst of which killed three people on 14 September. Some indications are that, due to climate change, storms causing landslides and floods will become more severe in the area and in the surrounding counties. As a response, the municipality created a special 24-man rescue unit within the fire department in 2005, to respond to future slides and other natural disasters,[30] and neighbourhoods considered at risk of slides were surveyed in 2006.[31] The prediction was supported by over 480 landslides in Hordaland
Hordaland
county from the spring of 2006 to the summer of 2007. Most of the slides hit roads, however none of them caused damage to cars, buildings, or people,[32][33] until October 2007, when a large dislodged rock killed a motorist.[34] Another concern is the risk of rising sea levels. Bryggen
Bryggen
is already regularly flooded at extreme tides, and it is feared that as sea levels rise, floods will become a major problem in Bergen. Floods may in the future reach the railroad tracks leading out of the city.[35] Among others, Stiftelsen Bryggen, the foundation responsible for preserving the UNESCO
UNESCO
site, has suggested that a sea wall, one that could be raised and lowered as demanded by the tides, be built outside the harbour to protect the city.[36]

Climate data for Bergen, avg temps and precipitation 1981-2010, sunshine 1961-1990

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.9 (62.4) 13.2 (55.8) 17.2 (63) 22.5 (72.5) 27.6 (81.7) 29.9 (85.8) 31.8 (89.2) 31.0 (87.8) 27.1 (80.8) 23.1 (73.6) 17.9 (64.2) 13.9 (57) 31.8 (89.2)

Average high °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 4.5 (40.1) 6.5 (43.7) 10.4 (50.7) 14.7 (58.5) 17.3 (63.1) 19.1 (66.4) 18.6 (65.5) 15.4 (59.7) 11.4 (52.5) 7.3 (45.1) 4.8 (40.6) 11.2 (52.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.2 (36) 2.2 (36) 3.8 (38.8) 7.0 (44.6) 10.9 (51.6) 13.6 (56.5) 15.6 (60.1) 15.4 (59.7) 12.4 (54.3) 8.8 (47.8) 5.1 (41.2) 2.7 (36.9) 8.3 (46.9)

Average low °C (°F) 0.1 (32.2) −0.2 (31.6) 1.1 (34) 3.6 (38.5) 7.0 (44.6) 9.9 (49.8) 12.2 (54) 12.1 (53.8) 9.4 (48.9) 6.2 (43.2) 2.8 (37) 0.6 (33.1) 5.4 (41.7)

Record low °C (°F) −16.3 (2.7) −13.4 (7.9) −11.3 (11.7) −5.5 (22.1) −0.1 (31.8) 0.8 (33.4) 2.5 (36.5) 2.5 (36.5) 0.0 (32) −5.5 (22.1) −10.0 (14) −13.0 (8.6) −16.3 (2.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 252.7 (9.949) 197.8 (7.787) 200.3 (7.886) 133.7 (5.264) 104.5 (4.114) 119.4 (4.701) 151.1 (5.949) 198.4 (7.811) 254.9 (10.035) 270.8 (10.661) 261.4 (10.291) 267.8 (10.543) 2,412.9 (94.996)

Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 19.1 16.4 17.3 14.0 12.8 12.7 14.5 15.9 17.0 19.1 18.1 18.5 195.4

Average relative humidity (%) 78 76 73 72 72 76 77 78 79 79 78 79 76.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 19 56 94 147 186 189 167 144 86 60 27 12 1,187

Source #1: Météo Climat [37] NOAA (humidity and sunshine)[38]

Source #2: Voodoo Skies for extremes[39]

Demographics[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2015)

Minorities (1st and 2nd generation) in Bergen
Bergen
by country of origin, 1 January 2013[40]

Ancestry Number

Total 38,790

 Poland 4,990

 Iraq 1,840

 Lithuania 1,600

 Somalia 1,360

 Vietnam 1,340

 Germany 1,330

 Chile 1,230

 Sri Lanka 1,200

 Sweden 1,160

 United Kingdom 1,110

As of the end of Q1 2016[update], the municipality had a population of 278,120,[1] making the population density 599 people per km2. As of 1 January 2015[update], the main urban area of Bergen
Bergen
had 250,420 residents[41] and covered an area of 96.71 square kilometres (37.34 sq mi).[42] Other urban areas, as defined by Statistics Norway, consist of Indre Arna
Indre Arna
(6,536 residents on 1 January 2012), Fanahammeren
Fanahammeren
(3,690), Ytre Arna
Ytre Arna
(2,626), Hylkje
Hylkje
(2,277) and Espeland
Espeland
(2,182).[42] Ethnic Norwegians
Norwegians
make up 84.5% of Bergen's residents. In addition, 8.1% were first or second generation immigrants of Western background and 7.4% were first or second generation immigrants of non-Western background.[43] The population grew by 4,549 people in 2009, a growth rate of 1,8%. Ninety-six percent of the population lives in urban areas. As of 2002, the average gross income for men above the age of 17 is 426,000 Norwegian krone
Norwegian krone
(NOK), the average gross income for women above the age of 17 is NOK 238,000, with the total average gross income being NOK 330,000.[43] In 2007, there were 104.6 men for every 100 women in the age group of 20-39.[43] 22.8% of the population were under 17 years of age, while 4.5% were 80 and above. The immigrant population (those with two foreign-born parents) in Bergen, includes 42,169 individuals with backgrounds from 180 countries representing 15.5% of the city's population (2014). Of these, 50.2% have background from Europe, 28.9% from Asia, 13.1% from Africa, 5.5% from Latin America, 1.9% from North America, and 0.4% from Oceania. The immigrant population in Bergen
Bergen
in the period 1993-2008 increased by 119.7%, while the ethnic Norwegian population grew by 8.1% during the same period. The national average is 138.0% and 4.2%. The immigrant population has thus accounted for 43.6% of Bergen's population growth and 60.8% of Norway's population growth during the period 1993-2008, compared with 84.5% in Oslo.[44] The immigrant population in Bergen
Bergen
has changed a lot since 1970. As of 1 January 1986, there were 2,870 people with a non-Western immigrant background in Bergen. In 2006, this figure had increased to 14,630, so the non-Western immigrant population in Bergen
Bergen
was five times higher than in 1986. This is a slightly slower growth than the national average, which has sextupled during the same period. Also in relation to the total population in Bergen, the proportion of non-Westerns increased significantly. In 1986, the proportion of the total population in the municipality of non-Western background was 3.6%. In January 2006, people with a non-Western immigrant background accounted for 6 percent of the population in Bergen. The share of Western immigrants has remained stable at around 2% in the period. The number of Poles
Poles
in Bergen
Bergen
rose from 697 in 2006 to 3,128 in 2010.[45]

St Mary's Church

The Church of Norway
Norway
is the largest denomination in Bergen, with 201,006 (79.74%) registered adherents in 2012. Bergen
Bergen
is the seat of the Diocese
Diocese
of Bjørgvin with Bergen Cathedral
Bergen Cathedral
as its centrepiece, while St John's Church is the city's most prominent. As of 2012, the state church is followed by 52,059 irreligious [46] 4,947 members of various Protestant free churches, 3,873 actively registrered Catholics[47][48] 2,707 registered Muslims, 816 registered Hindus, 255 registered Russian Orthodox and 147 registered Oriental Orthodox. Cityscape[edit]

Night view of Bergen
Bergen
from Mount Floyen

The city centre of Bergen
Bergen
lies in the west of the municipality, facing the fjord of Byfjorden. It is among a group of mountains known as the Seven Mountains, although the number is a matter of definition. From here, the urban area of Bergen
Bergen
extends to the north, west and south, and to its east is a large mountain massif. Outside the city centre and the surrounding neighbourhoods (i.e. Årstad, inner Laksevåg
Laksevåg
and Sandviken), the majority of the population lives in relatively sparsely populated residential areas built after 1950. While some are dominated by apartment buildings and modern terraced houses (e.g. Fyllingsdalen), others are dominated by single-family homes.[49]

View of the city centre with Torgallmenningen

The oldest part of Bergen
Bergen
is the area around the bay of Vågen in the city centre. Originally centred on the bay's eastern side, Bergen eventually expanded west and southwards. Few buildings from the oldest period remain, the most significant being St Mary's Church from the 12th century. For several hundred years, the extent of the city remained almost constant. The population was stagnant, and the city limits were narrow.[50] In 1702, seven-eighths of the city burned. Most of the old buildings of Bergen, including Bryggen
Bryggen
(which was rebuilt in a mediaeval style), were built after the fire. The fire marked a transition from tar covered houses, as well as the remaining log houses, to painted and some brick-covered wooden buildings.[51] The last half of the 19th century saw a period of rapid expansion and modernisation. The fire of 1855 west of Torgallmenningen
Torgallmenningen
led to the development of regularly sized city blocks in this area of the city centre. The city limits were expanded in 1876, and Nygård, Møhlenpris
Møhlenpris
and Sandviken
Sandviken
were urbanized with large-scale construction of city blocks housing both the poor and the wealthy.[52] Their architecture is influenced by a variety of styles; historicism, classicism and Art Nouveau.[53] The wealthy built villas between Møhlenpris
Møhlenpris
and Nygård, and on the side of Mount Fløyen; these areas were also added to Bergen
Bergen
in 1876. Simultaneously, an urbanization process was taking place in Solheimsviken
Solheimsviken
in Årstad, at that time outside the Bergen
Bergen
municipality, centred on the large industrial activity in the area.[54] The workers' homes in this area were poorly built, and little remains after large-scale redevelopment in the 1960s-1980s. After Årstad became a part of Bergen
Bergen
in 1916, a development plan was applied to the new area. Few city blocks akin to those in Nygård and Møhlenpris
Møhlenpris
were planned. Many of the worker class built their own homes, and many small, detached apartment buildings were built. After World War II, Bergen
Bergen
had again run short of land to build on, and, contrary to the original plans, many large apartment buildings were built in Landås
Landås
in the 1950s and 1960s. Bergen
Bergen
acquired Fyllingsdalen from Fana
Fana
municipality in 1955. Like similar areas in Oslo
Oslo
(e.g. Lambertseter), Fyllingsdalen
Fyllingsdalen
was developed into a modern suburb with large apartment buildings, mid-rises, and some single-family homes, in the 1960s and 1970s. Similar developments took place beyond Bergen's city limits, for example in Loddefjord.[55]

View from the Nordnes
Nordnes
part of Bergen.

At the same time as planned city expansion took place inside Bergen, its extra-municipal suburbs also grew rapidly. Wealthy citizens of Bergen
Bergen
had been living in Fana
Fana
since the 19th century, but as the city expanded it became more convenient to settle in the municipality. Similar processes took place in Åsane
Åsane
and Laksevåg. Most of the homes in these areas are detached row houses, single family homes or small apartment buildings.[55] After the surrounding municipalities were merged with Bergen
Bergen
in 1972, expansion has continued in largely the same manner, although the municipality encourages condensing near commercial centres, future Bergen Light Rail
Bergen Light Rail
stations, and elsewhere.[56][57] As part of the modernisation wave of the 1950s and 1960s, and due to damage caused by World War II, the city government ambitiously planned redevelopment of many areas in central Bergen. The plans involved demolition of several neighbourhoods of wooden houses, namely Nordnes, Marken, and Stølen. None of the plans was carried out in its original form; the Marken and Stølen redevelopment plans were discarded and that of Nordnes
Nordnes
only carried out in the area that had been most damaged by war. The city council of Bergen
Bergen
had in 1964 voted to demolish the entirety of Marken, however, the decision proved to be highly controversial and the decision was reversed in 1974. Bryggen was under threat of being wholly or partly demolished after the fire of 1955, when a large number of the buildings burned to the ground. Instead of being demolished, the remaining buildings were restored and accompanied by reconstructions of some of the burned buildings.[55] Demolition of old buildings and occasionally whole city blocks is still taking place, the most recent major example being the 2007 razing of Jonsvollskvartalet at Nøstet.[58]

Panorama of the reconstructed Hanseatic buildings of Bryggen, a World Heritage Site

Billboards are banned in the city.[59] Administration[edit] Since 2000, the city of Bergen
Bergen
has been governed by a city government (byråd) based on the principle of parliamentarism.[60] The government consists of seven government members called commissioners, and is appointed by the city council, the supreme authority of the city. After the local elections of 2007, the city has been ruled by a right-wing coalition of the Progress Party, the Christian Democratic Party, and the Conservative Party, each with two commissioners.[61] The Conservative Party member Trude Drevland is mayor-on unpaid leave since 1 September 2015,[62][63] while conservative Ragnhild Stolt-Nielsen is the leader of the city government,[64] the most powerful political position in Bergen. After the 2015 landslide elections for the Labour party, Marte Mjøs Persen (Labour Party) is the new Bergen
Bergen
mayor, and Harald Schjeldrup (Labour Party) the new Bergen
Bergen
governing mayor. The Labour Party has formed a new centre-left city government including the Labour Party, the Liberal Party, and the Christian Democrats. 2007 and 2011 elections[edit] There were Norwegian local elections, 2011. The 2007 city council elections were held on 10 September. The Socialist Left Party (SV) and the Pensioners Party (PP) ended up as the losers of the election, SV going from 11.6% of the votes in the 2003 elections to 7.1%, and PP losing 2.9% ending up at 1.2%. The Liberal Party more than doubled, going from 2.7% to 5.8%. The Conservative Party lost 1.1% of the votes, ending up at 26.3%, while the Progress Party got 20.2% of the votes, a gain of 3% since the 2003 elections. The Christian Democratic Party gained 0.2%, ending up at 6.3%. The Red Electoral Alliance lost 1.4%, ending up at 4.5%, while the Centre Party gained 1.2%, ending up at 2.8%. Finally, the Labour Party continued being the second-largest party in the city, gaining 1% and ending up at 23.9%.[65] 2015 elections[edit] In the 2015 election, the Labour Party won the Bergen
Bergen
election with a landslide, and got 37,8 % of the votes, up 9 percent from 2011, while the Conservative party lost 12,8 % and ended up at just 22,1 %. The Labour Party formed a new centre-left city government with the Liberal Party and the Christian Democrats. The Labour Party is now holding both the mayor office and governing mayor office. Currently, the party breakdown on the council is as follows:[66]

Bergen
Bergen
Kommunestyre 2015–2019

Party Name Name in Norwegian Number of representatives

  Labour Party Arbeiderpartiet 28

  Progress Party Fremskrittspartiet 6

  Conservative Party Høyre 15

  Christian Democratic Party Kristelig Folkeparti 6

  Green Party Miljøpartiet De Grønne 4

  Red Party Rødt 2

  Centre Party Senterpartiet 1

  Socialist Left Party Sosialistisk Venstreparti 5

  Liberal Party Venstre 6

Total number of members: 73

Boroughs[edit]

Boroughs of Bergen

Bergen
Bergen
is divided into eight boroughs,[67] as seen on the map to the right. Clockwise, starting with the northernmost, the boroughs are Åsane, Arna, Fana, Ytrebygda, Fyllingsdalen, Laksevåg, Årstad and Bergenhus. The city centre is located in Bergenhus. Parts of Fana, Ytrebygda, Åsane
Åsane
and Arna are not part of the Bergen
Bergen
urban area, explaining why the municipality has approximately 20,000 more inhabitants than the urban area.[citation needed] Local borough administrations have varied since Bergen's expansion in 1972. From 1974, each borough had a politically chosen administration. From 1989, Bergen
Bergen
was divided into 12 health and social districts, each locally administered. From 2000 to 2004, the former organizational form with eight politically chosen local administrations was again in use and from 2008 through to 2010, a similar form existed where the local administrations had less power than previously.[68]

Borough Population[69] % Area (km2) % Density (/km2)

Arna 12,680 4.9 102.44 22.0 123

Bergenhus1 38,544 14.8 26.58 5.7 4.415

Fana 38,317 14.8 159.70 34.3 239

Fyllingsdalen 28,844 11.1 18.84 4.0 1.530

Laksevåg 38,391 14.8 32.72 7.0 1.173

Ytrebygda 25,710 9.9 39.61 8.5 649

Årstad2 37,614 14.5 14.78 3.2 4.440

Åsane 39,534 15.2 71.01 15.2 556

Not stated 758

Total 260,392 100 465.68 100 559

(Pertaining to the table above: The acreage figures include fresh water and uninhabited mountain areas, except: 1 1 The borough Bergenhus
Bergenhus
is 8.73 km (5.42 mi) ², the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas. 2 2 The borough Årstad is 8.47 km (5.26 mi) ², the rest is water and uninhabited mountain areas.) A former borough, Sentrum[edit] Sentrum (literally, "Centre") was a borough (with the same name as a present-day neighbourhood). The borough was numbered 01, and its perimeter was from Store Lungegårdsvann
Store Lungegårdsvann
and Strømmen along Puddefjorden
Puddefjorden
around Nordnes
Nordnes
and over to Skuteviken, up Mt. Fløyen east of Langelivannet, on to Skansemyren and over Forskjønnelsen to Store Lungegårdsvann, south of the railroad tracks.[70] The population of the (now defunct) borough, numbered in 1994 more than 18,000 people.[70] Education[edit]

The male choir of the University of Bergen

There are 64 elementary schools,[71] 18 lower secondary schools[72] and 20 upper secondary schools[73] in Bergen, as well as 11 combined elementary and lower secondary schools.[74] Bergen Cathedral
Bergen Cathedral
School is the oldest school in Bergen
Bergen
and was founded by Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV
in 1153.[75] The " Bergen
Bergen
School of Meteorology" was developed at the Geophysical Institute beginning in 1917, the Norwegian School of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
was founded in 1936, and the University of Bergen
University of Bergen
in 1946.[citation needed] The University of Bergen
University of Bergen
has 16,000 students and 3,000 staff, making it the third-largest educational institution in Norway.[76] Research in Bergen
Bergen
dates back to activity at Bergen Museum
Bergen Museum
in 1825, although the university was not founded until 1946. The university has a broad range of courses and research in academic fields and three national centres of excellence, in climate research, petroleum research and medieval studies.[77] The main campus is located in the city centre. The university co-operates with Haukeland University Hospital
Haukeland University Hospital
within medical research. The Chr. Michelsen Institute
Chr. Michelsen Institute
is an independent research foundation established in 1930 focusing on human rights and development issues.[78] Western Norway University of Applied Sciences
Western Norway University of Applied Sciences
has 6,000 students and 600 staff.[79] It focuses on professional education, such as teaching, healthcare and engineering. The college was created through amalgamation in 1994; campuses are spread around town but will be co-located at Kronstad. The Norwegian School of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
is located in outer Sandviken
Sandviken
and is the leading business school in Norway,[80] having produced three Economy Nobel Prize laureates.[81] The school has more than 3,000 students and approximately 400 staff.[82] Other tertiary education institutions include the Bergen
Bergen
School of Architecture, the Bergen
Bergen
National Academy of the Arts, located in the city centre with 300 students,[83] and the Norwegian Naval Academy located in Laksevåg. The Norwegian Institute of Marine Research has been located in Bergen
Bergen
since 1900. It provides research and advice relating to ecosystems and aquaculture. It has a staff of 700 people.[84] Economy[edit]

Strandgaten is a shopping street in Bergen.

The stock exchange, Bergen
Bergen
Børs (est. 1813) erected its new building in 1861–1862; the building was sold in 1967.

In August 2004, Time magazine named the city one of Europe's 14 "secret capitals"[85] where Bergen's capital reign is acknowledged within maritime businesses and activities such as aquaculture and marine research, with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) (the second-largest oceanography research centre in Europe) as the leading institution. Bergen
Bergen
is the main base for the Royal Norwegian Navy
Royal Norwegian Navy
(at Haakonsvern) and its international airport Flesland is the main heliport for the Norwegian North Sea oil
North Sea oil
and gas industry, from where thousands of offshore workers commute to their work places onboard oil and gas rigs and platforms.[86] One of Norway's largest shopping centres, Lagunen Storsenter, is located in Fana
Fana
in Bergen, with a turnover of 2,540 billion Norwegian kroner, and 5.2 million visitors every year.[when?][citation needed] Tourism is an important income source for the city. The hotels in the city may be full at times,[87][88] due to the increasing number of tourists and conferences. Prior to the Rolling Stones concert in September 2006, many hotels were already fully booked several months in advance.[89] Bergen
Bergen
is recognized as the unofficial capital of the region known as Western Norway, and recognized and marketed as the gateway city to the world-famous fjords of Norway, and for that reason, it has become Norway's largest - and one of Europe's largest - cruise ship ports of call.[90]

Office buildings in Bergen.

Transport[edit]

Hurtigruten

Bergen
Bergen
Airport, Flesland, is located 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the city centre, at Flesland.[91] In 2013, the Avinor-operated airport served 6 million passengers. The airport serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle
Norwegian Air Shuttle
and Widerøe; there are direct flights to 20 domestic and 53 international destinations.[92] Bergen
Bergen
Port, operated by Bergen Port Authority, is the largest seaport in Norway.[93] In 2011, the port saw 264 cruise calls with 350,248 visitors,[94] In 2009, the port handled 56 million tonnes of cargo, making it the ninth-busiest cargo port in Europe.[95] There are plans to move the port out of the city centre, but no location has been chosen.[96] Fjord
Fjord
Line operates a cruiseferry service to Hirtshals, Denmark. Bergen
Bergen
is the southern terminus of Hurtigruten, the Coastal Express, which operates with daily services along the coast to Kirkenes.[91] Passenger catamarans run from Bergen
Bergen
south to Haugesund
Haugesund
and Stavanger,[97] and north to Sognefjord
Sognefjord
and Nordfjord.[98] The city centre is surrounded by an electronic toll collection ring using the Autopass
Autopass
system.[99] The main motorways consist of E39, which runs north-south through the municipality, E16, which runs eastwards, and National Road 555, which runs westwards. There are four major bridges connecting Bergen
Bergen
to neighbouring municipalities: the Nordhordland
Nordhordland
Bridge,[100] the Askøy
Askøy
Bridge,[101] the Sotra Bridge[102] and the Osterøy
Osterøy
Bridge. Bergen
Bergen
connects to the island of Bjorøy
Bjorøy
via the subsea Bjorøy
Bjorøy
Tunnel.[103]

Bergen
Bergen
Railway Station

Bergen Station
Bergen Station
is the terminus of the Bergen
Bergen
Line, which runs 496 kilometres (308 mi) to Oslo.[104] The Norwegian State Railways operates express trains to Oslo
Oslo
and the Bergen Commuter Rail
Bergen Commuter Rail
to Voss. Between Bergen
Bergen
and Arna Station, the train runs about every 30 minutes through the Ulriken
Ulriken
Tunnel; there is no corresponding road tunnel, forcing road vehicles to travel via Åsane
Åsane
or Nesttun.[105] Bergen
Bergen
is one of the smallest cities in Europe to have both tram and trolleybus electric urban transport systems simultaneously. Public transport in Hordaland
Hordaland
is managed by Skyss, which operates an extensive city bus network in Bergen
Bergen
and to many neighbouring municipalities,[106] including one route which operates as a trolleybus. The trolleybus system in Bergen
Bergen
is the only one still in operation in Norway
Norway
and one of two trolleybus systems in Scandinavia.[107]

Fløybanen
Fløybanen
is a funicular which runs up Mount Fløyen

The modern tram Bergen Light Rail
Bergen Light Rail
(Bybanen) opened between the city centre and Nesttun
Nesttun
in 2010,[108] extended to Rådal
Rådal
(Lagunen Storsenter) in 2013 and to the Bergen
Bergen
airport Flesland in 2017.[109] Extensions to other boroughs may occur later.[110] Fløibanen
Fløibanen
is a funicular which runs from the city centre to Mount Fløyen
Fløyen
and Ulriksbanen
Ulriksbanen
is an aerial tramway which runs to Mount Ulriken. Culture and sports[edit]

The Markens and Mathismarkens Buekorps
Buekorps
at Bryggen

Bergens Tidende
Bergens Tidende
(BT) and Bergensavisen
Bergensavisen
(BA) are the largest newspapers, with circulations of 87,076 and 30,719 in 2006,[111] BT is a regional newspaper covering all of Hordaland
Hordaland
and Sogn
Sogn
og Fjordane, while BA focuses on metropolitan Bergen. Other newspapers published in Bergen
Bergen
include the Christian national Dagen, with a circulation of 8.936,[111] and TradeWinds, an international shipping newspaper. Local newspapers are Fanaposten for Fana, Sydvesten for Laksevåg
Laksevåg
and Fyllingsdalen
Fyllingsdalen
and Bygdanytt for Arna and the neighbouring municipality Osterøy.[111] TV 2, Norway's largest private television company, is based in Bergen. The 1,500-seat Grieg Hall
Grieg Hall
is the city's main cultural venue,[112] and home of the Bergen
Bergen
Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1765,[113] and the Bergen
Bergen
Woodwind Quintet. The city also features Carte Blanche, the Norwegian national company of contemporary dance. The annual Bergen International Festival is the main cultural festival, which is supplemented by the Bergen
Bergen
International Film Festival. Two internationally renowned composers from Bergen
Bergen
are Edvard Grieg
Edvard Grieg
and Ole Bull. Grieg's home, Troldhaugen, has been converted to a museum. During the 1990s and early 2000s, Bergen
Bergen
produced a series of successful pop, rock and black metal artists,[114] collectively known as the Bergen
Bergen
Wave.[115][116] Den Nationale Scene
Den Nationale Scene
is Bergen's main theatre. Founded in 1850, it had Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
as one of its first in-house playwrights and art directors. Bergen's contemporary art scene is centred on BIT Teatergarasjen, Bergen
Bergen
Kunsthall, United Sardines Factory (USF) and Bergen
Bergen
Center for Electronic Arts (BEK). Bergen
Bergen
was a European Capital of Culture in 2000.[117] Buekorps
Buekorps
is a unique feature of Bergen culture, consisting of boys aged from 7 to 21 parading with imitation weapons and snare drums.[118][119] The city's Hanseatic heritage is documented in the Hanseatic Museum located at Bryggen.[120] SK Brann
SK Brann
is Bergen's premier football team; founded in 1908, they have played in the (men's) Norwegian Premier League
Norwegian Premier League
for all but seven years since 1963 and consecutively, except one season after relegation in 2014, since 1987. The team were the football champions in 1961-1962, 1963, and 2007,[121] and reached the quarter-finals of the Cup Winners' Cup in 1996-1997. Brann play their home games at the 17,824-seat Brann Stadion.[122] FK Fyllingsdalen
Fyllingsdalen
is the city's second-best team, playing in the Second Division at Varden Amfi. Its predecessor, Fyllingen, played in the Norwegian Premier League
Norwegian Premier League
in 1990, 1991 and 1993. Arna-Bjørnar
Arna-Bjørnar
and Sandviken
Sandviken
play in the Women's Premier League. Bergen IK
Bergen IK
is the premier men's ice hockey team, playing at Bergenshallen
Bergenshallen
in the First Division. Tertnes play in the Women's Premier Handball League, and Fyllingen in the Men's Premier Handball League. In athletics, the city is dominated by IL Norna-Salhus, IL Gular and FIK BFG Fana, formerly also Norrøna IL and TIF Viking. Bergensk is the native dialect of Bergen
Bergen
and a variation of Vestnorsk. It was strongly influenced by Low German-speaking merchants from the mid-14th to mid-18th centuries. During the Dano-Norwegian period from 1536 to 1814, Bergen
Bergen
was more influenced by Danish than other areas of Norway. The Danish influence removed the female grammatical gender in the 16th century, making Bergensk one of very few Norwegian dialects with only two instead of three grammatical genders. The Rs are uvular trills, as in French, which probably spread to Bergen
Bergen
some time in the 18th century, overtaking the alveolar trill in the time span of two to three generations. Owing to an improved literacy rate, Bergensk was influenced by riksmål and bokmål in the 19th and 20th centuries. This led to large parts of the German-inspired vocabulary disappearing and pronunciations shifting slightly towards East Norwegian.[123] The 1986 edition of the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
took place in Bergen. Bergen
Bergen
is the host city for the 2017 UCI Road World Championships. Street art[edit]

"Che" by Dolk is painted on a building at Strandkaien in Bergen

Bergen
Bergen
is considered to be the street art capital of Norway.[124] Famed artist Banksy
Banksy
visited the city in 2000[125] and inspired many to start creating street art. Soon after, the city brought up the most famous street artist in Norway: Dolk.[126][127] His art can still be seen in several places in the city, and in 2009 the city council choose to preserve Dolk's work "Spray" with protective glass.[128] In 2011, Bergen
Bergen
council launched a plan of action for street art in Bergen
Bergen
from 2011 to 2015 to ensure that " Bergen
Bergen
will lead the fashion for street art as an expression both in Norway
Norway
and Scandinavia.[129] The Madam Felle (1831-1908) monument in Sandviken, is in honour of a Norwegian woman of German origin, who in the mid-19th century managed, against the will of the council, to maintain a counter of beer. A well-known restaurant of the same name is now situated at another location in Bergen. The monument was erected in 1990 by sculptor Kari Rolfsen, supported by an anonymous donor. Madam Felle, civil name Oline Fell, was remembered after her death in a popular song, possibly originally a folksong,[130] "Kjenner Dokker Madam Felle?" by Lothar Lindtner and Rolf Berntzen
Rolf Berntzen
on an album in 1977. Neighbourhoods[edit]

Gamlehaugen
Gamlehaugen
castle in Bergen, the Norwegian Royal Family's residence in Bergen

The traditional neighbourhoods of Bergen
Bergen
include Bryggen, Eidemarken, Engen, Fjellet, Kalfaret, Ladegården, Løvstakksiden,[131] Marken, Minde, Møhlenpris, Nordnes, Nygård, Nøstet, Sandviken, Sentrum, Skansen, Skuteviken, Strandsiden, Stølen, Sydnes, Verftet, Vågsbunnen, Wergeland,[132] and Ytre Sandviken. International relations[edit] Each year Bergen
Bergen
donates the Christmas Tree seen in Newcastle's Haymarket as a sign of the ongoing friendship between the sister cities.[133] The Nordic friendship cities of Bergen, Gothenburg, Turku and Aarhus
Aarhus
arrange inter-Nordic camps each year by inviting 10th grade school classes from each of the other cities to school camps. Bergen received a totem pole as a gift of friendship from the city of Seattle on the city's 900th anniversary in 1970. It is now placed in the Nordnes
Nordnes
Park and gazes out over the sea towards the friendship city far to the west. Sister (town) cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Norway

Asmara, Eritrea[134] Gothenburg, Sweden
Sweden
(since 1946)[134] Newcastle, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1968)[134][135]

Seattle, United States
United States
(since 1967)[134][136] Turku, Finland
Finland
(since 1946)[134] Aarhus, Denmark
Denmark
(since 1946)[134][137]

Grunnkretser[edit] The various addresses in Bergen, each belong to one of the various grunnkrets. See also[edit]

List of people from Bergen

References[edit]

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kommune. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ Bergens-ordfører Trude Drevland ut i permisjon ^ Vibeke Vik
Vik
Nordang (2007). "Byrådet er valt" (in Norwegian). Bergen kommune. Retrieved 16 November 2007.  ^ "Valgresultater - regjeringen.no" (in Norwegian). Kommunal- og regionaldepartementet. 2007. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ "Table: 04813: Members of the local councils, by party/electoral list at the Municipal Council election (M)" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway. 2015.  ^ Statistics Norway
Norway
(2004). "Bydeler i Oslo, Bergen, Stavanger
Stavanger
og Trondheim" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 3 September 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2007.  ^ "Lokaldemokratiets utvikling 1814 - 2014". Bergen
Bergen
kommune (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 10 June 2016.  ^ "Statistics Norway
Norway
- Population, by sex and age. Bergen. Urban district". Ssb.no. 1 January 2011. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.  ^ a b Bergen
Bergen
byleksikon, trykt utgave 2009 (25 January 2001). "Bergen byleksikon". Bergen
Bergen
byleksikon.  ^ "Oversikt over barneskoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen
Bergen
kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ "Oversikt over ungdomsskoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen
Bergen
kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ "Skoleportalen" (in Norwegian). Hordaland
Hordaland
fylkeskommune. 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ "Oversikt over kombinerte skoler" (in Norwegian). Bergen
Bergen
kommune. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ Hartvedt, Gunnar Hagen (1994). Bergen
Bergen
Byleksikon. Kunnskapsforlaget. ISBN 82-573-0485-9.  ^ "Om Universitetet i Bergen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ Mia Kolbjørnsen and Hilde Kvalvaag (2002). "UiB får tre SFF" (in Norwegian). på høyden. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ "About CMI" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2 October 2007.  ^ "Om Høgskolen i Bergen" (in Norwegian). 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "FT.com / Business Education / Masters in management". Financial Times (in Norwegian). 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004". 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "Om NHH" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.  ^ "Om Kunsthøgskolen i Bergen" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "About imr" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 16 January 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2007.  ^ "Europe's Secret Capitals". TIME Magazine. 30 August 2004. Retrieved 14 August 2007.  ^ "Film Location:Bergen". West Norway
Norway
Film Commission. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 9 October 2007.  ^ Lars Kvamme and Ingvild Bruaset. "Russerne kommer" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ Frode Buanes and Lars Kvamme (2006). "Sender bergensturister vekk" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ Arild Berg Karlsen and Erik Fossen (2006). "Fulle hoteller møter Stones-fansen" (in Norwegian). bt.no. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ Bergen
Bergen
Havn. "Velkommen til Bergen
Bergen
havn - "Inngangen til Fjordene"" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 18 July 2007. Retrieved 14 August 2007.  ^ a b "Transport to Bergen". Innovation Norway. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "Flight Timetables". Avinor. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.  ^ Eliassen, Jan I. (24 June 2006). " Bergen
Bergen
havn holder koken". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "Cruise ships". Bergen Port Authority. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "World Port Rankings 2009" (PDF). American Association of Port Authorities. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ Haga, Anders (24 June 2006). "- Vi har alle vært feige". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ "Hurtigbåt- og lokalbåtruter" (in Norwegian). Tide ASA. Retrieved 16 September 2007.  ^ "Fjord1 - Ekspressbåter" (in Norwegian). Fjord1. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2007.  ^ Gunnar Hagen Hartvedt (1994). "bompengering". Bergen
Bergen
Byleksikon: 119–120.  ^ Norwegian Public Roads Administration
Norwegian Public Roads Administration
(1994). "The Nordhordland Bridge" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2006.  ^ " Askøy
Askøy
Bridge" (PDF). Aas-Jakobsen. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.  ^ Fjell, Ragnvald (1989). Sotrabrua (in Norwegian). Fjell: A/S Sotrabrua. p. 5.  ^ Jahnsen, Jack (2006). Fastlandssamband for Bjorøy
Bjorøy
og Tyssøy (in Norwegian). Straume: Fastlandssambandet Tyssøy - Bjorøy. ISBN 82-303-0642-7.  ^ Jernbaneverket (2007). Jernbanestatistikk 2006 (PDF). Oslo: Jernbaneverket. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2007.  ^ Aagesen, Ragnhild (21 September 2010). "Bergen-Arna" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.  ^ "About Skyss". Skyss. Retrieved 2 May 2012.  ^ Aspenberg, Nils Carl (1996). Trolleybussene i Norge. Oslo: Baneforlaget. p. 96.  ^ "Signingsferden" (in Norwegian). 2010. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ Melhus, Ståle (11 September 2009). "Vil ha bybane til Flesland i 2015". Fanaposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2009.  ^ Rykka, Ann Kristin and Solfrid Torvund (13 December 2006). "Usamde om bybaneutvidinga". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
(in Norwegian).  ^ a b c "Avisenes leser- og opplagstall for 2006" (in Norwegian). Mediebedriftenes Landsforening. 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved October 26, 2007.  ^ "Grieghallen: Floor space and capacity". Grieg Hall. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2007.  ^ " Bergen
Bergen
Filharmoniske Orkester" (in Norwegian). 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ Ann Kristin Frøystad (2003). "Telle: - Angrer ingenting" (in Norwegian). ba.no. Retrieved 10 October 2007.  ^ Lars Ursin (2005). "Bløffmakerens guide til Bergensbølgen". Bergens Tidende
Bergens Tidende
(in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ Lars Ursin (2005). "Bergensbølgen tørrlagt på Alarm" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "European Capitals of Culture 2000-2005". Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007.  ^ "What is a buekorps?". Buekorpsene.com. 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2007.  ^ "Studenter hestes av buekorps på nettet" (in Norwegian). Studvest.no. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2007.  ^ Conrad Fredrik von der Lippe (Store norske leksikon) ^ Ole Ivar Store (2007). "- Gratulerer, Brann!" (in Norwegian). Norges Fotballforbund. Archived from the original on 24 March 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2007.  ^ "Stadionfakta" (in Norwegian). Brann.no. 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.  ^ Nesse, Agnete (2003). Slik ble vi bergensere - Hanseatene og bergensdialekten. Sigma Forlag. ISBN 82-7916-028-0.  ^ "Gatekunstens hovedstad" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 24 March 2010.  ^ "Fikk Banksy-bilder som takk for overnatting" (in Norwegian). Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 10 March 2008.  ^ "Derfor valgte ikke DOLK Bergen" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "Populær Dolk selger så det suser" (in Norwegian). Bt.no. Retrieved 8 April 2011.  ^ "Forsvarer verning av graffiti" (in Norwegian). Ba.no. Retrieved 26 June 2009.  ^ "Bergenkommune.no - Graffiti og gatekunst i kulturbyen Bergen
Bergen
- Utredning og handlingsplan for perioden 2011-2015" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Bergen.kommune.no. Retrieved 10 May 2011.  ^ Davidsen, Knut B. (7 December 2002). "Var madam Felle Jonnemann sin mor?" [Was Madam Felle Jonnemann's Mother?]. Bergens Tidende
Bergens Tidende
(in Norwegian Bokmål). Bergen, Norway: Media Norge, Schibsted. Retrieved 31 December 2013.  ^ Et liv uten filter ^ Frykter spredning av narkomiljøet ^ "Æresborger av Newcastle". kongehuset.no. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010.  ^ a b c d e f " Bergen
Bergen
kommune - International relations - Sister Cities". 2 March 2001. Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ "Town Twinning Newcastle City
City
Council". Retrieved 26 February 2014.  ^ " Seattle
Seattle
International Sister City: Bergen, Norway". Retrieved 10 August 2011.  ^ " City
City
of Aarhus
Aarhus
Sister cities". 1 April 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Bergen External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bergen.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bergen.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bergen.

Municipality website in Norwegian and English German U-Boat Base in Bergen

v t e

Municipalities of Hordaland

Nordhordland

Austrheim Fedje Lindås Masfjorden Meland Modalen Osterøy Radøy Vaksdal

Voss

Voss

Hardanger

Eidfjord Granvin Jondal Kvam Odda Ullensvang Ulvik

Midthordland

Askøy Austevoll Bergen Fjell Fusa Os Øygarden Samnanger Sund

Sunnhordland

Bømlo Etne Fitjar Kvinnherad Stord Sveio Tysnes

v t e

Boroughs of Bergen

Arna Årstad Åsane Bergenhus Fana Fyllingsdalen Laksevåg Ytrebygda

Former boroughs: Sentrum

v t e

Neighbourhoods of Bergen, Norway

Arna

Espeland Indre Arna Ytre Arna

Årstad

Gyldenpris Kronstad Landås Løvstakksiden Minde Nattland Solheim Slettebakken

Åsane

Eidsvåg Flaktveit

Bergenhus

Bryggen Eidemarken Engen Fjellet Kalfaret Ladegården Marken Møhlenpris Nordnes Nygård Nøstet Sandviken Sentrum Skansen Skuteviken Strandsiden Stølen Sydnes Verftet Vågsbunnen Ytre Sandviken

Fana

Fanahammeren Nattland Nesttun Paradis

Fyllingsdalen

Bønes Nedre Fyllingen Traudalen

Laksevåg

Alvøen Bjørndal Drotningsvik Godvik Gravdal Hetlevik Håkonshella Kjøkkelvik Loddefjord Loddefjorddalen Mathopen Olsvik Vadmyra

Ytrebygda

Milde Steinsvik

v t e

Subdivisions, counties, traditional districts, and municipalities of Norway

Agder

Aust-Agder

Nedenes

Arendal Birkenes Froland Gjerstad Grimstad Lillesand Risør Tvedestrand Vegårshei Åmli

Otrudal/ Råbyggelaget

Bygland Evje og Hornnes Iveland

Setesdal

Bykle Valle

Vest-Agder

Lister

Audnedal Farsund Flekkefjord Kvinesdal Lyngdal Åseral

Mandal

Hægebostad Kristiansand Lindesnes Mandal Marnardal Sirdal Songdalen Søgne Vennesla

Eastern Norway

Akershus

Follo

Enebakk Frogn Nesodden Oppegård Ski Vestby Ås

Romerike (Nedre, Øvre)

Aurskog-Høland Eidsvoll Fet Gjerdrum Hurdal Lørenskog Nannestad Nes Nittedal Rælingen Skedsmo Sørum Ullensaker

Others

Asker Bærum Oslo

Buskerud

Hallingdal

Flå Nes Gol Hol Hemsedal Ål

Numedal

Flesberg Nore og Uvdal Rollag

Ringerike

Hole Krødsherad Modum Ringerike Sigdal

Vestfold

Drammen Eiker
Eiker
(Nedre, Øvre) Kongsberg Lier

Vingulmark

Hurum Røyken

Hedmark

Glåmdal

Eidskog Kongsvinger Odal, Norway
Norway
(Nord, Sør)

Hedmarken

Gjøvik Hamar Løten Ringsaker Stange

Solør

Grue Våler Åsnes

Østerdalen

Alvdal Elverum Engerdal Folldal Os Rendalen Stor-Elvdal Tolga, Norway Trysil Åmot

Oppland

Gudbrandsdalen

Dovre Fron (Nord, Sør) Gausdal Lesja Lillehammer Lom Ringebu Sel Skjåk Vågå Øyer

Hadeland

Gran Lunner Jevnaker

Land

Nordre Søndre

Toten

Østre Vestre

Valdres

Aurdal
Aurdal
(Nord, Sør) Etnedal Slidre
Slidre
(Vestre, Øystre) Vang

Telemark

Aust- Telemark

Bø Hjartdal Nome Notodden Sauherad Tinn

Vest- Telemark

Fyresdal Kviteseid Nissedal Seljord Tokke Vinje

Grenland

Bamble Drangedal Kragerø Porsgrunn Siljan Skien

Vestfold

Færder Holmestrand Horten Larvik Re Sande Sandefjord Svelvik Tønsberg

Østfold

Aremark Askim Eidsberg Fredrikstad Halden Hobøl Hvaler Marker Moss Rakkestad Rygge Rømskog Råde Sarpsborg Skiptvet Spydeberg Trøgstad Våler

Northern Norway

Finnmark

Aust-Finnmark

Bearalváhki Báhcavuotna Gáŋgaviika Davvesiidda Unjárga Mátta-Várjjat Deatnu Čáhcesuolu Várggát

Vest-Finnmark

Ákŋoluokta Áltá Davvinjárga Fálesnuorri Guovdageaidnu Hámmárfeasta Kárášjohka Láhppi Muosát Porsáŋgu

Nordland

Helgeland

Alstahaug Bindal Brønnøy Dønna Grane Hattfjelldal Hemnes Herøy Leirfjord Lurøy Nesna Rana Rødøy Sømna Træna Vefsn Vega Vevelstad

Lofoten

Flakstad Moskenes Røst Vestvågøy Værøy Vågan

Ofoten

Ballangen Evenes Lødingen Narvik Tjeldsund Tysfjord

Salten

Beiarn Bodø Fauske Gildeskål Hamarøy Meløy Saltdal Steigen Sørfold

Vesterålen

Andøy Bø Hadsel Sortland Øksnes

Troms

Midt-Troms

Bardu Berg Dyrøy Lenvik Målselv Sørreisa Torsken Tranøy

Nord-Troms

Balsfjord Karlsøy Kåfjord Kvænangen Lyngen Nordreisa Skjervøy Storfjord Tromsø

Sør-Troms

Gratangen Harstad Ibestad Kvæfjord Lavangen Salangen Skånland

Central Norway

Trøndelag

Fosen

Bjugn Frøya Hitra Indre Fosen Osen Roan Åfjord Ørland

Innherred

Inderøy Levanger Snåsa Steinkjer Verdal Verran

Namdalen

Flatanger Fosnes Grong Høylandet Leka Lierne Namdalseid Namsos Namsskogan Nærøy Overhalla Røyrvik Vikna

Stjørdalen

Frosta Meråker Stjørdal

Gauldalen

Holtålen Melhus Midtre Gauldal Røros

Orkdalen

Agdenes Hemne Meldal Oppdal Orkdal Rennebu Snillfjord

Stjørdalen

Klæbu Malvik Selbu Skaun Trondheim Tydal

Western Norway

Hordaland

Hardanger

Eidfjord Granvin Jondal Kvam Odda Ullensvang Ulvik

Midt- Hordland

Askøy Austevoll Bergen Fjell Fusa Os, Hordaland Samnanger Sund Øygarden

Nord- Hordland

Austrheim Fedje Lindås Masfjorden Meland Modalen Osterøy Radøy Vaksdal

Sunn- Hordland

Bømlo Etne Fitjar Kvinnherad Stord Sveio Tysnes

Voss

Voss

Møre og Romsdal

Nordmøre

Aure Averøy Eide Gjemnes Halsa Kristiansund Rindal Smøla Sunndal Surnadal Tingvoll

Romsdal

Aukra Fræna Midsund Molde Nesset Rauma Sandøy Vestnes

Sunnmøre

Giske Haram, Norway Hareid Herøy Norddal Sande Skodje Stordal Stranda Sula Sykkylven Ulstein Vanylven Volda Ålesund Ørskog Ørsta

Rogaland

Dalane

Bjerkreim Eigersund Lund Sokndal

Haugaland

Bokn Haugesund Karmøy Tysvær Utsira Vindafjord

Jæren

Gjesdal Hå Klepp Randaberg Sandnes Sola Stavanger Time

Ryfylke

Finnøy Forsand Hjelmeland Kvitsøy Rennesøy Sauda Strand Suldal

Sogn
Sogn
og Fjordane

Nordfjord

Bremanger Eid Gloppen Hornindal Selje Stryn Vågsøy

Sunnfjord

Askvoll Fjaler Flora Førde Gaular Jølster Naustdal

Sogn

Aurland Balestrand Gulen Høyanger Hyllestad Leikanger Luster Lærdal Sogndal Solund Vik Årdal

italics denote a historical area; see Historical maps of Norway

v t e

Most populous urban areas of Norway

As of 1 January 2014, according to Statistics Norway
Norway
[1]

1. Oslo 942,084

2. Bergen 251,281

3. Stavanger/Sandnes 207,439

4. Trondheim 172,226

5. Drammen 112,123

6. Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg 107,920

7. Porsgrunn/Skien 91,349

8. Kristiansand 59,681

9. Tønsberg 50,372

10. Ålesund 50,345

11. Moss 45,017

12. Sandefjord 42,345

13. Arendal 42,145

14. Haugesund 40,631

15. Bodø 39,384

16. Tromsø 33,319

17. Hamar 26,232

18. Halden 24,707

19. Larvik 23,579

20. Askøy 21,911

21. Kongsberg 20,670

22. Harstad 20,533

23. Molde 20,327

24. Horten 20,036

25. Gjøvik 19,604

26. Lillehammer 19,586

27. Mo i Rana 18,592

28. Kristiansund 18,300

29. Korsvik 16,385

30. Tromsdalen 16,271

31. Jessheim 15,966

32. Hønefoss 15,154

33. Ski 14,446

34. Alta 14,430

35. Elverum 14,326

36. Narvik 14,202

37. Askim 13,822

38. Leirvik 13,717

39. Drøbak 13,445

40. Nesoddtangen 12,428

41. Osøyro 12,296

42. Vennesla 12,242

43. Steinkjer 12,224

44. Grimstad 12,172

45. Arna 11,960

46. Kongsvinger 11,938

47. Råholt 11,828

48. Stjørdalshalsen 11,453

v t e

Most populous metropolitan areas in Norway

As of 2013, according to Statistics Norway
Norway
[2]

1. Oslo 1,502,604

2. Bergen 407,935

3. Stavanger 319,822

4. Trondheim 267,132

5. Kristiansand 155,648

6. Drammen 151,769

7. Fredrikstad 138,682

8. Haugesund 128,797

9. Tønsberg 120,747

10. Sandvika 118,115

11. Skien 112,082

12. Sandefjord 90,532

13. Ålesund 82,165

14. Tromsø 73,631

15. Sandnes 71,462

16. Moss 56,210

17. Sarpsborg 54,049

18. Bodø 52,768

19. Arendal 43,755

20. Larvik 42,637

21. Porsgrunn 35,504

22. Hamar 30,921

23. Halden 30,116

24. Gjøvik 29,618

25. Ski 29,482

26. Askøy 27,273

27. Lillehammer 27,044

28. Horten 26,701

29. Kongsberg 26,296

30. Molde 26,027

v t e

50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Copenhagen 1,263,698

3. Helsinki 1,214,210

4. Oslo 958,378

5. Gothenburg 549,839

6. Tampere 325,025

7. Malmö 280,415

8. Aarhus 261,570

9. Turku 260,367

10. Bergen 250,420

11. Stavanger 210,874

12. Reykjavík 209,510

13. Oulu 193,817

14. Trondheim 175,068

15. Odense 173,814

16. Uppsala 140,454

17. Aalborg 132,578

18. Jyväskylä 120,306

19. Lahti 117,424

20. Drammen 113,534

21. Västerås 110,877

22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636

23. Örebro 107,038

24. Linköping 104,232

25. Helsingborg 97,122

26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737

27. Jönköping 89,396

28. Norrköping 87,247

29. Kuopio 86,034

30. Pori 84,509

31. Lund 82,800

32. Umeå 79,594

33. Esbjerg 72,060

34. Gävle 71,033

35. Vaasa 66,911

36. Borås 66,273

37. Joensuu 65,686

38. Eskilstuna 64,679

39. Södertälje 64,619

40. Karlstad 61,685

41. Randers 61,664

42. Täby 61,272

43. Växjö 60,887

44. Kristiansand 60,583

45. Kolding 58,757

46. Halmstad 58,577

47. Horsens 56,536

48. Lappeenranta 55,429

49. Vejle 53,975

50. Kotka 52,600

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149552590 LCCN: n79021216 ISNI: 0000 0004 0375 5

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