BENGUET (Tagalog pronunciation: ; Ibaloi : _Probinsya ne Benguet_; Pangasinan : _Luyag na Benguet_; Ilocano : _Probinsya ti Benguet_; Filipino : _Lalawigan ng Benguet_), is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the southern tip of the Cordillera Administrative Region in the island of Luzon . Its capital is La Trinidad .
The highland province is known as the _Salad Bowl of the Philippines_ due to its huge production of upland vegetables.
* 1 History
* 1.1 Spanish period * 1.2 American period * 1.3 World War II * 1.4 Modern history
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Administrative divisions
* 2.2.1 Barangays
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Ethnicity * 3.2 Languages * 3.3 Religion
* 4 Economy * 5 Education * 6 Tourism * 7 References * 8 External links
The mountainous area now covered by Benguet has been settled for millennia by several peoples collectively known as the Igorots . Two of these groups, the Ibaloi and the Kankanaey , are dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the area. In the pre-conquest period, these tribes enjoyed flourishing trade with lowland groups immediately to their west and south, such as the Pangasinense .
At the beginning of the Spanish Era , colonisers heard of the rich gold mines in the mountains and attempted to colonize the highlands, but failed. In 1572, Spanish _conquistador_ Juan de Salcedo led a small expedition into the southern part of Benguet, but the natives forced it to retreat. The first major expedition into the mountains occurred in 1620, when Spanish explorers went into the La Trinidad Valley and briefly controlled some Igorot gold mines, but abandoned them after a few years.
In the 1800s, Spanish colonizers made more serious attempts such as expeditions under Col. Guillermo Galvey :280 and succeeded in establishing a presence in the La Trinidad Valley, named after Galvey's wife.
This area later became a district of the new province of _La Montañosa_ (or _La Montaña_) in 1846. Eight years later, in 1854, Benguet became a separate _comandancia politico-militar_. Parts of the present province were established as component territories of other _comandancias_ such as Lepanto and Amburayan .
When the Americans took control of the Philippines , they established local civil governments in many parts of the country. American civilian government was established in Benguet on November 23, 1900 through _Act No. 48_, with Canadian journalist _H.P. Whitmarsh_ appointed as the province's first governor.
The 19 historical townships of Benguet under _Act No. 48_ TOWNSHIP ABOLISHED? NOTES
TOWNSHIP ABOLISHED? NOTES
Adaoay Yes Currently part of Kabayan
Ambuklao Yes Currently part of Bokod Kabayan No
Ampusongan Yes Currently part of Bakun Kapangan No
Baguio Yes Converted into a chartered city in 1909* La Trinidad No
Balakbak Yes Currently part of Kapangan Loo Yes Currently part of Buguias
Palina Yes Currently part of Kibungan
Daclan Yes Currently part of Bokod Tublay No
* When Baguio was converted into a chartered city in 1909, barrio Tuba was separated from the city and incorporated into the township of _Twin Peaks_.
Upon the American colonial government enacting _Act No. 1876_ on August 18, 1908 which created Mountain Province from areas of the old _La Montañosa_, Benguet (along with Amburayan , Apayao , Bontoc, Ifugao , Kalinga , and Lepanto) became sub-provinces of this new province. A year later in 1909, the township of Baguio was abolished upon its conversion into a chartered city. In 1920, portions of the sub-provinces of Amburayan and Lepanto were incorporated into Benguet.
Mining companies started operating in the province in the 1930s. This brought jobs, and many lowlanders migrated to Benguet, especially in towns surrounding the gold mines, such as Itogon , Mankayan and Tuba .
WORLD WAR II
See also: Battle of Baguio (1945)
During World War II , Igorot guerrillas and the combined Filipino and American forces fought Japanese soldiers during the final days of the war in 1945.
_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2016)_
On June 18, 1966, the huge Mountain Province was split into four provinces with the enactment of _Republic Act No. 4695_. The four provinces were Benguet, Mountain Province , Kalinga- Apayao and Ifugao .
On June 22, 1973, as part of the _Integrated Organization Plan_ of President Ferdinand E. Marcos , Benguet was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ilocos Region . When the Cordillera Administrative Region was established by President Corazon Aquino thru _Executive Order 220_ on July 15, 1987, Benguet was made one of its provinces.
Highland landscape at Bokod
Benguet covers an area of 2,769.08 square kilometres (1,069.15 sq mi) occupying the southwestern tip of the Cordillera Administrative Region . If Baguio City is included for geographical purposes, the total area of Benguet is 2,826.59 square kilometres (1,091.35 sq mi).
The province is bordered on the northeast by Mountain Province and Ifugao , on the southeast by Nueva Vizcaya , on the south by Pangasinan , on the west by La Union , and on the northwest by Ilocos Sur .
Situated within the Cordillera mountains , Benguet is dominantly mountainous. Mount Pulag , the highest in Luzon is located within Kabayan . The mountains form the headwaters of several rivers , the major ones which include the Agno , Amburayan , Bued , Bakun, Balili and the Asin. Some of these run through river valleys or gorges .
Several natural lakes, small in size, are found within the hinterlands . The largest are the "Four Lakes" in Kabayan; Lake Bulalacao, Lake Detepngepos, Lake Incolos and Lake Tabeyo.
Benguet generally has a cool climate, experiencing an annual average record high of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F) in April, and an annual average record low of 13.3 °C (55.9 °F) in January.
The province suffers from crop damage resulting from seasonal frost during the cold months of December to March, especially in high-altitude towns such as Atok, Buguias, Mankayan and Kibungan. In February 2007, Benguet suffered crop damage due to temperatures reaching as low as 7 °C (45 °F).
CLIMATE DATA FOR BENGUET
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 23.1 (73.6) 23.9 (75) 24.7 (76.5) 25.3 (77.5) 24.6 (76.3) 24.1 (75.4) 22.9 (73.2) 22.5 (72.5) 23 (73) 23.6 (74.5) 23.8 (74.8) 23.3 (73.9) 23.73 (74.68)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 13.3 (55.9) 13.9 (57) 14.8 (58.6) 16.2 (61.2) 16.7 (62.1) 16.6 (61.9) 16.4 (61.5) 16.6 (61.9) 16.3 (61.3) 16 (61) 15.5 (59.9) 14.2 (57.6) 15.54 (59.99)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 150.8 (5.937) 101.8 (4.008) 82.3 (3.24) 44.9 (1.768) 132.5 (5.217) 146 (5.75) 196.9 (7.752) 181.6 (7.15) 168.5 (6.634) 199.2 (7.843) 191.2 (7.528) 233.7 (9.201) 1,829.4 (72.028)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 2 3 6 9 19 21 26 26 23 14 9 5 163
Source #1: _Storm247_ (for average temperature and rainy days)
Source #2: _WorldWeatherOnline_ (for average precipitation)
Benguet comprises 13 municipalities , all encompassed by a single legislative district .
The highly urbanized city of Baguio , although administratively independent from Benguet, is situated in the interior of the province, surrounded by the municipalities of La Trinidad , Itogon , Sablan and Tuba . The city used to be part of the province but became independent when the city's charter was enacted in 1909.
CITY OR MUNICIPALITY POPULATION ±% P.A. AREA DENSITY BRGY.
KM2 SQ MI /KM2 /SQ MI
16°34′16″N 120°40′53″E / 16.5712°N 120.6814°E / 16.5712; 120.6814 (ATOK) Atok 7000440000000000000♠4.4% 19,668 19,242 +0.42% 214.99 83.01 91 240 8
16°24′43″N 120°35′36″E / 16.4120°N 120.5933°E / 16.4120; 120.5933 (BAGUIO) Baguio ‡ — 345,366 318,676 +1.54% 57.51 22.20 5,500 14,000 129
16°47′27″N 120°39′50″E / 16.7909°N 120.6638°E / 16.7909; 120.6638 (BAKUN) Bakun 7000340000000000000♠3.4% 15,357 13,587 +2.36% 286.91 110.78 54 140 7
16°29′30″N 120°49′47″E / 16.4917°N 120.8296°E / 16.4917; 120.8296 (BOKOD) Bokod 7000310000000000000♠3.1% 13,756 12,648 +1.61% 274.96 106.16 50 130 10
16°43′12″N 120°49′35″E / 16.7201°N 120.8263°E / 16.7201; 120.8263 (BUGUIAS) Buguias 7000980000000000000♠9.8% 43,627 39,271 +2.02% 175.88 67.91 250 650 14
16°21′34″N 120°40′38″E / 16.3595°N 120.6773°E / 16.3595; 120.6773 (ITOGON) Itogon 7001134000000000000♠13.4% 59,820 55,960 +1.28% 449.73 173.64 130 340 9
16°37′22″N 120°50′17″E / 16.6228°N 120.8380°E / 16.6228; 120.8380 (KABAYAN) Kabayan 7000340000000000000♠3.4% 15,260 13,588 +2.23% 242.69 93.70 63 160 13
16°34′30″N 120°35′52″E / 16.5751°N 120.5979°E / 16.5751; 120.5979 (KAPANGAN) Kapangan 7000430000000000000♠4.3% 19,361 20,084 −0.70% 164.39 63.47 120 310 15
16°41′37″N 120°39′14″E / 16.6937°N 120.6539°E / 16.6937; 120.6539 (KIBUNGAN) Kibungan 7000390000000000000♠3.9% 17,292 16,850 +0.49% 254.86 98.40 68 180 7
16°27′42″N 120°35′19″E / 16.4617°N 120.5885°E / 16.4617; 120.5885 (LA TRINIDAD) La Trinidad † 7001289000000000000♠28.9% 129,133 107,188 +3.61% 70.04 27.04 1,800 4,700 16
16°51′25″N 120°47′38″E / 16.8569°N 120.7938°E / 16.8569; 120.7938 (MANKAYAN) Mankayan 7000810000000000000♠8.1% 35,953 35,586 +0.20% 130.48 50.38 280 730 12
16°29′45″N 120°29′17″E / 16.4959°N 120.4880°E / 16.4959; 120.4880 (SABLAN) Sablan 7000260000000000000♠2.6% 11,457 10,511 +1.65% 105.63 40.78 110 280 8
16°23′34″N 120°33′44″E / 16.3927°N 120.5622°E / 16.3927; 120.5622 (TUBA) Tuba 7001107009999900000♠10.7% 47,648 42,874 +2.03% 295.97 114.27 160 410 13
16°28′30″N 120°37′58″E / 16.4751°N 120.6329°E / 16.4751; 120.6329 (TUBLAY) Tublay 7000400000000000000♠4.0% 17,892 16,555 +1.49% 102.55 39.59 170 440 8
TOTAL 446,224 403,944 +1.91% 2,769.08 1,069.15 160 410 140
† Capital municipality Municipality
‡ Highly urbanized city (_geographically within but independent from the province_)
* ^ The _globe_ _ icon marks the city/town center . * ^ Total figures exclude the highly urbanized city_ of Baguio.
The 13 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 140 barangays , with _Pico_ in La Trinidad as the most populous in 2010, and _Anchokey_ in Kabayan as the least. Further information: List of barangays in Benguet
Population census of Benguet
YEAR POP. ±% P.A.
1990 302,715 —
1995 313,833 +0.68%
2000 330,129 +1.09%
2007 372,533 +1.68%
2010 403,944 +2.99%
2015 446,224 +1.91%
(_excluding Baguio City_) Source: National Statistics Office
The population of Benguet in the 2015 census was 446,224 people, making it the most populous province in the region. It had a density of 160 inhabitants per square kilometre or 410 inhabitants per square mile. If the highly urbanized city of Baguio is included for geographical purposes, the population is 791,590, with a density of 280/km2 (725/sq mi).
In the May 2000 census, Benguet had a total population of 330,129. This figure is up by 16,296 from 313,833 persons recorded in the 1995 census, giving an annual growth rate of 1.09% during the 5-year period compared to the national average of 2.43%. The province registered 63,123 households, an increase of 4,588 households over the 1990 figure. This gave an average household size of 5.20 persons, slightly higher than the national average of 4.99.
ETHNICITY AS OF 2000
* Kankanaey: 141,434 (42.9%) * Ibaloi: 95,968 (29.1%) * Ilocano: 43,984 (13.3%) * Kalanguya: 12,147 (3.7%) * Tagalog: 7,773 (2.4%) * Others_: 27,396 (8.3%) * _Other foreign ethnicity_: 239 (0.1%) * _Not Reported_: 575 (0.2%)
The native inhabitants of Benguet comprise three ethnolinguistic groups . Kankanaeys dominate the northwestern municipalities, Ibalois are concentrated on the southeast, and Kalanguyas are mostly found in the east. Migrants from lowland provinces have fused with the local populace to form a melting pot in some areas.
According to the 2000 Philippine census, Kankanaeys comprised 7001429600000000000♠42.96% (141,434) of the entire provincial household population of 329,216 at the time, while 7001291500000000000♠29.15% (95,968) were identified as Ibalois, and 7000369000000000000♠3.69% (12,147) were Ikalahan/Kalanguya . Major resident lowland ethnic groups included Ilocanos at 7001133600000000000♠13.36% (43,984) and Tagalogs at 7000236000000000000♠2.36% (7,773).
Benguet residents generally speak their own languages in addition to Ilocano , Tagalog , and English , which are used for trade and commerce. The Ibaloi tribe speak Ibaloi , which is similar to Pangasinan , while the Kankanaey have their own eponymous language , which is related to the Bontoc language .
The SIL Ethnologue database classifies the languages under the _South-Central Cordilleran _ branch. Nabaloy (named in the database as _Ibaloi_) is part of the _Southern Cordilleran_ branch which also includes Pangasinense . The Kankanaey language is under the _Central Cordilleran_ branch, which also includes Bontoc and Ifugao . Immaculate Conception Parish Church in Sablan
Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion with 73% adherence while Aglipayan (a local form of Catholicism) is an important minority. Many other Christian groups are also found and they are represented by Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints , Iglesia Ni Cristo , Presbyterian , Methodist , Baptist , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , Seventh-day Adventist as well as Muslims .
Benguet is a major producer of highland vegetables in the country.
Agriculture , mining , and tourism are the major industries in Benguet. Its cool climate and high altitude has made it an ideal place for producing highland vegetables. Benguet is often called the _Salad Bowl of the Philippines_. The _La Trinidad Vegetable Trading Post_ in the capital town of La Trinidad serves as the hub of vegetable trading in the province, attracting farmers, merchants and traders from the local community and the Philippines' different provinces. Major crops produced which include potatoes , _ Baguio beans_, peas , strawberries , cabbage , broccoli , cauliflower , lettuce , sayote and carrots are shipped throughout the country.
Horticulture and floriculture are practiced in the province. The province supplies flowers to the different municipalities, including Baguio City, as well as to Metro Manila , including other parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Roses are produced, particularly in Barangay _Bahong_ in La Trinidad, earning the barangay the title _Rose Capital of the Philippines_. Apisang (scientific name: _Pittosporum resiniferum_), a plant endemic to the Philippines, is grown in the municipalities of Kapangan and Kibungan as a potential alternative source of fuel and energy, rivaling the jatropha biofuel plant.
Other agricultural-related activities are monggo processing, fruit preservation , peanut brittle manufacturing, broom making and basket weaving . A gold ore from Mankayan copper mines
Mining is a major industry in Benguet, which is one of the country's leading gold producers. The Benguet Corporation , the first and oldest mining company in the Philippines, has extracted gold, copper and chromite in Itogon since 1903.
Other mineral deposits are silver , copper, pyrite , and limestone . Silver smithing is a large industry in Benguet, and many entrepreneurs sell silver works at lower prices in Baguio City compared to Manila . In 2006, revenues from mining reached 4 billion pesos from just two (Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corporation and Philex Mines) of many mining firms operating in the province. The province's mining vigor has never translated into better quality of life of the Benguet people, simply because a bulk of the mining firm's taxes are not paid directly to the province. The two mining corporations, like many others around the country, have principal offices in the City of Makati, a set-up that makes Makati the prime mining tax beneficiary.
Higher education in the province is centered in the capital town of La Trinidad , which houses the _Main Campus_ of the only university in Benguet, the Benguet State University (BSU). The university has two satellite campuses in two municipalities; the _Buguias Campus_ at Loo, Buguias , and the _Bokod Campus_ at Ambangeg, Bokod .
Other educational institutions which include Advocates Academic College, BVS Colleges, Cordillera Career Development College, King's College of the Philippines, Philippine College of Ministry , Philippine Nazarene College , as well as the Cordillera Regional Science High School , the Benguet National High School (with several annexes) and the Benguet SPED Center are also situated within La Trinidad.
The independent chartered city of Baguio hosts several higher education institutions, which include most notably the University of the Philippines Baguio , Saint Louis University , University of the Cordilleras (formerly _ Baguio Colleges Foundation_), University of Baguio , Pines City Colleges, Baguio Central University , and Baguio School of Business and Technology, attracting students from across the Philippines. Strawberries from La Trinidad, recognized as the " Strawberry Fields of the Philippines"
The province is a major tourist destination in the country, with most of its tourist spots centered on culture and nature. Baguio City 's location within the province provides a boost to the tourism industry of the province. Notable interesting places in the province include Mount Pulag along Kabayan , Kennon Road in Tuba , Ambuklao Dam in Bokod , Binga Dam in Itogon , strawberry and flower farms in La Trinidad, and the Palina and Naguey rice terraces in Atok .
Tuba and Tublay hot springs are usually flocked by local tourists from the neighboring provinces. Vegetable terraces can be seen along the Halsema Highway , especially during the growing season. Kabayan is known for its centuries-old mummies , while Buguias is visited for its hot springs and the Apo Anno.
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