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Bengali (/bɛŋˈɡɔːli/),[6] also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা [ˈbaŋla]), is an Indo- Aryan
Aryan
language primarily spoken by the Bengalis
Bengalis
in South Asia. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. With approximately 228 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers,[1][7] Bengali is the fifth most-spoken native language and the seventh most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world.[8][9] The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).[10][11][12] It serves as the lingua franca of the nation, with 98% of Bangladeshis being fluent in Bengali as their first language.[13][14] Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
and the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
in the state of Assam, and is the most widely spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
in the Bay of Bengal,[15] and is spoken by significant populations in other states including in Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland
Nagaland
and Uttarakhand.[16] Bengali is also spoken by the significant global Bengali diaspora
Bengali diaspora
(Bangladeshi diaspora and Indian Bengalis) communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Middle East.[17] Bengali has developed over the course of more than 1,300 years. Bengali literature, with its millennium-old literary history, has extensively developed since the Bengali Renaissance
Bengali Renaissance
and is one of the most prominent and diverse literary traditions in Asia. The Bengali language movement from 1948 to 1956 demanding Bengali to be an official language of Pakistan fostered Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism
in East Bengal
Bengal
leading to the emergence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971. In 1999, UNESCO recognised 21 February as International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day
in recognition of the language movement.[18][19] The Bengali language
Bengali language
is the quintessential element of Bengali identity and binds together a culturally diverse region.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient languages of Bengal 1.2 Early 1.3 Medieval 1.4 Modern

2 Geographical distribution

2.1 Official status 2.2 Dialects

3 Spoken and literary varieties 4 Phonology

4.1 Stress 4.2 Consonant
Consonant
clusters

5 Writing system

5.1 Orthographic depth 5.2 Uses 5.3 Romanisation

6 Grammar

6.1 Word order 6.2 Nouns 6.3 Verbs

7 Vocabulary 8 Sample text 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Silver coin with proto-Bengali script, Harikela
Harikela
Kingdom, circa 9th–13th century Ancient languages of Bengal[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
was practised by the priests in Bengal
Bengal
since the first millennium BCE. But, the local people were speaking in some varieties of Prakrita languages. Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee coined it as "eastern variety of Magdhi Prakrita". During the Gupta Empire, Bengal was a hub of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature.[20] The Middle Indo-Aryan dialects were influential in Bengal
Bengal
in the first millennium when the region was a part of the Magadha
Magadha
Realm. These dialects were called Magadhi Prakrit spoken in current Bihar
Bihar
state of India. The Magdhi Prakrita eventually evolved into Ardha Magadhi and become more distinct from the languages of Bengal
Bengal
day by day.[21][22] Ardha Magadhi began to give way to what are called Apabhraṃśa languages at the end of the first millennium. Then Bengali language
Bengali language
evolved as a distinct language by the course of time.[23]

Early[edit] Along with other Eastern Indo- Aryan
Aryan
languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Magadhi Prakrit.[24] The local Apabhraṃśa of the eastern subcontinent, Purbi Apabhraṃśa or Abahatta
Abahatta
("Meaningless Sounds"), eventually evolved into regional dialects, which in turn formed three groups of the Bengali–Assamese languages, the Bihari languages, and the Odia language. Some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier – going back to even 500,[25] but the language was not static: different varieties coexisted and authors often wrote in multiple dialects in this period. For example, Ardhamagadhi is believed to have evolved into Abahatta
Abahatta
around the 6th century, which competed with the ancestor of Bengali for some time.[26] Proto-Bengali was the language of the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
and the Sena dynasty.[27][28]

Medieval[edit] Silver Taka from the Sultanate of Bengal, circa 1417 During the medieval period, Middle Bengali was characterised by the elision of word-final অ ô, the spread of compound verbs and Arabic and Persian influences. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal. Muslim rulers promoted the literary development of Bengali.[29] Bengali became the most spoken vernacular language in the Sultanate.[30] This period saw borrowing of Perso- Arabic
Arabic
terms into Bengali vocabulary. Major texts of Middle Bengali (1400–1800) include Chandidas' Shreekrishna Kirtana.

Modern[edit] .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow display:flex;flex-direction:row;clear:left;flex-wrap:wrap;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader clear:both;font-weight:bold;text-align:center;align-self:center;background-color:transparent;width:100% .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption-center text-align:center;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;max-width:none!important;align-items:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle float:none!important;max-width:100%!important;box-sizing:border-box;text-align:center .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center The Central Shaheed Minar in Dhaka, BangladeshLanguage Martyr's Memorial at Silchar Railway Station in Assam, India. The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region, a west-central Bengali dialect. Bengali presents a strong case of diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language.[31] The modern Bengali vocabulary
Bengali vocabulary
contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali, also tatsamas and reborrowings from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and other major borrowings from Persian, Arabic, Austroasiatic languages
Austroasiatic languages
and other languages in contact with. During this period, the

চলিতভাষা Chôlitôbhasha form of Bengali using simplified inflections and other changes, was emerging from সাধুভাষা Sadhubhasha (Proper form or original form of Bengali) as the form of choice for written Bengali.[32] In 1948 the Government of Pakistan tried to impose Urdu
Urdu
as the sole state language in Pakistan, starting the Bengali language movement.[33] The Bengali Language Movement
Bengali Language Movement
was a popular ethno-linguistic movement in the former East Bengal
Bengal
(today Bangladesh), which was a result of the strong linguistic consciousness of the Bengalis
Bengalis
to gain and protect spoken and written Bengali's recognition as a state language of the then Dominion of Pakistan. On the day of 21 February 1952 five students and political activists were killed during protests near the campus of the University of Dhaka. In 1956 Bengali was made a state language of Pakistan.[33] The day has since been observed as Language Movement Day
Language Movement Day
in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and is also commemorated as International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day
by UNESCO every year since 2000. In 2010, the parliament of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the legislative assembly of West Bengal
Bengal
proposed that Bengali be made an official UN language,[34] though no further action was taken on this matter.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Approximate distribution of native Bengali speakers (assuming a rounded total of 261 million) worldwide.

   Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(61.3%)  India (37.2%)  Other (1.5%)

The Bengali language
Bengali language
is native to the region of Bengal, which comprises Indian states of West Bengal
Bengal
and the present-day nation of Bangladesh.

A Bengali sign in Brick Lane
Brick Lane
in London, which is home to a large Bengali diaspora Besides the native region it is also spoken by the Bengalis
Bengalis
living in Tripura, southern Assam
Assam
and the Bengali population in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bengali is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Odisha, Bihar, and Jharkhand, and sizeable minorities of Bengali speakers reside in Indian cities outside Bengal, including Delhi, Mumbai, Varanasi, and Vrindavan. There are also significant Bengali-speaking communities in the Middle East,[35][36][37] the United States,[38] Singapore,[39] Malaysia, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Italy.

Official status[edit] See also: States of India
India
by Bengali speakers The 3rd article of the Constitution of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
states Bengali to be the sole official language of Bangladesh.[12] The Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987 made it mandatory to use Bengali in all records and correspondences, laws, proceedings of court and other legal actions in all courts, government or semi-government offices, and autonomous institutions in Bangladesh.[10] It is also the de facto national language of the country. In India, Bengali is one of the 23 official languages.[40] It is the official language of the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and in Barak Valley
Barak Valley
of Assam.[41][42] Bengali is a second official language of the Indian state of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
since September 2011. It is also a recognised secondary language in the City of Karachi
Karachi
in Pakistan.[43][44][45] The Department of Bengali in the University of Karachi
Karachi
also offers regular programs of studies at the Bachelors and at the Masters levels for Bengali Literature.[46] The national anthems of both Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Amar Sonar Bangla) and India (Jana Gana Mana) were written in Bengali by the Bengali Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.[47] Additionally, the first two verses of Vande Mataram, a patriotic song written in Bengali by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, was adopted as the "national song" of India
India
in both the colonial period and later in 1950 in independent India. Furthermore, it is believed by many that the national anthem of Sri Lanka (Sri Lanka Matha) was inspired by a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore,[48][49][50][51] while some even believe the anthem was originally written in Bengali and then translated into Sinhala.[52][53][54][55] In 2009, elected representatives in both Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal called for Bengali language
Bengali language
to be made an official language of the United Nations.[56]

Dialects[edit] Main article: Bengali dialects A map of Bengal
Bengal
(and some districts of Assam
Assam
and Jharkhand) which shows the dialects of the Bengali Language.[citation needed]    Rarhi dialect   Bangali dialect    Manbhumi dialect   Varendri dialect   Sundarbani dialect   *Rajbanshi dialect/language   *Chittagonian dialect/language   *Sylheti dialect/language (the name with *bold letter are considered as Bengali dialects. also sometimes as separate languages.) Regional variation in spoken Bengali constitutes a dialect continuum. Linguist Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay
Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay
grouped these dialects into four large clusters – Rarh, Banga, Kamrupi and Varendra;[57] but many alternative grouping schemes have also been proposed.[58] The south-western dialects (Rarhi or Nadia dialect) form the basis of modern standard colloquial Bengali. In the dialects prevalent in much of eastern and south-eastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka and Sylhet Divisions of Bangladesh), many of the stops and affricates heard in West Bengal
Bengal
are pronounced as fricatives. Western alveolo-palatal affricates চ [tɕɔ], ছ [tɕʰɔ], জ [dʑɔ] correspond to eastern চ [tsɔ], ছ [tsʰɔ~sɔ], জ [dzɔ~zɔ]. The influence of Tibeto-Burman languages on the phonology of Eastern Bengali is seen through the lack of nasalised vowels and an alveolar articulation of what are categorised as the "cerebral" consonants (as opposed to the postalveolar articulation of West Bengal). Some variants of Bengali, particularly Chittagonian and Chakma, have contrastive tone; differences in the pitch of the speaker's voice can distinguish words. Rangpuri, Kharia Thar and Mal Paharia are closely related to Western Bengali dialects, but are typically classified as separate languages. Similarly, Hajong is considered a separate language, although it shares similarities to Northern Bengali dialects.[59] During the standardisation of Bengali in the 19th century and early 20th century, the cultural center of Bengal
Bengal
was in the city of Kolkata, founded by the British. What is accepted as the standard form today in both West Bengal
Bengal
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is based on the West-Central dialect of Nadia District, located next to the border of Bangladesh.[60] There are cases where speakers of Standard Bengali in West Bengal
Bengal
will use a different word from a speaker of Standard Bengali in Bangladesh, even though both words are of native Bengali descent. For example, the word salt is নুন nun in the west which corresponds to লবণ lôbôn in the east.[61]

Spoken and literary varieties[edit] Bengali exhibits diglossia, though some scholars have proposed triglossia or even n-glossia or heteroglossia between the written and spoken forms of the language.[31] Two styles of writing have emerged, involving somewhat different vocabularies and syntax:[60][62]

Shadhu-bhasha (সাধুভাষা "uptight language") was the written language, with longer verb inflections and more of a Pali
Pali
and Sanskrit-derived Tatsama
Tatsama
vocabulary. Songs such as India's national anthem Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
(by Rabindranath Tagore) were composed in Shadhubhasha. However, use of Shadhubhasha in modern writing is uncommon, restricted to some official signs and documents in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as well as for achieving particular literary effects. Cholito-bhasha (চলিতভাষা "running language"), known by linguists as Standard Colloquial Bengali, is a written Bengali style exhibiting a preponderance of colloquial idiom and shortened verb forms, and is the standard for written Bengali now. This form came into vogue towards the turn of the 19th century, promoted by the writings of Peary Chand Mitra
Peary Chand Mitra
(Alaler Gharer Dulal, 1857),[63] Pramatha Chaudhuri
Pramatha Chaudhuri
(Sabujpatra, 1914) and in the later writings of Rabindranath Tagore. It is modelled on the dialect spoken in the Shantipur
Shantipur
region in Nadia district, West Bengal. This form of Bengali is often referred to as the "Nadia standard", "Nadia dialect", "Southwestern/West-Central dialect" or "Shantipuri Bangla".[58] Linguist Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar, categorises the language as:

Madhya Rādhi dialect Kanthi (Contai) dialect Kolkata
Kolkata
dialect Shantipuri (Nadia) dialect Maldahiya (Jangipuri) dialect Barendri dialect Rangpuriya dialect Sylheti dialect Dhakaiya (Bikrampuri) dialect Jessor/ Jessoriya dialect Barisal (Chandradwip) dialect Chattal (Chittagong) dialect While most writing is in Standard Colloquial Bengali (SCB), spoken dialects exhibit a greater variety. People in southeastern West Bengal, including Kolkata, speak in SCB. Other dialects, with minor variations from Standard Colloquial, are used in other parts of West Bengal
Bengal
and western Bangladesh, such as the Midnapore
Midnapore
dialect, characterised by some unique words and constructions. However, a majority in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
speak in dialects notably different from SCB. Some dialects, particularly those of the Chittagong
Chittagong
region, bear only a superficial resemblance to SCB.[64] The dialect in the Chittagong
Chittagong
region is least widely understood by the general body of Bengalis.[64] The majority of Bengalis
Bengalis
are able to communicate in more than one variety – often, speakers are fluent in Cholitobhasha (SCB) and one or more regional dialects.[32] Even in SCB, the vocabulary may differ according to the speaker's religion: Hindus are more likely to use words derived from Sanskrit whereas Muslims are more likely to use words of Persian and Arabic origin, along with more native words respectively.[65] For example:[61]

Predominantly Hindu usage Predominantly Muslim usage Translation

নমস্কার nômôshkar আসসালামু আলাইকুম Assalamu-Alaikum hello

নিমন্ত্রণ nimôntrôn দাওয়াত daoat invitation

জল jôl পানি pani water

স্নান snan গোসল gosôl bath

দিদি didi আপু apu sister / elder sister

দাদা dada ভাই bha'i brother / elder brother[66]

মাসী mashi

খালা khala

maternal aunt

কাকা kaka

চাচা chacha

paternal uncle

প্রার্থনা prarthona

দো'আ do'a / du'a

pray

প্রদীপ prodip

বাতি bati

light[67]

Phonology[edit] Main article: Bengali phonology The phonemic inventory of standard Bengali consists of 29 consonants and 7 vowels, as well as 7 nasalised vowels. The inventory is set out below in the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(upper grapheme in each box) and romanisation (lower grapheme).

Vowels

Front Central Back

Close

ই~ঈii

উ~ঊuu

Close-mid

এee

ওoo

Near-open

অ্যাɛ ê

অɔ ô

Open

আaa

Nasalized vowels

Front Central Back

Close

ইঁ~ঈঁĩĩ

উঁ~ঊঁũũ

Close-mid

এঁẽẽ

ওঁõõ

Near-open

এ্যাঁ / অ্যাঁɛ̃

অঁɔ̃

Open

আঁ ã

Consonants

Labial

Dental/Alveolar

Retroflex

Palatoalveolar

Velar

Glottal

Nasal

m n   ŋ  

Plosive

voiceless

unaspirated

p t̪ ʈ tʃ k

aspirated

pʰ~f t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

voiced

unaspirated

b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ

aspirated

bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

Fricative

s ʃ

ɦ

Approximant

(w) l

(j)

Rhotic

r~ɾ ɽ~ɽʱ

Bengali is known for its wide variety of diphthongs, combinations of vowels occurring within the same syllable.[68] Two of these, /oi̯/ and /ou̯/, are the only ones with representation in script, as ঐ and ঔ respectively. /e̯ i̯ o̯ u̯/ may all form the glide part of a diphthong. The total number of diphthongs is not established, with bounds at 17 and 31. An incomplete chart is given by Sarkar (1985) of the following:[69]

e̯ i̯ o̯ u̯

a

ae̯ ai̯ ao̯ au̯

æ

æe̯

æo̯

e

ei̯

eu̯

i

ii̯

iu̯

o

oe̯ oi̯ oo̯ ou̯

u

ui̯

Stress[edit] In standard Bengali, stress is predominantly initial. Bengali words are virtually all trochaic; the primary stress falls on the initial syllable of the word, while secondary stress often falls on all odd-numbered syllables thereafter, giving strings such as in সহযোগিতা shô-hô-jo-gi-ta "cooperation", where the boldface represents primary and secondary stress.

Consonant
Consonant
clusters[edit] Main article: Bengali consonant clusters Native Bengali words do not allow initial consonant clusters;[70] the maximum syllabic structure is CVC (i.e. one vowel flanked by a consonant on each side). Many speakers of Bengali restrict their phonology to this pattern, even when using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
or English borrowings, such as গেরাম geram (CV.CVC) for গ্রাম gram (CCVC) "village" or ইস্কুল iskul (VC.CVC) for স্কুল skul (CCVC) "school".

Writing system[edit] Main articles: Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
and Bengali Braille An example of handwritten Bengali. Part of a poem written in Bengali (and with its English translation below each Bengali paragraph) by Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
in 1926 in Hungary The Bengali script is an abugida, a script with letters for consonants, diacritics for vowels, and in which an inherent vowel (অ ô) is assumed for consonants if no vowel is marked.[71] The Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
is used throughout Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and eastern India (Assam, West Bengal, Tripura). The Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
is believed to have evolved from a modified Brahmic script around 1000 CE (or 10th–11th century).[72] Note that despite Bangladesh
Bangladesh
being majority Muslim, it uses the Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
rather than an Arabic-based one like the Shahmukhi script
Shahmukhi script
used in Pakistan. However, throughout history there have been instances of the Bengali language being written in Perso-Arabic. The use of the Sylheti Nagari
Sylheti Nagari
script also emerged in the Sylhet region of the Bengal.[11] The Bengali script is a cursive script with eleven graphemes or signs denoting nine vowels and two diphthongs, and thirty-nine graphemes representing consonants and other modifiers.[72] There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms. The letters run from left to right and spaces are used to separate orthographic words. Bengali script has a distinctive horizontal line running along the tops of the graphemes that links them together called মাত্রা matra.[73] Since the Bengali script is an abugida, its consonant graphemes usually do not represent phonetic segments, but carry an "inherent" vowel and thus are syllabic in nature. The inherent vowel is usually a back vowel, either [ɔ] as in মত [mɔt̪] "opinion" or [o], as in মন [mon] "mind", with variants like the more open [ɒ]. To emphatically represent a consonant sound without any inherent vowel attached to it, a special diacritic, called the hôsôntô (্), may be added below the basic consonant grapheme (as in ম্ [m]). This diacritic, however, is not common, and is chiefly employed as a guide to pronunciation. The abugida nature of Bengali consonant graphemes is not consistent, however. Often, syllable-final consonant graphemes, though not marked by a hôsôntô, may carry no inherent vowel sound (as in the final ন in মন [mon] or the medial ম in গামলা [ɡamla]). A consonant sound followed by some vowel sound other than the inherent [ɔ] is orthographically realised by using a variety of vowel allographs above, below, before, after, or around the consonant sign, thus forming the ubiquitous consonant-vowel typographic ligatures. These allographs, called কার kar, are diacritical vowel forms and cannot stand on their own. For example, the graph মি [mi] represents the consonant [m] followed by the vowel [i], where [i] is represented as the diacritical allographি (called ই-কার i-kar) and is placed before the default consonant sign. Similarly, the graphs মা [ma], মী [mi], মু [mu], মূ [mu], মৃ [mri], মে [me~mɛ], মৈ [moj], মো [mo] and মৌ [mow] represent the same consonant ম combined with seven other vowels and two diphthongs. In these consonant-vowel ligatures, the so-called "inherent" vowel [ɔ] is first expunged from the consonant before adding the vowel, but this intermediate expulsion of the inherent vowel is not indicated in any visual manner on the basic consonant sign ম [mɔ]. The vowel graphemes in Bengali can take two forms: the independent form found in the basic inventory of the script and the dependent, abridged, allograph form (as discussed above). To represent a vowel in isolation from any preceding or following consonant, the independent form of the vowel is used. For example, in মই [moj] "ladder" and in ইলিশ [iliʃ] "Hilsa fish", the independent form of the vowel ই is used (cf. the dependent formি). A vowel at the beginning of a word is always realised using its independent form. In addition to the inherent-vowel-suppressing hôsôntô, three more diacritics are commonly used in Bengali. These are the superposed chôndrôbindu (ঁ), denoting a suprasegmental for nasalisation of vowels (as in চাঁদ [tʃãd] "moon"), the postposed ônusbar (ং) indicating the velar nasal [ŋ] (as in বাংলা [baŋla] "Bengali") and the postposed bisôrgô (ঃ) indicating the voiceless glottal fricative [h] (as in উঃ! [uh] "ouch!") or the gemination of the following consonant (as in দুঃখ [dukʰːɔ] "sorrow"). The Bengali consonant clusters
Bengali consonant clusters
(যুক্তব্যঞ্জন juktôbênjôn) are usually realised as ligatures, where the consonant which comes first is put on top of or to the left of the one that immediately follows. In these ligatures, the shapes of the constituent consonant signs are often contracted and sometimes even distorted beyond recognition. In the Bengali writing system, there are nearly 285 such ligatures denoting consonant clusters. Although there exist a few visual formulas to construct some of these ligatures, many of them have to be learned by rote. Recently, in a bid to lessen this burden on young learners, efforts have been made by educational institutions in the two main Bengali-speaking regions (West Bengal
Bengal
and Bangladesh) to address the opaque nature of many consonant clusters, and as a result, modern Bengali textbooks are beginning to contain more and more "transparent" graphical forms of consonant clusters, in which the constituent consonants of a cluster are readily apparent from the graphical form. However, since this change is not as widespread and is not being followed as uniformly in the rest of the Bengali printed literature, today's Bengali-learning children will possibly have to learn to recognise both the new "transparent" and the old "opaque" forms, which ultimately amounts to an increase in learning burden. Bengali punctuation marks, apart from the downstroke । daṛi – the Bengali equivalent of a full stop – have been adopted from western scripts and their usage is similar.[57] Unlike in western scripts (Latin, Cyrillic, etc.) where the letter-forms stand on an invisible baseline, the Bengali letter-forms instead hang from a visible horizontal left-to-right headstroke called মাত্রা matra. The presence and absence of this matra can be important. For example, the letter ত tô and the numeral ৩ "3" are distinguishable only by the presence or absence of the matra, as is the case between the consonant cluster ত্র trô and the independent vowel এ e. The letter-forms also employ the concepts of letter-width and letter-height (the vertical space between the visible matra and an invisible baseline). There is yet to be a uniform standard collating sequence (sorting order of graphemes to be used in dictionaries, indices, computer sorting programs, etc.) of Bengali graphemes. Experts in both Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India
India
are currently working towards a common solution for this problem.

Orthographic depth[edit] The Bengali script in general has a comparatively shallow orthography, i.e., in most cases there is a one-to-one correspondence between the sounds (phonemes) and the letters (graphemes) of Bengali. But grapheme-phoneme inconsistencies do occur in certain cases. One kind of inconsistency is due to the presence of several letters in the script for the same sound. In spite of some modifications in the 19th century, the Bengali spelling system continues to be based on the one used for Sanskrit,[57] and thus does not take into account some sound mergers that have occurred in the spoken language. For example, there are three letters (শ, ষ, and স) for the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ], although the letter স retains the voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in স্খলন [skʰɔlon] "fall", স্পন্দন [spɔndon] "beat", etc. The letter ষ also retains the voiceless retroflex sibilant [ʂ] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in কষ্ট [kɔʂʈɔ] "suffering", গোষ্ঠী [ɡoʂʈʰi] "clan", etc. Similarly, there are two letters (জ and য) for the voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ]. Moreover, what was once pronounced and written as a retroflex nasal ণ [ɳ] is now pronounced as an alveolar [n] when in conversation (the difference is heard when reading) (unless conjoined with another retroflex consonant such as ট, ঠ, ড and ঢ), although the spelling does not reflect this change. The open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ] is orthographically realised by multiple means, as seen in the following examples: এত [ɛto] "so much", এ্যাকাডেমী [ɛkademi] "academy", অ্যামিবা [ɛmiba] "amoeba", দেখা [dɛkʰa] "to see", ব্যস্ত [bɛsto] "busy", ব্যাকরণ [bɛkorɔn] "grammar". Another kind of inconsistency is concerned with the incomplete coverage of phonological information in the script. The inherent vowel attached to every consonant can be either [ɔ] or [o] depending on vowel harmony (স্বরসঙ্গতি) with the preceding or following vowel or on the context, but this phonological information is not captured by the script, creating ambiguity for the reader. Furthermore, the inherent vowel is often not pronounced at the end of a syllable, as in কম [kɔm] "less", but this omission is not generally reflected in the script, making it difficult for the new reader. Many consonant clusters have different sounds than their constituent consonants. For example, the combination of the consonants ক্ [k] and ষ [ʂ] is graphically realised as ক্ষ and is pronounced [kkʰɔ] (as in রুক্ষ [rukkʰo] "coarse") or [kkʰo] (as in ক্ষতি [kkʰot̪i] "harm") or even [kkʰɔ] (as in ক্ষমতা [kkʰɔmot̪a] "capability"), depending on the position of the cluster in a word. The Bengali writing system is, therefore, not always a true guide to pronunciation.

Uses[edit] The script used for Bengali, Assamese and other languages is known as Bengali script. The script is known as the Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
for Bengali and its dialects and the Assamese alphabet
Assamese alphabet
for Assamese language with some minor variations. Other related languages in the nearby region also make use of the Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
like the Meitei language in the Indian state of Manipur, where the Meitei language has been written in the Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
for centuries, though the Meitei script has been promoted in recent times.

Romanisation[edit] Main article: Romanisation
Romanisation
of Bengali There are various Romanisation
Romanisation
systems used for Bengali created in recent years which have failed to represent the true Bengali phonetic sound. The Bengali alphabet
Bengali alphabet
has often been included with the group of Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts
for romanisation where the true phonetic value of Bengali is never represented. Some of them are the International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration
Transliteration
or IAST system (based on diacritics),[74] "Indian languages Transliteration" or ITRANS (uses upper case letters suited for ASCII
ASCII
keyboards),[75] and the National Library at Kolkata
Kolkata
romanisation.[76] In the context of Bengali romanisation, it is important to distinguish transliteration from transcription. Transliteration
Transliteration
is orthographically accurate (i.e. the original spelling can be recovered), whereas transcription is phonetically accurate (the pronunciation can be reproduced). Although it might be desirable to use a transliteration scheme where the original Bengali orthography is recoverable from the Latin text, Bengali words are currently Romanized on using a phonemic transcription, where the true phonetic pronunciation of Bengali is represented with no reference to how it is written. The most recent attempt has been by publishers Mitra and Ghosh with the launch of three popular children's books, Abol Tabol, Hasi Khusi and Sahoj Path in Roman script at the Kolkata
Kolkata
Book
Book
Fair 2018. Published under the imprint of Benglish Books, these are based on phonetic transliteration and closely follow spellings used in social media but for using an underline to describe soft consonants.

Grammar[edit] Main article: Bengali grammar Bengali nouns are not assigned gender, which leads to minimal changing of adjectives (inflection). However, nouns and pronouns are moderately declined (altered depending on their function in a sentence) into four cases while verbs are heavily conjugated, and the verbs do not change form depending on the gender of the nouns.

Word order[edit] As a head-final language, Bengali follows subject–object–verb word order, although variations to this theme are common.[77] Bengali makes use of postpositions, as opposed to the prepositions used in English and other European languages. Determiners follow the noun, while numerals, adjectives, and possessors precede the noun.[78] Yes-no questions do not require any change to the basic word order; instead, the low (L) tone of the final syllable in the utterance is replaced with a falling (HL) tone. Additionally, optional particles (e.g. কি -ki, না -na, etc.) are often encliticised onto the first or last word of a yes-no question. Wh-questions are formed by fronting the wh-word to focus position, which is typically the first or second word in the utterance.

Nouns[edit] Nouns and pronouns are inflected for case, including nominative, objective, genitive (possessive), and locative.[23] The case marking pattern for each noun being inflected depends on the noun's degree of animacy. When a definite article such as -টা -ṭa (singular) or -গুলো -gulo (plural) is added, as in the tables below, nouns are also inflected for number. In most of the Bengali grammar
Bengali grammar
books, cases are divided in to 6 categories and an additional possessive case (possessive form is not recognised as a type of case by Bengali grammarians). But in term of usages, cases are generally grouped in to only 4 categories.

Singular noun inflection

Animate

Inanimate

Nominative

ছাত্রটিchatrô-ṭithe student

জুতাটা juta-ṭathe shoe

Objective

ছাত্রটিকে chatrô-ṭi-kethe student

জুতাটা juta-ṭathe shoe

Genitive

ছাত্রটির chatrô-ṭi-rthe student's

জুতাটার juta-ṭa-rthe shoe's

Locative

জুতাটায় juta-ṭa-yon/in the shoe

Plural noun inflection

Animate

Inanimate

Nominative

ছাত্ররা/ছাত্রগণchatrô-rathe students

জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলো juta-gula/juto-gulothe shoes

Objective

ছাত্রদের(কে)chatrô-der(ke)the students

জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলো juta-gula/juto-gulothe shoes

Genitive

ছাত্রদেরchatrô-derthe students'

জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলোর juta-gula/juto-gulo-rthe shoes'

Locative

জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলোতেjuta-gula/juto-gulo-teon/in the shoes

When counted, nouns take one of a small set of measure words. Nouns in Bengali (Japanese is similar in this respect) cannot be counted by adding the numeral directly adjacent to the noun. An appropriate measure word (MW) must be used between the numeral and the noun. Most nouns take the generic measure word -টা -ṭa, though other measure words indicate semantic classes (e.g. -জন -jôn for humans). There is also the classifier -khana, and its diminutive form -khani, which attach only to nouns denoting something flat, long, square, or thin. These are the least common of the classifiers.[79]

Measure words

Bengali

Bengali transliteration

Literal translation

English translation

নয়টা গরু

Nôy-ṭa goru

Nine-MW cow

Nine cows

কয়টা বালিশ

Kôy-ṭa balish

How many-MW pillow

How many pillows

অনেকজন লোক

Ônek-jôn lok

Many-MW person

Many people

চার-পাঁচজন শিক্ষক

Car-pãc-jôn shikkhôk

Four-five-MW teacher

Four to five teachers

Measuring nouns in Bengali without their corresponding measure words (e.g. আট বিড়াল aṭ biṛal instead of আটটা বিড়াল aṭ-ṭa biṛal "eight cats") would typically be considered ungrammatical. However, when the semantic class of the noun is understood from the measure word, the noun is often omitted and only the measure word is used, e.g. শুধু একজন থাকবে। Shudhu êk-jôn thakbe. (lit. "Only one-MW will remain.") would be understood to mean "Only one person will remain.", given the semantic class implicit in -জন -jôn. In this sense, all nouns in Bengali, unlike most other Indo-European languages, are similar to mass nouns.

Verbs[edit] There are two classes of verbs: finite and non-finite. Non-finite verbs have no inflection for tense or person, while finite verbs are fully inflected for person (first, second, third), tense (present, past, future), aspect (simple, perfect, progressive), and honour (intimate, familiar, and formal), but not for number. Conditional, imperative, and other special inflections for mood can replace the tense and aspect suffixes. The number of inflections on many verb roots can total more than 200. Inflectional suffixes in the morphology of Bengali vary from region to region, along with minor differences in syntax. Bengali differs from most Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Languages in the zero copula, where the copula or connective be is often missing in the present tense.[57] Thus, "he is a teacher" is সে শিক্ষক se shikkhôk, (literally "he teacher").[80] In this respect, Bengali is similar to Russian and Hungarian. Romani grammar is also the closest to Bengali grammar.[81]

Vocabulary[edit] Sources of modern literary Bengali words  67% native  25% Sanskrit
Sanskrit
reborrowings  8% indigenous and foreign loans Main article: Bengali vocabulary Bengali has as many as 100,000 separate words, of which 50,000 are considered Tadbhavas, 21,100 are Tatsamas and the remainder loanwords from Austroasiatic and other foreign languages. However, these figures do not take into account the large proportion of archaic or highly technical words that are very rarely used. Furthermore, different dialects use more Persian and Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary especially in different areas of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Muslim majority areas of West Bengal. Hindus, on the other hand, use more Sanskrit vocabulary than Muslims. While standard Bengali is based on the Nadia dialect of spoken in the Hindu majority states of West Bengal, about 90% of Bengalis
Bengalis
in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(ca. 148 million) and 27% of Bengalis
Bengalis
in West Bengal
Bengal
and 10% in Assam
Assam
(ca. 36 million) are Muslim and speak a more "persio-arabised" version of Bengali instead of the more Sanskrit influenced Standard Nadia dialect. The productive vocabulary used in modern literary works, in fact, is made up mostly (67%) of tadbhavas, while tatsamas comprise only 25% of the total.[82][83] Loanwords from non-Indic languages comprise the remaining 8% of the vocabulary used in modern Bengali literature. According to Suniti Kumar Chatterji, dictionaries from the early 20th century attributed about 50% of the Bengali vocabulary
Bengali vocabulary
to native words (i.e., naturally modified Prakrit
Prakrit
words, corrupted forms of Aryan words, and non Indo-European languages. About 45% percent of Bengali words are unmodified Sanskrit, and the remaining words are from foreign languages.[84] Dominant in the last group was Persian, which was also the source of some grammatical forms. More recent studies suggest that the use of native and foreign words has been increasing, mainly because of the preference of Bengali speakers for the colloquial style.[84] Because of centuries of contact with Europeans, Turkic peoples, and Persians, Bengali has absorbed numerous words from foreign languages, often totally integrating these borrowings into the core vocabulary. The most common borrowings from foreign languages come from three different kinds of contact. After close contact with several indigenous Austroasiatic languages,[85][86][87][88] and later the Mughal invasion whose court language was Persian, numerous Chagatai, Arabic, and Persian words were absorbed into the lexicon.[33] Later, East Asian travellers and lately European colonialism brought words from Portuguese, French, Dutch, and most significantly English during the colonial period.

Sample text[edit] The following is a sample text in Bengali of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Bengali in the Bengali alphabet

ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত। Bengali in phonetic Romanization

Dhara êk: Sômôstô manush shadhinbhabe sôman môrjada ebông ôdhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek ebông buddhi achhe; sutôrang sôkôleri êke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôsulôbh mônobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit. Bengali in the International Phonetic Alphabet

d̪ʱara ɛk ʃɔmost̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃoman mɔɾdʒad̪a eboŋ od̪ʱikaɾ nie̯e dʒɔnmoɡrohon kɔɾe t̪ãdeɾ bibek eboŋ bud̪ʱːi atʃʰe ʃut̪oraŋ ʃɔkoleɾi ɛke ɔporeɾ prot̪i bʱrat̪rit̪ːoʃulɔbʱ monobʱab nie̯e atʃorɔn kɔra utʃit̪ Gloss

Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should. Translation

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They possess conscience and reason. Therefore, everyone should act in a spirit of brotherhood towards each other. See also[edit]

Book: Bengali

Bangla Academy Bengali dialects Bengali numerals Bengali-language newspapers Chittagonian language Languages of Bangladesh Rangpuri language Romani people Sylheti language Notes[edit]

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^ Shabdkosh.com. "light – Meaning in Bengali – light in Bengali – Shabdkosh অভিধান : English Bengali Dictionary and Translation". Shabdkosh.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2016.

^ (Masica 1991, pp. 116)

^ Sarkar, Pabitra (1985). Bangla diswar dhoni. Bhasa.

^ (Masica 1991, pp. 125)

^ Escudero Pascual Alberto (23 October 2005). "Writing Systems/ Scripts" (PDF). Primer to Localization of Software. it46.se. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ a b Bangalah Archived 5 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
2003

^ "banglasemantics.net". Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.

^ "Learning International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration". Sanskrit
Sanskrit
3 – Learning transliteration. Gabriel Pradiipaka & Andrés Muni. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ "ITRANS – Indian Language Transliteration
Transliteration
Package". Avinash Chopde. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ "Annex-F: Roman Script Transliteration" (PDF). Indian Standard: Indian Script Code for Information Interchange – ISCII. Bureau of Indian Standards. 1 April 1999. p. 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ (Bhattacharya 2000, pp. 16)

^ "Bengali". UCLA Language Materials project. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2006.

^ Boyle David, Anne (2015). Descriptive grammar of Bangla. De Gruyter. pp. 141–142.

^ Among Bengali speakers brought up in neighbouring linguistic regions (e.g. Hindi), the lost copula may surface in utterances such as she shikkhôk hocche. This is viewed as ungrammatical by other speakers, and speakers of this variety are sometimes (humorously) referred as "hocche-Bangali".

^ Hübschmannová, Milena (1995). "Romaňi čhib – romština: Několik základních informací o romském jazyku". Bulletin Muzea Romské Kultury. Brno (4/1995). Zatímco romská lexika je bližší hindštině, marvárštině, pandžábštině atd., v gramatické sféře nacházíme mnoho shod s východoindickým jazykem, s bengálštinou.

^ Tatsama
Tatsama
Archived 6 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
2003

^ Tadbhaba Archived 6 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
2003

^ a b "Bengali language". Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.

^ Byomkes Chakrabarti
Byomkes Chakrabarti
A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, K.P. Bagchi & Co., Kolkata, 1994, ISBN 81-7074-128-9

^ Das, Khudiram (1998). Santhali Bangla Samashabda Abhidhan. Kolkata, India: Paschim Banga Bangla Akademi.

^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

^ Das, Khudiram. Bangla Santali Bhasa Samporko (eBook).

References[edit]

.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Alam, M (2000). "Bhasha Shourôbh: Bêkorôn O Rôchona (The Fragrance of Language: Grammar and Rhetoric)". S.N. Printers, Dhaka. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Ali, Shaheen Sardar; Rehman, Javaid (2001). Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities of Pakistan: Constitutional and Legal Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-1159-8. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(2003). "Banglapedia, the national encyclopedia of Bangladesh". Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Bhattacharya, T (2000). "Bengali" (PDF). In Gary, J. and Rubino. C. (ed.). Encyclopedia of World's Languages: Past and Present (Facts About the World's Languages). WW Wilson, New York. ISBN 978-0-8242-0970-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2006. Bonazzi, Eros (2008). "Bengali". Dizionario Bengali. Avallardi (Italy). ISBN 978-88-7887-168-7. Cardona, George; Jain, Danesh (2007). The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. Chakraborty, Byomkes, A Comparative Study of Santali and Bengali, K.P. Bagchi & Co., Kolkata, 1994, ISBN 81-7074-128-9. Chatterji, SK (1921). "Bengali Phonetics". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 2: 1. doi:10.1017/S0041977X0010179X. Chatterji, SK (1926). "The Origin and Development of the Bengali Language". Calcutta Univ. Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Chisholm, H (1910). Hugh Chisholm (ed.). The Encyclopædia Britannica : A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. Cambridge, England ; New York : At the University Press. OCLC 266598. Ferguson, CA; Chowdhury, M (1960). "The Phonemes of Bengali". Language. 36 (1): 22–59. doi:10.2307/410622. JSTOR 410622.

Haldar, Gopal (2000). Languages of India. National Book
Book
Trust, India. ISBN 978-81-237-2936-7. Hayes, B; Lahiri, A (1991). "Bengali intonational phonology". Natural Language & Linguistic Theory. 9: 47. doi:10.1007/BF00133326. Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1998). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Drama. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0977-2. Klaiman, MH (1987). "Bengali". In Bernard Comrie (ed.). The World's Major Languages. Croon Helm, London
London
and Sydney. ISBN 978-0-19-506511-4. Masica, C (1991). "The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Languages". Cambridge Univ. Press. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Radice, W (1994). Teach Yourself Bengali: A Complete Course for Beginners. NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8442-3752-7. Ray, P; Hai, MA; Ray, L (1966). " Bengali language
Bengali language
handbook". Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington. ASIN B000B9G89C. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Sen, D (1996). "Bengali Language and Literature". International Centre for Bengal
Bengal
Studies, Calcutta. Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-898723-31-8. Tagore, Rabindranath; Das, Sisir Kumar (1996). The English Writings of Rabindranath Tagore. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0094-4. Wilson, A.J.; Dalton, D. (1982). The States of South Asia: Problems of National Integration. Essays in Honour of W.H. Morris-Jones. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1183-9. Bonazzi, E (2008). Grammatica Bengali. Bologna: Libreria Bonomo Editrice. ISBN 978-88-6071-017-8. Shaw, Rameswar Sadharan Bhasabigna O Bangal
Bangal
Bhasa, Pustak Bipani, Kolkata, 1997. Haldar, Narayan Bengali Bhasa Prsanga: Banan Kathan Likhanriti, Pustak Bipani, Kolkata, 2007.

Further reading[edit] Thompson, Hanne-Ruth (2012). Bengali. Volume 18 of London
London
Oriental and African Language Library. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-7313-8. Dasgupta, Probal (2003). Bangla. In George Cardona and Dhanesh Jain, (eds) The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
languages. London/New York: Routledge, 351–390. External links[edit]

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vte Languages of BangladeshOfficial languageand national language Bengali Indo-European Bengali dialects Bihari (Urdu) Bishnupriya Chakma Chittagonian English Bangla-Portuguese Rangpuri Rohingya Sadri Sylheti Hajong Sino-Tibetan Arakanese A'Tong Bawm Falam Garo Haka Khumi Koch Kokborok Megam Meitei (Manipuri) Mizo Mru Pangkhu Rengmitca Sak Shö Tanchangya Austroasiatic Khasi Koda Mundari Pnar Santali War-Jaintia Dravidian Kurukh Malto

vte Languages of IndiaOfficiallanguagesUnion-level Hindi English 8th schedule to the Constitution of India Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu State-level only Garo Gurung Kamatapuri Khasi Kokborok Kurmali Lepcha Limbu Magar Mizo Newari Rai Rajbangshi Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang MajorunofficiallanguagesOver 1 millionspeakers Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi 100,000 – 1 millionspeakers Adi Angami Ao Badaga Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mising Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

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languagesDardic Bateri Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalasha-mun Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji NorthernEastern Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa Central Garhwali Kumaoni Western Bhadarwahi Bilaspuri Dogri Hinduri Jaunsari Kangri Kullu Mandeali Mahasu Pahari Pahari Kinnauri Sirmauri North-westernPunjabi Punjabi dialects Lahnda Hindko Inku Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki Sindhi Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi WesternGujarati Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri Bhil Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi Rajasthani Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki Others Domari Khandeshi Lambadi Romani list of languages CentralWestern Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani Hindi Bombay Hindi Urdu Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi Eastern Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi Others Danwar Parya EasternBihari Angika Bajjika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Kurmali Magahi Maithili Majhi Musasa Sadri Tharu Kochila Bengali–Assamese Assamese Bengali dialects Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Surjapuri Sylheti Tanchangya Odia Odia Sambalpuri Bodo Parja Kupia Reli Halbic Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari Others Mal Paharia SouthernMarathi–Konkani Konkani Marathi others.. Insular Maldivian Sinhala Unclassified Chinali Sheikhgal Kholosi Pidgins/creoles Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages Authority control GND: 4005498

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