Bengali (/bɛŋˈɡɔːli/), also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা [ˈbaŋla]), is an Indo- Aryan
Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis
Bengalis in South Asia. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh
Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. With approximately 228 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers, Bengali is the fifth most-spoken native language and the seventh most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world. The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali). It serves as the lingua franca of the nation, with 98% of Bangladeshis being fluent in Bengali as their first language. Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura and the Barak Valley
Barak Valley in the state of Assam, and is the most widely spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, and is spoken by significant populations in other states including in Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland
Nagaland and Uttarakhand. Bengali is also spoken by the significant global Bengali diaspora
Bengali diaspora (Bangladeshi diaspora and Indian Bengalis) communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Middle East. Bengali has developed over the course of more than 1,300 years. Bengali literature, with its millennium-old literary history, has extensively developed since the Bengali Renaissance
Bengali Renaissance and is one of the most prominent and diverse literary traditions in Asia. The Bengali language movement from 1948 to 1956 demanding Bengali to be an official language of Pakistan fostered Bengali nationalism
Bengali nationalism in East Bengal
Bengal leading to the emergence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh in 1971. In 1999, UNESCO recognised 21 February as International Mother Language Day
International Mother Language Day in recognition of the language movement. The Bengali language
Bengali language is the quintessential element of Bengali identity and binds together a culturally diverse region.
1.1 Ancient languages of Bengal 1.2 Early 1.3 Medieval 1.4 Modern
2 Geographical distribution
2.1 Official status 2.2 Dialects
3 Spoken and literary varieties 4 Phonology
5 Writing system
5.1 Orthographic depth 5.2 Uses 5.3 Romanisation
6.1 Word order 6.2 Nouns 6.3 Verbs
7 Vocabulary 8 Sample text 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links
Silver coin with proto-Bengali script,
Along with other Eastern Indo-
Silver Taka from the Sultanate of Bengal, circa 1417
During the medieval period, Middle Bengali was characterised by the
elision of word-final অ ô, the spread of compound verbs and Arabic
and Persian influences. Bengali was an official court language of the
Sultanate of Bengal. Muslim rulers promoted the literary development
of Bengali. Bengali became the most spoken vernacular
language in the Sultanate. This period saw borrowing of
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption
text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-left text-align:left
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-right text-align:right
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .text-align-center text-align:center @media
all and (max-width:720px) .mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center The Central
Shaheed Minar in Dhaka, BangladeshLanguage Martyr's Memorial at
Silchar Railway Station in Assam, India.
The modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and
early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region,
a west-central Bengali dialect. Bengali presents a strong case of
diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing greatly from
the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the
language. The modern
চলিতভাষা Chôlitôbhasha form of Bengali using
simplified inflections and other changes, was emerging from
সাধুভাষা Sadhubhasha (Proper form or original form of
Bengali) as the form of choice for written Bengali.
In 1948 the Government of Pakistan tried to impose
Approximate distribution of native Bengali speakers (assuming a rounded total of 261 million) worldwide.
A Bengali sign in
See also: States of
Main article: Bengali dialects
A map of
Spoken and literary varieties Bengali exhibits diglossia, though some scholars have proposed triglossia or even n-glossia or heteroglossia between the written and spoken forms of the language. Two styles of writing have emerged, involving somewhat different vocabularies and syntax:
Shadhu-bhasha (সাধুভাষা "uptight language") was the
written language, with longer verb inflections and more of a
Madhya Rādhi dialect
Kanthi (Contai) dialect
Predominantly Hindu usage Predominantly Muslim usage Translation
নমস্কার nômôshkar আসসালামু আলাইকুম Assalamu-Alaikum hello
নিমন্ত্রণ nimôntrôn দাওয়াত daoat invitation
জল jôl পানি pani water
স্নান snan গোসল gosôl bath
দিদি didi আপু apu sister / elder sister
দাদা dada ভাই bha'i brother / elder brother
দো'আ do'a / du'a
Main article: Bengali phonology
The phonemic inventory of standard Bengali consists of 29 consonants
and 7 vowels, as well as 7 nasalised vowels. The inventory is set out
below in the
International Phonetic Alphabet
Front Central Back
Front Central Back
এ্যাঁ / অ্যাঁɛ̃
m n ŋ
p t̪ ʈ tʃ k
pʰ~f t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ
b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ
bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Bengali is known for its wide variety of diphthongs, combinations of vowels occurring within the same syllable. Two of these, /oi̯/ and /ou̯/, are the only ones with representation in script, as ঐ and ঔ respectively. /e̯ i̯ o̯ u̯/ may all form the glide part of a diphthong. The total number of diphthongs is not established, with bounds at 17 and 31. An incomplete chart is given by Sarkar (1985) of the following:
e̯ i̯ o̯ u̯
ae̯ ai̯ ao̯ au̯
oe̯ oi̯ oo̯ ou̯
Stress In standard Bengali, stress is predominantly initial. Bengali words are virtually all trochaic; the primary stress falls on the initial syllable of the word, while secondary stress often falls on all odd-numbered syllables thereafter, giving strings such as in সহযোগিতা shô-hô-jo-gi-ta "cooperation", where the boldface represents primary and secondary stress.
Orthographic depth The Bengali script in general has a comparatively shallow orthography, i.e., in most cases there is a one-to-one correspondence between the sounds (phonemes) and the letters (graphemes) of Bengali. But grapheme-phoneme inconsistencies do occur in certain cases. One kind of inconsistency is due to the presence of several letters in the script for the same sound. In spite of some modifications in the 19th century, the Bengali spelling system continues to be based on the one used for Sanskrit, and thus does not take into account some sound mergers that have occurred in the spoken language. For example, there are three letters (শ, ষ, and স) for the voiceless postalveolar fricative [ʃ], although the letter স retains the voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in স্খলন [skʰɔlon] "fall", স্পন্দন [spɔndon] "beat", etc. The letter ষ also retains the voiceless retroflex sibilant [ʂ] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in কষ্ট [kɔʂʈɔ] "suffering", গোষ্ঠী [ɡoʂʈʰi] "clan", etc. Similarly, there are two letters (জ and য) for the voiced postalveolar affricate [dʒ]. Moreover, what was once pronounced and written as a retroflex nasal ণ [ɳ] is now pronounced as an alveolar [n] when in conversation (the difference is heard when reading) (unless conjoined with another retroflex consonant such as ট, ঠ, ড and ঢ), although the spelling does not reflect this change. The open-mid front unrounded vowel [ɛ] is orthographically realised by multiple means, as seen in the following examples: এত [ɛto] "so much", এ্যাকাডেমী [ɛkademi] "academy", অ্যামিবা [ɛmiba] "amoeba", দেখা [dɛkʰa] "to see", ব্যস্ত [bɛsto] "busy", ব্যাকরণ [bɛkorɔn] "grammar". Another kind of inconsistency is concerned with the incomplete coverage of phonological information in the script. The inherent vowel attached to every consonant can be either [ɔ] or [o] depending on vowel harmony (স্বরসঙ্গতি) with the preceding or following vowel or on the context, but this phonological information is not captured by the script, creating ambiguity for the reader. Furthermore, the inherent vowel is often not pronounced at the end of a syllable, as in কম [kɔm] "less", but this omission is not generally reflected in the script, making it difficult for the new reader. Many consonant clusters have different sounds than their constituent consonants. For example, the combination of the consonants ক্ [k] and ষ [ʂ] is graphically realised as ক্ষ and is pronounced [kkʰɔ] (as in রুক্ষ [rukkʰo] "coarse") or [kkʰo] (as in ক্ষতি [kkʰot̪i] "harm") or even [kkʰɔ] (as in ক্ষমতা [kkʰɔmot̪a] "capability"), depending on the position of the cluster in a word. The Bengali writing system is, therefore, not always a true guide to pronunciation.
The script used for Bengali, Assamese and other languages is known as
Bengali script. The script is known as the
Grammar Main article: Bengali grammar Bengali nouns are not assigned gender, which leads to minimal changing of adjectives (inflection). However, nouns and pronouns are moderately declined (altered depending on their function in a sentence) into four cases while verbs are heavily conjugated, and the verbs do not change form depending on the gender of the nouns.
Word order As a head-final language, Bengali follows subject–object–verb word order, although variations to this theme are common. Bengali makes use of postpositions, as opposed to the prepositions used in English and other European languages. Determiners follow the noun, while numerals, adjectives, and possessors precede the noun. Yes-no questions do not require any change to the basic word order; instead, the low (L) tone of the final syllable in the utterance is replaced with a falling (HL) tone. Additionally, optional particles (e.g. কি -ki, না -na, etc.) are often encliticised onto the first or last word of a yes-no question. Wh-questions are formed by fronting the wh-word to focus position, which is typically the first or second word in the utterance.
Nouns and pronouns are inflected for case, including nominative,
objective, genitive (possessive), and locative. The case
marking pattern for each noun being inflected depends on the noun's
degree of animacy. When a definite article such as -টা -ṭa
(singular) or -গুলো -gulo (plural) is added, as in the tables
below, nouns are also inflected for number.
In most of the
Singular noun inflection
জুতাটা juta-ṭathe shoe
ছাত্রটিকে chatrô-ṭi-kethe student
জুতাটা juta-ṭathe shoe
ছাত্রটির chatrô-ṭi-rthe student's
জুতাটার juta-ṭa-rthe shoe's
জুতাটায় juta-ṭa-yon/in the shoe
Plural noun inflection
জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলো juta-gula/juto-gulothe shoes
জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলো juta-gula/juto-gulothe shoes
জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলোর juta-gula/juto-gulo-rthe shoes'
জুতাগুলা/জুতোগুলোতেjuta-gula/juto-gulo-teon/in the shoes
When counted, nouns take one of a small set of measure words. Nouns in Bengali (Japanese is similar in this respect) cannot be counted by adding the numeral directly adjacent to the noun. An appropriate measure word (MW) must be used between the numeral and the noun. Most nouns take the generic measure word -টা -ṭa, though other measure words indicate semantic classes (e.g. -জন -jôn for humans). There is also the classifier -khana, and its diminutive form -khani, which attach only to nouns denoting something flat, long, square, or thin. These are the least common of the classifiers.
How many-MW pillow
How many pillows
Four to five teachers
Measuring nouns in Bengali without their corresponding measure words (e.g. আট বিড়াল aṭ biṛal instead of আটটা বিড়াল aṭ-ṭa biṛal "eight cats") would typically be considered ungrammatical. However, when the semantic class of the noun is understood from the measure word, the noun is often omitted and only the measure word is used, e.g. শুধু একজন থাকবে। Shudhu êk-jôn thakbe. (lit. "Only one-MW will remain.") would be understood to mean "Only one person will remain.", given the semantic class implicit in -জন -jôn. In this sense, all nouns in Bengali, unlike most other Indo-European languages, are similar to mass nouns.
There are two classes of verbs: finite and non-finite. Non-finite
verbs have no inflection for tense or person, while finite verbs are
fully inflected for person (first, second, third), tense (present,
past, future), aspect (simple, perfect, progressive), and honour
(intimate, familiar, and formal), but not for number. Conditional,
imperative, and other special inflections for mood can replace the
tense and aspect suffixes. The number of inflections on many verb
roots can total more than 200.
Inflectional suffixes in the morphology of Bengali vary from region to
region, along with minor differences in syntax.
Bengali differs from most Indo-
Sources of modern literary Bengali words 67%
Sample text The following is a sample text in Bengali of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Bengali in the Bengali alphabet
ধারা ১: সমস্ত মানুষ স্বাধীনভাবে সমান মর্যাদা এবং অধিকার নিয়ে জন্মগ্রহণ করে। তাঁদের বিবেক এবং বুদ্ধি আছে; সুতরাং সকলেরই একে অপরের প্রতি ভ্রাতৃত্বসুলভ মনোভাব নিয়ে আচরণ করা উচিত। Bengali in phonetic Romanization
Dhara êk: Sômôstô manush shadhinbhabe sôman môrjada ebông ôdhikar niye jônmôgrôhôn kôre. Tãder bibek ebông buddhi achhe; sutôrang sôkôleri êke ôpôrer prôti bhratrittôsulôbh mônobhab niye achôrôn kôra uchit. Bengali in the International Phonetic Alphabet
d̪ʱara ɛk ʃɔmost̪o manuʃ ʃad̪ʱinbʱabe ʃoman mɔɾdʒad̪a eboŋ od̪ʱikaɾ nie̯e dʒɔnmoɡrohon kɔɾe t̪ãdeɾ bibek eboŋ bud̪ʱːi atʃʰe ʃut̪oraŋ ʃɔkoleɾi ɛke ɔporeɾ prot̪i bʱrat̪rit̪ːoʃulɔbʱ monobʱab nie̯e atʃorɔn kɔra utʃit̪ Gloss
Clause 1: All human free-manner-in equal dignity and right taken birth-take do. Their reason and intelligence exist; therefore everyone-indeed one another's towards brotherhood-ly attitude taken conduct do should. Translation
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They possess conscience and reason. Therefore, everyone should act in a spirit of brotherhood towards each other. See also
Bangla Academy Bengali dialects Bengali numerals Bengali-language newspapers Chittagonian language Languages of Bangladesh Rangpuri language Romani people Sylheti language Notes
^ "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
^ "Bangla Sign Language Dictionary". www.scribd.com. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
^ Hays, Jeffrey. "BENGALIS – Facts and Details". factsanddetails.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
^ "Summary by language size". Ethnologue. 3 October 2018. Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
^ a b "Bangla Bhasha Procholon Ain, 1987" বাংলা ভাষা
প্রচলন আইন, ১৯৮৭ [Bengali Language
Implementation Act, 1987] (PDF).
^ a b "Bangla Language – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
^ a b "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
^ "National Languages Of Bangladesh". einfon.com. 11 June 2017. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
^ "5 Surprising Reasons the Bengali Language Is Important". 17 August 2017. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
^ "50th Report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). National Commission for Linguistic Minorities. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
^ "50th REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
^ "Bengali Language". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
^ "Amendment to the Draft Programme and Budget for 2000–2001 (30 C/5)" (PDF). General Conference, 30th Session, Draft Resolution. UNESCO. 1999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
^ "Resolution adopted by the 30th Session of UNESCO's General Conference (1999)". International Mother Language Day. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 1 June 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
^ "Bangla Script – Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
^ Shah 1998, p. 11
^ Keith 1998, p. 187
^ a b (Bhattacharya & 50000000)
^ Oberlies, Thomas (2007). "Chapter Five: Aśokan
^ (Sen 1996)
^ "Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
^ "Pala dynasty – Indian dynasty". Global.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
^ nimmi. "Pala Dynasty, Pala Empire, Pala empire in India, Pala School of Sculptures". Indianmirror.com. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
^ Rabbani, AKM Golam (7 November 2017). "Politics and Literary
Activities in the Bengali Language during the Independent Sultanate of
^ Eaton, Richard M. (1993). The Rise of Islam and the
^ a b "Bengali Language at Cornell". Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012.
^ a b Ray, S Kumar. "The Bengali Language and Translation". Translation Articles. Kwintessential. Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2006.
^ a b c Thompson, Hanne-Ruth (2012). Bengali (Paperback with corrections. ed.). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-272-3819-1.
^ "Bengali 'should be UN language'". News.bbc.co.uk. 22 December 2009. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
^ "Kuwait restricts recruitment of male Bangladeshi workers Dhaka Tribune". www.dhakatribune.com. 7 September 2016. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
^ "Bahrain: Foreign population by country of citizenship, sex and migration status (worker/ family dependent) (selected countries, January 2015) – GLMM". GLMM. 20 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
^ "Saudi Arabia". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ http://blls.sg Archived 5 May 2013 at the
^ "Languages of India".
^ "Language". Government of Assam. Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2006.
^ Bhattacharjee, Kishalay (30 April 2008). "It's Indian language vs Indian language". ndtv.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
^ Syed Yasir Kazmi (16 October 2009). "Pakistani Bengalis". DEMOTIX. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
^ "کراچی کے 'بنگالی پاکستانی'(Urdu)". محمد عثمان جامعی. 17 November 2003. Archived from the original on 19 November 2003. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
^ Rafiqul Islam. "The Language Movement : An Outline". Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
^ "Statement by Hon'ble Foreign Minister on Second Bangladesh-India Track II dialogue at BRAC Centre on 07 August, 2005". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 18 April 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
^ "Sri Lanka". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ "Man of the series: Nobel laureate Tagore". The Times of India. Times News Network. 3 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
^ "Sri Lanka I-Day to have anthem in Tamil". The Hindu. 4 February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ "Tagore's influence on Lankan culture". Hindustan Times. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ Wickramasinghe, Nira (2003). Dressing the Colonised Body: Politics, Clothing, and Identity in Sri Lanka. Orient Longman. p. 26. ISBN 978-81-250-2479-8. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
^ Wickramasinghe, Kamanthi; Perera, Yoshitha. "Sri Lankan National Anthem: can it be used to narrow the gap?". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka) (30 March 2015). Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ Haque, Junaidul (7 May 2011). "Rabindranath: He belonged to the world". The Daily Star (Bangladesh). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ Habib, Haroon (17 May 2011). "Celebrating Rabindranath Tagore's legacy". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 13 June 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
^ Subir Bhaumik (22 December 2009). "Bengali 'should be UN language'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
^ a b c d Bangla language Archived 6 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
in Asiatic Society of
^ a b Morshed, Abul Kalam Manjoor. "Dialect". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
^ "Hajong". The
^ a b Huq, Mohammad Daniul. "Chalita Bhasa". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
^ a b "History of Bengali (Banglar itihash)".
^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul. "Sadhu Bhasa". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
^ Huq, Mohammad Daniul. "Alaler Gharer Dulal". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
^ a b Ray, Hai & Ray 1966, p. 89
^ Ray, Hai & Ray 1966, p. 80
^ "A Bilingual Dictionary of Words and Phrases (English-Bengali)". Bengali-dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
^ Shabdkosh.com. "light – Meaning in Bengali – light in Bengali – Shabdkosh অভিধান : English Bengali Dictionary and Translation". Shabdkosh.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
^ (Masica 1991, pp. 116)
^ Sarkar, Pabitra (1985). Bangla diswar dhoni. Bhasa.
^ (Masica 1991, pp. 125)
^ Escudero Pascual Alberto (23 October 2005). "Writing Systems/ Scripts" (PDF). Primer to Localization of Software. it46.se. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
^ "banglasemantics.net". Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.
^ "Learning International Alphabet of
^ "ITRANS – Indian Language
^ "Annex-F: Roman Script Transliteration" (PDF). Indian Standard: Indian Script Code for Information Interchange – ISCII. Bureau of Indian Standards. 1 April 1999. p. 32. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
^ (Bhattacharya 2000, pp. 16)
^ "Bengali". UCLA Language Materials project. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 15 July 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2006.
^ Boyle David, Anne (2015). Descriptive grammar of Bangla. De Gruyter. pp. 141–142.
^ Among Bengali speakers brought up in neighbouring linguistic regions (e.g. Hindi), the lost copula may surface in utterances such as she shikkhôk hocche. This is viewed as ungrammatical by other speakers, and speakers of this variety are sometimes (humorously) referred as "hocche-Bangali".
^ Hübschmannová, Milena (1995). "Romaňi čhib – romština: Několik základních informací o romském jazyku". Bulletin Muzea Romské Kultury. Brno (4/1995). Zatímco romská lexika je bližší hindštině, marvárštině, pandžábštině atd., v gramatické sféře nacházíme mnoho shod s východoindickým jazykem, s bengálštinou.
^ a b "Bengali language". Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
^ Das, Khudiram (1998). Santhali Bangla Samashabda Abhidhan. Kolkata, India: Paschim Banga Bangla Akademi.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
^ Das, Khudiram. Bangla Santali Bhasa Samporko (eBook).
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%
Alam, M (2000). "Bhasha Shourôbh: Bêkorôn O Rôchona (The Fragrance
of Language: Grammar and Rhetoric)". S.N. Printers, Dhaka. Cite
journal requires |journal= (help)
Ali, Shaheen Sardar; Rehman, Javaid (2001). Indigenous Peoples and
Ethnic Minorities of Pakistan: Constitutional and Legal Perspectives.
Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-1159-8.
Asiatic Society of
Haldar, Gopal (2000). Languages of India. National
Thompson, Hanne-Ruth (2012). Bengali. Volume 18 of
Bangla edition of, the free encyclopedia
Bengali languageat's sister projectsDefinitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata
vte Languages of BangladeshOfficial languageand national language Bengali Indo-European Bengali dialects Bihari (Urdu) Bishnupriya Chakma Chittagonian English Bangla-Portuguese Rangpuri Rohingya Sadri Sylheti Hajong Sino-Tibetan Arakanese A'Tong Bawm Falam Garo Haka Khumi Koch Kokborok Megam Meitei (Manipuri) Mizo Mru Pangkhu Rengmitca Sak Shö Tanchangya Austroasiatic Khasi Koda Mundari Pnar Santali War-Jaintia Dravidian Kurukh Malto
vte Languages of IndiaOfficiallanguagesUnion-level Hindi English 8th schedule to the Constitution of India Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu State-level only Garo Gurung Kamatapuri Khasi Kokborok Kurmali Lepcha Limbu Magar Mizo Newari Rai Rajbangshi Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang MajorunofficiallanguagesOver 1 millionspeakers Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi 100,000 – 1 millionspeakers Adi Angami Ao Badaga Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mising Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou