BENJAMIN "BEN" JONSON (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an
English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry
exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He
popularised the comedy of humours . He is best known for the satirical
Every Man in His Humour (1598), Volpone, or The Fox (c. 1606),
The Alchemist (1610) and Bartholomew Fair (1614) and for his lyric
poetry ; he is generally regarded as the second most important English
playwright during the reign of James I after
Jonson was a classically educated , well-read and cultured man of the
* 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Royal patronage * 4 Religion * 5 Decline and death
* 6 His work
* 6.1 Drama * 6.2 Poetry
* 7 Relationship with
* 8 Reception and influence
* 8.1 Drama * 8.2 Poetry
* 9 Jonson\'s works
* 9.1 Plays * 9.2 Masques * 9.3 Other works
* 10 Biographies of
BEN JONSON said that his family originally came from the folk of the Anglo-Scottish border country, which genealogy is attested by the three spindles (rhombi ) in the Jonson family coat of arms . One spindle is a diamond-shaped heraldic device shared with the Border-country Johnstone family of Annandale . Jonson's clergyman father died two months before his birth; his mother married a master bricklayer two years later. Jonson attended school in St. Martin\'s Lane . Later, a family friend paid for his studies at Westminster School , where the antiquarian , historian, topographer and officer of arms , William Camden (1551–1623) was one of his masters. In the event, the pupil and the master became friends, and the intellectual influence of Camden's broad-ranging scholarship upon Jonson's art and literary style remained notable, until Camden's death in 1623.
The Hawthornden Manuscripts (1619), of the conversations between Ben
Jonson and the poet
William Drummond of Hawthornden (1585–1649),
report that, when in Flanders, Jonson engaged, fought and killed an
enemy soldier in single combat , and took for trophies the weapons of
the vanquished soldier. After his military activity on the Continent,
Jonson returned to England and worked as an actor and as a playwright.
As an actor, Jonson was the protagonist “Hieronimo” (Geronimo) in
The Spanish Tragedy
Regarding his marriage Jonson described his wife to William Drummond
as "a shrew, yet honest". Since the 17th century, the identity of
Jonson's wife has been obscure, yet she sometimes is identified as
"Ann Lewis", the woman who married a Benjamin Jonson in 1594, at the
St Magnus-the-Martyr , near
By summer 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement in the Admiral\'s Men , then performing under Philip Henslowe 's management at The Rose . John Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority, that Jonson was not successful as an actor; whatever his skills as an actor, he was evidently more valuable to the company as a writer.
By this time Jonson had begun to write original plays for the Admiral's Men; in 1598 he was mentioned by Francis Meres in his Palladis Tamia as one of "the best for tragedy." None of his early tragedies survive, however. An undated comedy, The Case is Altered , may be his earliest surviving play.
In 1597 a play which he co-wrote with
Thomas Nashe , The Isle of Dogs
, was suppressed after causing great offence. Arrest warrants for
Jonson and Nashe were issued by Queen
In 1598 Jonson produced his first great success, Every Man in His Humour , capitalising on the vogue for humorous plays which George Chapman had begun with An Humorous Day\'s Mirth . William Shakespeare was among the first actors to be cast. Jonson followed this in 1599 with Every Man out of His Humour , a pedantic attempt to imitate Aristophanes . It is not known whether this was a success on stage, but when published it proved popular and went through several editions.
Jonson's other work for the theatre in the last years of Elizabeth I
's reign was marked by fighting and controversy. Cynthia\'s Revels was
produced by the
Children of the Chapel Royal at
This " War of the Theatres " appears to have ended with reconciliation on all sides. Jonson collaborated with Dekker on a pageant welcoming James I to England in 1603 although Drummond reports that Jonson called Dekker a rogue. Marston dedicated The Malcontent to Jonson and the two collaborated with Chapman on Eastward Ho , a 1605 play whose anti-Scottish sentiment briefly landed both Jonson and Chapman in jail.
At the beginning of the reign of James I, King of England , in 1603 Jonson joined other poets and playwrights in welcoming the new king. Jonson quickly adapted himself to the additional demand for masques and entertainments introduced with the new reign and fostered by both the king and his consort Anne of Denmark . In addition to his popularity on the public stage and in the royal hall, he enjoyed the patronage of aristocrats such as Elizabeth Sidney (daughter of Sir Philip Sidney ) and Lady Mary Wroth . This connection with the Sidney family provided the impetus for one of Jonson's most famous lyrics, the country house poem To Penshurst .
In February 1603 John Manningham reported that Jonson was living on Robert Townsend, son of Sir Roger Townshend , and "scorns the world." Perhaps this explains why his trouble with English authorities continued. That same year he was questioned by the Privy Council about Sejanus , a politically themed play about corruption in the Roman Empire. He was again in trouble for topical allusions in a play, now lost, in which he took part. Shortly after his release from a brief spell of imprisonment imposed to mark the authorities' displeasure at the work, in the second week of October 1605, he was present at a supper party attended by most of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators. After the plot's discovery he appears to have avoided further imprisonment; he volunteered what he knew of the affair to the investigator Robert Cecil and the Privy Council . Father Thomas Wright, who heard Fawkes's confession, was known to Jonson from prison in 1598 and Cecil may have directed him to bring the priest before the council, as a witness. (Teague, 249). Title page of The Workes of Beniamin Ionson (1616), the first folio publication that included stage plays
At the same time, Jonson pursued a more prestigious career, writing
masques for James's court. The Satyr (1603) and The
On many of these projects he collaborated, not always peacefully,
Inigo Jones . For example, Jones designed the scenery
for Jonson's masque
Oberon, the Faery Prince performed at
In 1616 Jonson received a yearly pension of 100 marks (about £60), leading some to identify him as England's first Poet Laureate . This sign of royal favour may have encouraged him to publish the first volume of the folio collected edition of his works that year. Other volumes followed in 1640–41 and 1692. (See: Ben Jonson folios )
In 1618 Jonson set out for his ancestral Scotland on foot. He spent over a year there, and the best-remembered hospitality which he enjoyed was that of the Scottish poet, William Drummond of Hawthornden , in April 1619, sited on the River Esk . Drummond undertook to record as much of Jonson's conversation as he could in his diary, and thus recorded aspects of Jonson's personality that would otherwise have been less clearly seen. Jonson delivers his opinions, in Drummond's terse reporting, in an expansive and even magisterial mood. Drummond noted he was "a great lover and praiser of himself, a contemner and scorner of others".
In Edinburgh, Jonson is recorded as staying with a John Stuart of
The period between 1605 and 1620 may be viewed as Jonson's heyday. By 1616 he had produced all the plays on which his present reputation as a dramatist is based, including the tragedy Catiline (acted and printed 1611), which achieved limited success and the comedies Volpone (acted 1605 and printed in 1607), Epicoene, or the Silent Woman (1609), The Alchemist (1610), Bartholomew Fair (1614) and The Devil is an Ass (1616). The Alchemist and Volpone were immediately successful. Of Epicoene, Jonson told Drummond of a satirical verse which reported that the play's subtitle was appropriate, since its audience had refused to applaud the play (i.e., remained silent). Yet Epicoene, along with Bartholomew Fair and (to a lesser extent) The Devil is an Ass have in modern times achieved a certain degree of recognition. While his life during this period was apparently more settled than it had been in the 1590s, his financial security was still not assured.
Jonson recounted that his father had been a prosperous Protestant
landowner until the reign of "Bloody Mary " and had suffered
imprisonment and the forfeiture of his wealth during that monarch's
attempt to restore England to Catholicism. On Elizabeth 's accession
he was freed and was able to travel to London to become a clergyman.
(All we know of Jonson's father, who died a month before his son was
born, comes from the poet's own narrative.) Jonson's elementary
education was in a small church school attached to St
Martin-in-the-Fields parish, and at the age of about seven he secured
a place at
Notwithstanding this emphatically
Conviction, and certainly not expedience alone, sustained Jonson's faith during the troublesome twelve years he remained a Catholic. His stance received attention beyond the low-level intolerance to which most followers of that faith were exposed. The first draft of his play Sejanus was banned for "popery ", and did not re-appear until some offending passages were cut. In January 1606 he (with Anne, his wife) appeared before the Consistory Court in London to answer a charge of recusancy , with Jonson alone additionally accused of allowing his fame as a Catholic to "seduce" citizens to the cause. This was a serious matter (the Gunpowder Plot was still fresh in mind) but he explained that his failure to take communion was only because he had not found sound theological endorsement for the practice, and by paying a fine of thirteen shillings (65p) he escaped the more serious penalties at the authorities' disposal. His habit was to slip outside during the sacrament, a common routine at the time—indeed it was one followed by the royal consort, Queen Anne , herself—to show political loyalty while not offending the conscience. Leading church figures, including John Overall , Dean of St Paul\'s , were tasked with winning Jonson back to orthodoxy, but these overtures were resisted.
In May 1610
Henry IV of France
DECLINE AND DEATH
Jonson's productivity began to decline in the 1620s, but he remained well known. In that time, rose to the prominence the Sons of Ben or the " Tribe of Ben " - those younger poets such as Robert Herrick , Richard Lovelace , and Sir John Suckling who took their bearing in verse from Jonson. However, a series of setbacks drained his strength and damaged his reputation. He resumed writing regular plays in the 1620s, but these are not considered among his best. They are of significant interest, however, for their portrayal of Charles I 's England. The Staple of News , for example, offers a remarkable look at the earliest stage of English journalism. The lukewarm reception given that play was, however, nothing compared to the dismal failure of The New Inn ; the cold reception given this play prompted Jonson to write a poem condemning his audience (the Ode to Myself), which in turn prompted Thomas Carew , one of the "Tribe of Ben," to respond in a poem that asks Jonson to recognise his own decline.
The principal factor in Jonson's partial eclipse was, however, the death of James and the accession of King Charles I in 1625. Jonson felt neglected by the new court. A decisive quarrel with Jones harmed his career as a writer of court masques, although he continued to entertain the court on an irregular basis. For his part, Charles displayed a certain degree of care for the great poet of his father's day: he increased Jonson's annual pension to £100 and included a tierce of wine and beer.
Despite the strokes that he suffered in the 1620s, Jonson continued to write. At his death in 1637 he seems to have been working on another play, The Sad Shepherd. Though only two acts are extant, this represents a remarkable new direction for Jonson: a move into pastoral drama. During the early 1630s he also conducted a correspondence with James Howell , who warned him about disfavour at court in the wake of his dispute with Jones.
Jonson died on 6 August 1637 and his funeral was held on 9 August. He
is buried in the north aisle of the nave in
It has been claimed that the inscription could be read "Orare Ben Jonson" (pray for Ben Jonson), possibly in an allusion to Jonson's acceptance of Catholic doctrine during his lifetime (although he had returned to the Church of England) but the carving shows a distinct space between "O" and "rare".
A monument to Jonson was erected in about 1723 by the Earl of Oxford
and is in the eastern aisle of
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Apart from two tragedies, Sejanus and
Catiline , that largely failed
to impress Renaissance audiences, Jonson's work for the public
theatres was in comedy. These plays vary in some respects. The minor
early plays, particularly those written for boy players , present
somewhat looser plots and less-developed characters than those written
later, for adult companies. Already in the plays which were his salvos
in the Poet's War, he displays the keen eye for absurdity and
hypocrisy that marks his best-known plays; in these early efforts,
however, plot mostly takes second place to variety of incident and
comic set-pieces. They are, also, notably ill-tempered. Thomas Davies
Poetaster "a contemptible mixture of the serio-comic, where the
Augustus Caesar ,
The comedies of his middle career, from Eastward Ho to The Devil is an Ass are for the most part city comedy , with a London setting, themes of trickery and money, and a distinct moral ambiguity, despite Jonson's professed aim in the Prologue to Volpone to "mix profit with your pleasure". His late plays or "dotages ", particularly The Magnetic Lady and The Sad Shepherd, exhibit signs of an accommodation with the romantic tendencies of Elizabethan comedy .
Within this general progression, however, Jonson's comic style
remained constant and easily recognisable. He announces his programme
in the prologue to the folio version of
Every Man in His Humour : he
promises to represent "deeds, and language, such as men do use." He
planned to write comedies that revived the classical premises of
Elizabethan dramatic theory—or rather, since all but the loosest
English comedies could claim some descent from
" Epitaph for Cecilia Bulstrode" manuscript, 1609
Jonson's poetry, like his drama, is informed by his classical learning. Some of his better-known poems are close translations of Greek or Roman models; all display the careful attention to form and style that often came naturally to those trained in classics in the humanist manner. Jonson largely avoided the debates about rhyme and meter that had consumed Elizabethan classicists such as Thomas Campion and Gabriel Harvey . Accepting both rhyme and stress, Jonson used them to mimic the classical qualities of simplicity, restraint and precision.
"Epigrams" (published in the 1616 folio) is an entry in a genre that was popular among late-Elizabethan and Jacobean audiences, although Jonson was perhaps the only poet of his time to work in its full classical range. The epigrams explore various attitudes, most from the satiric stock of the day: complaints against women, courtiers and spies abound. The condemnatory poems are short and anonymous; Jonson’s epigrams of praise, including a famous poem to Camden and lines to Lucy Harington, are longer and are mostly addressed to specific individuals. Although it is included among the epigrams, "On My First Sonne " is neither satirical nor very short; the poem, intensely personal and deeply felt, typifies a genre that would come to be called "lyric poetry." It is possible that the spelling of 'son' as 'Sonne' is meant to allude to the sonnet form, with which it shares some features. A few other so-called epigrams share this quality. Jonson's poems of "The Forest" also appeared in the first folio. Most of the fifteen poems are addressed to Jonson's aristocratic supporters, but the most famous are his country-house poem “To Penshurst ” and the poem “ To Celia ” ("Come, my Celia, let us prove") that appears also in Volpone .
Underwood, published in the expanded folio of 1640, is a larger and
more heterogeneous group of poems. It contains A Celebration of Charis
, Jonson's most extended effort at love poetry; various religious
pieces; encomiastic poems including the poem to
RELATIONSHIP WITH SHAKESPEARE
There are many legends about Jonson's rivalry with
Jonson's most influential and revealing commentary on
Some view this elegy as a conventional exercise, but others see it as
a heartfelt tribute to the "Sweet Swan of Avon", the "Soul of the
Age!" It has been argued that Jonson helped to edit the
RECEPTION AND INFLUENCE
During most of the 17th century Jonson was a towering literary
figure, and his influence was enormous for he has been described as
'One of the most vigorous minds that ever added to the strength of
English literature'. Before the English Civil War, the "Tribe of Ben"
touted his importance, and during the Restoration Jonson's satirical
comedies and his theory and practice of "humour characters" (which are
often misunderstood; see William Congreve's letters for clarification)
was extremely influential, providing the blueprint for many
In 2012, after more than two decades of research, Cambridge University Press published the first new edition of Jonson's complete works for 60 years.
As G. E. Bentley notes in
For some critics, the temptation to contrast Jonson (representing art
or craft) with
At the Restoration, this sensed difference became a kind of critical
Charles de Saint-Évremond
In this period, Alexander Pope is exceptional in that he noted the tendency to exaggeration in these competing critical portraits: "It is ever the nature of Parties to be in extremes; and nothing is so probable, as that because Ben Johnson had much the most learning, it was said on the one hand that Shakespear had none at all; and because Shakespear had much the most wit and fancy, it was retorted on the other, that Johnson wanted both." For the most part, the 18th century consensus remained committed to the division that Pope doubted; as late as the 1750s, Sarah Fielding could put a brief recapitulation of this analysis in the mouth of a "man of sense" encountered by David Simple.
Though his stature declined during the 18th century, Jonson was still read and commented on throughout the century, generally in the kind of comparative and dismissive terms just described. Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg translated parts of Peter Whalley 's edition into German in 1765. Shortly before the Romantic revolution, Edward Capell offered an almost unqualified rejection of Jonson as a dramatic poet, who (he writes) "has very poor pretensions to the high place he holds among the English Bards, as there is no original manner to distinguish him and the tedious sameness visible in his plots indicates a defect of Genius." The disastrous failures of productions of Volpone and Epicoene in the early 1770s no doubt bolstered a widespread sense that Jonson had at last grown too antiquated for the contemporary public; if he still attracted enthusiasts such as Earl Camden and William Gifford , he all but disappeared from the stage in the last quarter of the century.
The romantic revolution in criticism brought about an overall decline in the critical estimation of Jonson. Hazlitt refers dismissively to Jonson's "laborious caution." Coleridge, while more respectful, describes Jonson as psychologically superficial: “He was a very accurately observing man; but he cared only to observe what was open to, and likely to impress, the senses.” Coleridge placed Jonson second only to Shakespeare; other romantic critics were less approving. The early 19th century was the great age for recovering Renaissance drama. Jonson, whose reputation had survived, appears to have been less interesting to some readers than writers such as Thomas Middleton or John Heywood , who were in some senses "discoveries" of the 19th century. Moreover, the emphasis which the romantic writers placed on imagination, and their concomitant tendency to distrust studied art, lowered Jonson's status, if it also sharpened their awareness of the difference traditionally noted between Jonson and Shakespeare. This trend was by no means universal, however; William Gifford , Jonson's first editor of the 19th century, did a great deal to defend Jonson's reputation during this period of general decline. In the next era, Swinburne , who was more interested in Jonson than most Victorians , wrote, "The flowers of his growing have every quality but one which belongs to the rarest and finest among flowers: they have colour, form, variety, fertility, vigour: the one thing they want is fragrance” – by “fragrance,” Swinburne means spontaneity.
In the 20th century, Jonson’s body of work has been subject to a more varied set of analyses, broadly consistent with the interests and programmes of modern literary criticism. In an essay printed in The Sacred Wood, T. S. Eliot attempted to repudiate the charge that Jonson was an arid classicist by analysing the role of imagination in his dialogue. Eliot was appreciative of Jonson's overall conception and his "surface", a view consonant with the modernist reaction against Romantic criticism, which tended to denigrate playwrights who did not concentrate on representations of psychological depth. Around mid-century, a number of critics and scholars followed Eliot's lead, producing detailed studies of Jonson's verbal style. At the same time, study of Elizabethan themes and conventions, such as those by E. E. Stoll and M. C. Bradbrook , provided a more vivid sense of how Jonson's work was shaped by the expectations of his time.
The proliferation of new critical perspectives after mid-century touched on Jonson inconsistently. Jonas Barish was the leading figure among critics who appreciated Jonson's artistry. On the other hand, Jonson received less attention from the new critics than did some other playwrights and his work was not of programmatic interest to psychoanalytic critics. But Jonson's career eventually made him a focal point for the revived sociopolitical criticism . Jonson's works, particularly his masques and pageants, offer significant information regarding the relations of literary production and political power, as do his contacts with and poems for aristocratic patrons; moreover, his career at the centre of London's emerging literary world has been seen as exemplifying the development of a fully commodified literary culture. In this respect he is seen as a transitional figure, an author whose skills and ambition led him to a leading role both in the declining culture of patronage and in the rising culture of mass consumption.
Jonson has been called 'the first poet laureate'. If Jonson's reputation as a playwright has traditionally been linked to Shakespeare, his reputation as a poet has, since the early 20th century, been linked to that of John Donne . In this comparison, Jonson represents the cavalier strain of poetry, emphasising grace and clarity of expression; Donne, by contrast, epitomised the metaphysical school of poetry, with its reliance on strained, baroque metaphors and often vague phrasing. Since the critics who made this comparison ( Herbert Grierson for example), were to varying extents rediscovering Donne, this comparison often worked to the detriment of Jonson's reputation.
In his time Jonson was at least as influential as Donne. In 1623, historian Edmund Bolton named him the best and most polished English poet. That this judgment was widely shared is indicated by the admitted influence he had on younger poets. The grounds for describing Jonson as the "father" of cavalier poets are clear: many of the cavalier poets described themselves as his "sons" or his "tribe". For some of this tribe, the connection was as much social as poetic; Herrick described meetings at "the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tunne". All of them, including those like Herrick whose accomplishments in verse are generally regarded as superior to Jonson's, took inspiration from Jonson's revival of classical forms and themes, his subtle melodies, and his disciplined use of wit . In these respects Jonson may be regarded as among the most important figures in the prehistory of English neoclassicism .
The best of Jonson's lyrics have remained current since his time; periodically, they experience a brief vogue, as after the publication of Peter Whalley's edition of 1756. Jonson's poetry continues to interest scholars for the light which it sheds on English literary history, such as politics, systems of patronage and intellectual attitudes. For the general reader, Jonson's reputation rests on a few lyrics that, though brief, are surpassed for grace and precision by very few Renaissance poems: " On My First Sonne "; " To Celia "; "To Penshurst "; and the epitaph on boy player Solomon Pavy.
* A Tale of a Tub , comedy (c. 1596 revised performed 1633; printed
* The Isle of Dogs , comedy (1597, with
Thomas Nashe ; lost)
The Case is Altered , comedy (c. 1597–98; printed 1609), with
Henry Porter and
Every Man in His Humour , comedy (performed 1598; printed 1601)
Every Man out of His Humour , comedy ( performed 1599; printed
* Cynthia\'s Revels (performed 1600; printed 1601)
The Poetaster , comedy (performed 1601; printed 1602)
Sejanus His Fall
The Coronation Triumph , or The King's Entertainment (performed 15
March 1604; printed 1604); with Thomas Dekker
* A Private Entertainment of the King and Queen on May-Day (The
Penates) (1 May 1604; printed 1616)
* The Entertainment of the Queen and Prince Henry at Althorp (The
Satyr) (25 June 1603; printed 1604)
* Epigrams (1612)
* The Forest (1616), including To Penshurst
On My First Sonne (1616), elegy
* A Discourse of Love (1618)
* Barclay 's
It is in Jonson's Timber, or Discoveries... that he famously quipped on the manner in which language became a measure of the speaker or writer:
Language most shows a man: Speak, that I may see thee. It springs out of the most retired and inmost parts of us, and is the image of the parent of it, the mind. No glass renders a man’s form or likeness so true as his speech. Nay, it is likened to a man; and as we consider feature and composition in a man, so words in language; in the greatness, aptness, sound structure, and harmony of it. — Ben Jonson, 1640 (posthumous)
As with other
Finally, there are questionable or borderline attributions. Jonson
may have had a hand in Rollo, Duke of Normandy, or The Bloody Brother
, a play in the canon of John Fletcher and his collaborators. The
comedy The Widow was printed in 1652 as the work of
BIOGRAPHIES OF BEN JONSON
* Ben Jonson: His Life and Work by Rosalind Miles * Ben Jonson: His Craft and Art by Rosalind Miles * Ben Jonson: A Literary Life by W. David Kay * Ben Jonson: A Life by David Riggs (1989) * Ben Jonson: A Life by Ian Donaldson (2011)
* ^ Jonson's claim is interesting, since early printings of Shakespeare's work suggest that he tended to start a scene before giving up and trying again. His failure to cross the original attempts out left his printers unsure what needed to be deleted, though also allowed an insight into his creative process.
* Bednarz, James P. (2001),
* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
BY BEN JONSON
* Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BEN JONSON .
* Works by
* Portraits of Benjamin Jonson at the National Portrait Gallery, London
* v * t * e
* A Tale of a Tub
The Case is Altered
* The Isle of Dogs
Every Man in His Humour
Every Man out of His Humour
* Cynthia\'s Revels
Sejanus His Fall
The Coronation Triumph
* A Private Entertainment of the King and Queen on May-Day
The Entertainment at Althorp
* v * t * e
Ben Jonson's Volpone (1606)
* v * t * e
Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom
John Dryden (1668–88)
Thomas Shadwell (1689–92)
Nahum Tate (1692–1715)
* Nicholas Rowe (1715–18)
Laurence Eusden (1718–30)
* v * t * e
The " Beaumont and Fletcher " Canon
* FRANCIS BEAUMONT * JOHN FLETCHER * PHILIP MASSINGER
Plays (some attributions conjectural)
The Faithful Shepherdess
* The Woman\'s Prize
The Mad Lover
The Loyal Subject
The Humorous Lieutenant
The Island Princess
* The Pilgrim
The Wild Goose Chase
A Wife for a Month
Rule a Wife and Have a Wife
Beaumont and Fletcher
The Woman Hater
* Cupid\'s Revenge
* The Captain
* The Maid\'s Tragedy
A King and No King
Fletcher and Massinger
* †Barnavelt * The Little French Lawyer * The False One * The Double Marriage * The Custom of the Country * The Lovers\' Progress * The Spanish Curate * The Prophetess * The Sea Voyage * The Elder Brother * † A Very Woman
and others with Beaumont & Massinger
Thierry and Theodoret
Beggars\' Bush Love\'s Cure with Massinger & Field The Honest Man\'s
The Queen of Corinth
The Knight of Malta with Field Four
Plays, or Moral Representations, in One with
* Wit at Several Weapons (Middleton border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
* † The History of Cardenio (Shakespeare border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 292789691
* LCCN : n80044918
* ISNI : 0000 0001 2134 0010
* GND : 118558323
* SELIBR : 191914
* SUDOC : 026940183
* BNF : cb11908988h (data)
* ULAN : 500278089