A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most
bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a
single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient
resonator. The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula",
an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere
enclosed within the body of the bell (jingle bell).
Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze) for its
resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials;
this depends on the function. Some small bells such as ornamental
bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or
ceramic, but large bells such as church, clock and tower bells are
normally cast from bell metal.
Bells intended to be heard over a wide area can range from a single
bell hung in a turret or bell-gable, to a musical ensemble such as an
English ring of bells, a carillon or a Russian zvon which are tuned to
a common scale and installed in a bell tower. Many public or
institutional buildings house bells, most commonly as clock bells to
sound the hours and quarters.
Historically, bells have been associated with religious rituals, and
are still used to call communities together for religious services.
Later, bells were made to commemorate important events or people and
have been associated with the concepts of peace and freedom. The study
of bells is called campanology.
3 Styles of ringing
4 Church and temple bells
4.1 Bells in Japanese religion
4.2 Bells in
Buddhism and Hinduism
Major third bell
6 Use in clock chimes
7 Notable bells
8 Usage as musical instruments
8.1 Ancient Chinese bells
8.4 Lithuanian Skrabalai
10 Dead bell
Bell study and ringing organisations
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Bell is a word common to the
Low German dialects, cognate with Middle
Low German belle and Dutch bel but not appearing among the other
Germanic languages except the Icelandic bjalla which was a loanword
from Old English. It is popularly but not certainly related
to the former sense of to bell (Old English: bellan, "to roar, to make
a loud noise") which gave rise to bellow.
Marquis Yi of Zeng, dated 433 BC.
The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd
millennium BC, and is traced to the
Yangshao culture of Neolithic
China. Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several
archaeological sites. The pottery bells later developed into metal
bells. In West Asia, the first bells appear in 1000 BC.
The earliest metal bells, with one found in the
Taosi site and four in
Erlitou site, are dated to about 2000 BC. Early bells not only
have an important role in generating metal sound[clarification
needed], but arguably played a prominent cultural role. With the
emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty (c.
1600 – c. 1050 BC), they were relegated to subservient
functions; at Shang and Zhou sites, they are also found as part of the
horse-and-chariot gear and as collar-bells of dogs.
Klang Bell (Malaysia, 2 c. BC) of the British Museum
Styles of ringing
Riproduci file multimediale
Static bells struck by solenoid-operated hammers in a bell-gable.
Mechanism of a bell hung for English full-circle ringing. The bell can
swing through a full circle in alternate directions.
English full-circle bells shown in the "down" position, in which they
are normally left between ringing sessions.
English full-circle bells shown in the "up" position.
In the western world, the common form of bell is a church bell or town
bell, which is hung within a tower or bell cote. Such bells are either
fixed in a static position ("hung dead") or mounted on a beam (the
"headstock") so they can swing to and fro. Bells that are hung dead
are normally sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or
occasionally by pulling an internal clapper against the bell.
Where a bell is swung it can either be swung over a small arc by a
rope and lever or by using a rope on a wheel to swing the bell higher.
As the bell swings higher the sound is projected outwards rather than
Bells hung for full circle ringing are swung through just over a
complete circle from mouth uppermost. A stay (the wooden pole seen
sticking up when the bells are down) engages a mechanism to allow the
bell to rest just past its balance point. The rope is attached to one
side of a wheel so that a different amount of rope is wound on and off
as it swings to and fro. The bells are controlled by ringers (one to a
bell) in a chamber below, who rotate the bell to through a full circle
and back, and control the speed of oscillation when the bell is mouth
upwards at the balance-point, when little effort is required.
Swinging bells are sounded by an internal clapper. The clapper may
have a longer period of swing than the bell. In this case the bell
will catch up with the clapper and if rung to or near full circle will
carry the clapper up on the bell's trailing side. Alternatively, the
clapper may have a shorter period and catch up with the bell's leading
side, travel up with the bell coming to rest on the downhill side.
This latter method is used in English style full circle ringing.
Occasionally the clappers have leather pads (called muffles) strapped
around them to quieten the bells when practice ringing to avoid
annoying the neighbourhood. Also at funerals, half-muffles are often
used to give a full open sound on one round, and a muffled sound on
the alternate round – a distinctive, mournful effect. This was done
Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales
Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997.
Church and temple bells
Main article: Church bell
In the Eastern world, the traditional forms of bells are temple and
palace bells, small ones being rung by a sharp rap with a stick, and
very large ones rung by a blow from the outside by a large swinging
beam. (See images of the great bell of
The striking technique is employed worldwide for some of the largest
tower-borne bells, because swinging the bells themselves could damage
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church and among some High
Anglicans, small hand-held bells, called
Sanctus or sacring bells,
are often rung by a server at
Mass when the priest holds high up first
the host and then the chalice immediately after he has said the words
of consecration over them (the moment known as the Elevation). This
serves to indicate to the congregation that the bread and wine have
just been transformed into the Body and Blood of Christ (see
transubstantiation), or, in the alternative Reformation teaching, that
Christ is now bodily present in the elements, and that what the priest
is holding up for them to look at is Christ himself (see
In Russian Orthodox bell ringing, the entire bell never moves, only
the clapper. A complex system of ropes is developed and used uniquely
for every bell tower. Some ropes (the smaller ones) are played by
hand, the bigger ropes are played by foot.
Bells in Japanese religion
Japanese Shintoist and
Buddhist bells are used in religious
ceremonies. Suzu, a homophone meaning both "cool" and "refreshing",
are spherical bells which contain metal pellets that produce sound
from the inside. The hemispherical bell is the Kane bell, which is
struck on the outside. Large suspended temple bells are known as
bonshō. (See also ja:鈴, ja:梵鐘).
Buddhism and Hinduism
Buddhist bells, called "Ghanta" in Sanskrit, are used in
religious ceremonies. See also singing bowls. A bell hangs at the gate
of many Hindu temples and is rung at the moment one enters the
Japanese temple bell of the Ryōanji Temple, Kyoto
This bronze bell dated from medieval times, depicts Saints Peter,
Paul, John the Evangelist, and Thomas.
Bell house at Shimoda" in Japan
Buddhist bell, Rewalsar, India
Main article: Bellfounding
The process of casting bells is called bellfounding, and in Europe
dates to the 4th or 5th century. The traditional metal for these
bells is a bronze of about 23% tin. Known as bell metal, this
alloy is also the traditional alloy for the finest Turkish and Chinese
cymbals. Other materials sometimes used for large bells include brass
and iron. Steel was tried during the busy church-building period of
mid-19th-century England, because it was more economical than bronze,
but was found not to be durable and manufacture ceased in the
Small bells were originally made with the lost wax process but large
bells are cast mouth downwards by filling the air space in a two-part
mould with molten metal. Such a mould has an outer section clamped to
a base-plate on which an inner core has been constructed.
The core is built on the base-plate using porous materials such as
coke or brick and then covered in loam well mixed with straw and horse
manure. This is given a profile corresponding to the inside shape of
the finished bell, and dried with gentle heat.
Graphite and whiting
are applied to form the final, smooth surface.
The outside of the mould is made within a perforated cast iron case,
larger than the finished bell, containing the loam mixture which is
shaped, dried and smoothed in the same way as the core. The case is
inverted (mouth down), lowered over the core and clamped to the base
plate. The clamped mould is supported, usually by being buried in a
casting pit to bear the weight of metal and to allow even cooling.
In historical times, before road, rail transport of large bells was
possible, a "bell pit" was often dug in the grounds of the building
where the bell was to be installed. Molten bell metal is poured into
the mould through a box lined with foundry sand. The founder would
bring his casting tools to the site, and a furnace would be built next
to the pit.
The principal harmonics of the
Erfurt bell (1497) typical of a
harmonically-tuned bell: strike note is E, with hum note an octave
below, minor third, fifth, nominal above, and major third and perfect
fifth in the second octave.
Spectrum of a
Winchester Cathedral bell as analyzed by Jonathan Harvey
using FFT. "The bell produces a secondary pitch (f') which lies
outside that 'inharmonic series though it is clearly audible when the
bell is struck, 'to curiously thrilling and disturbing effect.'"
Play approximation (help·info) The strike tone is middle
C, the hum tone an octave below.
Large bells are generally around 80% copper and 20% tin (bell metal),
which has been found empirically to give the most pleasant tone.
However, the tone of a bell is mostly due to its shape. A bell is
regarded as having a good tone when it's "in tune with itself.".
In western bell founding, this is known as "harmonic tuning" of a
bell, which results in the bell's strongest harmonics being in harmony
with each other and the strike note. This produces the brightest and
purest sound, which is the attractive sound of a good bell. A huge
amount of effort has been expended over the centuries in finding the
shape which will produce the harmonically tuned bell.
The accompanying musical staves show the series of harmonics which are
generated when a bell is struck. The
Erfurt bell bell is notable that
it although it is an old bell, it is harmonically tuned, but was not
typical of its time.
Pieter and François Hemony
Pieter and François Hemony in the 17th century
reliably cast many bells for carillons of unequalled quality of tuning
for the time, but after their death their guarded trade secrets were
lost, and not until the 19th century were bells of comparable tuning
quality cast. It was only in modern times that repeatable harmonic
tuning using a known scientific basis was achieved.The main partials
(or harmonics) of a well-tuned bell are:
hum note (an octave below the named note
strike tone (also called tap note or named note)
tierce (a minor third above named note )
quint (a fifth above named note)
nominal (an octave above named note)
Further, less-audible, harmonics include the major third and a perfect
fifth in the second octave above the named note.
This quest by various founders over centuries of bell founding has
resulted in development of an optimum profile for casting each size of
bell to give true harmonic tuning. Although bells are cast to accurate
patterns, variations in casting mean that a final tuning is necessary
as the shape of the bell is critical in producing the desired strike
note and associated harmonics. Tuning is undertaken by clamping the
bell on a large rotating table, and using a cutting tool to remove
metal. This is an iterative process in which metal is removed from
certain parts of the bell to change certain harmonics. This process
was made possible historically by the use of tuning forks to find
sympathetic resonance on specific parts of a bell for the harmonic
being tuned, but today electronic strobe tuners are normally used. To
tune the strike note, the nominal or the strike note are tuned; the
effect is usually the same because the nominal is one of the main
partials that determines the tone of the strike note. The
thickness of a church bell at its thickest part, called the "sound
bow", is usually one thirteenth its diameter. If the bell is mounted
as cast, it is called a "maiden bell". 
Major third bell
The traditional harmonically tuned bell has a minor third as a main
harmonic. On the theory that western music in major keys may sound
better on bells with a major third as a harmonic, production of bells
with major thirds was attempted in the 1980s. Scientists at the
Technical University in Eindhoven, using computer modelling, produced
bell profiles which were cast by the Eijsbouts Bellfoundry in the
Netherlands. They were described as resembling old Coke
bottles in that they had a bulge around the middle; In 1999 a
design without the bulge was announced. However, the major bell
concept has found little favour, and minor third bells are almost
universally cast today.
Use in clock chimes
Big Ben in the
Elizabeth Tower of the British parliament.
Bells are also associated with clocks, indicating the hour by the
striking of bells. Indeed, the word clock comes from the
Cloca, meaning bell. Bells in clock towers or bell towers can be heard
over long distances, which was especially important in the time when
clocks were too expensive for widespread use.
In the case of clock towers and grandfather clocks, a particular
sequence of tones may be played to distinguish between the hour,
half-hour, quarter-hour, or other intervals. One common pattern is
called "Westminster Quarters," a sixteen-note pattern named after the
Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster which popularized it as the measure used by Big
Tsar Bell with humans for perspective
Cologne Cathedral with person for scale
See also: List of heaviest bells
Great Bell of Dhammazedi
Great Bell of Dhammazedi (1484) may have been the largest bell
ever made. It was lost in a river in
Burma after being removed from a
temple by the Portuguese in 1608. It is reported to have weighed about
300 tonnes (330 tons).
Tsar Bell by the Motorin Bellfounders is the largest bell still in
existence. It weighs 160 tonnes (180 tons), but it was never rung and
broke in 1737. It is on display in Moscow, Russia, inside the Kremlin.
Mingun Bell is the largest functioning bell. It is located
in Mingun, Burma, and weighs 90 tonnes (100 tons).
Bell is the largest functioning swinging bell, weighing
79,900 pounds (36,200 kg). It is located in a tourist resort in
Gotenba, Japan. Hung in a freestanding frame, it is rung by hand. It
was cast by Eijsbouts in 2006.
World Peace Bell
World Peace Bell was the largest functioning swinging bell until
2006. It is located in Newport, Kentucky, United States, and was cast
by the Paccard Foundry of France. The bell itself weighs 66,000 pounds
(30,000 kg); with clapper and supports, the total weight which
swings when the bell is rung is 89,390 pounds (40,550 kg).
Bell of King Seongdeok
Bell of King Seongdeok is the largest extant bell in Korea. The
full Korean name means "Sacred
Bell of King Seongdeok
Bell of King Seongdeok the Great." It
was also known as the
Bell of Bongdeoksa Temple, where it was first
housed. The bell weighs about 25 tons and was originally cast in
771 CE. It is now stored in the National Museum of Gyeongju.
Pummerin in Vienna's
Stephansdom is the most famous bell in Austria
and the fifth largest in the world.
The St. Petersglocke, in the local dialect of
Cologne also called dä
Dicke Pitter ("fat Peter", [ˌdekə.ˈpitˑɐ] ( listen)),
is a bell in Germany's
Cologne Cathedral. It weighs 24 tons and
was cast in 1922. It is the largest functioning free-swinging bell in
the world that swings around the top. (The Gotenba
Bell and the World
Bell swing around their center of gravity, which is more like
turning than swinging. So, depending on the point of view, the St.
Petersglocke may be considered up to now the largest free-swinging
bell in the world.)
Maria Dolens, the bell for the Fallen in
Rovereto (Italy) weighs
The South West tower of
St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral in London, England, houses
Great Paul, the second largest bell at 16.5 tons in the British
Isles. One can hear
Great Paul booming out over Ludgate Hill at 1300
The Olympic Bell, commissioned and cast for the 2012
Games, is the largest harmonically-tuned bell in the world.
Big Ben is the fourth-largest bell in the British Isles, after The
Olympic Bell (used at the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games), Great
Paul (St Paul's Cathedral, City of London) and Great George (Liverpool
Big Ben is the hour bell of the Great
Clock in the
Elizabeth Tower (formerly called the
Clock Tower) at the Palace of
Westminster, the home of the Houses of Parliament in the United
Dom Tower in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, houses the
second largest free-swinging bell of Europe, the Salvator, weighing
8.2 tons and cast in 1505 by Geert van Wou.
Great Tom is the bell that hangs in
Tom Tower (designed by Christopher
Wren) of Christ Church, Oxford. It was cast in 1680 and weighs over
6 tons. Great Tom is still rung 101 times at 21:05 every night to
signify the 101 original scholars of the college.
Liberty Bell is a 2,080 pounds (940 kg) American bell of
great historic significance, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It
previously hung in Independence Hall.
Little John, named after the character from the legends of Robin Hood,
is the bell within the
Clock Tower of Nottingham Council House. It was
the deepest-toned clock bell in the
United Kingdom until 'Great Peter'
York Minster was incorporated into a new clock chime to celebrate
the Queen Mother's centenary. Great Peter is deeper than Little John
by only a few Hz. The sound of Little John is said to be heard over
the greatest distance of any bell in the UK, occasionally on quiet
days being heard in Derby.
Sigismund is a 12 tonne bell in the
Wawel Cathedral in Kraków,
Poland, cast in 1520. It is rung only on very significant national
Maria Gloriosa in Erfurt, cast by Geert van Wou, is considered to
be one of Germany's, and also Europe's, most beautiful medieval bells,
serving as a model for many other bells.
The Lutine Bell, is the ship's bell of the wrecked HMS Lutine, weighs
106 pounds (48 kg) and bears the inscription "ST. JEAN – 1779".
It rests in Lloyd's of
London Underwriting Room where it used to be
struck when news of an overdue ship arrived—once for the loss of a
ship (i.e., bad news, last in 1979), and twice for her return (i.e.,
good news, last in 1989).
The tenor (heaviest bell) of the change-ringing peal at Liverpool
Cathedral is the heaviest bell hung for full-circle ringing.
Usage as musical instruments
A bell out of bronze with its principal tone at 1133 Hertz
Some bells are used as musical instruments, such as carillons, (clock)
chimes, agogô, or ensembles of bell-players, called bell choirs,
using hand-held bells of varying tones. A "ring of bells" is a set
of four to twelve or more bells used in change ringing, a particular
method of ringing bells in patterns. A peal in changing ringing may
have bells playing for several hours, playing 5,000 or more patterns
without a break or repetition. They have also been used in many kinds
of popular music, such as in AC/DC's "Hells Bells" and Metallica's
"For Whom the
Ancient Chinese bells
A Warring States-era zheng (钲) bell from Baoshan 2 Tomb in Jingmen,
Main article: Bianzhong
The ancient Chinese bronze chime bells called bianzhong or zhong /
zeng (鐘) were used as polyphonic musical instruments and some have
been dated at between 2000 and 3600 years old. Tuned bells have been
created and used for musical performance in many cultures but zhong
are unique among all other types of cast bells in several respects and
they rank among the highest achievements of Chinese bronze casting
technology. However, the remarkable secret of their design and the
method of casting—known only to the Chinese in antiquity—was lost
in later generations and was not fully rediscovered and understood
until the 20th century.
In 1978 a complete ceremonial set of 65 zhong bells was found in a
near-perfect state of preservation during the excavation of the tomb
of Marquis Yi, ruler of Zeng, one of the Warring States. Their special
shape gives them the ability to produce two different musical tones,
depending on where they are struck. The interval between these notes
on each bell is either a major or minor third, equivalent to a
distance of four or five notes on a piano.
The bells of Marquis Yi—which were still fully playable after almost
2500 years—cover a range of slightly less than five octaves but
thanks to their dual-tone capability, the set can sound a complete
12-tone scale—predating the development of the European 12-tone
system by some 2000 years—and can play melodies in diatonic and
Another related ancient Chinese musical instrument is called qing (磬
pinyin qìng) but it was made of stone instead of metal.
In more recent times, the top of bells in
China was usually decorated
with a small dragon, known as pulao; the figure of the dragon served
as a hook for hanging the bell.
This copper bell was made by pre-Columbian North American natives.
Konguro'o is a small bell which, like the Djalaajyn, was first used
for utilitarian purposes and only later for artistic ones. Konguro'o
rang when moving to new places. They were fastened to the horse
harnesses and created a very specific "smart" sound background.
Konguro'o also hung on the neck of the leader goat, which the sheep
herd followed. This led to the association in folk memory between the
distinctive sound of konguro'o and the nomadic way of life.
To make this instrument, Kyrgyz foremen used copper, bronze, iron and
brass. They also decorated it with artistic carving and covered it
with silver. Sizes of the instruments might vary within certain
limits, what depended on its function. Every bell had its own timbre.
A variant on the bell is the tubular bell. Several of these metal
tubes which are struck manually with hammers, form an instrument named
tubular bells or chimes. In the case of wind or aeolian chimes, the
tubes are blown against one another by the wind.
The skrabalai is a traditional folk instrument in Lithuania which
consists of wooden bells of various sizes hanging in several vertical
rows with one or two wooden or metal small clappers hanging inside
them. It is played with two wooden sticks. When the skrabalai is moved
a clapper knocks at the wall of the trough. The pitch of the sound
depends on the size of the wooden trough. The instrument developed
from wooden cowbells that shepherds would tie to cows' necks.
Whereas the church and temple bells called to mass or religious
service, bells were used on farms for more secular signaling. The
greater farms in
Scandinavia usually had a small bell-tower resting on
the top of the barn. The bell was used to call the workers from the
field at the end of the day's work.
Glasgow 'Dead or Deid bell' of 1642
In folk tradition, it is recorded that each church and possibly
several farms had their specific rhymes connected to the sound of the
specific bells. An example is the
Pete Seeger and
Idris Davies song
"The Bells of Rhymney".
In Scotland, up until the nineteenth century it was the tradition to
ring a dead bell, a form of hand bell, at the death of an individual
and at the funeral.
Bell study and ringing organisations
The following organizations promote the ringing, study, music,
collection, preservation and restoration of bells. Nation(s)
covered are given in parenthesis.
American Bell Association International (
United States with
Association Campanaire Wallonne asbl (Belgium)
Associazione Suonatori di Campane a Sistema Veronese (Italy)
The Australian and New Zealand Association of Bellringers (Australia,
Beratungsausschuss für das Deutsche Glockenwesen (Germany)
Carillon Society (United Kingdom)
Central Council of Church Bell Ringers
Central Council of Church Bell Ringers - Promotes English style full
circle change ringing
Handbell Musicians of America (United States, chapter of English
Handbell Ringers Association)
Handbell Ringers of Great Britain (United Kingdom)
Société Française de Campanologie (France)
Verband Deutscher Glockengießereien e.V. (Germany)
Carillon Federation (multinational)
Mingun Bell weighs 55,555 viss, or 90 tonnes.
Philadelphia's Liberty Bell.
Tsar Bell, by the Motorins.
The Zygmunt (Sigismund)
Bell (from 1520) in Kraków, Poland.
World Peace Bell
World Peace Bell in Kentucky.
St. Petersglocke (with person for scale).
Bronze jingyun bell cast in the year 711 AD, Xi'an.
Chinese bells from the ancient Warring States,
Museum, Wuhan, China.
St. Ulrich, Memmingen
A bell in Chang Chun Temple, Wuhan, hanging on its pulao
Bell from Ireland, 7th-8th Century AD (British Museum)
Fire Bell, Glendale, Arizona.
The bell as depicted in fine art: This triptych depicts Benkei
carrying the giant bell of
Buddhist temple up Hei-zan
Mountain. – Chikanobu Toyohara, c. 1890.
This bell is called
Mii-dera no Bansho (三井寺の晩鐘), the
evening bell at Mii-dera, a
Buddhist temple in Otsu, which is near
Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. This image shows the hanging
wooden beam positioned to strike the outer side of the resonating
Bell Association International
Electronic tuners, used to tune bells
John Taylor Bellfounders
Veronese bellringing art
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^ "bell, v.4",
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^ a b Falkenhausen, Lothar Von (1993). Suspended Music: Chime Bells in
the Culture of
Bronze Age China. University of California Press.
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culture (early third millennium BC)
^ Huang, Houming. "Prehistoric Music Culture of China," in Cultural
Relics of Central China, 2002, No. 3:18–27. ISSN 1003-1731. pp.
^ Falkenhausen (1994), p. 132, Appendix I pp. 329, 342.
^ Falkenhausen (1994), 134.
^ Herrera, Matthew D.
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^ "Why do Hindus ring bell in temple". Retrieved 4 March 2015.
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manufacturing engineers handbook. Dearborn, MI: Society of
Manufacturing Engineers. pp. 15–38.
^ Jennings, Trevor (1988). Bellfounding. Princes Risborough, England:
Shire. p. 8. ISBN 0-85263-911-2.
^ Jennings (1988: 3; 10)
^ Jennings (1988: 11)
^ Musical Association (1902). Proceedings of the Musical Association,
Volume 28, p. 32. Whitehead & Miller, ltd.
^ a b John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1910). Grove's dictionary of
music and musicians, p. 615. The Macmillan company. Strike note shown
on C. Hemony appears to be the first to propose this tuning.
^ Roads, Curtis, ed. (1992). "The Music Machine: Selected Readings
from Computer Music Journal". Computer Music Journal: 92.
ISBN 978-0-262-68078-3. a clearly audible, slow-decaying partial
at 347 Hz with a beating component in it. It is a resultant of the
various F harmonic series partials that can be clearly seen in the
spectrum (5, , 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, etc.) beside the C-related
^ Downes, Michael (2009). Jonathan Harvey: Song offerings and White as
jasmine, p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7546-6022-4.
^ a b Neville Horner Fletcher, Thomas D. Rossing (1998). The Physics
of Musical Instruments, p. 685. ISBN 978-0-387-98374-5. Cites
Schoofs et al., 1987 for major-third bell.
^ Beach, Frederick Converse and Rines, George Edwin (eds.) (1907). The
Americana, p.BELL-SMITH—BELL. Scientific American. .
Major third bell Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.",
^ Rossing, Thomas D. (2000). Science of Percussion Instruments, p.
139. ISBN 978-981-02-4158-2.
^ "The Liberty Bell" (pdf). National Park Service. Retrieved
^ Examples of carillons can be found here: "Carillon." Musiconis
Database. Université Paris-Sorbonne.
January 5, 2018.
^ Alan Thorne & Robert Raymond, Man on the Rim: The Peopling of
the Pacific (ABC Books, 1989), pp. 166–67
China website – "
Bronze Chime Bells of Marquis Yi"
Archived 2011-02-03 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Adamson, Page 189
^ Rama, Jean-Pierre (1993). Cloches de
France et d’ailleurs, Le
Temps Apprivoisé, pp.229-230. Paris, France. ISBN 2283581583.
Adamson, Archibald (1875). Rambles Round Kilmarnock. Kilmarnock :
Milham, Willis Isbister. (1944). Time and Timekeepers: Including the
History, Construction, Care, and Accuracy of Clocks and Watches. New
York: Macmillan. OCLC 23271006
Murdoch, James. (1903). A History of Japan. London: Paul, Trech,
Trubner. [re-issued by Routledge, London, 1996.
Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan,
794–1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society.
Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/
Hayashi Gahō (1652)].
Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris:
Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
Fadul, Jose A. Fadul's Encyclopedia of Bells. 2015. Lulu Press.
Willis, Stephen Charles. Bells through the Ages: from the Percival
Price Collection = Les Cloches à travers les siècles: provenant du
fonds Percival Price. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1986. 34 p.,
ill. with b&w photos. N.B.: Prepared on the occasion of an
exhibition of the same title, based on the collection of bell and
carillon related material and documentation, of former Dominion
Carilloneur (of Canadian Parliament, Ottawa), Percival Price, held at
the National Library of Canada (as then named), 12 May to 14 Sept.
1986; some copies come with the guide to the taped dubbings of the
recordings played as background music to the displays, as technically
prepared by Gilles Saint-Laurent and listed by Stephen Charles Willis,
both of the library's Music Division; English and French texts
respectively divided into upper and lower portions of each page.
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