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A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell (jingle bell). Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function. Some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church, clock and tower bells are normally cast from bell metal. Bells intended to be heard over a wide area can range from a single bell hung in a turret or bell-gable, to a musical ensemble such as an English ring of bells, a carillon or a Russian zvon which are tuned to a common scale and installed in a bell tower. Many public or institutional buildings house bells, most commonly as clock bells to sound the hours and quarters. Historically, bells have been associated with religious rituals, and are still used to call communities together for religious services.[1] Later, bells were made to commemorate important events or people and have been associated with the concepts of peace and freedom. The study of bells is called campanology.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Styles of ringing 4 Church and temple bells

4.1 Bells in Japanese religion 4.2 Bells in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism

5 Bellfounding

5.1 Casting 5.2 Bell
Bell
tuning

5.2.1 Major third
Major third
bell

6 Use in clock chimes 7 Notable bells 8 Usage as musical instruments

8.1 Ancient Chinese bells 8.2 Konguro'o 8.3 Chimes 8.4 Lithuanian Skrabalai

9 Farm
Farm
bells 10 Dead bell 11 Bell
Bell
study and ringing organisations 12 Gallery 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology[edit] Bell
Bell
is a word common to the Low German
Low German
dialects, cognate with Middle Low German
Low German
belle and Dutch bel but not appearing among the other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
except the Icelandic bjalla which was a loanword from Old English.[2] It is popularly[3] but not certainly[2] related to the former sense of to bell (Old English: bellan, "to roar, to make a loud noise") which gave rise to bellow.[4] History[edit]

Bianzhong
Bianzhong
of Marquis Yi
Marquis Yi
of Zeng, dated 433 BC.

The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd millennium BC, and is traced to the Yangshao culture
Yangshao culture
of Neolithic China.[5] Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several archaeological sites.[6] The pottery bells later developed into metal bells. In West Asia, the first bells appear in 1000 BC.[5] The earliest metal bells, with one found in the Taosi
Taosi
site and four in the Erlitou
Erlitou
site, are dated to about 2000 BC.[7] Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound[clarification needed], but arguably played a prominent cultural role. With the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 – c. 1050 BC), they were relegated to subservient functions; at Shang and Zhou sites, they are also found as part of the horse-and-chariot gear and as collar-bells of dogs.[8] See also Klang Bell
Klang Bell
(Malaysia, 2 c. BC) of the British Museum collection. Styles of ringing[edit]

Riproduci file multimediale

Static bells struck by solenoid-operated hammers in a bell-gable.

Mechanism of a bell hung for English full-circle ringing. The bell can swing through a full circle in alternate directions.

English full-circle bells shown in the "down" position, in which they are normally left between ringing sessions.

English full-circle bells shown in the "up" position.

In the western world, the common form of bell is a church bell or town bell, which is hung within a tower or bell cote. Such bells are either fixed in a static position ("hung dead") or mounted on a beam (the "headstock") so they can swing to and fro. Bells that are hung dead are normally sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or occasionally by pulling an internal clapper against the bell. Where a bell is swung it can either be swung over a small arc by a rope and lever or by using a rope on a wheel to swing the bell higher. As the bell swings higher the sound is projected outwards rather than downwards. Bells hung for full circle ringing are swung through just over a complete circle from mouth uppermost. A stay (the wooden pole seen sticking up when the bells are down) engages a mechanism to allow the bell to rest just past its balance point. The rope is attached to one side of a wheel so that a different amount of rope is wound on and off as it swings to and fro. The bells are controlled by ringers (one to a bell) in a chamber below, who rotate the bell to through a full circle and back, and control the speed of oscillation when the bell is mouth upwards at the balance-point, when little effort is required. Swinging bells are sounded by an internal clapper. The clapper may have a longer period of swing than the bell. In this case the bell will catch up with the clapper and if rung to or near full circle will carry the clapper up on the bell's trailing side. Alternatively, the clapper may have a shorter period and catch up with the bell's leading side, travel up with the bell coming to rest on the downhill side. This latter method is used in English style full circle ringing. Occasionally the clappers have leather pads (called muffles) strapped around them to quieten the bells when practice ringing to avoid annoying the neighbourhood. Also at funerals, half-muffles are often used to give a full open sound on one round, and a muffled sound on the alternate round – a distinctive, mournful effect. This was done at the Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales
Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales
in 1997. Church and temple bells[edit] Main article: Church bell In the Eastern world, the traditional forms of bells are temple and palace bells, small ones being rung by a sharp rap with a stick, and very large ones rung by a blow from the outside by a large swinging beam. (See images of the great bell of Mii-dera
Mii-dera
below.) The striking technique is employed worldwide for some of the largest tower-borne bells, because swinging the bells themselves could damage their towers. In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
and among some High Lutherans
Lutherans
and Anglicans, small hand-held bells, called Sanctus
Sanctus
or sacring bells,[9] are often rung by a server at Mass
Mass
when the priest holds high up first the host and then the chalice immediately after he has said the words of consecration over them (the moment known as the Elevation). This serves to indicate to the congregation that the bread and wine have just been transformed into the Body and Blood of Christ (see transubstantiation), or, in the alternative Reformation teaching, that Christ is now bodily present in the elements, and that what the priest is holding up for them to look at is Christ himself (see consubstantiation). In Russian Orthodox bell ringing, the entire bell never moves, only the clapper. A complex system of ropes is developed and used uniquely for every bell tower. Some ropes (the smaller ones) are played by hand, the bigger ropes are played by foot. Bells in Japanese religion[edit] Japanese Shintoist and Buddhist
Buddhist
bells are used in religious ceremonies. Suzu, a homophone meaning both "cool" and "refreshing", are spherical bells which contain metal pellets that produce sound from the inside. The hemispherical bell is the Kane bell, which is struck on the outside. Large suspended temple bells are known as bonshō. (See also ja:鈴, ja:梵鐘). Bells in Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism[edit] Hindu and Buddhist
Buddhist
bells, called "Ghanta" in Sanskrit, are used in religious ceremonies. See also singing bowls. A bell hangs at the gate of many Hindu temples and is rung at the moment one enters the temple.[10]

Japanese temple bell of the Ryōanji Temple, Kyoto

This bronze bell dated from medieval times, depicts Saints Peter, Paul, John the Evangelist, and Thomas.

" Bell
Bell
house at Shimoda" in Japan

Buddhist
Buddhist
bell, Rewalsar, India

Bellfounding[edit] Main article: Bellfounding The process of casting bells is called bellfounding, and in Europe dates to the 4th or 5th century.[11] The traditional metal for these bells is a bronze of about 23% tin.[12] Known as bell metal, this alloy is also the traditional alloy for the finest Turkish and Chinese cymbals. Other materials sometimes used for large bells include brass and iron. Steel was tried during the busy church-building period of mid-19th-century England, because it was more economical than bronze, but was found not to be durable and manufacture ceased in the 1870s.[13] Casting[edit] Small bells were originally made with the lost wax process but large bells are cast mouth downwards by filling the air space in a two-part mould with molten metal. Such a mould has an outer section clamped to a base-plate on which an inner core has been constructed.[14] The core is built on the base-plate using porous materials such as coke or brick and then covered in loam well mixed with straw and horse manure. This is given a profile corresponding to the inside shape of the finished bell, and dried with gentle heat. Graphite
Graphite
and whiting are applied to form the final, smooth surface. The outside of the mould is made within a perforated cast iron case, larger than the finished bell, containing the loam mixture which is shaped, dried and smoothed in the same way as the core. The case is inverted (mouth down), lowered over the core and clamped to the base plate. The clamped mould is supported, usually by being buried in a casting pit to bear the weight of metal and to allow even cooling.[15] In historical times, before road, rail transport of large bells was possible, a "bell pit" was often dug in the grounds of the building where the bell was to be installed. Molten bell metal is poured into the mould through a box lined with foundry sand. The founder would bring his casting tools to the site, and a furnace would be built next to the pit. Bell
Bell
tuning[edit]

The principal harmonics of the Erfurt bell
Erfurt bell
(1497)[16] typical of a harmonically-tuned bell:[17] strike note is E, with hum note an octave below, minor third, fifth, nominal above, and major third and perfect fifth in the second octave.

Spectrum of a Winchester Cathedral
Winchester Cathedral
bell as analyzed by Jonathan Harvey using FFT.[18] "The bell produces a secondary pitch (f') which lies outside that 'inharmonic series though it is clearly audible when the bell is struck, 'to curiously thrilling and disturbing effect.'"[19]  Play approximation (help·info) The strike tone is middle C, the hum tone an octave below.

Large bells are generally around 80% copper and 20% tin (bell metal), which has been found empirically to give the most pleasant tone. However, the tone of a bell is mostly due to its shape. A bell is regarded as having a good tone when it's "in tune with itself."[17]. In western bell founding, this is known as "harmonic tuning" of a bell, which results in the bell's strongest harmonics being in harmony with each other and the strike note. This produces the brightest and purest sound, which is the attractive sound of a good bell. A huge amount of effort has been expended over the centuries in finding the shape which will produce the harmonically tuned bell. The accompanying musical staves show the series of harmonics which are generated when a bell is struck. The Erfurt bell
Erfurt bell
bell is notable that it although it is an old bell, it is harmonically tuned, but was not typical of its time. Pieter and François Hemony
Pieter and François Hemony
in the 17th century reliably cast many bells for carillons of unequalled quality of tuning for the time, but after their death their guarded trade secrets were lost, and not until the 19th century were bells of comparable tuning quality cast. It was only in modern times that repeatable harmonic tuning using a known scientific basis was achieved.The main partials (or harmonics) of a well-tuned bell are:

hum note (an octave below the named note strike tone (also called tap note or named note) tierce (a minor third above named note ) quint (a fifth above named note) nominal (an octave above named note)

Further, less-audible, harmonics include the major third and a perfect fifth in the second octave above the named note. This quest by various founders over centuries of bell founding has resulted in development of an optimum profile for casting each size of bell to give true harmonic tuning. Although bells are cast to accurate patterns, variations in casting mean that a final tuning is necessary as the shape of the bell is critical in producing the desired strike note and associated harmonics. Tuning is undertaken by clamping the bell on a large rotating table, and using a cutting tool to remove metal. This is an iterative process in which metal is removed from certain parts of the bell to change certain harmonics. This process was made possible historically by the use of tuning forks to find sympathetic resonance on specific parts of a bell for the harmonic being tuned, but today electronic strobe tuners are normally used. To tune the strike note, the nominal or the strike note are tuned; the effect is usually the same because the nominal is one of the main partials that determines the tone of the strike note.[20] The thickness of a church bell at its thickest part, called the "sound bow", is usually one thirteenth its diameter. If the bell is mounted as cast, it is called a "maiden bell". [21] Major third
Major third
bell[edit] The traditional harmonically tuned bell has a minor third as a main harmonic. On the theory that western music in major keys may sound better on bells with a major third as a harmonic, production of bells with major thirds was attempted in the 1980s. Scientists at the Technical University in Eindhoven, using computer modelling, produced bell profiles which were cast by the Eijsbouts Bellfoundry in the Netherlands.[20] They were described as resembling old Coke bottles[22] in that they had a bulge around the middle;[23] In 1999 a design without the bulge was announced.[24] However, the major bell concept has found little favour, and minor third bells are almost universally cast today. Use in clock chimes[edit]

Big Ben
Big Ben
in the Elizabeth Tower
Elizabeth Tower
of the British parliament.

Bells are also associated with clocks, indicating the hour by the striking of bells. Indeed, the word clock comes from the Latin
Latin
word Cloca, meaning bell. Bells in clock towers or bell towers can be heard over long distances, which was especially important in the time when clocks were too expensive for widespread use. In the case of clock towers and grandfather clocks, a particular sequence of tones may be played to distinguish between the hour, half-hour, quarter-hour, or other intervals. One common pattern is called "Westminster Quarters," a sixteen-note pattern named after the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
which popularized it as the measure used by Big Ben. Notable bells[edit]

The Tsar Bell
Tsar Bell
with humans for perspective

Petersglocke, Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
with person for scale

See also: List of heaviest bells

The Great Bell of Dhammazedi
Great Bell of Dhammazedi
(1484) may have been the largest bell ever made. It was lost in a river in Burma
Burma
after being removed from a temple by the Portuguese in 1608. It is reported to have weighed about 300 tonnes (330 tons). The Tsar Bell
Tsar Bell
by the Motorin Bellfounders is the largest bell still in existence. It weighs 160 tonnes (180 tons), but it was never rung and broke in 1737. It is on display in Moscow, Russia, inside the Kremlin. The Great Mingun Bell
Mingun Bell
is the largest functioning bell. It is located in Mingun, Burma, and weighs 90 tonnes (100 tons). The Gotenba Bell
Bell
is the largest functioning swinging bell, weighing 79,900 pounds (36,200 kg). It is located in a tourist resort in Gotenba, Japan. Hung in a freestanding frame, it is rung by hand. It was cast by Eijsbouts in 2006. The World Peace Bell
World Peace Bell
was the largest functioning swinging bell until 2006. It is located in Newport, Kentucky, United States, and was cast by the Paccard Foundry of France. The bell itself weighs 66,000 pounds (30,000 kg); with clapper and supports, the total weight which swings when the bell is rung is 89,390 pounds (40,550 kg). The Bell of King Seongdeok
Bell of King Seongdeok
is the largest extant bell in Korea. The full Korean name means "Sacred Bell of King Seongdeok
Bell of King Seongdeok
the Great." It was also known as the Bell
Bell
of Bongdeoksa Temple, where it was first housed. The bell weighs about 25 tons and was originally cast in 771 CE. It is now stored in the National Museum of Gyeongju. Pummerin
Pummerin
in Vienna's Stephansdom
Stephansdom
is the most famous bell in Austria and the fifth largest in the world. The St. Petersglocke, in the local dialect of Cologne
Cologne
also called dä Dicke Pitter ("fat Peter", [ˌdekə.ˈpitˑɐ] ( listen)), is a bell in Germany's Cologne
Cologne
Cathedral. It weighs 24 tons and was cast in 1922. It is the largest functioning free-swinging bell in the world that swings around the top. (The Gotenba Bell
Bell
and the World Peace Bell
Bell
swing around their center of gravity, which is more like turning than swinging. So, depending on the point of view, the St. Petersglocke may be considered up to now the largest free-swinging bell in the world.) Maria Dolens, the bell for the Fallen in Rovereto
Rovereto
(Italy) weighs 22.6 tons. The South West tower of St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
in London, England, houses Great Paul, the second largest bell at 16.5 tons in the British Isles. One can hear Great Paul
Great Paul
booming out over Ludgate Hill at 1300 every day. The Olympic Bell, commissioned and cast for the 2012 London
London
Olympic Games, is the largest harmonically-tuned bell in the world. Big Ben
Big Ben
is the fourth-largest bell in the British Isles, after The Olympic Bell
Olympic Bell
(used at the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games), Great Paul (St Paul's Cathedral, City of London) and Great George (Liverpool Cathedral). Big Ben
Big Ben
is the hour bell of the Great Clock
Clock
in the Elizabeth Tower
Elizabeth Tower
(formerly called the Clock
Clock
Tower) at the Palace of Westminster, the home of the Houses of Parliament in the United Kingdom. The Dom Tower
Dom Tower
in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands, houses the second largest free-swinging bell of Europe, the Salvator, weighing 8.2 tons and cast in 1505 by Geert van Wou. Great Tom is the bell that hangs in Tom Tower
Tom Tower
(designed by Christopher Wren) of Christ Church, Oxford. It was cast in 1680 and weighs over 6 tons. Great Tom is still rung 101 times at 21:05 every night to signify the 101 original scholars of the college. The Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
is a 2,080 pounds (940 kg)[25] American bell of great historic significance, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It previously hung in Independence Hall. Little John, named after the character from the legends of Robin Hood, is the bell within the Clock
Clock
Tower of Nottingham Council House. It was the deepest-toned clock bell in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
until 'Great Peter' of York Minster
York Minster
was incorporated into a new clock chime to celebrate the Queen Mother's centenary. Great Peter is deeper than Little John by only a few Hz. The sound of Little John is said to be heard over the greatest distance of any bell in the UK, occasionally on quiet days being heard in Derby.[citation needed] Sigismund is a 12 tonne bell in the Wawel Cathedral
Wawel Cathedral
in Kraków, Poland, cast in 1520. It is rung only on very significant national occasions. The Maria Gloriosa
Maria Gloriosa
in Erfurt, cast by Geert van Wou, is considered to be one of Germany's, and also Europe's, most beautiful medieval bells, serving as a model for many other bells.[citation needed] The Lutine Bell, is the ship's bell of the wrecked HMS Lutine, weighs 106 pounds (48 kg) and bears the inscription "ST. JEAN – 1779". It rests in Lloyd's of London
London
Underwriting Room where it used to be struck when news of an overdue ship arrived—once for the loss of a ship (i.e., bad news, last in 1979), and twice for her return (i.e., good news, last in 1989). The tenor (heaviest bell) of the change-ringing peal at Liverpool Cathedral is the heaviest bell hung for full-circle ringing.

Usage as musical instruments[edit]

A bell out of bronze with its principal tone at 1133 Hertz

Some bells are used as musical instruments, such as carillons, (clock) chimes, agogô, or ensembles of bell-players, called bell choirs, using hand-held bells of varying tones.[26] A "ring of bells" is a set of four to twelve or more bells used in change ringing, a particular method of ringing bells in patterns. A peal in changing ringing may have bells playing for several hours, playing 5,000 or more patterns without a break or repetition. They have also been used in many kinds of popular music, such as in AC/DC's "Hells Bells" and Metallica's "For Whom the Bell
Bell
Tolls". Ancient Chinese bells[edit]

A Warring States-era zheng (钲) bell from Baoshan 2 Tomb in Jingmen, Hubei

Main article: Bianzhong The ancient Chinese bronze chime bells called bianzhong or zhong / zeng (鐘) were used as polyphonic musical instruments and some have been dated at between 2000 and 3600 years old. Tuned bells have been created and used for musical performance in many cultures but zhong are unique among all other types of cast bells in several respects and they rank among the highest achievements of Chinese bronze casting technology. However, the remarkable secret of their design and the method of casting—known only to the Chinese in antiquity—was lost in later generations and was not fully rediscovered and understood until the 20th century. In 1978 a complete ceremonial set of 65 zhong bells was found in a near-perfect state of preservation during the excavation of the tomb of Marquis Yi, ruler of Zeng, one of the Warring States. Their special shape gives them the ability to produce two different musical tones, depending on where they are struck. The interval between these notes on each bell is either a major or minor third, equivalent to a distance of four or five notes on a piano.[27] The bells of Marquis Yi—which were still fully playable after almost 2500 years—cover a range of slightly less than five octaves but thanks to their dual-tone capability, the set can sound a complete 12-tone scale—predating the development of the European 12-tone system by some 2000 years—and can play melodies in diatonic and pentatonic scales.[28] Another related ancient Chinese musical instrument is called qing (磬 pinyin qìng) but it was made of stone instead of metal. In more recent times, the top of bells in China
China
was usually decorated with a small dragon, known as pulao; the figure of the dragon served as a hook for hanging the bell.

This copper bell was made by pre-Columbian North American natives.

Konguro'o[edit] Konguro'o is a small bell which, like the Djalaajyn, was first used for utilitarian purposes and only later for artistic ones. Konguro'o rang when moving to new places. They were fastened to the horse harnesses and created a very specific "smart" sound background. Konguro'o also hung on the neck of the leader goat, which the sheep herd followed. This led to the association in folk memory between the distinctive sound of konguro'o and the nomadic way of life. To make this instrument, Kyrgyz foremen used copper, bronze, iron and brass. They also decorated it with artistic carving and covered it with silver. Sizes of the instruments might vary within certain limits, what depended on its function. Every bell had its own timbre. Chimes[edit] A variant on the bell is the tubular bell. Several of these metal tubes which are struck manually with hammers, form an instrument named tubular bells or chimes. In the case of wind or aeolian chimes, the tubes are blown against one another by the wind. Lithuanian Skrabalai[edit] The skrabalai is a traditional folk instrument in Lithuania which consists of wooden bells of various sizes hanging in several vertical rows with one or two wooden or metal small clappers hanging inside them. It is played with two wooden sticks. When the skrabalai is moved a clapper knocks at the wall of the trough. The pitch of the sound depends on the size of the wooden trough. The instrument developed from wooden cowbells that shepherds would tie to cows' necks. Farm
Farm
bells[edit] Whereas the church and temple bells called to mass or religious service, bells were used on farms for more secular signaling. The greater farms in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
usually had a small bell-tower resting on the top of the barn. The bell was used to call the workers from the field at the end of the day's work.

The Glasgow
Glasgow
'Dead or Deid bell' of 1642

In folk tradition, it is recorded that each church and possibly several farms had their specific rhymes connected to the sound of the specific bells. An example is the Pete Seeger
Pete Seeger
and Idris Davies
Idris Davies
song "The Bells of Rhymney". Dead bell[edit] In Scotland, up until the nineteenth century it was the tradition to ring a dead bell, a form of hand bell, at the death of an individual and at the funeral.[29] Bell
Bell
study and ringing organisations[edit] The following organizations promote the ringing, study, music, collection, preservation and restoration of bells.[30] Nation(s) covered are given in parenthesis.

The American Bell Association International ( United States
United States
with foreign chapters) Association Campanaire Wallonne asbl (Belgium) Associazione Suonatori di Campane a Sistema Veronese (Italy) The Australian and New Zealand Association of Bellringers (Australia, New Zealand) Beratungsausschuss für das Deutsche Glockenwesen (Germany) British Carillon
Carillon
Society (United Kingdom) Central Council of Church Bell Ringers
Central Council of Church Bell Ringers
- Promotes English style full circle change ringing Handbell
Handbell
Musicians of America (United States, chapter of English Handbell
Handbell
Ringers Association) Handbell
Handbell
Ringers of Great Britain (United Kingdom) Société Française de Campanologie (France) Verband Deutscher Glockengießereien e.V. (Germany) World Carillon
Carillon
Federation (multinational)

Gallery[edit]

Mingun Bell
Mingun Bell
weighs 55,555 viss, or 90 tonnes.

Philadelphia's Liberty Bell.

Tsar Bell, by the Motorins.

The Zygmunt (Sigismund) Bell
Bell
(from 1520) in Kraków, Poland.

The World Peace Bell
World Peace Bell
in Kentucky.

St. Petersglocke
St. Petersglocke
(with person for scale).

Bronze
Bronze
jingyun bell cast in the year 711 AD, Xi'an.

Chinese bells from the ancient Warring States, Hubei
Hubei
Provincial Museum, Wuhan, China.

St. Ulrich, Memmingen

Yongle Bell

A bell in Chang Chun Temple, Wuhan, hanging on its pulao

St Cuileain's Bell
Bell
from Ireland, 7th-8th Century AD (British Museum)

Fire Bell, Glendale, Arizona.

The bell as depicted in fine art: This triptych depicts Benkei carrying the giant bell of Mii-dera
Mii-dera
Buddhist
Buddhist
temple up Hei-zan Mountain. – Chikanobu Toyohara, c. 1890.

This bell is called Mii-dera
Mii-dera
no Bansho (三井寺の晩鐘), the evening bell at Mii-dera, a Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in Otsu, which is near Lake Biwa
Lake Biwa
in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. This image shows the hanging wooden beam positioned to strike the outer side of the resonating surface.

See also[edit]

American Bell
Bell
Association International Bellhop Cat bell Electronic tuners, used to tune bells Glockenspiel Handbell John Taylor Bellfounders Ship's bell Veronese bellringing art Whitechapel Bell
Bell
Foundry

Notes[edit]

^ "Bell". Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Edition. 3. University Press. 1910. pp. 687–691. Retrieved 2012-02-01.  ^ a b "bell, n.1", Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary, 1st ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1887 . ^  Haweis, H. R. (1878). "Bell". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (9th ed.). p. 536.  ^ "bell, v.4", Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary, 1st ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1887 . ^ a b Falkenhausen, Lothar Von (1993). Suspended Music: Chime Bells in the Culture of Bronze
Bronze
Age China. University of California Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-520-07378-4. Retrieved February 8, 2013. China
China
seems to have produced the earliest bells anywhere in the world... the earliest metal bells may have been derived from pottery prototypes, which seem to go back to the late stage of the Yang-Shao culture (early third millennium BC)  ^ Huang, Houming. "Prehistoric Music Culture of China," in Cultural Relics of Central China, 2002, No. 3:18–27. ISSN 1003-1731. pp. 20–27. ^ Falkenhausen (1994), p. 132, Appendix I pp. 329, 342. ^ Falkenhausen (1994), 134. ^ Herrera, Matthew D. Sanctus
Sanctus
Bells: Their History and Use in the Catholic Church. San Luis Obispo: Tixlini Scriptorium, 2004. http://www.ewtn.com/library/liturgy/sanctusbells.pdf ^ "Why do Hindus ring bell in temple". Retrieved 4 March 2015.  ^ Milham, Willis I. (1945). Time and Timekeepers, pp. 313–18. ^ Cubberly, William H. (1989). "Metals". In Bakerjian, Ramon. Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook. Dearborn, MI: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. pp. 15–38. ISBN 978-0-87263-351-3.  ^ Jennings, Trevor (1988). Bellfounding. Princes Risborough, England: Shire. p. 8. ISBN 0-85263-911-2.  ^ Jennings (1988: 3; 10) ^ Jennings (1988: 11) ^ Musical Association (1902). Proceedings of the Musical Association, Volume 28, p. 32. Whitehead & Miller, ltd. ^ a b John Alexander Fuller-Maitland (1910). Grove's dictionary of music and musicians, p. 615. The Macmillan company. Strike note shown on C. Hemony appears to be the first to propose this tuning. ^ Roads, Curtis, ed. (1992). "The Music Machine: Selected Readings from Computer Music Journal". Computer Music Journal: 92. ISBN 978-0-262-68078-3. a clearly audible, slow-decaying partial at 347 Hz with a beating component in it. It is a resultant of the various F harmonic series partials that can be clearly seen in the spectrum (5, [6], 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, etc.) beside the C-related partials.  ^ Downes, Michael (2009). Jonathan Harvey: Song offerings and White as jasmine, p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7546-6022-4. ^ a b Neville Horner Fletcher, Thomas D. Rossing (1998). The Physics of Musical Instruments, p. 685. ISBN 978-0-387-98374-5. Cites Schoofs et al., 1987 for major-third bell. ^ Beach, Frederick Converse and Rines, George Edwin (eds.) (1907). The Americana, p.BELL-SMITH—BELL. Scientific American. [1]. ^ http://www.cs.yale.edu/~douglas-craig/bells/Basic/what-is-a-carillon.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ " Major third
Major third
bell Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.", Andrelehr.nl. ^ Rossing, Thomas D. (2000). Science of Percussion Instruments, p. 139. ISBN 978-981-02-4158-2. ^ "The Liberty Bell" (pdf). National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-08-11.  ^ Examples of carillons can be found here: "Carillon." Musiconis Database. Université Paris-Sorbonne. http://musiconis.huma-num.fr/recherche_simple?query=carillon Accessed January 5, 2018. ^ Alan Thorne & Robert Raymond, Man on the Rim: The Peopling of the Pacific (ABC Books, 1989), pp. 166–67 ^ Cultural China
China
website – " Bronze
Bronze
Chime Bells of Marquis Yi" Archived 2011-02-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Adamson, Page 189 ^ Rama, Jean-Pierre (1993). Cloches de France
France
et d’ailleurs, Le Temps Apprivoisé, pp.229-230. Paris, France. ISBN 2283581583.

References[edit]

Adamson, Archibald (1875). Rambles Round Kilmarnock. Kilmarnock : T. Stevenson. Milham, Willis Isbister. (1944). Time and Timekeepers: Including the History, Construction, Care, and Accuracy of Clocks and Watches. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 23271006 Murdoch, James. (1903). A History of Japan. London: Paul, Trech, Trubner. [re-issued by Routledge, London, 1996. ISBN 978-0-415-15416-1 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard A. B. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794–1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). [Siyun-sai Rin-siyo/ Hayashi Gahō
Hayashi Gahō
(1652)]. Nipon o daï itsi ran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. http://www.towerbells.org/data/GBGreatBells.html

Further reading[edit]

Fadul, Jose A. Fadul's Encyclopedia of Bells. 2015. Lulu Press. ISBN 978-131-260-110-9 Willis, Stephen Charles. Bells through the Ages: from the Percival Price Collection = Les Cloches à travers les siècles: provenant du fonds Percival Price. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1986. 34 p., ill. with b&w photos. N.B.: Prepared on the occasion of an exhibition of the same title, based on the collection of bell and carillon related material and documentation, of former Dominion Carilloneur (of Canadian Parliament, Ottawa), Percival Price, held at the National Library of Canada (as then named), 12 May to 14 Sept. 1986; some copies come with the guide to the taped dubbings of the recordings played as background music to the displays, as technically prepared by Gilles Saint-Laurent and listed by Stephen Charles Willis, both of the library's Music Division; English and French texts respectively divided into upper and lower portions of each page. ISBN 0-662-54295-9

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bells.

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Look up bell in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
article Bells.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
Encyclopaedia Britannica
(9th ed.) article Bell.

Bells at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Bell
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recordings of the Basque Country 'Bells in Aragón: a traditional means of communication' thesis (Spanish) Animation of English Full-circle ringing Videos of the London
London
Olympic bell being cast, tuned and installed.

v t e

Bells

Background and terminology

Bell Bell-cot Bellfounding Bell-gable Bell tower
Bell tower
/ Campanile Bell-ringer Belfry Bourdon Campanology Church bell Full circle ringing Peal Ring of bells Strike tone Striking clock Zvonnitsa

Bell
Bell
founders and foundries

Andrey Chokhov Bilbie family Franciscus Illenfeld Geert van Wou Gillett & Johnston Hatch bell foundry John Taylor & Co Juutila Foundry Kashpir Ganusov McShane Bell
Bell
Foundry Meneely Bell
Bell
Foundry Pieter and François Hemony Petit & Fritsen Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry Rudhall of Gloucester Whitechapel Bell
Bell
Foundry

Types

Agogô Altar bell Babendil Bianzhong Bicycle bell Bonshō Carillon Chime Cowbell Crotal bell Dead bell Doorbell Dōtaku Ghanta Glockenspiel Handbell Jingle bell Kane Ship's bell Standing bell Suzu Tintinnabulum Tubular bells

Ringing styles

Bell
Bell
pattern Blagovest Bolognese bell ringing art Change ringing Canpanò Grandsire Method ringing Peal Russian Orthodox bell ringing Veronese bellringing art

Notable bells

List of heaviest bells Balangiga bells Bell
Bell
of Good Luck Big Ben Freedom Bell Great Bell
Bell
of Dhammazedi Great Tom Ivan the Great Bell
Bell
Tower Japanese Peace Bell Justice Bell Liberty Bell Maria Gloriosa Mingun
Mingun
Bell Olympic Bell Sigismund Bell St. Petersglocke Swan Bells Tsar Bell World Peace Bells Yongle Big Bell

Related

The Ringing World Dove's Guide for Church Bell
Bell
Ringers Glockenmuseum Stiftskirche Herrenberg Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
Museum Ringing Organisations Freedom Bell, American Legion

v t e

Vessel percussion idiophones

Agung Babendil Bell Bell
Bell
tree Bock-a-da-bock Cowbell Cymbal Gandingan Kulintang

v t e

Percussion instruments

List of percussion instruments

Pitched percussion

Carillon Crotales Glockenspiel Gubal Handbell Handchime Hang Marimba Steelpan Timpani Vibraphone Xylophone

Unpitched percussion

Bass drum Bodhrán Bongo drum Cabasa Castanets Cowbell Cymbal Davul Djembe Jam block Lagerphone Maracas Tambourine Timbales Triangle (musical instrument) Washboard (musical instrument)

Orchestral percussion

Acme siren Bell
Bell
tree Clapper Clash cymbals Glockenspiel Snare drum Timpani Tubular bells

Percussion groupings

Drum kit Percussion section Percussion ensemble

Electronic percussion

Electronic drum Drum machine

Other

Cymbal
Cymbal
manufacturers List of drum manufacturers List of marimba manufacturers List of timpani manufacturers Classification of percussion instruments

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