FLAVIUS BELISARIUS (Greek : Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565)
was a general of the
Byzantine Empire . He was instrumental to Emperor
Justinian 's ambitious project of reconquering much of the
Mediterranean territory of the former
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire , which had
been lost less than a century previously.
One of the defining features of Belisarius' career was his success
despite varying levels of support from Justinian. His name is
frequently given as one of the so-called "
Last of the Romans ".
* 1 Early life and career
* 2 Military campaigns
* 2.1 Against the Vandals
* 2.2 Against the Ostrogoths
* 2.3 Deposition of
* 2.4 Later life and campaigns
* 3 Timeline
* 4 Legend as a blind beggar
* 5 In art and popular culture
Belisarius as a character
* 5.1.1 Drama
* 5.1.2 Literature
* 5.1.3 Opera
* 5.1.4 Comics
* 5.1.5 Games
* 5.1.6 Films
* 5.2 References and mentions
* 5.2.1 Literature
* 5.2.2 Games
* 5.2.3 Television
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 8.1 Primary sources
* 8.2 Secondary sources
* 9 External links
EARLY LIFE AND CAREER
Map of the Byzantine-Persian frontier
Belisarius was probably born in Germane or Germania, a fortified town
(some archaeological remains exist) on the site of present-day
Sapareva Banya in south-west
Bulgaria , in the borders of
Paeonia or in Germen a town in
Adrianople , nowadays in
Greece . Born into an Illyrian or Thracian family of possible
Gothic ancestry, he spoke Latin as a mother tongue and became a Roman
soldier as a young man, serving as bodyguard of Emperor
Justin I .
He came to the attention of Justin and his nephew, Justinian, as a
promising and innovative officer. He was given permission by the
emperor to form a bodyguard regiment (bucellarii ), of heavy cavalry,
which he later expanded into a personal household regiment, 1,500
strong. Belisarius' bucellarii were the nucleus around which all the
armies he would later command were organized. Armed with a lance,
(possibly Hunnish style) composite bow, and broadsword, they were
fully armoured to the standard of heavy cavalry of the day . A
multi-purpose unit, they were capable of skirmishing at a distance
with bow, like the Huns; or could act as heavy shock cavalry, charging
an enemy with lance and sword. In essence, they combined the best and
most dangerous aspects of both of Rome's greatest enemies, the Huns
and the Goths.
Following Justin's death in 527, the new emperor,
Justinian I ,
Belisarius to command the Roman army in the east to deal
with incursions from the Sassanid Empire . He quickly proved himself
an able and effective commander, defeating the larger Sassanid army
through superior generalship. In June/July 530, during the Iberian War
, he led the Romans to a stunning victory over the Sassanids in the
Battle of Dara
Battle of Dara , followed by a tactical defeat at the Battle of
Callinicum on the
Euphrates in 531—this was perhaps a strategic
victory in that the Persians retreated to their own borders. This led
to the negotiation of an "Eternal Peace " with the Persians, and Roman
payment of heavy tributes for years in exchange for peace with Persia.
This freed resources for redeployment elsewhere.
In 532, he was the highest-ranking military officer in the Imperial
Constantinople when the
Nika riots broke out in the city
(among factions of chariot racing fans) and nearly resulted in the
overthrow of Justinian. Belisarius, with the help of the magister
militum of the Illyricum , Mundus , along with
Narses and John the
Armenian , suppressed the rebellion with a bloodbath in the
Hippodrome, the gathering place of the rebels, that is said to have
claimed the lives of 30,000 people.
AGAINST THE VANDALS
Vandalic War Map of the
For his efforts,
Belisarius was rewarded by
Justinian with the
command of a land and sea expedition against the Vandal Kingdom,
mounted in 533–534. The Romans had political, religious and
strategic reasons for such a campaign. The pro-Roman Vandal king
Hilderic had been deposed and murdered by the usurper
Gelimer , giving
Justinian a legal pretext. The Arian Vandals had periodically
persecuted the Nicene Christians within their kingdom, many of whom
made their way to
Constantinople seeking redress. The Vandals had
launched many pirate raids on Roman trade interests, hurting commerce
in the western areas of the Empire.
Justinian also wanted control of
the Vandal territory in north
Africa , which was one of the wealthiest
provinces and the breadbasket of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire and was now
vital for guaranteeing Roman access to the western
In the late summer of 533,
Belisarius sailed to
Africa and landed
Caput Vada (near Chebba on the coast of Tunisia). He ordered his
fleet not to lose sight of the army, then marched along the coastal
highway toward the Vandal capital of
Carthage . He did this to prevent
supplies from being cut off and to avoid a great defeat such as
occurred during the attempt by
Basiliscus to retake northern
years before, which had ended in the Roman disaster at the Battle of
Cap Bon in 468.
Ten miles from Carthage, the forces of
Gelimer (who had just executed
Belisarius met at the
Battle of Ad Decimum
Battle of Ad Decimum on September
13, 533. It nearly turned into a defeat for the Romans;
chosen his position well and had some success along the main road. The
Romans seemed dominant on both sides of the main road to Carthage. At
the height of the battle,
Gelimer became distraught upon learning of
the death of his brother in battle. This gave
Belisarius a chance to
regroup and he went on to win the battle and capture Carthage. A
second victory at the
Battle of Tricamarum on December 15, resulted in
Gelimer's surrender early in 534 at Mount Papua , restoring the lost
Roman provinces of north
Africa to the empire. For this achievement,
Belisarius was granted a
Roman triumph (the last ever given) when he
returned to Constantinople. According to
Procopius in the procession
were paraded the spoils of the
Temple of Jerusalem (the Vandal
treasure, including many objects looted from
Rome 80 years earlier,
the imperial regalia and the menorah of the
Second Temple among them)
which had been recovered from the Vandal capital along with Gelimer
himself before he was sent into peaceful exile. Medals were stamped in
his honor with the inscription Gloria Romanorum, though none seem to
have survived to modern times.
Belisarius was also made sole Consul in
535, being one of the last persons to hold this office, which
originated in the ancient
Roman Republic . The recovery of
incomplete; army mutinies and revolts by the native Berbers plagued
the new praetorian prefecture of
Africa for almost 15 years.
AGAINST THE OSTROGOTHS
Gothic War (535–554) Map of the operations of
the first five years of the war, showing the Roman conquest of Italy
Justinian resolved to restore as much of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire as
he could. In 535, he commissioned
Belisarius to attack the Ostrogothic
Kingdom in Italy.
Belisarius landed in Sicily and took the island for
use as a base against Italy, while Mundus recovered
Dalmatia . The
preparations for the invasion of the Italian mainland were interrupted
in Easter 536, when
Belisarius sailed to
Africa to counter an uprising
of the local army. His reputation made the rebels abandon the siege of
Belisarius pursued and defeated them at Membresa.
Thereupon he returned to Sicily, and then crossed into mainland Italy
, where he captured Naples in November and
Rome in December 536.
In 537–538 he defended
Rome against the
Goths and moved north to
take the Ostrogoth capital of
Ravenna in 540, where the Goth king
Witiges was captured. Shortly before the taking of Ravenna, the
Ostrogoths had offered to make
Belisarius the western emperor.
Belisarius feigned acceptance and entered
Ravenna via its sole point
of entry, a causeway through the marshes, accompanied by a comitatus
of bucellarii , his personal household regiment. Soon afterwards, he
proclaimed the capture of
Ravenna in the name of the Emperor
Justinian. The Goths' offer raised suspicions in Justinian's mind and
Belisarius was recalled. He returned home with the Gothic treasure,
king and warriors.
Belisarius was recalled in part to deal with the Persian conquest of
Syria , a crucial province of the empire, where he repulsed renewed
attacks. He defeated the Persian army under Nabades at Nisibis but
could not take the city because it was fortified and well defended by
the Persians. He captured Sisauranon, a small Persian fort to the
Belisarius sent Harith with 1,200 Roman troops under John
the Glutton and Trajan to plunder Assyria. The expedition penetrated
far into Persian territory and gathered much plunder. In the campaign
of 542, Belisarius' presence just to the west of the Euphrates
Khosrow I from advancing further and the king decided to
Belisarius was acclaimed throughout the East for his success
in repelling the Persians.
Belisarius returned to
Italy in 544, where he found that the
situation had changed greatly. In 541 the Ostrogoths had elected
Totila as their new leader and had mounted a vigorous campaign against
the Romans, recapturing all of northern
Italy and even driving the
Romans out of Rome.
Belisarius managed to recover
Rome briefly but his
Italian campaign proved unsuccessful, due in no small part to his
limited supplies and reinforcements, perhaps as Justinian's empire had
suffered from the plague of 541–542 . In 548/9,
him. In 551, after economic recovery (from the effects of the plague)
Narses led a large army to bring the campaign to a
Belisarius retired from military affairs. At
the Second Ecumenical Council of
one of the Emperor's envoys to
Pope Vigilius in their tug of war over
The Three Chapters . The Patriarch Eutychius, who presided over this
council in place of Pope Vigilius, was the son of one of Belisarius'
DEPOSITION OF POPE SILVERIUS
During the Siege of
Rome an incident occurred for which the general
would be long condemned: Belisarius, a Byzantine Rite Christian, was
commanded by the monophysite Christian Empress Theodora to depose the
reigning Pope, who had been installed by the Goths. This Pope was the
former subdeacon Silverius , the son of
Pope Hormisdas . Belisarius
was to replace him with the Deacon Vigilius ,
Apocrisarius of Pope
John II in Constantinople. Vigilius had in fact been chosen in 531 by
Pope Boniface II to be his successor, but this choice was strongly
criticised by the Roman clergy and Boniface eventually reversed his
In 537, at the height of the siege, Silverius was accused of
conspiring with the Gothic King and several Roman senators to secretly
open the gates of the city.
Belisarius had him stripped of his
vestments and exiled to Patara in Lycia in Asia Minor. Following the
advocacy of his innocence by the bishop of Patara he was ordered to
Italy at the command of the Emperor
Justinian and, if
cleared by investigation, reinstated. However, Vigilius had already
been installed in his place and Silverius was intercepted before he
Rome and exiled once more, this time on the island of
Ponza ), where by one account he is said to have starved to
death, others say he left for Constantinople. However that may be, he
remains the patron saint of
Belisarius, for his part, built a small oratory on the site of the
present church of
Santa Maria in Trivio in
Rome as a sign of his
repentance. He also built two hospices for pilgrims and a monastery,
which have since disappeared.
Santa Maria in Trivio is around the
corner from the Trevi fountain; a 12th-century inscription is the only
surviving monument of the great general.
LATER LIFE AND CAMPAIGNS
The enlargement of the
Roman Empire possessions between the rise
to power of
Justinian (red, 527) and his and Belisarius' death
Belisarius contributed immensely to the expansion of
The retirement of
Belisarius came to an end in 559, when an army of
Bulgars under Khan
Zabergan crossed the
Danube River to
invade Roman territory for the first time and threatened
Belisarius to command the Roman
army. In his last campaign,
Belisarius defeated the
Kutrigurs at the
battle of Melantias and drove them back across the river with the
greatly outnumbered force under his command.
Belisarius stood trial in
Constantinople on a charge of
corruption. The charge is presumed to be trumped-up and modern
research suggests that his former secretary
Procopius of Caesarea may
have judged his case.
Belisarius was found guilty and imprisoned but
not long after,
Justinian pardoned him, ordered his release, and
restored him to favour at the imperial court.
In the first five chapters of his Secret History , Procopius
Belisarius as a cuckold husband, who was emotionally
dependent on his debauched wife, Antonina . According to the
historian, Antonina cheated on
Belisarius with their adopted son, the
Procopius claims that the love affair was well known
in the imperial court and the general was regarded as weak and
ridiculous; this view is often considered biased, as
a longstanding hatred of
Belisarius and Antonina. Empress Theodora
reportedly helped and saved Antonina when
Belisarius tried to charge
his wife at last.
Belisarius and Justinian, whose partnership increased the
size of the empire by 45 percent, died within a few months of each
other in 565.
Belisarius owned the estate of Rufinianae on the Asiatic
side of the
Constantinople suburbs. He may have died there and been
buried near one of the two churches in the area, perhaps Saints Peter
LEGEND AS A BLIND BEGGAR
François-André Vincent (1776). Belisarius,
blinded, a beggar, is recognised by one of his former soldiers
Belisarius Begging for Alms , as depicted in popular legend, in the
Jacques-Louis David (1781) The outcast Belisarius
receiving hospitality from a Peasant by Jean-François Pierre Peyron
According to a story that gained popularity during the
Middle Ages ,
Justinian is said to have ordered Belisarius' eyes to be put out, and
reduced him to the status of homeless beggar near the Pincian Gate of
Rome, condemned to asking passers-by to "give an obolus to Belisarius"
(date obolum Belisario), before pardoning him. Most modern scholars
believe the story to be apocryphal , though Philip Stanhope , a
19th-century British philologist who wrote Life of Belisarius—the
only exhaustive biography of the great general—believed the story to
be true. Based on a parsing of the available primary sources, Stanhope
created an argument for the legend's authenticity.
Though the legend remains of dubious provenance, after the
Jean-François Marmontel 's novel Bélisaire (1767 ),
this account became a popular subject for progressive painters and
their patrons in the later 18th century, who saw parallels between the
Justinian and the repression imposed by contemporary
rulers. For such subtexts, Marmontel's novel received a public censure
by Louis Legrand of the Sorbonne, which contemporary divines regarded
as model expositions of theological knowledge and clear thinking
(Catholic Encyclopedia: "Louis Legrand"). Marmontel and the painters
and sculptors (a bust of
Belisarius by the French sculptor
Jean-Baptiste Stouf is at the
J. Paul Getty Museum ) depicted
Belisarius as a kind of secular saint , sharing the suffering of the
downtrodden poor. The most famous of these paintings, by Jacques-Louis
David , combines the themes of charity (the alms giver), injustice
(Belisarius), and the radical reversal of power (the soldier who
recognises his old commander). Others portray him being helped by the
poor after his rejection by the powerful.
IN ART AND POPULAR CULTURE
Belisarius was featured in several works of art before the 20th
century. The oldest of them is the historical treatise by his
Procopius . The Anecdota, commonly referred to as the
Arcana Historia or Secret History, is an extended attack on Belisarius
and Antonina, and on
Justinian and Theodora, indicting
Belisarius as a
love-blind fool and his wife as unfaithful and duplicitous. Other
BELISARIUS AS A CHARACTER
* Belasarius: a play by
Jakob Bidermann (1607)
* The life and history of Belisarius, who conquer'd
Italy, with an account of his disgrace, the ingratitude of the Romans,
and a parallel between him and a modern hero: a drama by John Oldmixon
* Belasarius: a drama by William Philips (1724)
* Bélisaire: a novel by
Jean-François Marmontel (1767)
* Belisarius: A Tragedy: by
Margaretta Faugères (1795). Though she
wrote it as a play, Faugères "intended for the closet," i.e., to be
read and not performed. Her preface voices complaints about
"maledictions" and long-winded rhetoric in popular tragic drama, which
she says tend to bore and even outrage a reader, and announces her
intent to "substitute concise narrative and plain sense." The drama's
plot and character development are secondary to moral conflicts,
mainly between vengeance and mercy/pity, respectively associated with
pride and humility.
* Beliar: 18th-century poem by
Friedrich de la Motte Fouque .
Kampf um Rom : an historical novel by
Felix Dahn (1867)
* Belisarius, 19th-century poem by
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow .
Count Belisarius : a novel by
Robert Graves (1938); Ostensibly
written from the viewpoint of the eunuch Eugenius, servant to
Belisarius' wife, but actually based on
Procopius 's history, the book
Belisarius as a solitary honorable man in a corrupt world,
and paints a vivid picture of not only his startling military feats
but also the colorful characters and events of his day, such as the
savage Hippodrome politics of the
Constantinople chariot races, which
regularly escalated to open street battles between fans of opposing
factions, and the intrigues of the emperor
Justinian and the empress
Lest Darkness Fall : an alternative history novel by L. Sprague de
Belisarius appears first as the Roman opponent of the
Martin Padway who tries to spread modern science and
inventions in Gothic Italy. Eventually
Belisarius becomes a general in
Padway's army and secures
Italy for him.
* The character "
Bel Riose " in
Foundation and Empire by Isaac
Asimov is based on
* A Flame in Byzantium: an historical horror fiction novel by
Chelsea Quinn Yarbro (1987)
Belisarius series : six science fiction novels by Eric Flint
David Drake .
Alternate history exploring what might have happened
Belisarius and a rival were granted knowledge of future events and
technologies. The first four books are available as free ebooks from
Baen Free Library
Baen Free Library , or all six at The Fifth Imperium website.
* Belisarius: The First Shall Be Last (2006) and Belisarius: Glory
of the Romans (2010): novels by Paolo Belzoni
Belisario : tragedia lirica by
Gaetano Donizetti , libretto by
Salvatore Cammarano after Luigi Marchionni's adaptation of Eduard von
Belisarius (1820), scenography by
Francesco Bagnara ,
premiered during the Stagione di Carnevale, 4 February 1836, Venezia,
Teatro La Fenice.
* Destiny: A Chronicle of Deaths Foretold : comic book miniseries
Alisa Kwitney with art by Kent Williams ,
Michael Zulli ,
Scott Hampton , and
Rebecca Guay (1997).
Belisarius briefly appears as
a jealous husband, imprisoning his wife in their quarters due to
rumors of her affairs, instead of fighting in Italy.
Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings : A video game by Ensemble
Belisarius is a "Hero" that can only be accessed in
the map editor. He has the appearance of a
Cataphract , the Byzantine
unique unit. The second official expansion pack for the game, Age of
Empires II: The Forgotten (2013), added a few campaigns in which
Belisarius is featured as a player controllable unit.
* Age of Empires: Castle Siege : A video game by Microsoft Studios
Belisarius is a "Hero" associated with the Byzantines
civilization, with a special ability to undermine walls.
Civilization IV : A video game by Take Two (2005).
Belisarius is a
"Great Person"; specifically, one of many "Great Generals" that arise
through gameplay via successful warfare with other civilizations but
Civilization V : Belisarius, like in Civilization IV, appears as a
* Total War: Attila : A video game by
The Creative Assembly . The
player can command the army of
Belisarius at the Battle of Ad Decimum.
He is also featured as the main protagonist in "The Last Roman"
Campaign Pack where the player can take the role of Belisarius, tasked
with reclaiming the former territory of the Western Empire. The
campaign ends either with the player successfully recovering territory
for the Eastern Roman Empire, or alternatively with Belisarius' forces
declaring independence from the Eastern
Roman Empire and resurrecting
the Western Roman Empire.
* He is in a tutorial level of
Empire Earth .
Belisarius was portrayed by
Lang Jeffries in the 1968 German movie
Kampf um Rom , directed by
Robert Siodmak .
REFERENCES AND MENTIONS
Mardi : novel by
Herman Melville (1849); Melville playfully
assigns the moniker "my Belisarius" to the Samoan Islander first
encountered aboard the abandoned vessel "Parki".
Jorge Luis Borges mentioned the legend of
Belisarius as a blind
beggar in some of his poetic works, for example, "A quien ya no es
joven," the first verse of which reads: "Ya puedes ver el tragico
escenario y cada cosa en lugar debido; la espada y la ceniza para Dido
y la moneda para Belisario."
Foundation and Empire : a science fiction novel by Isaac Asimov,
second novel in the
Foundation Series (1952). The character Bel Riose
, based on Belisarius, is the last great general of the first Galactic
Empire , which was modelled on the late Roman Empire.
General : a series of military science fiction novels by S. M.
David Drake . The plot draws much from the life and
campaigns of Belisarius; the main character,
Raj Whitehall , sets out
to reunite the planet of Bellevue after the fall of galactic
The Sarantine Mosaic : a pair of alternate historical fantasy
Guy Gavriel Kay which follows the mosaicist Crispin and his
entanglement in the affairs of the court under Emperor Valerius II and
his general Leontes, loosely based on
Belisarius in the
time immediately before and leading up to the attempt to reclaim the
lost Western empire.
* Buffy The Vampire Slayer: Immortal Belasarius was turned into a
Vampire by Veronqiue back in that time period. No one knew and thus he
General while serving Veronique.
* The BELISARIUS SERIES is a fictional saga in the alternate history
and military history subgenres of science fiction , written by
David Drake and
Eric Flint .
Indiana Jones and the Emperor\'s Tomb : a video game by LucasArts
(2003). During his quest to find the tomb of the first emperor of
Indiana Jones learns that the Nazis have discovered
Belisarius' "sunken temple" beneath a mosque in
* The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion : a video game by Bethesda
Softworks (2006). A soldier named
Belisarius is found in the Cloud
Ruler Temple as a non-player character and another character with the
Belisarius is a speaker of the Black Hand only seen in the final
Dark Brotherhood quest Honor thy Mother.
Freespace 2 : A video game by Volition . The ship NTCv Belisarius
is destroyed after emerging from subspace , heavily damaged and
defiant of all calls to surrender, despite facing a superior enemy.
* "Belisarius' War" game by Decision Games.
Belisarius is the namesake of
Donald Bellisario 's production
Byzantine Empire portal
* ^ Mass, Michael (June 2013). "Las guerras de Justiniano en
Occidente y la idea de restauración". Desperta Ferro (in Spanish).
18: 6–10. ISSN 2171-9276 .
* ^ The exact date of his birth is unknown. PLRE III, p. 182
* ^ Robert Graves,
Count Belisarius and Procopius’s Wars, 1938
* ^ A B Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A history of the Byzantine
state and society. Stanford University Press. p. 246. ISBN
978-0-8047-2630-6 . Retrieved 12 October 2010.
* ^ Barker, John W. (1966).
Justinian and the later Roman Empire.
University of Wisconsin Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-299-03944-8 .
Retrieved 28 November 2011.
* ^ History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius
I to the death of
Justinian volume 2, by J. B. Bury p.56
* ^ The Age of Faith: The Story of Civilization by Will Durant,
* ^ Count Marcellinus and His Chronicle by Brian Croke, p.75
* ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2010). Battles that changed history : an
encyclopedia of world conflict (1st ed.). Santa Barbara, Calif.:
ABC-CLIO. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-59884-429-0 .
* ^ Frassento, Michael (2003). Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe:
Society in Transformation.
ABC-CLIO . p. 64. ISBN 1-57607-263-0 .
Retrieved 2 November 2013.
* ^ Evans, James Allan (2003-10-01). The Empress Theodora: Partner
of Justinian. University of Texas Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-292-70270-7
. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
* ^ The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 363-628 by
Geoffrey Greatrex,Samuel N. C. Lieu, p. 108-110
* ^ http://baencd.thefifthimperium.com/15-WhentheTideRisesCD/
* ^ http://www.arxpub.com/literary/Belisarius.html
* ^ El Otro, El Mismo (1964) in Jorge Luis Borges, Obra Poética
Belisarius and Narses, Academic Fellowship, 1964.
* Procopius, The Secret History of the Court of Justinian, online at
* "Belisarius" Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 27 Apr 2009
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Belisarius". Encyclopædia Britannica
. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* R. Boss, R. Chapman, P. Garriock, Justinian's War: Belisarius,
Narses and the Reconquest of the West, Montvert Publications, 1993,
ISBN 1-874101-01-9 .
* Henning Börm, Justinians Triumph und Belisars Erniedrigung.
Überlegungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Kaiser und Militär im späten
Römischen Reich. In: Chiron 43 (2013), pages 63–91.
* Glanville Downey, Belisarius: Young general of Byzantium, Dutton,
Edward Gibbon has much to say on
Belisarius in The History of the
Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire , Chapter 41 online.
* Lillington-Martin, Christopher 2006–2013:
* 2006, "Pilot Field-Walking Survey near Ambar
* 2007, "Archaeological and Ancient Literary Evidence for a Battle
near Dara Gap, Turkey, AD 530: Topography, Texts and Trenches" in: BAR
–S1717, 2007 The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to
the Arab Conquest Proceedings of a colloquium held at Potenza,
Acerenza and Matera,
Italy edited by Ariel S. Lewin and Pietrina
Pellegrini, p 299–311;
* 2008, "Roman tactics defeat Persian pride" in Ancient Warfare
edited by Jasper Oorthuys, Vol. II, Issue 1 (February 2008), pages
* 2009, "Procopius,
Belisarius and the Goths" in: Journal of the
Oxford University History Society,(2009) Odd Alliances edited by
Heather Ellis and Graciela Iglesias Rogers. ISSN 1742-917X , pages
* 2010, "Source for a handbook:Reflections of the Wars in the
Strategikon and archaeology" in: Ancient Warfare edited by Jasper
Oorthuys, Vol. IV, Issue 3 (June 2010), pages 33–37;
* 2011, "Secret Histories",
* 2012, "Hard and Soft Power on the Eastern Frontier: a Roman
Fortlet between Dara and Nisibis, Mesopotamia,Turkey, Prokopios'
Mindouos?" in: The Byzantinist, edited by Douglas Whalin, Issue 2
(2012), pages 4–5,
* 2013a, "La defensa de Roma por Belisario" in: Justiniano I el
Grande (Desperta Ferro) edited by Alberto Pérez Rubio, 18 (July
2013), pages 40–45, ISSN 2171-9276 ;
* 2013b, "
Procopius on the struggle for Dara and Rome" in: War and
Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (Late Antique
Archaeology 8.1–8.2 2010–11) by Sarantis A. and Christie N.
(2010–11) edd. (Brill, Leiden 2013), pages 599–630, ISBN
* Martindale, John R.; Jones, A. H. M.; Morris, J. (1992). The
Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. IIIA. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 181–224. ISBN 0-521-20160-8 .
* Lord Mahon , The Life of Belisarius, 1848. Reprinted 2006
(unabridged with editorial comments) Evolution Publishing, ISBN
* Lord Mahon, The Life of Belisarius, J. Murray, 1829. With a new
critical introduction and further reading by Jon Coulston. Westholme
Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-59416-019-8
* Ancient Warfare magazine, Vol. IV, Issue 3 (Jun/Jul, 2010), was
devoted to "Justinian's fireman:
Belisarius and the Byzantine empire",
with articles by Sidney Dean, Duncan B. Campbell , Ian Hughes, Ross
Cowan, Raffaele D'Amato, and Christopher Lillington-Martin.
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