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BéJAïA (Arabic : بِجَايَة‎‎, Bijayah; Berber : BGAYET, BGAYETH, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly BOUGIE and BUGIA, is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria
Algeria
; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province , Kabylia . Béjaïa is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie
Kabylie
region of Algeria. The history of Béjaïa explains the diversity of the local population. Its inhabitants are mainly Berbers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Antiquity and Byzantine era * 2.2 Muslim and feudal rulers

* 2.3 French colonial rule

* 2.3.1 Battle of Béjaïa

* 2.4 Algerian republic

* 3 Ecclesiastical history

* 3.1 Titular see of Bugia

* 4 Climate * 5 Demography * 6 Economy * 7 Friendly relationship * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Monkey Peak ( Pic des singes
Pic des singes
).

The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile is said to resemble a sleeping woman; other nearby scenic spots include the Aiguades beach and the Pic des Singes
Pic des Singes
(Monkey Peak); the latter site is a habitat for the endangered Barbary macaque
Barbary macaque
, which prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All three of these geographic features are contained in the Gouraya National Park . The Soummam river runs past the town.

Under French rule , it was formerly known under various European names, such as BUDSCHAJA in German, BUGIA in Italian, and BOUGIE (the latter two being words for candle , derived from the town name because of its wax trade).

HISTORY

ANTIQUITY AND BYZANTINE ERA

See also: Saldae The Western Roman empire, in the second century AD, during the reign of Hadrian. Saldae can be seen on the south coast of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean

Béjaïa stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor port in Carthaginian and Roman times in an area at first inhabited by Numidian Berbers and founded as a veteran colony by emperor Augustus
Augustus
. It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis , and the later Sitifensis . Coin of the Hafsids , with ornamental Kufic
Kufic
script, from Béjaïa, 1249-1276.

In the 5th century, Saldae became the capital of the short-lived Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic Vandals
Vandals
, which ended in about 533 with the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and later the Exarchate of Carthage .

MUSLIM AND FEUDAL RULERS

After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as "Béjaïa"; the Hammadid dynasty made it their capital, and it became an important port and centre of culture. Historic map of Algiers and Béjaïa by Piri Reis
Piri Reis

The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known as Fibonacci
Fibonacci
(c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned under the Almohad dynasty about Muslim mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and Hindu-Arabic numerals
Hindu-Arabic numerals
. He introduced these and modern mathematics into medieval Europe. A mathematical-historical analysis of Fibonacci's context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter of wax in his time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers of Béjaïa and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly inspired the Fibonacci
Fibonacci
numbers rather than the rabbit reproduction model as presented in his famous book Liber Abaci .

In 1315, Raymond Lully died as a result of being stoned at Béjaïa, where, a few years before, Peter Armengaudius (Peter Armengol) is reputed to have been hanged.

After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the Ottoman Turks in the Capture of Bougie in 1555. For nearly three centuries, Béjaïa was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see Barbary States ). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking Moors
Moors
, Moriscos and Jews
Jews
increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the Berber peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages and travelling to the city occasionally for the market days.

City
City
landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a casbah (fortress) built by the Spanish in 1545.

A picture of the Orientalist painter Maurice Boitel , who painted in the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa.

FRENCH COLONIAL RULE

It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial Algeria
Algeria
. Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the Département of Constantine , until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957.

Battle Of Béjaïa

During World War II
World War II
, Operation Torch
Operation Torch
landed forces in North Africa
North Africa
, including a battalion of the British Royal West Kent Regiment at Béjaïa on November 11, 1942.

That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
air raid struck Béjaïa with thirty Ju-88 bombers and torpedo planes. The transports Awatea and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged. The following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed.

ALGERIAN REPUBLIC

After Algerian independence, it became the eponymous capital of Béjaïa Province , covering part of the eastern Berber region Kabylia .

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

With the spread of Christianity
Christianity
, Saldae became a bishopric . Its bishop Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric
Huneric
summoned to Carthage
Carthage
in 484 and then exiled.

Christianity
Christianity
survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter of Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North Africa.

No longer a residential bishopric, Saldae (v.) is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a titular see . and still has incumbents by that title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary archiepiscopal rank).

TITULAR SEE OF BUGIA

This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently with the city's authentic Roman Latin name Saldae (v.), called BUGIA, the Italian language form (used in the Roman Curia ) of Béjaïa.

The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

* Miguel Morro (1510 – ?), as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Mallorca (Balearic Spain) (1510 – ?) * Fernando de Vera y Zuñiga, Augustinians (O.E.S.A.) (1614.02.17 – 1628.11.13), as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Badajoz (Spain) (1614.02.17 – 1628.11.13); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Santo Domingo , finally Archbishop-Bishop of Cusco (Peru) (1629.07.16 – death 1638.11.09) * François Perez (1687.02.05 – death 1728.09.20), as Apostolic Vicar of Cochin (Vietnam) (1687.02.05 – 1728.09.20) * Antonio Mauricio Ribeiro (1824.09.27 – death ?), as Auxiliary Bishop of Évora (Portugal) (1824.09.27 – ?) * George Hilary Brown (5 June 1840 until 22 April 1842), as first and only Apostolic Vicar of Lancashire District (England) (1840.06.05 – 1850.09.29), later Titular Bishop of Tlous (1842.04.22 – 1850.09.29), promoted first bishop of successor see Liverpool (1850.09.29 – 1856.01.25)

CLIMATE

Béjaïa, like most cities along the coast of Algeria, has a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate ( Köppen climate classification Csa), with very warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BéJAïA

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 27.7 (81.9) 32.0 (89.6) 37.0 (98.6) 33.0 (91.4) 37.3 (99.1) 42.8 (109) 44.7 (112.5) 47.6 (117.7) 42.5 (108.5) 40.0 (104) 37.4 (99.3) 33.0 (91.4) 47.6 (117.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 16.4 (61.5) 16.8 (62.2) 17.7 (63.9) 19.3 (66.7) 22.0 (71.6) 25.3 (77.5) 28.7 (83.7) 29.3 (84.7) 27.8 (82) 24.3 (75.7) 20.3 (68.5) 16.9 (62.4) 22.07 (71.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 12.1 (53.8) 12.3 (54.1) 13.1 (55.6) 14.7 (58.5) 17.6 (63.7) 21.0 (69.8) 24.0 (75.2) 24.8 (76.6) 23.2 (73.8) 19.7 (67.5) 15.8 (60.4) 12.7 (54.9) 17.58 (63.66)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.7 (45.9) 7.6 (45.7) 8.5 (47.3) 10.1 (50.2) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.3 (66.7) 20.2 (68.4) 18.5 (65.3) 15.0 (59) 11.2 (52.2) 8.4 (47.1) 13.02 (55.44)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) −4.0 (24.8) −0.1 (31.8) 2.0 (35.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.8 (46) 13.0 (55.4) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 8.0 (46.4) 1.6 (34.9) −2.4 (27.7) −4 (24.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 99.7 (3.925) 85.9 (3.382) 100.4 (3.953) 70.7 (2.783) 41.2 (1.622) 16.2 (0.638) 5.8 (0.228) 13.0 (0.512) 40.4 (1.591) 89.5 (3.524) 99.7 (3.925) 135.0 (5.315) 797.5 (31.398)

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 78.5 77.6 77.9 77.9 79.9 76.9 75.0 74.6 76.4 76.3 75.3 76.0 76.86

Source #1: NOAA
NOAA
(1968-1990)

Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)

DEMOGRAPHY

The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.

Historical populations YEAR POPULATION

1901 14,600

1906 17,500

1911 10,000

1921 19,400

1926 15,900

1931 25,300

1936 30,700

1948 28,500

1954 43,900

1960 63,000

1966 49,900

1974 104,000

1977 74,000

1987 114,500

1998 144,400

2008 177,988

ECONOMY

Cap Carbon Lighthouse Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013

Algeria
Algeria

LOCATION Cap Carbonbr Béjaïa

COORDINATES 36°46′34.25″N 5°6′14.83″E / 36.7761806°N 5.1041194°E / 36.7761806; 5.1041194

YEAR FIRST CONSTRUCTED 1906

CONSTRUCTION masonry tower

TOWER SHAPE cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the keeper’s house

MARKINGS / PATTERN white tower, black lantern roof

HEIGHT 14.60 metres (47.9 ft)

FOCAL HEIGHT 224.10 metres (735.2 ft)

RANGE 29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi)

CHARACTERISTIC Fl (3) W 20s.

ADMIRALTY NUMBER E6572

NGA NUMBER 22328

ARLHS NUMBER ALG-007

MANAGING AGENT Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime

Maritime front of Béjaïa: a view of its industrial facilities and the airport

The northern terminus of the Hassi Messaoud oil pipeline from the Sahara, Béjaïa is the principal oil port of the Western Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron , phosphates , wines , dried figs , and plums . The city also has textile and cork industries.

Cevital has its head office in the city.

FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP

Béjaïa has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié) with:

* Glasgow, Scotland , since 1995

SEE ALSO

* Algeria
Algeria
portal * Lighthouses portal

* List of lighthouses in Algeria
Algeria
* Saldae , for Roman history and concurrent Catholic titular see

Related people

* Abu al-Salt

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bougie (n)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012. Etymology: < French bougie wax candle, < Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in Algeria
Algeria
which carried on a trade in wax Available online to subscribers * ^ Stephen Ramsay, Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism, (University of Illinois Press, 2011), 64. * ^ Scott, T.C.; Marketos, P. (March 2014), On the Origin of the Fibonacci
Fibonacci
Sequence (PDF), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews * ^ A B Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, p. 269 * ^ A B C H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de la Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 127-129 * ^ J. Frank Henderson, "Moslems and the Roman Catholic Liturgical Calendar. Documentation" (2003), p. 18 * ^ Atkinson 2002 . * ^ J. Mesnage, L\'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 8 e 268-269 * ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1 ), p. 963 * ^ "Climate Normals for Béjaïa" . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ "Béjaïa, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ populstat.info Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ A B C D "Cap Carbon". Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime. Ministere des Travaux Publics. Retrieved 28 April 2017. * ^ List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov) (PDF). List of Lights . United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency . 2015. * ^ "Eastern Algeria". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 27 April 2017. * ^ " Cevital MARGIN:0 4EM">ARTICLES RELATED TO BéJAïA

* v * t * e

Provincial seats of Algeria
Algeria

* Adrar * Aïn Defla * Aïn Témouchent * Algiers
Algiers
* Annaba * Batna * Béchar
Béchar
* Béjaïa * Biskra * Blida * Bordj Bou Arréridj * Bouïra * Boumerdès * Chlef
Chlef
* Constantine * Djelfa * El Bayadh * El Oued * El Taref * Ghardaïa * Guelma
Guelma
* Illizi * Jijel * Khenchela
Khenchela
* Laghouat * Mascara * Médéa * Mila * Mostaganem * M\'Sila * Naâma * Oran
Oran
* Ouargla
Ouargla
* Oum El Bouaghi * Relizane
Relizane
* Saida * Sétif * Sidi Bel Abbès * Skikda * Souk Ahras * Tamanrasset * Tébessa * Tiaret
Tiaret
* Tindouf * Tipasa * Tissemsilt * Tizi Ouzou * Tlemcen
Tlemcen

* v * t * e

Béjaïa Province

DISTRICTS

* Adekar * Akbou * Amizour * Aokas * Barbacha * Béjaïa * Béni Maouche * Chemini * Darguina * El Kseur * Ifri- Ouzellaguen * Ighil Ali * Kherrata * Seddouk * Sidi Aïch * Souk El Tenine * Tazmalt * Tichy * Timezrit

COMMUNES

* Adekar * Aït-Rizine * Aït Smaïl * Akbou * Akfadou * Amalou * Amizour * Aokas * Barbacha * Béjaïa * Beni Djellil * Beni Ksila * Beni Maouche * Beni Mellikeche * Boudjellil * Bouhamza * Boukhelifa * Chelata * Chemini * Darguina * Draâ El-Kaïd * El-Flaye * El-Kseur * Feraoun * Ifenain Ilmathen * Ighil Ali * Ighram * Kendira * Kherrata * Melbou * Oued Ghir * Ouzellaguen * Seddouk * Semaoune * Sidi Aïch * Sidi-Ayad * Sidi-Saïd * Souk El-Thenine * Souk-Oufella * Tala Hamza * Tamokra * Tamridjet * Taourirt Ighil * Taskriout * Tazmalt * Tinabdher * Tibane * Tichy * Tifra * Timezrit * Tizi N\'Berber * Toudja

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 125622353 * GND : 4087103-4

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