BéJAïA (Arabic : بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Berber : BGAYET,
BGAYETH, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly BOUGIE and BUGIA, is a
Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of
Algeria ; it is the
Béjaïa Province ,
Béjaïa is the largest
principally Kabyle-speaking city in the
Kabylie region of Algeria. The
Béjaïa explains the diversity of the local population.
* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 2.1 Antiquity and Byzantine era
* 2.2 Muslim and feudal rulers
* 2.3 French colonial rule
* 2.3.1 Battle of
* 2.4 Algerian republic
* 3 Ecclesiastical history
Titular see of Bugia
* 4 Climate
* 5 Demography
* 6 Economy
* 7 Friendly relationship
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 External links
Monkey Peak (
Pic des singes
Pic des singes ).
The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile
is said to resemble a sleeping woman; other nearby scenic spots
include the Aiguades beach and the
Pic des Singes
Pic des Singes (Monkey Peak); the
latter site is a habitat for the endangered
Barbary macaque , which
prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All
three of these geographic features are contained in the Gouraya
National Park . The Soummam river runs past the town.
Under French rule , it was formerly known under various European
names, such as BUDSCHAJA in German, BUGIA in Italian, and BOUGIE in
French -- the latter two words, owing to the town's wax trade,
eventually acquiring the metonymic meaning "candle ".
ANTIQUITY AND BYZANTINE ERA
Saldae The Western Roman empire, in the second
century AD, during the reign of Hadrian.
Saldae can be seen on the
south coast of the
Béjaïa stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor
Carthaginian and Roman times in an area at first inhabited by
Numidian Berbers and founded as a veteran colony by emperor
It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania
Caesariensis , and the later
Sitifensis . Coin of the
Kufic script, from Béjaïa, 1249-1276.
In the 5th century,
Saldae became the capital of the short-lived
Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic
Vandals , which ended in about 533 with
the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and
Exarchate of Carthage .
MUSLIM AND FEUDAL RULERS
After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as
Hammadid dynasty made it their capital, and it became
an important port and centre of culture. Historic map of Algiers
The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known
Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned under the Almohad
dynasty about Muslim mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and
Hindu-Arabic numerals . He introduced these and modern mathematics
into medieval Europe. A mathematical-historical analysis of
Fibonacci's context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter
of wax in his time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers
Béjaïa and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly
Fibonacci numbers rather than the rabbit reproduction
model as presented in his famous book
Liber Abaci .
Raymond Lully died as a result of being stoned at Béjaïa,
where, a few years before, Peter Armengaudius (Peter Armengol) is
reputed to have been hanged.
After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the
Ottoman Turks in the
Capture of Bougie in 1555. For nearly three
Béjaïa was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see
Barbary States ). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking
Jews increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the
Berber peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages
and travelling to the city occasionally for the market days.
City landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a casbah (fortress)
built by the Spanish in 1545.
A picture of the Orientalist painter
Maurice Boitel , who painted in
the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa.
FRENCH COLONIAL RULE
It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial
Algeria . Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an
arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000
'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the
Département of Constantine ,
until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957.
Battle Of Béjaïa
World War II
World War II ,
Operation Torch landed forces in
North Africa ,
including a battalion of the British
Royal West Kent Regiment
Royal West Kent Regiment at
Béjaïa on November 11, 1942.
That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German
Luftwaffe air raid struck
Béjaïa with thirty
Ju-88 bombers and torpedo planes. The transports
Awatea and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged.
The following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and
sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed.
After Algerian independence, it became the eponymous capital of
Béjaïa Province , covering part of the eastern Berber region Kabylia
With the spread of
Saldae became a bishopric . Its
bishop Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian
Huneric summoned to
Carthage in 484 and then exiled.
Christianity survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old
city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo
Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the
consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North Africa.
No longer a residential bishopric,
Saldae (v.) is today listed by the
Catholic Church as a titular see . and still has incumbents by that
title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary
TITULAR SEE OF BUGIA
This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently
with the city's authentic Roman Latin name
Saldae (v.), called BUGIA,
Italian language form (used in the
Roman Curia ) of Béjaïa.
The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having
had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :
* Miguel Morro (1510 – ?), as
Auxiliary Bishop of Mallorca
(Balearic Spain) (1510 – ?)
* Fernando de Vera y Zuñiga,
Augustinians (O.E.S.A.) (1614.02.17
– 1628.11.13), as
Auxiliary Bishop of Badajoz (Spain) (1614.02.17
– 1628.11.13); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Santo Domingo ,
Archbishop-Bishop of Cusco (Peru) (1629.07.16 – death
* François Perez (1687.02.05 – death 1728.09.20), as Apostolic
Vicar of Cochin (Vietnam) (1687.02.05 – 1728.09.20)
* Antonio Mauricio Ribeiro (1824.09.27 – death ?), as Auxiliary
Bishop of Évora (Portugal) (1824.09.27 – ?)
George Hilary Brown (5 June 1840 until 22 April 1842), as first
Apostolic Vicar of Lancashire District (England) (1840.06.05
– 1850.09.29), later Titular Bishop of Tlous (1842.04.22 –
1850.09.29), promoted first bishop of successor see Liverpool
(1850.09.29 – 1856.01.25)
Béjaïa, like most cities along the coast of Algeria, has a
Mediterranean climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Csa), with very
warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BéJAïA
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)
The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.
Cap Carbon Lighthouse
Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013
36°46′34.25″N 5°6′14.83″E / 36.7761806°N
5.1041194°E / 36.7761806; 5.1041194
YEAR FIRST CONSTRUCTED
cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the
MARKINGS / PATTERN
white tower, black lantern roof
14.60 metres (47.9 ft)
224.10 metres (735.2 ft)
29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi)
Fl (3) W 20s.
Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime
Maritime front of Béjaïa: a view of its industrial facilities
and the airport
The northern terminus of the
Hassi Messaoud oil pipeline from the
Béjaïa is the principal oil port of the Western
Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron ,
phosphates , wines , dried figs , and plums . The city also has
textile and cork industries.
Cevital has its head office in the city.
Béjaïa has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié)
Glasgow, Scotland , since 1995
* Lighthouses portal
* List of lighthouses in
Saldae , for Roman history and concurrent Catholic titular see
* ^ "Bougie (n)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University
Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012. Etymology: < French bougie wax
candle, < Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in
Algeria which carried on
a trade in wax Available online to subscribers
* ^ Stephen Ramsay, Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic
Criticism, (University of Illinois Press, 2011), 64.
* ^ Scott, T.C.; Marketos, P. (March 2014), On the Origin of the
Fibonacci Sequence (PDF), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive,
University of St Andrews
* ^ A B Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I,
Brescia 1816, p. 269
* ^ A B C H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de
la Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de
la Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 127-129
* ^ J. Frank Henderson, "Moslems and the Roman Catholic Liturgical
Calendar. Documentation" (2003), p. 18
* ^ Atkinson 2002 .
* ^ J. Mesnage, L\'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 8 e 268-269
* ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN
978-88-209-9070-1 ), p. 963
* ^ "Climate Normals for Béjaïa" . Retrieved 11 February 2013.
* ^ "Béjaïa, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 11 February
* ^ populstat.info Archived 3 March 2016 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ A B C D "Cap Carbon". Office Nationale de Signalisation
Maritime. Ministere des Travaux Publics. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
* ^ List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa,
Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov)
List of Lights . United States National Geospatial-Intelligence
Agency . 2015.
* ^ "Eastern Algeria". The Lighthouse Directory. University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
* ^ "
Cevital MARGIN:0 4EM">ARTICLES RELATED TO BéJAïA
Provincial seats of
Bordj Bou Arréridj
Oum El Bouaghi
Sidi Bel Abbès
Sidi Bel Abbès
* Béni Maouche
* El Kseur
* Souk El Tenine
* Tizi N\'Berber
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 125622353
* GND :