Béjaïa (Arabic: بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Berber languages:
Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a
Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of
Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the
Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
Béjaïa is the largest
principally Kabyle-speaking city in the
Kabylie region of Algeria. The
Béjaïa explains the diversity of the local population.
2.1 Antiquity and Byzantine era
2.2 Muslim and feudal rulers
2.3 French colonial rule
2.3.1 Battle of Béjaïa
2.4 Algerian republic
3 Ecclesiastical history
Titular see of Bugia
7 Friendly relationship
8 See also
10 External links
Monkey Peak (Pic des singes).
The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile is
said to resemble a sleeping woman; other nearby scenic spots include
the Aiguades beach and the
Pic des Singes
Pic des Singes (Monkey Peak); the latter
site is a habitat for the endangered Barbary macaque, which
prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All
three of these geographic features are contained in the Gouraya
National Park. The Soummam river runs past the town.
Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names,
such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie [buˈʒi] in
French -- the latter two words, owing to the town's wax trade,
eventually acquiring the metonymic meaning "candle".
Antiquity and Byzantine era
See also: Saldae
The Western Roman empire, in the second century AD, during the reign
Saldae can be seen on the south coast of the Mediterranean
Béjaïa stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor
Carthaginian and Roman times in an area at first inhabited by
Numidian Berbers and founded as a veteran colony by emperor Augustus.
It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania
Caesariensis, and the later Sitifensis.
Coin of the Hafsids, with ornamental
Kufic script, from Béjaïa,
In the 5th century,
Saldae became the capital of the short-lived
Vandal Kingdom of the Germanic Vandals, which ended in about 533 with
the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and
later the Exarchate of Carthage.
Muslim and feudal rulers
After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as "Béjaïa";
Hammadid dynasty made it their capital, and it became an important
port and centre of culture.
Historic map of
Béjaïa by Piri Reis
The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known
Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned under the Almohad
dynasty about Muslim mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and
Hindu-Arabic numerals. He introduced these and modern mathematics into
medieval Europe. A mathematical-historical analysis of Fibonacci's
context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter of wax in his
time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers of Béjaïa
and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly inspired the
Fibonacci numbers rather than the rabbit reproduction model as
presented in his famous book Liber Abaci.
Ramon Llull died as a result of being stoned at
Béjaïa, where, a few years before, Peter Armengaudius (Peter
Armengol) is reputed to have been hanged.
After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the
Ottoman Turks in the
Capture of Bougie
Capture of Bougie in 1555. For nearly three
Béjaïa was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see
Barbary States). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking Moors, Moriscos
Jews increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the Berber
peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages and
travelling to the city occasionally for the market days.
City landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a fortress built by
the Spanish in 1545.
A picture of the Orientalist painter Maurice Boitel, who painted in
the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa.
French colonial rule
It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial
Algeria. Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an
arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000
'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the Département of Constantine,
until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957.
Battle of Béjaïa
During World War II,
Operation Torch landed forces in North Africa,
including a battalion of the British
Royal West Kent Regiment
Royal West Kent Regiment at
Béjaïa on November 11, 1942.
That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German
Luftwaffe air raid struck Béjaïa
Ju 88 bombers and torpedo planes. The transports Awatea
and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged. The
following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and
sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed.
After Algerian independence, it became the eponymous capital of
Béjaïa Province, covering part of the eastern Berber region Kabylia.
With the spread of Christianity,
Saldae became a bishopric. Its bishop
Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king
Huneric summoned to
Carthage in 484 and then exiled.
Christianity survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old
city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo
Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the
consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North
No longer a residential bishopric,
Saldae (v.) is today listed by the
Catholic Church as a titular see. and still has incumbents by that
title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary
Titular see of Bugia
This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently
with the city's authentic Roman Latin name
Saldae (v.), called Bugia,
Italian language form (used in the Roman Curia) of Béjaïa.
The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having had
the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :
Miguel Morro (1510 – ?), as
Auxiliary Bishop of Mallorca
(Balearic Spain) (1510 – ?)
Fernando de Vera y Zuñiga,
Augustinians (O.E.S.A.) (1614.02.17 –
Auxiliary Bishop of Badajoz (Spain) (1614.02.17 –
1628.11.13); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Santo Domingo, finally
Archbishop-Bishop of Cusco (Peru) (1629.07.16 – death 1638.11.09)
François Perez (1687.02.05 – death 1728.09.20), as Apostolic Vicar
of Cochin (Vietnam) (1687.02.05 – 1728.09.20)
Antonio Mauricio Ribeiro (1824.09.27 – death ?), as Auxiliary
Bishop of Évora (Portugal) (1824.09.27 – ?)
George Hilary Brown (5 June 1840 until 22 April 1842), as first and
Apostolic Vicar of Lancashire District (England) (1840.06.05 –
1850.09.29), later Titular Bishop of Tlous (1842.04.22 –
1850.09.29), promoted first bishop of successor see Liverpool
(1850.09.29 – 1856.01.25)
Béjaïa, like most cities along the coast of Algeria, has a
Mediterranean climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Csa), with very
warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.
Climate data for Béjaïa
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average relative humidity (%)
Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)
The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.
Cap Carbon Lighthouse
Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013
36°46′34.25″N 5°6′14.83″E / 36.7761806°N
5.1041194°E / 36.7761806; 5.1041194
Year first constructed
cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the keeper’s
Markings / pattern
white tower, black lantern roof
14.60 metres (47.9 ft)
224.10 metres (735.2 ft)
29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi)
Fl (3) W 20s.
Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime
[edit on Wikidata]
Maritime front of Béjaïa: a view of its industrial facilities and
The northern terminus of the
Hassi Messaoud oil pipeline from the
Béjaïa is the principal oil port of the Western
Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron,
phosphates, wines, dried figs, and plums. The city also has textile
and cork industries.
Cevital has its head office in the city.
Béjaïa has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié)
Glasgow, Scotland, since 1995
List of lighthouses in Algeria
Saldae, for Roman history and concurrent Catholic titular see
^ "Bougie (n)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 29 November 2012. Etymology: < French bougie wax candle,
< Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in
Algeria which carried on a
trade in wax Available online to subscribers
^ Stephen Ramsay, Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism,
(University of Illinois Press, 2011), 64.
^ Scott, T.C.; Marketos, P. (March 2014), On the Origin of the
Fibonacci Sequence (PDF), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive,
University of St Andrews
^ a b Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia
1816, p. 269
^ a b c H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de la
Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la
Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 127-129
^ J. Frank Henderson, "Moslems and the Roman Catholic Liturgical
Calendar. Documentation" (2003), p. 18
^ Atkinson 2002.
^ J. Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 8 e 268-269
^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013
ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 963
^ "Climate Normals for Béjaïa". Retrieved 11 February 2013.
^ "Béjaïa, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 11 February
^ populstat.info Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c d "Cap Carbon". Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime.
Ministere des Travaux Publics. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
^ List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa, the
Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov) (PDF).
List of Lights. United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
^ "Eastern Algeria". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
Cevital & vous Archived 12 September 2011 at the Wayback
Machine.." Cevital. Retrieved on 26 August 2011. "Adresse :
Nouveau Qaui Port de -
Béjaïa - Algérie"
^ Elkhadra bejaia Archived 15 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
Atkinson, An Army At Dawn
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Béjaïa.
(in French) Bgayet.Net
(in French) History of Béjaïa
GigaCatholic, with titular incumbent biography links
Google map of Béjaïa
Articles Related to Béjaïa
Provincial seats of Algeria
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Oum El Bouaghi
Sidi Bel Abbès
Souk El Tenine