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Béjaïa
Béjaïa
(Arabic: بِجَايَة‎, Bijayah; Berber languages: Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Province, Kabylia. Béjaïa
Béjaïa
is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie
Kabylie
region of Algeria. The history of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
explains the diversity of the local population.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Antiquity and Byzantine era 2.2 Muslim and feudal rulers 2.3 French colonial rule

2.3.1 Battle of Béjaïa

2.4 Algerian republic

3 Ecclesiastical history

3.1 Titular see of Bugia

4 Climate 5 Demography 6 Economy 7 Friendly relationship 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit]

Monkey Peak (Pic des singes).

The town is overlooked by the mountain Yemma Gouraya, whose profile is said to resemble a sleeping woman; other nearby scenic spots include the Aiguades beach and the Pic des Singes
Pic des Singes
(Monkey Peak); the latter site is a habitat for the endangered Barbary macaque, which prehistorically had a much broader distribution than at present. All three of these geographic features are contained in the Gouraya National Park. The Soummam river runs past the town. Under French rule, it was formerly known under various European names, such as Budschaja in German, Bugia in Italian, and Bougie [buˈʒi] in French -- the latter two words, owing to the town's wax trade, eventually acquiring the metonymic meaning "candle".[1] History[edit] Antiquity and Byzantine era[edit] See also: Saldae

The Western Roman empire, in the second century AD, during the reign of Hadrian. Saldae
Saldae
can be seen on the south coast of the Mediterranean

Béjaïa
Béjaïa
stands on the site of the ancient city of Saldae, a minor port in Carthaginian
Carthaginian
and Roman times in an area at first inhabited by Numidian Berbers and founded as a veteran colony by emperor Augustus. It was an important town and a bishopric in the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and the later Sitifensis.

Coin of the Hafsids, with ornamental Kufic
Kufic
script, from Béjaïa, 1249-1276.

In the 5th century, Saldae
Saldae
became the capital of the short-lived Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
of the Germanic Vandals, which ended in about 533 with the Byzantine conquest, which established an African prefecture and later the Exarchate of Carthage. Muslim and feudal rulers[edit] After the 7th-century Muslim conquest, it was refounded as "Béjaïa"; the Hammadid
Hammadid
dynasty made it their capital, and it became an important port and centre of culture.

Historic map of Algiers
Algiers
and Béjaïa
Béjaïa
by Piri Reis

The son of a Pisan merchant (and probably consul), posthumously known as Fibonacci
Fibonacci
(c. 1170 – c. 1250), there learned under the Almohad dynasty about Muslim mathematics (which he called "Modus Indorum") and Hindu-Arabic numerals. He introduced these and modern mathematics into medieval Europe.[2] A mathematical-historical analysis of Fibonacci's context and proximity to Béjaïa, an important exporter of wax in his time, has suggested that it was actually the bee-keepers of Béjaïa and the knowledge of the bee ancestries that truly inspired the Fibonacci
Fibonacci
numbers rather than the rabbit reproduction model as presented in his famous book Liber Abaci.[3] In 1315, Ramon Llull
Ramon Llull
died as a result of being stoned at Béjaïa,[4][5] where, a few years before, Peter Armengaudius (Peter Armengol) is reputed to have been hanged.[5][6] After a Spanish occupation (1510–55), the city was taken by the Ottoman Turks in the Capture of Bougie
Capture of Bougie
in 1555. For nearly three centuries, Béjaïa
Béjaïa
was a stronghold of the Barbary pirates (see Barbary States). The city consisted of Arabic-speaking Moors, Moriscos and Jews
Jews
increased by Jewish refugees from Spain, with the Berber peoples not in the city but occupying the surrounding villages and travelling to the city occasionally for the market days. City
City
landmarks include a 16th-century mosque and a fortress built by the Spanish in 1545. A picture of the Orientalist painter Maurice Boitel, who painted in the city for a while, can be found in the museum of Béjaïa. French colonial rule[edit] It was captured by the French in 1833 and became a part of colonial Algeria. Most of the time it was the seat ('sous-préfecture') of an arrondissement (mid 20th century, 513,000 inhabitants, of whom 20,000 'Bougiates' in the city itself) in the Département of Constantine, until Bougie was promoted to département itself in 1957. Battle of Béjaïa[edit] During World War II, Operation Torch
Operation Torch
landed forces in North Africa, including a battalion of the British Royal West Kent Regiment
Royal West Kent Regiment
at Béjaïa
Béjaïa
on November 11, 1942. That same day, at 4:40 PM, a German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
air raid struck Béjaïa with thirty Ju 88
Ju 88
bombers and torpedo planes. The transports Awatea and Cathay were sunk and the monitor HMS Roberts was damaged. The following day, the anti-aircraft ship SS Tynwald was torpedoed and sank, while the transport Karanja was bombed and destroyed.[7] Algerian republic[edit] After Algerian independence, it became the eponymous capital of Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Province, covering part of the eastern Berber region Kabylia. Ecclesiastical history[edit] With the spread of Christianity, Saldae
Saldae
became a bishopric. Its bishop Paschasius was one of the Catholic bishops whom the Arian Vandal king Huneric
Huneric
summoned to Carthage
Carthage
in 484 and then exiled. Christianity
Christianity
survived the Arab conquest, the disappearance of the old city of Saldae, and the founding of the new city of Béjaïa. A letter of Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
(1073–1085) exists, addressed to clero et populo Buzee (the clergy and people of Béjaïa), in which he writes of the consecration of a bishop named Servandus for Christian North Africa.[4][5][8] No longer a residential bishopric, Saldae
Saldae
(v.) is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a titular see.[9] and still has incumbents by that title (mostly of the lowest (episcopal) rank, some of the intermediary archiepiscopal rank). Titular see of Bugia[edit] This titular see was for a long time, alternatively and concurrently with the city's authentic Roman Latin name Saldae
Saldae
(v.), called Bugia, the Italian language
Italian language
form (used in the Roman Curia) of Béjaïa. The 'modern' form and title, Bugia, seems out of use, after having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

Miguel Morro (1510 – ?), as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Mallorca (Balearic Spain) (1510 – ?) Fernando de Vera y Zuñiga, Augustinians
Augustinians
(O.E.S.A.) (1614.02.17 – 1628.11.13), as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Badajoz (Spain) (1614.02.17 – 1628.11.13); later Metropolitan Archbishop of Santo Domingo, finally Archbishop-Bishop
Archbishop-Bishop
of Cusco (Peru) (1629.07.16 – death 1638.11.09) François Perez (1687.02.05 – death 1728.09.20), as Apostolic Vicar of Cochin (Vietnam) (1687.02.05 – 1728.09.20) Antonio Mauricio Ribeiro (1824.09.27 – death ?), as Auxiliary Bishop of Évora (Portugal) (1824.09.27 – ?) George Hilary Brown (5 June 1840 until 22 April 1842), as first and only Apostolic Vicar
Apostolic Vicar
of Lancashire District (England) (1840.06.05 – 1850.09.29), later Titular Bishop of Tlous (1842.04.22 – 1850.09.29), promoted first bishop of successor see Liverpool (1850.09.29 – 1856.01.25)

Climate[edit] Béjaïa, like most cities along the coast of Algeria, has a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate ( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Csa), with very warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters.

Climate data for Béjaïa

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.7 (81.9) 32.0 (89.6) 37.0 (98.6) 33.0 (91.4) 37.3 (99.1) 42.8 (109) 44.7 (112.5) 47.6 (117.7) 42.5 (108.5) 40.0 (104) 37.4 (99.3) 33.0 (91.4) 47.6 (117.7)

Average high °C (°F) 16.4 (61.5) 16.8 (62.2) 17.7 (63.9) 19.3 (66.7) 22.0 (71.6) 25.3 (77.5) 28.7 (83.7) 29.3 (84.7) 27.8 (82) 24.3 (75.7) 20.3 (68.5) 16.9 (62.4) 22.07 (71.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.1 (53.8) 12.3 (54.1) 13.1 (55.6) 14.7 (58.5) 17.6 (63.7) 21.0 (69.8) 24.0 (75.2) 24.8 (76.6) 23.2 (73.8) 19.7 (67.5) 15.8 (60.4) 12.7 (54.9) 17.58 (63.66)

Average low °C (°F) 7.7 (45.9) 7.6 (45.7) 8.5 (47.3) 10.1 (50.2) 13.1 (55.6) 16.6 (61.9) 19.3 (66.7) 20.2 (68.4) 18.5 (65.3) 15.0 (59) 11.2 (52.2) 8.4 (47.1) 13.02 (55.44)

Record low °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) −4.0 (24.8) −0.1 (31.8) 2.0 (35.6) 5.8 (42.4) 7.8 (46) 13.0 (55.4) 11.0 (51.8) 11.0 (51.8) 8.0 (46.4) 1.6 (34.9) −2.4 (27.7) −4 (24.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 99.7 (3.925) 85.9 (3.382) 100.4 (3.953) 70.7 (2.783) 41.2 (1.622) 16.2 (0.638) 5.8 (0.228) 13.0 (0.512) 40.4 (1.591) 89.5 (3.524) 99.7 (3.925) 135.0 (5.315) 797.5 (31.398)

Average relative humidity (%) 78.5 77.6 77.9 77.9 79.9 76.9 75.0 74.6 76.4 76.3 75.3 76.0 76.86

Source #1: NOAA
NOAA
(1968-1990)[10]

Source #2: climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)[11]

Demography[edit] The population of the city in 2008 in the latest census was 177,988.

Historical populations[12]

Year Population

1901 14,600

1906 17,500

1911 10,000

1921 19,400

1926 15,900

1931 25,300

1936 30,700

1948 28,500

1954 43,900

1960 63,000

1966 49,900

1974 104,000

1977 74,000

1987 114,500

1998 144,400

2008 177,988

Economy[edit]

Cap Carbon Lighthouse

Cap Carbon Lighthouse in 2013

Algeria

Location Cap Carbonbr Béjaïa

Coordinates 36°46′34.25″N 5°6′14.83″E / 36.7761806°N 5.1041194°E / 36.7761806; 5.1041194

Year first constructed 1906[13]

Construction masonry tower

Tower shape cylindrical tower with balcony and lantern rising from the keeper’s house

Markings / pattern white tower, black lantern roof

Height 14.60 metres (47.9 ft)[13]

Focal height 224.10 metres (735.2 ft)[13]

Range 29 nautical miles (54 km; 33 mi)[13]

Characteristic Fl (3) W 20s.[14]

Admiralty number E6572

NGA number 22328

ARLHS number ALG-007[15]

Managing agent Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime

[edit on Wikidata]

Maritime front of Béjaïa: a view of its industrial facilities and the airport

The northern terminus of the Hassi Messaoud
Hassi Messaoud
oil pipeline from the Sahara, Béjaïa
Béjaïa
is the principal oil port of the Western Mediterranean. Exports, aside from crude petroleum, include iron, phosphates, wines, dried figs, and plums. The city also has textile and cork industries.[citation needed] Cevital
Cevital
has its head office in the city.[16] Friendly relationship[edit] Béjaïa
Béjaïa
has an official friendly relationship (protocole d'amitié) with:[17]

Glasgow, Scotland, since 1995

See also[edit]

List of lighthouses in Algeria Saldae, for Roman history and concurrent Catholic titular see

Related people

Abu al-Salt Fibonacci

References[edit]

^ "Bougie (n)". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 November 2012. Etymology: < French bougie wax candle, < Bougie (Arabic Bijiyah), a town in Algeria
Algeria
which carried on a trade in wax  Available online to subscribers ^ Stephen Ramsay, Reading Machines: Toward an Algorithmic Criticism, (University of Illinois Press, 2011), 64. ^ Scott, T.C.; Marketos, P. (March 2014), On the Origin of the Fibonacci
Fibonacci
Sequence (PDF), MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews  ^ a b Stefano Antonio Morcelli, Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, p. 269 ^ a b c H. Jaubert, Anciens évêchés et ruines chrétiennes de la Numidie et de la Sitifienne, in Recueil des Notices et Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Constantine, vol. 46, 1913, pp. 127-129 ^ J. Frank Henderson, "Moslems and the Roman Catholic Liturgical Calendar. Documentation" (2003), p. 18 ^ Atkinson 2002. ^ J. Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne, Paris 1912, pp. 8 e 268-269 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 963 ^ "Climate Normals for Béjaïa". Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ "Béjaïa, Algeria". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 11 February 2013.  ^ populstat.info Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d "Cap Carbon". Office Nationale de Signalisation Maritime. Ministere des Travaux Publics. Retrieved 28 April 2017.  ^ List of Lights, Pub. 113: The West Coasts of Europe and Africa, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, Black Sea and Azovskoye More (Sea of Azov) (PDF). List of Lights. United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2015.  ^ "Eastern Algeria". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 27 April 2017.  ^ " Cevital
Cevital
& vous Archived 12 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.." Cevital. Retrieved on 26 August 2011. "Adresse : Nouveau Qaui Port de - Béjaïa
Béjaïa
- Algérie" ^ Elkhadra bejaia Archived 15 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.

Atkinson, An Army At Dawn External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Béjaïa.

(in French) Bgayet.Net

(in French) History of Béjaïa

GigaCatholic, with titular incumbent biography links Google map of Béjaïa

Algeria
Algeria
portal Lighthouses portal

Articles Related to Béjaïa

v t e

Provincial seats of Algeria

Adrar Aïn Defla Aïn Témouchent Algiers Annaba Batna Béchar Béjaïa Biskra Blida Bordj Bou Arréridj Bouïra Boumerdès Chlef Constantine Djelfa El Bayadh El Oued El Taref Ghardaïa Guelma Illizi Jijel Khenchela Laghouat Mascara Médéa Mila Mostaganem M'Sila Naâma Oran Ouargla Oum El Bouaghi Relizane Saida Sétif Sidi Bel Abbès Skikda Souk Ahras Tamanrasset Tébessa Tiaret Tindouf Tipasa Tissemsilt Tizi Ouzou Tlemcen

v t e

Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Province

Districts

Adekar Akbou Amizour Aokas Barbacha Béjaïa Béni Maouche Chemini Darguina El Kseur Ifri-Ouzellaguen Ighil Ali Kherrata Seddouk Sidi Aïch Souk El Tenine Tazmalt Tichy Timezrit

Communes

Adekar Aït-Rizine Aït Smaïl Akbou Akfadou Amalou Amizour Aokas Barbacha Béjaïa Beni Djellil Beni Ksila Beni Maouche Beni Mellikeche Boudjellil Bouhamza Boukhelifa Chelata Chemini Darguina Draâ El-Kaïd El-Flaye El-Kseur Feraoun Ifenain Ilmathen Ighil Ali Ighram Kendira Kherrata Melbou Oued Ghir Ouzellaguen Seddouk Semaoune Sidi Aïch Sidi-Ayad Sidi-Saïd Souk El-Thenine Souk-Oufella Tala Hamza Tamokra Tamridjet Taourirt Ighil Taskriout Tazmalt Tinabdher Tibane Tichy Tifra Timezrit Tizi N'Berber Toudja

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125622

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